You are on page 1of 45

Basicsin Arrangitrg

ParisRutherford
Fall 1999

Ux vERSrTY,r NonrHTpxns

BASICS IN ARRANGING
O 1998ParisRutherford CHAPTER I . SIMPLE ARRANGEMENTS
STEP ONE: GETTING STARTED Tu n eSelection Music and FakeB ooks . Sh e e t T o Work Sta r ti ng STEPTwO: MELODY - I SimpleAnalysis Development .............. M elo d ic The Melody Ad a p ti ng Tun eWriting ............. STEPTHREE: HARMONY. 1 The Changes An a lyzing B ass Fu n d a mental Ch o r dS ubstitutes STEPFOUR: HORNS- I TypicaCombinations l Transpositions
STEP FIVE: RHYTHM . 1 37

. . . . . . .. . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .z ..... .......4

5 . . . .10 . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 .. . ................18

.........2 . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ..4 ... ...............2 . .. 7. .

. . . . . . . . . . . .3 . .3 ..

Of Rhythm Function Rhythm Part Composite


STEP SIX: WRITING FORMATS

Two-line Sketch Part Extraction

38 41

CHAPTER II - THE SMALL GROUP


STEP ONE: SIMPLE FORMS So n gForms ............. ABAB AABA Ou terForm STEP TWO: MELODIC DEVELOPMENT ..... . . . . . Ad d in g Notes(NonHarmonics) Melody Em be llishing A Compositional STEP THREE: HARMONIZATION Ha r m o nic Color Reharmonization TargetChords T o The Changes Ad d in g . . . . . . .5 5 ....55 ......... 58 . . . . . . . . . . .6 .. 0 . . . . . . .4 .9 . . . . . . . . . . .5 .. 0
...........51

............. 43 .. . ................ 4.. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 4 4 . . . . . . . . . . .. 4 6

STEP FOUR:

HORNS AND HARMONIC

DENSITY

HornCombinations DensitY Harmonic STEP FIVE: RHYTHM SECTION Fun cti ons ........... R ein for cement P arts......... Rhythm ln d ivid ual STEP SIX: MEDIUM FORMATS

63 64

...........7 . .1 . ...............73 .....74

Fu llSketches The Full S core APPEN D IX (beginson page App. 1 App.2 Tunes, bYsongform. Standard andModes Scales

. . . . . ' . .7 5 ' . ' . ' . . '8 0 . . . . . . ' . . ' . . . . . . .8 ..' . t.

App. 3.1 JazzNomenclature App. 3.2 JazzChord App. 3.3 Add Chord Ranges App.4.1 Instrument Levels Agp.4.2 DensitY App.4.3 VoiceLeading App. 5
App. 6 App. 7

grooves. lnstruments, Rhythm Section


Laying Out A Chart (p/us business) Transcriptions: 7.1 'l.Z 7.3 7.4 7.5 '1.6 '1.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.ll 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.11 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7 .23 Dolphin Dance Black Orpheus Down In The Depths Stella By Starlight Night Dreamer Reunion Black Nile ContentsUnder Pressure Au Lait (Metheny) In CaseYou MissedIt King Cobra Devil'sIsland You Don't Know What Love Is Day In Vienna Cathay Postcards Skylark Wildflower Intrigue Indigo Anthem StolenMoments Sho 'Nuff Did

99 100 101 r02 103 104 105 106 107 108 110 lll t12 tt4 l16 tt7 ll8 119 r20 122 r23 t24 t25

Ind ex

126

CHAPTERONE: SIMPLEARRANGEMENTS
STEPONE: GETTINGSTARTED
1A: TUNE SELECTION (thispage) 1B: SHEET MUSIC (see page 2) 4) lC: STARTING TO WORK (see page

To arranging music is to adapt it to a specificstyle, or to prepare it for performanceby a specificensemble.Adjustments may be needed in the melody or the harmony; the original key may be unsuitable; tempo may need to be determined, to fit the rhythm patterns of a chosenstyle. A chart for small or large band will certainiy involve voicings for the horns. The list goes on: these are some of the decisionsthat must be made by an arranger. Basic arranging should avoid adjustments,though, that actually alter a tune in the process!The successfularrangement enhancesthe original without treading on the composition itself. Obviously, arranging can become quite subjective. 1A: TUNE SELECTION The first step in arranging is selecting the right tune, or becoming thoroughly acquaintedwith one that might be pre-selected for you. If the choice is yours: 1. Selectyour tune from "standard repertoire". (Standardshave been proven effective, through hundreds of arrangementsfor great recordings and live performances.)Pick one that you know well. Appendix L containslists of a few older standards, any of which might fit your need. They are grouped according to their song forms. 2. Selecta tune in which there is room for expressingsome ideas of your own. A tune written with lyrics may have fewer actual notes; removal of the lyrics may increasethe room you have for expressing yourself. 3. Avoid extremes in tempo, rhythmic/harmonic complexities, etc., when first using any technique or concept.You can stretch out later.

Working materials Good tunes come in many different formats, each with its own inherent problems. The next few pages show some common ways that tunes are printed, copied, or in other ways made available to the writer.

ProceduresI

18: SHEETMUSIC Sheet music is the retail printed version of published music. Sheetmusic, whether sold singly or in a collection,appearsin a 3-line format. Melody, chord symbols and lyric appear on the top line, a simple piano arrangement on the bottom two lines. O^ly the original sheet music version of a song is reliable to furnish the entire song as intended by the composer. Three-line versions (sheetmusic) show the harmonization of a tune two ways: chord symbols (above the melody) and the written piano arrangement.In the sheet music of many older tunes, the chord symbols frequently disagreewith the piano arrangement. If the chord symbol doe.s not show a change of bass,then when the lead line is separatedfrom the rest of the print, the changeswill be wrong. (A problem with older fakebooks)

Frqr thr 193 llGM FctuE'GIRL

CRtlf

EmbraceableYou
LFict by IRA GERST{Wbyr,ludc GEORGE GERSfIWIN bry
fch RENruD T.rr b EITIELIA SFnh td ! efllaE CA {ACl{t

My rer En - bnc m ona- do- n ai an ,o- da

r - blc You !blc pou - p&!dc - n- c i 6n- -

You

u rl

E J6 8o

pIG ti

r - blc youl blc bau - rl!@r-o - 26a- -

(
F I?

