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BIOL101BiologyA&P Chapter5 Introduction

Chapter 5 Lecture Outline


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Notes

Objectives: Uponcompletionofthelearningunit,participantswillbe ableto:


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Namethefourprimaryclassesintowhichalladult tissuesareclassified. Namethethreeembryonicgermlayersandsome adulttissuesderivedfromeach. Visualizethethreedimensionalshapeofastructure fromatwodimensionaltissuesection. Describethepropertiesthatdistinguishepithelium fromothertissueclasses. Listandclassifyeighttypesofepithelium,distinguish themfromeachother,andstatewhereeachtype canbefoundinthebody. Explainhowthestructuraldifferencesbetween epitheliarelatetotheirfunctionaldifferences. Visuallyrecognizeeachepithelialtypefrom specimensorphotographs. Describethepropertiesthatmostconnectivetissues haveincommon. Discussthetypesofcellsfoundinconnectivetissue. Explainwhatthematrixofaconnectivetissueisand describeitscomponents. Name10typesofconnectivetissue,describetheir cellularcomponentsandmatrix,andexplainwhat distinguishesthemfromeachother. Visuallyrecognizeeachconnectivetissuetypefrom specimensorphotographs. Explainwhatdistinguishesexcitabletissuesfrom othertissues. 1

Namethecelltypesthatcomposenervoustissue. Identifythemajorpartsofanervecell. Visuallyrecognizenervoustissuefromspecimensor photographs. Namethethreekindsofmusculartissueanddescribe thedifferencesbetweenthem. Visuallyidentifyanytypeofmusculartissuefrom specimensorphotographs. Describethejunctionsthatholdcellsandtissues together. Describeordefinedifferenttypesofglands. Describethetypicalanatomyofagland. Nameandcomparedifferentmodesofglandular secretion. Describethewaytissuesareorganizedtoformthe bodysmembranes. Nameanddescribethemajortypesofmembranesin thebody. Nameanddescribethemodesoftissuegrowth. Defineadultandembryonicstemcellsandtheir varieddegreesofdevelopmentalplasticity. Nameanddescribethewaysthatatissuecanchange fromonetypetoanother. Nameanddescribethemodesandcausesoftissue shrinkageanddeath. Nameanddescribethewaysthebodyrepairs damagedtissues.

Histology:studyoftissue

Section1 4primarytissueclasses Epithelialtissue Connectivetissue Nervoustissue Musculartissue

Section2 Intercellularjunctions Glandsand Membranes Tissuegrowth Development Death Repair 2

FeaturesofTissueClasses Tissue Similarcells/cellproducts Arisefromsameregionofembryo Differences Type/function Matrix Spaceofcell/matrix Matrix=ECF Fibrousproteins/cleargels Groundsubstance/ECF Tissuefluid Interstitialfluid Tissuegel Cartilage/bonerubbery/stony Matrix>cell/connectivetissue Cell>matrix/epithelial/muscle Embryonictissue Singlecellmanycells3primarygermlayers Ectoderm Epidermis/nervoustissue Endoderm Mucousmembrane GItract/respiratorysystem/digestive Mesodermmesenchyme Muscle/bone/blood TissueTechniquesandSectioning Preparinghistologicalspecimensinvolvesspecialprocesses forpreserving,sectioning,andstaining.Thegoalistoobtain animagethatclearlydelineatesstructuraldetails.Usuallythe specimenispreservedwithafixativesuchasformalinand slicedintothinsectionsonetotwocellsthick.These sectionsarestainedtoshowcontrastamongthedifferent cellularcomponents.Theyaremountedonslidessotheycan beobservedunderamicroscope. Itisimportanttorememberthatsectioningreducesa3 dimensionalstructuretoa2dimensionalsliceyouneedto beabletoidentifytheoriginofthesliceandprojectitbackto theoriginal3Dshape. The3typesoftissuesectionsusedinthepreparationof histologicalspecimensare Longitudinalsection:thetissuesarecutalongthe longestdirectionoftheorgan Crosssection:thetissueiscutperpendicularto 3

lengthoforgan,and Obliquesection:thetissuesarecutatanglebetween crossandlongitudinalsections EpithelialTissue Epithelialtissue Flatsheet/layers Uppersurfacesurface/bodycavity Lowersurfacebasementmembrane Anchorsepitheliumtoconnectivetissue SuppliesO2 SimpleEpithelia S.squamous Singlerowofflatcells Permitsdiffusionofsubstances Secretesserousfluid Alveoli,glomeruli,endothelium,andserosa S.cuboidal S.columnar Pseudostratifiedcolumnar StratifiedEpithelia

Stratified St.squamous St.cuboidal St.columnar Transitionalepithelium

Stratifiedsquamousepithelia Keratinizedepithelium Apicalsurface/kertin/retardswaterloss Nonkeratinized Moistslipperylayer Tongue/oralmucosa/esophagus/vagina

