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PROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING GROUP

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

ENERGY SYSTEMS AND THERMAL PROCESSES CARBON CAPTURE AND TRANSPORT ADVANCED MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MSc Course

ASSIGNMENT
Lecture Course: Lecturer(s): Assignment title: Date issued: Submission date: PSE 16: Power Generation Systems Dr Rabah Boukhanouf Combined Heat and Power 1 November 2013 29th November 2013 Full-time students 16th December 2013 Part-time students

This work should be handed to Mrs Kirsty Cain or Ms Mel Lucas, with an electronic copy submitted to Turnitin software via Blackboard, no later than 4.00 pm on the above submission date. You will be issued with a receipt for your work that will show the date and time the work was handed in. Any work that is not issued with a receipt will not be marked. You are reminded that in the absence of exceptional circumstances, overdue work will be penalised. In accordance with the policy of the Board of Faculty of Engineering and Aerospace, marks will be deducted at a rate of 5% per working day for each day that the work is overdue (for part time students the penalty is 5% per working week or part thereof). Your work should: be prepared in accordance with the Format for Assignments Presentation document (assignments not complying with the requirements will be returned with the penalty rule, for overdue work, applied); be stapled once in the top left corner (not bound in any other fashion) as a copy will be made and retained for purposes of Quality Assurance; and have form PSE16: POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS as the last page. All information in the assignment should be fully referenced and a complete list of the references cited should be provided.

PROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING GROUP

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING ENERGY SYSTEMS AND THERMAL PROCESSES CARBON CAPTURE AND TRANSPORT ADVANCED MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MSc Course
For your own personal use NOT for publication

PSE 16: Power Generation Systems (CHP)


Rabah Boukhanouf 2013

Combined Heat and Power Systems: Reducing energy consumption in a paper mill plant 1. BACKGROUND Process industries are large and complex plants that require huge quantities of energy for their operation. These industries usually have continuous processes offering extended operating hours and consistent energy load profiles independent of seasonal fluctuations. Paper mills in particular require energy for electricity to drive electric machines and steam to dry the paper. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Understand the context of energy use in energy intensive industries Apply thermodynamic principles to evaluate energy requirements Evaluate economic and environmental impact of energy consumption in industrial processes (Carbon emissions) Identify and size appropriate energy system to provide heat and power (cogeneration) Learn to present the work in the form of a report with correct citation. 3. PROCESS DESCRIPTION In the proposed paper mill plant, the electrical energy and process steam are provided by the electricity utility and an oil-fired steam boiler respectively. The boiler generates steam at a temperature of 300oC and absolute pressure of 30 bar at efficiency of 75%. The paper manufacturing processes require superheated steam supply at absolute pressure of 10 bar for an average of 18 hours/day. Figure 1 shows the existing arrangement for supplying steam using a Pressure Reducing Valve (PRV).

Figure 1

The condensate from the plant processes is discharged at 40oC (i.e., no provision for condensate return to the boiler) and the make up water is supplied to the boiler at a temperature of 20oC. The monthly average electrical power and process steam demand of the plant is as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Energy demand of the plant Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Steam demand (t/h) 29 35 26 24 22.50 20 20 17.50 20.50 22.50 35 27.50 Electricity demand (MW) 3.08 3.30 3.83 4.05 4.43 4.69 5.10 5.29 4.20 5.35 3.15 2.93

Additional Data Heavy Oil tariff: 250/tonne (including CCL) Boiler annual maintenance cost: 30,000 Purchased electricity tariff: 0.085/kWh (including CCL) Exported (surplus) electricity tariff: 25/MWh Oil fuel combustion emission factor: 0.32 kgCO2/kWh Grid electricity generation mix emission factor: 0.52 kgCO2/kWh Heavy oil gross calorific value: 39.60 MJ/kg

4. OBJECTIVE You are the energy manager of the plant and you have been mandated by the companys management board to consider introducing energy efficiency measures to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission. Hence you initiated a feasibility study to assess alternative options for the provision of heat and power in a cost effective way. From provided plant information and operating data, two proposals were retained for further analysis. Proposal 1: Energy efficiency improvement measures Implementation of simple energy efficiency improvements with minimum capital investment would require upgrading paper drying equipment and allow the following:

i)

Decreasing the boiler steam pressure to 15 bar(a) and lower superheated steam temperature to 200C ii) Recycling 50% of the condensate iii) Cost of implementing the changes is estimated at 167,000

Proposal 2: CHP scheme implementation A steam turbine generator set could be another alternative for reducing energy consumption using existing equipments arrangement. The estimated capital and installation cost is 2.5m and an annual maintenance cost of 85,000. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 0.8 and the efficiency of the electric generator is 0.95. Explore the use of a backpressure steam turbine to provide heat and power for the paper mill plant. 5. ASSIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS Use the following suggested assignment report structure as a guide only in preparing the report. i. Introduction Explore briefly the need to improve energy efficiency in energy intensive industries and explain how CHP schemes could help to reduce energy consumption and pollutants emissions (2 pages max.). ii. Site baseline energy consumption Determine annual energy consumption, energy cost and the environmental impact (i.e., CO2 emission equivalent) of the site. iii. Implementation of energy efficient technologies Compare proposal 1 and 2 and make a case for the best option that would help the companys management board to make an informed decision to adopt an energy efficiency strategy. For each proposal, where appropriate, identify the technology, use diagrams and sketches, spreadsheets, steam tables, and show the main steps taken to justify your findings and calculations in assessing the economic and environmental merit (you can use computer software for the analysis but make sure to show in details any mathematical equations used for the calculation). iv. Discussion and conclusion Discuss and compare your findings before and after the implementation of energy efficient measures and outline the feasibility of each proposal. v. Critical Reflection Reflect on future trends of CHP technologies in the industrial sector (1/2 page max.). vi. References Cite all references used in the report.

PROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING GROUP

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

ENERGY SYSTEMS AND THERMAL PROCESSES CARBON CAPTURE AND TRANSPORT ADVANCED MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MSc Course

PSE16: POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


Lecture Course: Lecturer(s): Assignment title: Students Name: Maximum mark 50 Mark allocated PSE 16: Power Generation Systems Dr Rabah Boukhanouf Combined Heat and Power Systems

Task Technical analysis

Comments

General understanding

30

Critical reflection

10

Presentation and reporting 10 Additional comments

Overall mark

Signature and date