Just on. l@k Un ra - gord fc . mo tan

ar da lo

you. lot quc

my hctrl pcut larc no

gEw cho

ltp ri na5

rym
pon - d.

mc:_ @cuf , rtis. -

SHOULD BE C#m7b5

pg2

t
I I

Procedures-l

Embraceable You, corrected.

Chord symbols correctly reflect the changesfound in the original piano chart. Compare the two. versions; note the changed-bassnomenclature.

Fake Books - volumes containing a wide selectionof tunes, usually in the form of lead sheetsor lead lines, extractedfrom the sheet music. Older fakebooksare illegal (no royalties paid the copyright owners), and the changesneed scrutiny. \ewe1 "legal" fakebooki are somewhat less of a problem, and are good for the publisher. But, due to the overall choice of tunes, most legal fakebooksare less appealing to the iazz crowd. The Real Book - fakebooksdesigned to appeal more to the jazz community. Most of contained in these editions have changesthat follow well-known the leadsheets recordings. The logic is great: if you like the changes,fine - if you don't, talk to the artist who recorded them! Real Books have long been the staple f.or jazz musicians. Transcriptions - the best answer of all! By quickly transcribing a tune that you want to arrange,from a performance you enjoy hearing, you improve your ears,you hory where the rhythms and changescame from, and you give your ear/hand/eye combo some good workouts.

pg3

hocedures-l

lC: STARTING TO WORK e The lead sheet Provide yourself with a clean lead sheet of the tune you are about to arrange. (Seepp. 20 and 53.) The best lead sheetis one that you copy yourself onto full size, 1O-linepaper. This will give you room to write some of your earlier ideas as they occur to you. Full size paper (9x12")is available in most music stores that sell printed music, particularly the bookstoresthat service college and university music programs. It is available in single sheets(pads of 40 or 50) and in double folds (sold most economicallyby the quarter or half ream. . Learning at the piano Even if you are not a pianist, keyboard is the very best instrument on which to develop your tune. Pianos and synthesizersgive you access to the entire range of octaves.Writers who are not primarily keyboardists can soon develop reasonable"piano chops" for use in writing. This is called "arranger'spiano" - the ability to play the changeswith interesting alterations, to find horn voicings easily, and to keep reasonabletime while using simple voicings.) While learning the tune, experiment with melody and changesseparately. This is called "working the tune". (Step Chapter II, Step 1.) . Sketching and materials Sketchingmeans that you write down some of the interesting ideas from early stagesof experimentation. Write down the ideas that appeal to you, as they occur. Use 2-line systems(even if you are working only the melody), to make room for harmonic ideas that occur to you later. Keep your first sketchesin a folder, together with the lead sheet. Sketching should generatemore material than you need. Save only the best: as you become more fluent you will automatically pick up speed in the creative process.This is also true for musicians who write computers or at a keyboard with an inboard sequencer. The aalue in sketching first, then writing or computing,is one of efficiency. You cannot use eaery good idea you haue. It is good to work out some of the early stagesof deuelopingan idea beforedeciding whether to continue with it. The sketchingprocesswill help you saae time and energy. Awareness of fonn Every standard will have a good musical form. If you are composing your own tune, it should be written to a recognizablesongform as well. Working with simple song forms will enable you to make best use of your time.You may also gain further insight by playing (or listening to) songs with the same song form as the tune you are writing.

I
'6

rx

I I

pg4

STEPTWO: MELODY
page) 2A SMPLE ANALYSIS (this 16) 28 ADAPTINGA MELODY (page t8) 2C BASICTUNE WRITING (page Melody is the ingredient which establishesthe identity of music. Melody is most responsiblefor the memorability and successof a tune. This is not to discount the in writing music, though, can be' importance of harmony and orchestration. Success no greater than the writer's ability to handle melody. The art of writing and arranging melody begins with the analysisof great tunes.

2A SIMPLE ANALYSIS Analysis of music is the study of its various elements.Musicians analyze music for (and failures) of those that preceded the purpose of learning from the successes them. Analysis in this area is kept simple, and limited to melody. Simple melodic analysismay be divided into three broad areas: ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE(2A-1, page 5) Most music is constructedwith phlsss that end with cadences. Melody is made coherent and memorable through the use of devices developers. and all hanes toeetherin a musical form.

ANALYSIS OF IMPLIED HARMONY (2A-2, page 12) A melody, while in motion, will expressa senseof harmony. This implied harmony may or may not be the same as the harmonization written by the composer as an accompaniment.

ANALYSIS OF CHARACTER (2A-3, page'J,4) All melody is either active (vertical) or passive (horizontal). Good tunes profit from a deliberatecombination of both characteristics, carefully placed to give the desired emotional effect.

Melody-l

2A-"1.. STRUCTURE describesthe way a piece of music is held together.The most basic strucfural devices are phrases,cadences, developers.musical form.

PHRASES: A phrase is the shortest section of melody that feels complete. The most common phrase length is four bars. Four bar phrasescombine into eight bar sections which are called double phrasesor periods. A phrase normally ends with a longer note, or a more pronounced rest, before the melody proceeds.This break in motion (cadence) allows the music to "breathe".

Periods(or double phrases)are the primary eight-bar building blocks for a standard length 32-bartune. Formally, these periods are identified by letter names according to the simple song forms: AABA, ABAB, etc.

8 BARS

The pause (or breath) at the end .... than the pause (or breath) at of an 8-bar section will be more the end of its first 4-bar phrase. pronounced... . . If breathing is slighted (or inadequate),music will feel forced or busy. If pausesare too long or pronounced, though, melodic flow is damaged.

(The letters above appear for demonstration of form and are not those found in the individual parts of performance-readycharts, called "rehearsal letters" - for communication and location during rehearsal,and having little to do with the actual form of the tune being played.)

pg6

Melody-l

CADENCESare combinations of notes, chords, and rests that slow the movement of music, thus causi.g u senseof pause. Some cadencesare shorter, some longer, dependingon size or complexity of the music being sectioned.Cadences occur in harmony, melody, rhythm and texture. In Step2, we deal only with harmonic and melodic cadences.