Keratinizedoutsidebody Nonkeratinizedinsidebody

Stratifiedcuboidalepithelium 2+layers Secretesweat Producesperm/hormones Sweatglands/ovarianfollicles/testes Transitionalepithelium Multilayered Surfacecellsstretch/stress Urinarytractfilling/ureter/bladder 4

ConnectiveTissue Mostabundant/variable Widelyspacedcells Fibroustissue Cartilage Bone Blood Functions Connectorgans Support/protectphysical/immuneprocesses Storeenergy/produceheat Supportbodymovement Transportmaterials FibersofConnectiveTissue FibrousConnectiveTissue ProteinFibers Collagenous Tendons/ligaments/deepskinlayers
NOTE:Stressthatcausestearstothisconnectivetissue producesstriaewhichiscommonlyreferredtoasstretch marks

Reticular Thin/collagenous Spleen/lymphnodes/softorgans Elastic Stretch/recoil/elasticity Skin/lungs/arteries ConnectiveTissuecellsandGroundSubstance Cells Fibroblasts Producefibers/groundsubstance Macrophages Engulf/destroyforeignparticles Leukocytes(WBCs) Supportimmunefunction Plasmacells Immunefunctionsintestinewalls/inflamedtissue Mastcells Secreteheparin/histamine Adipocytes

Fatcells Groundsubstance Gelatinous/absorbsforce Glycosaminoglycans(GAG) Regulatewater/electrolytes Attractsodium Chondroitinsulfate Proteoglycans Createbonds


MacromoleculesCellularglue

Adhesiveglycoproteins Proteincarbohydrates Bindcellmembranestocollagen/othercellular components Loosefibrousconnectivetissue Fibrousconnectivetissue Loose/dense Loose/groundsubstancebetweencells Areolar Underliesallepithelia Betweenmuscles Passageways/nerves/bloodvessels Reticular Stroma/lymphaticorgans Lymphnodes/spleen/thymus/bonemarrow
Associatedmainlywithstructureofsoftbodyorgans

Adipose/fat Emptylooking/thinmembranes Energystorage/insulation/cushioning Subcutaneousfattylayer Insulativelayer Hibernatinganimals/newbornshavebrownfatheat


Thoughtquestion:Accordingtoyourknowledgeofcellmassto cellboundaryration,whatdoyouthinkisthephysiologic significanceofbrownfatinnewbornsvsnoneinadults?

DenseConnectiveTissue Fiberbetweencells Denseregular Compressednuclei

Closelypackedfibers/parallel tensilestrength/Strong! Tendonsandligaments Injury/stressfromwrongdirection DenseIrregularTissue Fewvisiblecells/randomarrangement Withstandstressfrommultipledirections Jointcapsules/deepskin/aroundjoints/organs Cartilage Rubberymatrix Chondroblastsproducematrix Cavities/lucunae Surroundedchondrocytes Avascular/nobloodvessels Diffusionbringsnutrients/removeswastes Healsslowly Typesofcartilagevarywithfibertypes Hyaline Rubberymatrix Finecollagenousfibers/strong Supportairways/larynx/trachea bronchi/fetalskeleton Easejointmovement Boneends/moveablejointsarticularcartilage Sterna/ribs Elasticcartilage Conspicuouselasticfibers Externalear/epiglottis Fibrocartilage Extensivecollagenousfibers Nosheath/perichondrium Greattensilestrength stressareas/body Pubicsymphysis Meniscus Intervertebraldiscs Bone Spongy/compact Spongy Network/struts/support Covered/compactbone Headoflongbones Compact

Solid/complex Verticalbloodvessels/longbone Seeagain/bonytissue Matrixconcentriclamellaearoundcentralcanal Osteocytes/maturebonecells Occupylacunae Skeletalsupport Muscleleverage Mineralstorage Blood Fluidtissue Liquidmatrix/plasma 3celltypes Redbloodcells/carriers Whitebloodcells/fighters Bloodplateletsorthrombocytes/clotters RBCs/Nonuclei WBCs/prominentnuclei Inheart/bloodvessels NerveTissue Largecells/longprocesses Neurons/neuroglialcells Neurons Cellbody/soma Dendrites/axon Transmitoutgoingsignals/impulses Neuroglial Noprocess Supportneuronfunction Internalcommunication Nerves/nervoussystems Ganglia Studynervetissue CNS/PNS/ANS MuscleTissue Elongatedcells/contract Exertforce Movelimbs Pushblood Expelurine Types

Skeletal Longcylindricalcells Attachedtobone Multinucleated/striated/voluntary Cardiacmuscle Inheart/striated/involuntary Smoothmuscle Shortfusiformcells Nonstriated/involuntary Onecentralnucleus Inviscera/iris/hairfollicles/sphincters Involvedinswallowing GItractfunctions laborcontractions Erectionofhairs Airflow/pupilcontrol IntercellularJunctions Anchorcells
Threeimportantjunctionsare:

