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ANNEX A

SPECIFICATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 1 Scope of Work.......................................................................................................... 1 Site Access .............................................................................................................. 1 Temporary Access ................................................................................................... 1 Mobilization Demobilization ................................................................................... 2 Safety and Convenience of the Public ...................................................................... 2 Codes of Practice ..................................................................................................... 2 Contractors Professional Attendance on Site .......................................................... 2 Temporary Building and Sanitary Accommodation ................................................... 2 Storage Facilities...................................................................................................... 3

1.10 Workmen Accommodation ....................................................................................... 3 1.11 Watching and Lighting .............................................................................................. 3 1.12 Water and Electricity Supplies .................................................................................. 3 1.13 Discharge of Water .................................................................................................. 3 1.14 Damage to and Clearing of Sites .............................................................................. 3 1.15 Clearance of Site on Completion .............................................................................. 4 1.16 Facilities for Testing by the Supervising Geologist ................................................... 4 1.17 Facilities for Other Contractors ................................................................................. 4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 SITE INVESTIGATIONS - GENERAL ...................................................................... 5 Equipment ................................................................................................................ 5 Positions of Investigations and Leveling ................................................................... 5 Measurements ......................................................................................................... 5 System Internationale Units...................................................................................... 5 DRILLING ................................................................................................................ 6 Equipment ................................................................................................................ 6 Priority ...................................................................................................................... 6 Positioning of Drill rigs .............................................................................................. 6 Advance of Drillholes................................................................................................ 6 Setting-Out ............................................................................................................... 7 Identification and Numbering .................................................................................... 7 Depth of Drillholes .................................................................................................... 7 Drilling Obstruction ................................................................................................... 7 Abandoned Drillholes ............................................................................................... 7

3.10 Termination of Drillholes ........................................................................................... 7 3.11 Measurement ........................................................................................................... 8 3.12 Payment ................................................................................................................... 8
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4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 8 8.1

BORING AND SAMPLING IN OVERBURDEN ........................................................ 9 Drilling in Overburden............................................................................................... 9 Disturbed Samples ................................................................................................... 9 Undisturbed Samples ............................................................................................... 9 Mazier Samples ..................................................................................................... 10 Measurement ......................................................................................................... 10 Payment ................................................................................................................. 11 DRILLING AND SAMPLING IN ROCK .................................................................. 12 Equipment .............................................................................................................. 12 Reaming Casing and Grouting ............................................................................... 12 Angle Drilling .......................................................................................................... 12 Boxing and Storage of Core ................................................................................... 12 Measurement ......................................................................................................... 13 Payment ................................................................................................................. 13 HAND HELD DRILLING ........................................................................................ 14 Equipment .............................................................................................................. 14 Priority .................................................................................................................... 14 Positioning of the Hand Held Drill ........................................................................... 14 Procedure .............................................................................................................. 14 Measurement ......................................................................................................... 15 Payment ................................................................................................................. 15 GROUNDWATER .................................................................................................. 16 Groundwater Observations .................................................................................... 16 Measurements ....................................................................................................... 16 Payment ................................................................................................................. 16 TEST PITS AND AUGER BORING ....................................................................... 17 TEST PITS ............................................................................................................. 17 8.1.1 General .................................................................................................... 17 8.1.2 Size .......................................................................................................... 17 8.1.3 Safety ....................................................................................................... 17 8.1.4 Backfilling ................................................................................................. 17 8.1.5 Logging .................................................................................................... 17 8.1.6 Disturbed Samples ................................................................................... 17 8.1.7 Undisturbed Block Samples ...................................................................... 18 8.1.8 Measurement ........................................................................................... 18 8.1.9 Payment ................................................................................................... 18 Power Auger Boring ............................................................................................... 18 8.2.1 General .................................................................................................... 18 8.2.2 Measurement ........................................................................................... 18 8.2.3 Payment ................................................................................................... 18
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8.2