HARMONIC CADENCES are chord progressionsthat slow or stop the feeling of forward movement in harmony. Cadencesoccur at the ends of phrasesand periods. We use four harmonic cadences: half. full. modal and deceotive. The half cadenceuses a ii-V or tV-V progression.With the half cadence,the music pauses(and breathes)but moves on. Music following a half cadencewill feel like a continuation of what went before.
. Half cadence
lf -\-

The full cadenceuses a V-I or vii-I progression.Movement stops when a full cadence is used. Material that follows a full cadencewill feel like the beginning of a new section. . Full cadence

The modal cadenceis a IV-I progression.The music pauses,but with a sound that is modal and somewhat "bluesy" . Modal cadence

-fi-.+

The deceptive cadencemoves not from V to I, but from V to vi. (In jazz application, a deceptivecadencemay also move from [V to iii, and on.) Harmonic motion feels as if it should "tun:r around"- deceptiae describesthe effect well, Thesecadencescan be used to briefly postpone the use of a full cadence. o Deceptive cadence

pE7

Melody-l

in "StellaBy Starlight" are identified and labelled. Plav this On page 9, cadences piano! at example the Listen to how the cadenceswork. o fu bars 1.-2, and 17-1.8, the ii-V progressionsare not cadential.but provide good forward motion. The full cadencein bar 6 and 7 proceedsto a minor IV chord (bar 8) which acrossthe double bar to a I chord. The effect is reminiscent of the Progresses modal cadence,contributing to the special qualities of "Stella." The first L6 bars ends with a half cadence.The bridge begins with another ii-V progression;since it is the beginning of a section and not a phrase end, the effect is that of generating additional motion. The ii-V half cadencein bar 28 is borrowed from a different key. The feeling of half cadenceis strong, and the harmonic interest is enhancedby this increasein harmonic color.

WHY ARE THESE THINGS IMPORTANT? Thesecadences provide the great sense of motion felt in this old standard. CadencesL" and 3o act normally, and do not "give away" the unusual progressionsto unpredictable key centers.In this way, thesenormal ii-V cadences help keep the energy level high. The cadenceat mid tune is predictable,thus lowering the energy appropriately.

Enerw levels in the typical AABA tune.

This is a good energy graph for a 32-bar tune. \A/henarranging, be careful not to damagethe energy flow.

pg8

Melody-l

in "Stella By Starlight" Primary cadences 6r..l B+

Axt

toward the The melodic cadence is a break in the forward movement of the melod-y ns&barphrases.(Longernotevalue,orrests.).Notel|atyh:r'Ithe moniccadencesoicur separately,the music breathesbut keeps occur at the same time, the music stoPs' bothcadences keep music from moving ahead. Too few cadences cadences $ s- Choice and placem ent of cadencesis influences the

Melody-l

Developersare the, usedto de.velop qriryry devices a fragmentof melody first into a coherentphrase,later thesephrasesinto a fuil tune.
The most common developersare repeat, sequence,answer, and mirror. isjust that: the reuse of a figure, using most of the same notes. ' *."p":t ("The Girl From Ipanema" develops inis way.f

Note: when a fragment of melody repeats (bars '1,-z, g-4),the chords change.

The sequence is a repeatof the previousphraseor fragment,transposed up or down, usuallyby only a step. check olt the ru.or,jp"riod of "fio* Insensitive" as it sequences the first period,a steplower.

when a-fragment or phrase sequences up, the energy level escalates a bit. the tranposition.is largei than a siep (eithertirection), the energy Ih:l level jumps significantly! (Seebar 9, below)'

ps 10

Melodv-l

The answer is a section of melody completing the thought from a previous phraseor period. The answer may be as short as a fragment, or as l,ongas a full eight-bar period, all depending on the material being answered. The senseof movement, and the resulting rise in contour, are both stronger from an answer than from a repeat. In the following example from "Stella" make note of the different ways tension/releaseoccurs,and its causes.

answer (consequent)

The mirror is a reuse of melodic material in which intervals are either inverted (mirrored) or reversed (retrograde). The mirror produces more tension than a simple repeat. amzds)

ezsusfis;

Melodic motion from bar 1 into bar 2 is inverted for bar 3 into bar 4. The use of different rhythms adds interest, and doesn't damage the mirror.

Augmentationand dirninution are opposites.A melody is augmented when resuedwith doublednote values. Diminution occursin reuse when note valuesare reduced(usually by 50Vo). Augmentationand diminution are valuabletools, but are not part of simple arranging.

p g l1

Melody-1

LA-L.IMPLIED HARMONY (and Musical Tension) a senseof harmony as it moves..... Every melodv suggests

t t
I

I
I I
I I I

... and all music has a level of tension. (excitement and/or expectation) Higher tension results from unexpectedor opposing ideas. The composer/arranger builds and releasestension to createan interesting product. Harmony implied by a melody may or may not be the same harmony found in the chord progressionsthat come with the song. Implied harmony is expressedfour ways, as demonstratedon page 12. o When the implied harmony agreeswith the chord changes,tension is low. The effect is calm and consonant.(Goodfor beginnings and cadenceareasin jazz and pop music, and for music needing a simple, childlike quality.) . When the implied harmony differs from the changes,tension increases. The energy level and interest go up. (Good for contemporary jazz, even for developing the phrase structures in music requiring lower tension levels.)

I
I I I I I

Implied hannony agrees with the changes. Lowest tension.

from the Implied harmony difreEg

\*

In the above example, the implied harmony of the melody agreeswith the changes in bars 1 and 2; the resulting tension level is low. They begin to differ in bars 3 and 4, resulting in a rise in tension.

t
I I

pg 12

MelodY-l

Implied harmony is expressedthrough . . . Stepwise movement beginning on or approaching a strong beat. (Identify the scale- it becomesthe implied harmony for that area of melody.)

uCrya-ior

L Er n r r -

t-

A atn--

g2?tL no+

A broken chord or arpeggio. (Analysis is made accordingto any position of the chord: root or inversion.)
tl s
:16

('"oi

D t i . c-

9b na)or

Cn-1lr

')"."g4.r.
n4j ol tlt'.rc/

Appoggiaturas and escapenotes (The outer two of three notes will suggesta chord)

Any of the above,when out of sequenceor obscurredby too many notes. (Too many stepwisenotes obscuresthe analysis. Find repetitions or a single leap; analyze accordingly.
G "r,aaior
)*rcj.>r

Application: In iazz, agreementbetween implied harmony and the actual changesis usually not a good idea. Tension levels are too low. Use subs to move the bassline around a bit.

pg 13

Melody_l

2A-3 CHARACTER. A melody line is said to be either active or static. Active describes *,"d.: up. of skips and./or sudden changesof register. ";i.]"1t o An active melody moves betteiin uniions (or 8ves) than whe"nchorded. Example: "In Caseyou Missed It" - SeeAppendix Z.