Tightjunctions Zipperlike Littlematrix Noeasypassage Protects/invaders Preventsleakage GI/Urinary Desmosomes Formapatch/snaplike Cytoplasmicintermediatefilamentsattachcells Terminateinsidecell/proteinplaque Inuterus/heart/epidermisofskin Gapjunctions Ring/transmembraneproteins Waterfilledchannel/sells Solutespassfromcelltocell Inembryos/cardiac/smoothmuscle Intercellularcommunication! Glands Endocrine Ductless Secretehormonesintoblood Exocrine Duct Simple/compound Drainagecells/acinus Functioncells/parenchyma

Secretions Enzymes/sweat/mucus Endocrinevs.Exocrine Notclearcut! GlandssecreteductsANDintobloodstream Organswithglandularcomponent (Brain) Bodycontrol Nervoussystem:Rapidresponse/shortlived Endocrinesystem:Slowerresponse/longacting TypesofSecretions Glands/secretions Serousglandsthin,watery Sweat/milk/tears/digestivejuices Mucousglandsproducemucin Absorbswaterstickysecretion/mucus Mixedglandsmixtureofboth Cytogenic Example: Releasewholecells Gametes:sperm/egg SecretionMethods/HolocrineGland Howsecretionproduced Holocrineglands Secretorycellsdisintegrateproduct Oilproducingglands/scalp Merocrineglandsexocytosis/importing Tears/gastricglands/pancreaticglands Specializedmerorcinegland/apocrinegland Mammaryglands/armpitsweatglands Viscous/regionswithhair Primarilymerocrine MucousMembranes Membranes Cutaneous/skin Dry/protectsexternalsurface Internalepithelialmembranes Mucous Epithelium Laminapropria

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Muscularismucosae Linepassagewaystoexterior Reproductive/respiratory Urinary/digestivesystems Traps/removesforeignparticles/bacteria Columnartissue Gobletcells/mucous Ciliatomovemucous Serous Simplesquamousepithelium/areolartissue Producesserousfluid Coversorgans Linescavitywalls Synovial Linessomejointcavities Connectivetissue Secretessynovialfluid TissueGrowth Vocabulary! (Talkthetalk!) Hyperplasia Tissuegrowthcellmultiplication Cellularmass/number/cells Hypertrophy Enlargement/preexistingcells Mass/cellsize Musclegrowthhypertrophyexercise Neoplasia Growth/tumor/abnormaltissue ChangesinTissueTypes Tissuetypechange Differentiation Unspecializedembryotissuespecializedmature tissue Mesenchymemuscle Metaplasia Maturetissuefromonetypetoanother Simplecuboidaltissuebeforepuberty Stratifiedsquamousafterpuberty StemCells Undifferentiatedcells/plasticity Canproduceseveraltypesofmaturecells

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2types Embryonic Earlyhumanembryo Totipotent(candifferentiate) Pluripotent(limiteddifferentiation) Adult Undifferentiatedcellsinadulttissue Multipotent(earlystages) Unipotent(canproduce1celltype) Plasticitylost TissueRepair Regeneration Damagedcellreplaced/sametypecell Skin/liver Fibrosis Damagedcellreplaced/scartissue Functionnotrestored Muscleinjury/scarringoflungtissue/severe cuts/burns MI/damagedcellsreplacedbyscartissue Lossofpumpingability Stromalcellsusednotparenchymal Severefibrosis/keloids Largeraisedshinyscars TissueEngineering Artificialproductionoftissues/organs Humanimplanting Seedingwithhumancells Growinbioreactor Usedinhuman Significantprogress Skingrafts/heartvalves/coronaryvesselsandbones Researchcontinues Livercanregenerate HealingofaLaceration Healingprocess Damage Bloodvesselsrupture Leakblood Cellsleakhistaminedilatesbloodvessels

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bloodflowcapillarypermeability Plasmabringsantibodies/clottingfactors WBCsjoin/phagpcytize Bloodclotsgather/formscab/surface Macrophagesphagocytize Newcapillariesgrow/wound Fibroblastsdepositnewcollagen(2wks) Epithelialcellsgrow/closewound Scabfallsoff Epitheliumthickens/regenerates Connectivetissuebelowformsscar/fibroustissue Remodeling/2yrs FinalSummary ARapidReview! 4primarytissueclasses Epithelialcellsthatcoverbodysurfaces/insideandout Connectivetissuelargest/mostdiverse Blood/bone Itconnects Nervoustissue Musculartissues3basictypes:skeletal,smoothand cardiac Celljunctions Tightjunctions/littlematrixbetweenlayers Limits/stopsmovementbetweenlayers Gapjunctionsallowcommunication/movement Glands Endocrineglands/ductless Exocrineglandshaveductspassagewaysfromgland targetareas Bodymembranes Outerepithelial/cutaneousmembranetheskin Internalmembranes Mucous/serous/synovialmembranes Tissuegrowth/development/repair Stagesoftissuerepair Fibrosisscarring(stromacells) Regenerationfunctionaltissue(parenchymacells)

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ComingnextTheIntegumentarySystem

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