NOTE: Rhythmic complexityalone doesnot classifua melody as,'actiue,,. Leaps,abript changes'o7 reiister, etc., must alsooccur. static i"sthe opposite of active. A static tune (or a portion of the tune) is one in which the movement is mostry stepwise, and/or J.,rtuir,"d. ' voicings feel "more at home" on static than on one with more activity. Example: "You Don't Know rA/hatLove Tg.lodl Is', - see Appendix 7.13

However, a static tune can also sound good with unisons, when played by a color unison, preferably in the lower ranges. Example: "Black Orpheus" - SeeAlpendix 2.02
Uxtrsot) lleiNs

pg 14

in-class ana tlYsis;


Frr! ds"*o

Dotphin

Metody_i

Dance
Herbje G7 Hancock

r
i I

pg 15

Melodv-l

28: ADAPTING A MELODY Adapting a melody is the simplest form of arranging, and involves only four steps: 1) Determine the style in which the tune should be played. 2) Selectthe best key for the circumstances. 3) Makg simple adjustments to the melodic rhythm (if needed) to put it into the desired sfyle. 4) CoPy (or print) the material accuratelyfor the performers. (Transposed,if transposing instruments are to be involved. See Step 6, this chapter.) When adapting is all that the arranger needs to do, it may be accomplishedin a matter of minutes. The tune need not be altered at all, and will only be played once. When the project calls for a chart that is more involved, the arranger should still begin with these same three steps. SELECTINGTHE BESTKEY (28-2) Placethe range of the tune (distancefrom top to bottom notes) within the average playing range of your top or lead horn. For averageplaying ranges,seeAppenaix a.

/ oFt'mrss lorucs( -)lL

If there is room within the span. locate the tune closer to the bottom of the averageplaying range if the lead is a higher horn (trumpet, alto sax, etc.).Locatethe span closerto the top of the averageplaying range if the lead is a lower horn (tenor sax, trombone, etc.). Then choosethe key that makes this possible.

Fine tuning the selection of "best key" Brassand Sax players are most experiencedplaying in keys ranging from one sharp to five flats (concert).Therefore,when choice of concert key is between, say, Bb Major and B Major, the ensembleis most likely to play its best in Bb Major.

pg 16

Melody-l

ADIUSTING THE MELODIC RHYTHM (2B-3) If your style will be jazz (swing), analyze the melody for rhythmic placement.If too many strong notes fall "on the beat", move some of them off the beat, thus providing a looser relationship between melody and accompaniment (bassline). The processof moving notes to unaccentedbeats is called "syncopation". Syncopation is a key element in the melodic style of jazz artd jazz-related music. The decision of how much to syncopate a melody is influenced by the amount of motion in the accompaniment. r When music is felt in "2" fewer syncopationsare needed than when felt in "4". o When music is felt in "4", syncopation should keep the melody from hitting the strong beats in the accompanimenttoo often. When properly adjusted to swing, a melody will not line-up perfectly against the background, and stay there. There must be a few soulful surprises. Useful routine for adiusting melodic rhythm, to swing:

1) Locate a phrase containing too many quarter notes or downbeats.Move its last note ahead '1./2beat.(The process of moving notes from strong beats to weak beatsis called syncopation.)

2) Treat additional bars the same way until you have done eight bars.

3) Adjust the melodic rhythms in 4-bar segmentsso there is a good flow.


Listen to recordings of uncomplicated small jazz ensemblemusic: when the arranger syncopates at the wrong time, the style changes. This is not good. 4) Watch for symmetry (equal motion to the left and right) that damagesthe good unpredictability of your melody. Adjust the syncopation to relieve some of the unwanted symmetry.

pg r7

't
Melody-1

2C. BASIC TUNE WRITING Most top jazz performers write at least some of their own material. Yet, the ability to write a good tune is elusive to many capablemusicians. Their primary difficulty is in waiting too long for inspiration, rather than being willing to start with an idea that can be developed. Where to start: Most writers begin either with a fragment of melody or an appealing chord progression.There is no set rule, and it may change for you from one day to the next. Try the following routine: When beginning to write an original tune either: begin with an interesting chord progression(3-4 bars at most), Develop it according to guidelines found on the next few pages, but don't go far before you put melody to what you have. --- or: write a fragment of melodE that appealsto your ear (two bars at most). Begin to develop it using one or more of the of the simple devices found on page 16. (Developers) Don't go too far before you begin to harmonize! then: write music! Let the techniquescovered so far help you make decisions. (The best selectionof a song form is made after you have developed your first material for 8 or 16 bars, not before. At that time, you can refine and rewrite. This processis normal to song writing.) . The beginning of a good chord progression may be as short as this: . And, a beginning fragment of melodv can look like this:

I l I I I
I I I I

t
I I I I

Combined, they form a very brief beginning to a tune. (The fragment is short enough that it should be reused immediately.)

t
The first four bar phrase has two positives working for it: 1) the short fragment has a leap, and is reused immediately, and 2) the intervals between primary melody notes and bass notes are interesting and aggressive. Note, though, that the tune itself is not aggressive. pg l8

I I I

MelodY-l

Starting with a melodic fragment is usually easier.The fragment should be short and simple, but should have a quality that calls for immediate reuse of some kind. As you harmonize the first fragment, start with a chord whose bass will provide an interesting interval relationship to the melody. (7th, 9th, 4th, etc.) But, don't be too dissonant! Reuse the material. The key to a well written melody is reuse. When melodic material is imitated, then contrasted,it is time to repeat or in some way reuse. The number of options is large: analysis of great tunes will help you locate a model tune, to imitate. this is good business,at first, and unnecessaryonce you get rolling. The demo fragment may be developed through the devices shown on PP. 16 EE17. The fragment has a good interval relationship to its harmony (3rd, 7th, 9th, etc.) A repeat can call for a changeof harmony. Stay close to the key at first, but borrow from other keys as you develop the melody.

The secondfour bars will answer the first four. Since the fragments have leaps, the contrasting answer is more step-wise. The contrast between leaps and the stepwise movement sets up the need for a cadenceand a reuse. The contrasting answer may now proceed to a different key center. (The first material has been used and reused adequatelyby now.)

In the 2nd eight bars, a repeat in the melody should be more calling for more aggressive, color in the harmony.

r auxiliargs

t__ ?

RESULT: Two similar "A" periods, the secondof which has a higher energy level. pg 19

MelodY-l

Two repeating sectionsof music call for a contrastingarea:the bridge. The AABA form, with its bridge, is right for this tune. (The decision to repeat "A" with a similar 8-bar period calls for the contrast of a bridge, thus the AABA form.) To find the right sounds for an effective "8" bridge, use these measurements: . If the A sectionshave an active character,the bridge should be less active. If they were not, then the bridge should be more active.

I
I
I

o If they were both in the same key center (and this is normal), then the bridge should go elsewhere. o If they stayed in.a mid-range area,the bridge should go higher. . If the A sectionswere rhythmic, the bridge may be less so.

This demo bridge will provide needed contrastthrough the use of leaps and a higher range. The style is tuneful, though, and stays away from heavy sounds: a at tune writing. good policy for first and secondexperiences

i t I tl

6gy(no 3)

ehz

Agtus{

I
I I
I I I I
Sbz

The return to " A" should begin the same as either of the previous "A" sections. (Usually the second "A", since the higher contour is needed after a bridge.) The same beginning fragment can be developed many ways. Here are iust two:
Dm7

1 ) Answer flrst, tnen reuse.


(sulr aPProPrrare ror a rlrst

period in a simple song)

Dm7
L) ftl tDw t wlLlf. cl DEguEr r LE.

eb/D -t Ablc

Em7

\ule

sequertce uP

wrrr

suggestyou're in A1.)

ob^z

GbmT

Bm7

E7sus4

t
I I I

pg 20

Melody-l

Final version of the demo tune, in AABA form

Developers

Pui R|r(brtiotd

t abz

GmZ

/c

c9

abz

Eabr"iz

pg2r

Melody-l

Opening fragment, developed into a longer idea, for different song form. When generating material for an ABAB song form, the initial idea should be longer. Two similar 4-bar phrasescall for a contrasting answer, thus forming the 16bar " AB" section of an ABAB. 'When things become difficult, imitate the structure of a model tune you'like.

MODEL:"I REMEMBER APRIL"

FmaJT

g7(iet

Original fragment, developed into a 15 bar section, following the logic from "I Remember April"

.+EQIIEIfiCE

I I I I I

Harmony-l

STEP THREE:HARMONY-I
3A: ANALYZING THE CHANGES (thispage) 3B: REHARMONZATION AND CHORDSUBSTITUION(see page 27.)

Jazz and popular tunes are written with chord progressionscalled "the changes." It is the arranger's choice whether to use what is given, or to make adjustments as needed.Rarely will an arranger leave the originai progressionsentirely unchanged. Before reharmonization comes analysis - for familiarization, and for measuring the amount of harmonic color already present between the tune and its changes. In the next example,changesrepresented by the chord symbols suggesta wrong bassline. "Someone To Watch Over Me"
E I?

Thcre's I some- bod - y

I'm long-in3

to rcc.

I hope thet he

Turnsout

to b

Chord slmbols in older songs may not show the correct bass morr"m"ti. . * The changes in bars 2-3 should read: Eb/G - F#'? | Bb?/F - Eo7

The fundamental bass of the changesrepresented by the generic piano arrangement contains a descending bass. The chords above are rather plain. If that is okay, there is no need to adjust. When the level of harmonic color does not fulfill the need, though, reharmonization takes place, involving chords that are more colorful (see page24),and/or chord substitutes,which effectively alter the bassline. (Seepage 27.) Nomenclature is the system of symbols that identify the chord sounds that are used. Letter names and numbers are used to expressroot, mode, and other important characteristics. SeeAppendix 3 "Nomenclature".

page23

Harmony-l

FUNDAMENTAL BASS Fundamental bass is a seriesof notes written to show the bottom notes from a set of changes. One note is sustainedfor each chord, no matter how long it may last. (Fundamentalbassis not intended for performanceby the bassplayer, bui is an analytical tool for the arranger.)

"HaveYouMet Miss Jones"

fundam.entalbass
Fundamental basssimplifies the analysis of two-part structure. Two Part Structure Music with melody and harmony will always have at least two parts moving. Melody is thought of as Part 1 and harmony (in this casethe fundamental bals) as Part 2. Thesetwo lines have a contrapuntal relationship to each other. That is, they moJe together but are not allowed to become "tied" to each other. (Exceptat cadencepoints, where forward movement is supposed to slow down.) The intervals between fundamental bass and melody are strategically important. 2nds, 9ths, 7ths, are more aggressivethan 3rds and Sths,6ths, and createi highet interest level. Sths and 8ves are less energetic,and are most useful at beginnings and cadenceareas. In more aggressivetunes, they are avoided. ' In the examplebelow, the chords in bar two createdSths between the parts. Chord subs change the Sths to 3ids, for a different sound.

(Miss Jones)
FU
A

Substitute to change 5th (top-bottom) to 3rd page24

* Passing tone chord for interest

Harmon.v"-l

The level of harmonic color in jazz is higher than in other popular styles. For most PurPoses,major and minor triads, major 6th chords, and straight dominant seventh chords are too plain. Shown below are common devices used to colorize harmony, including extensions,suspensions,alterations and changesof bass note. COMMON COLORING DEVICES
PI,AIN E)(IENDED

1. Extensions are the notes one adds to chords or hamonies from the scale most representative of the chord. A triad is built by stacking 3rds. The triad or 7th is extended by then adding additional Srds.

DOMINANT
C7sus4 BbmaiTlC

2. Suspensiorls, or "sus-chords", are the result of putting the 4th into a dominant chord and removing the 3rd. Suspensions are described by chord symbols that read *sus-4'.

DOMINAIVT

AI..|TERED
c7(il11) c7(be)

are chromatic 3. Alterations changesmade to chords. The most common alterations involve the 5th 9th scale degrees. While even a triad may be altered this way,alterations usually take over after the chord has already been extended.

c+7(ile)

PI,AIN & E)MENDED

CHANGE OF BASS

4. Change-bass describes the chord whose bass note is not its own root. Change-bass runs the garnut from the common inversion to the hybrid chord (whose bass note is outside the chord's own key center)

Ebg BbmajT Dm

obrcbeb lo

orcb

SeeAppendix 3 for a detailed coverageof jazz chords.


page25

Harmony-l

Determining when to use more colorful chords When a tune is relatively diatonic (even an aggressivejazz tune), especially if its tempo is high, then the quality of chords used in the changescan remain simple. 9ths, 13th, sus chords, etc. are adequate.This is true in most of "Black Nile" -----

BT ACK NILF
Ebr 3
abrs Ehng alg'.'. Fmg

Wh..rnegtuttr E9

I I I
I
I I I I
I

a b r:

Ebs

a llsl

When a iazz tune needs to tell a more modal story, has a slower tempo, or contains a greater number of accidentals, then the quality of chords should be more colorful. Alterations and change-bass are added to the extensionsand sus chords in Wayne's "Stella By Starlight" - see also this tune in the Appendix. DomT altered

Minor sus-4 and DomT (b5)- -

DomT altered

Change bass and sus-4's

>

page26

I I I I I I I I I
I

Harmony-l

38: REHARMONIZATION AND CHORD SUBSTITUTION Reharmonization is the processof conforming u set of changesto the requirements of an arrangement. The processoccurs every time an arrangement is written for a jazz group. Normally, two items receive the closestscrutiny: level of harmonic color, and the 2-part relationships (bassagainst melody). Adjustment of color level mvolves the extensions,alterations, etc.; adjustments in the 2-part structure involves chord substitution. The substitute is a chord which provides the same kind of harmony as (or function as) the chord which it replaces. Chord substitutes are used for one of two reasons: L) The fundamental bass malr cause an unwanted interval against the melody. The use of a "primary chord substitute" will change the fundamental bass, thereby altering the two-part structure of the tune. Basic harmony remains.
SKYIIRK
LtEl',EntbE rr*t)bttCrttrrl

GE7

C!7

h.L H. F'

-.

r-|li .El .l t
L?

rta

W-i .tr

F{ ry bt

rbr r c,

rt I

(lrbt

Fo? }7

b* o jc-rt.t-

t ?-

b.|E c.G El5

r E.arh tL-..ard Eo7 El?

rbt

c--'|

rd.t -

Ht

AdbT

BE7

.lb--d.d

ht-

Al

b-i

lll._

br-dtF

bJt-..h

2) The arranger may just want a different sound. The original may be too too bland, or it may even be too aggressiveand need taming somewhat. The arranger may want for a particular modal sound to prevail.

(nPm>cr*g^e/
Med.Swing
0^,7

Dearlv Beloved
J

Music bv JeromeKern Lvric bv fohnny Mercer

G1

Du,7

G7

Harmony-l

Common Substitutes (primary and secondary)are built over bassnotes a third or fifth above or below or below the original note. 1) A primary substitute is based a third away from the original chord; they have two notes in common. 2 The secondary substitute has only one note in common with the original, and is based a fifth awdf , up or down. The energy level of a secondaryis higher than that of a primary.

Locating the "subs" Major chords: Locate the new bassnote and selectthe right chord over it. The number of common tones between sub and original will influence the energy level in the music. Minor chords: Locate the new bassnote and selectthe right chord over it. The number of common tones between sub and original will influence the energy level in the music. There are more minor scales (than major), so there are more choicesof subs for minor chords. Dominant chords: Locatethe tritone (#4,b5). Build another dominant (or a diminished 7th chord) containing the same tritone. The "tritone sub" is based an aug.4th or dim.Sth away and contains the same tritone as the original.
keep the sanre riad, changethebassnote

CmajT CmajT/F

Cm? Cm1lF

keep the same triad, change the bassnote

keep the same tritsne (3rd + ?th) move bassup or dqwn #4 or b5

page28

Harmonv-1

chords. Other substitutes include the inversions and the change-bass Thesesubstitutestend to be those chosen for choice#2 of "Whv Use Subs?"

Suspensions: A "suspension" is the sus-4, the dominant whose 3rd is replaced by the 4th. This chord updates the sound of the harmonic progiession, while leaving bass movement unchanges.

cg

cgs|t.

c2 tl

C gga

Fma;?

L. fuplacethe 3rd wit}r the 4th. dominant Thechordstill sorrrds

t-

Inversions: For major and minor chords, build the voicing over the 3rd or 5th of the chord. (The only differencebetween a Lst-sub and a first inversion is one note in mid-voicing.)

change a melody$ass relationship Keepthe chord and ....to move to ib inver:ion...... without changing the harmony

Changgbasschords: Change-basschords, in general, are available for substitution, so far as their bass notes OR their chord functions meet the needs of the ananger.

ct

Eal orcgtE

E+7le E+le

c+f

tDorninant neeriso ctrange....

ln

[o-

.... ..... sr a riifferent dsmnant bassup a 3rd mairesmversron chord builtbetvreen the or the halfdim. sarte outer notes(C + E)

3: JazzChords andAdd-Chords SeeAppendix

page29

Harmony-l

DEMONSTRATION OF THE REHARMONIZATION PROCESS. "AUTUMN LEAVES," The original changes are good. The few adjustmentsare numbered and explained below. (Original changes)

6maj7

CmajT

Em/D Ar6/C

B?
^Ia

PROBLEMS (with the original) (1) Long triads on strong beats (2) Too many straight dominants (3) Bar 17: octavesin 2-Part. (4) Bars 19 + 20 are boring. (5) Bar 21: octavesin 2-Part. (5) Last 4 bars: cadencetoo long.

SOLUTIONS (applied on next Page) (1) Extend or add to the longer triads. (2) Sub to sus-4'sand tritone subs. min' sus4 (3) Sub down to change-bass: (4) Extend the Em to createnew line. (5) Sub down to C6/9, tritone the next bar. (6) Sub 29, delay the Cbass,extend 87. page 30

I I I I
I I I

Harmonv-l

"AUTUMN LEAVES'' --- FOLLOWING REHARMOMZATION.


Q! (Extend the trrads)

@ Suspendpart of the domnant

($ create sus4 from ong, 67tiet ,-y7 te

@; s"U ciownto keeppedat -Enr7/B Bbo?

extena to create"rnterest hne" @ -sm/C D9'c5(Abt(is)

1i;___g;

w
EC

The C9 is a tritone substituteto the Flf07, thus making the appoggiaturaeven more coherentyet!

page3l

Harmony-l

Final Balance Finally, it is important for the arrangermust see to if that the 2-part scheme(melody are well balanced. That is, the harmonization can be as crafty as and bass/changes) one is able, but the changesmust remain subordinate to the melody. The following should be true. 1) The changesmust flow well. There can be no sudden changesor surprises, regardlessof how clever the chord(s) responsible. Unless, of course,the sudden surprise is also present in the original comPoser-changes. 2) The changesmust sripport the melod|, and not compete. That is, the amount of color or alteration in the changesshould never be greater than the amount of coior or interval energy in the melody itself. 3) The changesmust flow with the same schemeas the song form. That is, the rise in interest levels causedby substitutions etc. should progress with the form, and not contrarv to the form scheme.

I I rl rl
I I

Guidelines for using substitute chords: 1) Play and analyze the tune. Identify cadencesor changes thlt should not be altered, e.g.,those that are characteristicof the tune itself. Example: the first four bars of "My Funny Valentine" have a characteriitic descendingline in the harmony (either in the bassor above).Be careful of changing this characteristic! 2) Analyze the original changes against the 2-part structure of the tune. Locate inaccurateor awkward chords from this standpoint. 3) Choose substitutions to correct the problems in #2. 4) Choosesubstitutions also to adjust the level of harmonic color (up or down), as needed 5) Start with lstlevel subs when the tune has a diatonic or gentle subs to provide more quality to if move to 2nd-level or change-bass liarmonic interest, or to keep the changesfrom being predictable. 6) Don't oversubstitute!

I I
I I

I I I
I I I I I

page32

t'

Horns-I

STEP4: HORNSIN THE SMALL GROUP(COMBO)

if: TffiSSo3ff"'il^'IoNS
Instrumentation for a small group is usually 2 to 3 horns with rhythm section. When there are three or more horns, they are usually mixed. That is, there will be a mix of brassand woodwinds.

Mixed horns provide more color, depth, and varief of sound than two or three of the same kind of horn. When only two horns are present, the mix may be in terms of instrument type. (Brass,woodwind, etc.) Or it may be in terms of instrument register. (High and low homs). In any event, the best mix is that which provides you the greatestversatility. . The first simple arrangement should be written for two horns with rhythm. The emphasisis placed entirely on good melodic writing. . Thesefour combinations of two horns are effective with rhvthm section. (1) Trumpet and Alto Sax (2) Trumpet and Tenor Sax (3) Trumpet and Trombone (4) Trombone and Tenor Sax

Front Line The homs that play in a small group, or five to six horn band are called the "front line". When trumpet is part of a front line, it should be placed on the lead. That is, when the horns are harmonized, trumpet should play the top part. Guitar, while not a wind instrument, is valuable as a doubling member of the front line. Doubling, in that guitar adds excellentcolor to unisons. Guitar can also comp, of course,increasing the versatility of that instrument. Basic Ranges The basic rangesof any instrument are those into which most of their music tends to fall. For the first several charts, the wise arranger will keep closeto thesebasic ranges. The best playing always takes place in the ranges where people have the most experienceplaying. SeeAppendix 4 for ranges and other information. IN GENERAT...... Lower registers
Average Playing Ranges

Upper Registers

Extended Ranges

used Seldom in writing small group arrangements.

Almostall of what is heard in small group musicfalls within this range. Usefulalso for selecting best keys.(page 16)

Seldom used in writing small group mu s ic .

Do not write in this rangefor small group arrangements

pg 33

Horns-l

48. TRANSPOSITIONS A transposing instrument is one whose "C" is a different pitch than on the piano. All transposing instruments used in jazz music sound a lower pitch than written, so must be "transposedup". o Trumpet and Tenor Sax are Bb transposing instruments. o When writing a transposed part for a Bb horn, write everything a whole step higher than the concertpitches. This will also require adding two sharps to the concert key signature. For example, C Major for piano becomesD major for the Bb part, and F Major concert is written one step higher, in G Major. For trumpet, transposeup one whole step.

I
! !

I rl
I I
I
I
I I
I

For tenor sax,transposeup a whole step plus one octave. Note: The most common transposition errors in jazz occur in the tenor sax. Don't forget the extra octave!

The same written line, played both by trumpet and tenor sax, will sound in octaves.

t t
I I I I

pg34

HornsI

Alto and baritone saxesare Eb transposing instruments. When writing a transposed part for a Eb hom, write everything a major 6th above the concert pitches. This will also require adding three sharps to the concert key signature. For example,C Major on piano becomesA Major when transposedfor an Eb instrument and F Major is written in D Major. For alto sax,transposeup a major 5th from the concert (written) music.

4zaut?art

For baritone sax,transposeup a major 6th plus one octave.

7u.

The same written line, played both by alto and baritone saxes, t
t-

will sound in octaves.

Jg-ls

Rhythm-l

STEPFTVE: THE RHYTHM SECTION


54: MAKEUP OF THE RHYTHM SECTION page) lthis 58: TIIE COMPOSITE RHYTHM PART(see pg58) The instruments keeping time and moving the changes in a jazz or pop chart is called the rhythm section. (Rhythm sectionis frequently shortened to Rhythm.) Rhythm function together as a unit, and are responsiblefor keeping a solid feeling of rhythmic time ("g3oove")alive in the playing of an arrangement. Even when horns play background figures, the rhythm section is responsible for the quality of the groove. They must play responsively to each other; thus, their part(s) must be kept as simple as possible.

MAKEUP OF THE RHYTHM SECTION The basic rhythm section found in a small jazz group (or "combo") consistsof: . PIANO (and/or GUITAR)

PIANO (or KEYBOARD) can mean either the acousticpiano or a synthesizer. The piano plays stylistic rhythm patterns on the changes. The changes may also be played in this style by GUITAR, or by both piano and guitar.

. BASS

BASSmay be upright, electric,or in somegroups even a keyboard. ln a simple.urangements, the demands are very non-specific, so the choice of bassinstrument should be made by the player, or by the leader of the group, but not the writer.

. DRUMS

DRUMS indicates a standard drum kit. PERCUSSION may be present as well. For a simple arrangement,both the drummer and the percussionist read from composite parts (seenext page) and decide which instrument(s) to play.

In a simple anangement, consisting only of a good plan, good changes,an intro, an ending, and instructions regarding style/tempo The arranger may write one composite part for the entire rhythm section, to be photocopied to each rhythm player. This composite rhythm part is discussed on page 50, and is entirely appropriate whenever rhythm players require only good changes and information on the layout of the chart. If more is required, a compositepart is inappropriate. pg 36

Rhythm-l

THE COMPOSITE RHYTHM PART In a simple arrangement, all rhythm players may play from a photocopy of a common rhythm part. This composite part gives the changes and any stop times that may occur. Instructions may be written to tell the drummer where to play something other than straight time (in whatever style)

Srru,n

l'frrv rxt Z

When a composite rhythm part contains specifically notated rhythms, it is understood that everyone in the rhythm section will play these rhythms.

When requirements of a chart cause a composite rhythm part to look as busy as the next example, the compositeis no longer the correct format. Too many different sounds are called for. Each player should receive an individual part instead. (See ChapterII Step5.) . Not a good compositerhythm parh it looks too busy.

pg37

Format-l

STEPSIX: SMALL FORMATS


64. TrWO-LINE SKETCH(below) 68 INDTVIDUAL PARTS(pg 48) The best format for the final version of any arrangement depends upon two factors. 1) Size of performing group. The larger the group, the larger the format needed for a final version. 2) Application. The best format is the least complicated format that will serve without compromising the chart. Rule of thumb ..... Simplify as much as possible. When music becomesdifficult to follow easily, or looks cluttered, it is time to move to the next larger (or more comprehensivl) format.

I I
I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I

6A. TWO.LINE SKETCHES The two-line sketch is the smallestcompleteformat. It is written in treble/bass clefs, always in concert key. A sketch may contain a fair amount of information, including written instructions on style, number of rhythm to play, roadmap, etc. 2-line sketchesare best r When a simple chart has unison horns and a straight-ahead rhythm groove, via the composite rhythm part, use the two-line sketch. (For a chart more complex than this, move up to the three-line sketch.)

Aggressrve Latinf1H=144
$rDt-Alto)

When there is a lyric and only a simple rhythm background will be used. (If horns are used in addition to the vocal, then a 3-line format is better.)

Cdrtinuc latin

pg 38

Format-l

Cautions: the following are common errors made in jazz charts. Be careful to check your work against this list before having the music played! 1. The sketch is always written in the concert key, without octave transpositions. Where homs will play in octaves,one line may be written with the indication "8ves" above or below the melody. Z. Material for the composite rhythm part apPears on the bottom line, and is written in bassclef' 3. Bar numbers should appear throughout, placed at the bottom left of each bar. Computer notation progtams may place-barnumbers above the line. These are "iefault settingsi an-dcan be chinged on most Programs. If not, the program is inadequatefor serious notating. 4. Clefs and key signatures appear at the beginning of every line in published music. In abbreiiated manuscript, they may aPPearonly once Per Page,at the beginning of line one, or when ihe key g$lq".t. (Note: any clef lacking a key signature automatically signals a key of C Major or A minor.) 5. Time signaturesappear only once. unless there has been a change of meter. 6. When possible, title and authorship appear on line one of a Page of sketch; the music begins on line two. 7. Changes should be written clearly, and with chord symbols choLen that are not hf.ely to be misinterpreted. (The style of nomenclature in Chapter One, Step 3, is highlY recommended.) 8. Lyrics, when preSent,should be "all caPs",and written over a straight edge for the sake of aPPearance'

pg39

Format-l

Two Line Sketch of "Yesterdays" Top line = Tenor solo, untransposed. Bottom line = same music exactlyas to be copied for a composite rhythm part.

I
I
I I I I I

Yesterdays

a Amin FIA

'rT16

AminT

'-\ *ril rfimz1b sy

sus

D9

I
I

F2

ctE

clD

Am/C

A najT/B

813

' ll'

Dn/E
t3

E7b9

r13

C ID

D9

B/G

F/G

I I I I I

Fm7(f,5)

pg40

Format- I

5B. EXTRACTING THE INDIVIDUAL PARTS Individual parts representyou as your music is performed. Material, appearance, and layout will introduce you before one note is played. This becomesmore and more important every year! In manuscriph ' Paper: Use professionallOline paper. (12-linepaper will look crowded.) You will find good papers at Penders; also at the University Store. Be sure that the 1O-line is at least 80 lb. weight - 100 lb. weight is preferred. Also, though good PaPer is available in off-white or buff, white is preferred, especially for pencil. o Pencils: Use a soft lead pencil for individual parts. (Ex: the Berol Electronic Scorer, sharpened frequently to keep stems and bar lines thin.) o Eraser: Use the non-abrasivevariety, which lifts a pencil's image without damaging the surfaceof the paper. (Example:the StaedtlerMars Plastic Eraser, available from art supply stores,and most University Book Stores) . Rulers: Use a triangular, transparent "straight-edge"for bar lines, and to underline titles, credits, etc. (Available at most book storesand art supply stores. Also, when you purchase a straight-edge, be sure that it has a beveled edge,so that soft leads and ink pens will not smear.) For computer generatedparts: . Print: Laser printing is so commonly available now that other platforms (ink jet, dot matrix) are used now only for personal "trial runs." Paper: Printers use an extremely light weight paper. Once you are sure that your music plays the way you want, photocopy your printed parts onto 80 lb. white ledger paper. This will give your music the right feel.

. Appearance: All notation programs use good fonts - Petrucci,Sonata,etc. In addition, several "jazz fonts" are readily available, causing your music more and more to resembleprofessional hand-copied manuscript. o Formatting: The best format for individual parts, though, is not necessarilythat which is built into the default file of your software. The best format is one that you construct through the editing process. Turn to page 48. Seealso Appendix 5.

pg4l

Format-1

FORMATTING INDIVIDUAL PARTS Whether in manuscript or computer generated,follow these guidelines: . . . Place the instrument name at the left (on line one, or where line one would be.) Placethe title in the middle of the page where line two would be. Music begins on line three.

I
I I I I I
I

o Group four bars to the line except where the music would appear cluttered (lyrics, too many 15th notes, etc.)
a a

Number each bar, with the number appearing at the bottom left of the bar. Begin page two on line one; page number should appear at bottom center.

Tenor

Yesterdays
Jerome Kern, arr. ParisRutherford

Solo ad lib

l0 o

I I I I I
I

T I I I I