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INSITU TESTING ................................................................................................... 19 Standard Penetration Test ..................................................................................... 19 9.1.1 General .................................................................................................... 19 9.1.2 Equipment ................................................................................................ 19 9.1.3 Test Method ............................................................................................. 19 9.1.4 Correction of Results ................................................................................ 19 9.1.5 Measurement ........................................................................................... 20 9.1.6 Payment ................................................................................................... 20 Single Packer Field Permeability Test .................................................................... 20 9.2.1 General .................................................................................................... 20 9.2.2 Equipment ................................................................................................ 20 9.2.3 Test Procedure ......................................................................................... 21 9.2.4 Measurement ........................................................................................... 21 9.2.5 Payment ................................................................................................... 22 Constant Head Permeability Tests ......................................................................... 22 9.3.1 General .................................................................................................... 22 9.3.2 Equipment ................................................................................................ 22 9.3.3 Test Method ............................................................................................. 22 9.3.4 Test Results ............................................................................................. 22 9.3.5 Measurement ........................................................................................... 22 9.3.6 Payment ................................................................................................... 23 Variable Head Permeability Tests .......................................................................... 23 9.4.1 General .................................................................................................... 23 9.4.2 Equipment ................................................................................................ 23 9.4.3 Test Method ............................................................................................. 23 9.4.4 Test Results ............................................................................................. 23 9.4.5 Measurement ........................................................................................... 23 9.4.6 Payment ................................................................................................... 24 Pressuremeter Tests .............................................................................................. 24 9.5.1 General .................................................................................................... 24 9.5.2 Equipment ................................................................................................ 24 9.5.3 Testing Procedure .................................................................................... 24 9.5.4 Measurement ........................................................................................... 25 9.5.5 Payment ................................................................................................... 25 9.5.6 General .................................................................................................... 25 9.5.7 Equipment ................................................................................................ 25 9.5.8 Test Method ............................................................................................. 25 9.5.9 Measurement ........................................................................................... 25 9.5.10 Payment ................................................................................................... 26 Shear Vane Tests .................................................................................................. 26 9.6.1 General .................................................................................................... 26 9.6.2 Equipment ................................................................................................ 26 9.6.3 Test Procedure ......................................................................................... 26 9.6.4 Measurement ........................................................................................... 26 9.6.5 Payment ................................................................................................... 26
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9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

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LABORATORY TESTING...................................................................................... 27

10.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 27 10.2 LABORATORY SOIL TESTING ............................................................................. 27 10.3 TESTS ON ROCK MATERIALS ............................................................................. 28 11 TEST METHODS ................................................................................................... 29

11.1 Oedometer Consolidation Tests ............................................................................. 29 11.2 Unconsolidated Undrained Triaxial Tests (Undisturbed Specimen) ........................ 29 11.3 Unconsolidated Undrained Triaxial Test (Remoulded Specimen) ........................... 29 11.4 Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Tests With Pore Pressure Measurement (Undisturbed Specimen) ......................................................................................... 30 11.5 Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Test With Pore Pressure Measurement (Remoulded Specimen).......................................................................................... 30 11.6 Pore Pressure Dissipation Test .............................................................................. 30 11.7 Compaction Tests .................................................................................................. 31 11.8 Point Load Diametrial & Axial Test ...................................................................... 31 11.9 Uniaxial Compression Test (Ucs) ........................................................................... 32 11.10 Measurement ......................................................................................................... 32 11.11 Payment ................................................................................................................. 32 12 RECORDS AND REPORTING .............................................................................. 33

12.1 Shift Reports .......................................................................................................... 33 12.2 Photographs........................................................................................................... 34 12.3 Exploration Logs .................................................................................................... 34 12.4 Clarity Of Records .................................................................................................. 34 12.5 Interim Laboratory Test Results ............................................................................. 34 12.6 Progress Reports ................................................................................................... 35 12.7 Final Report ........................................................................................................... 35 12.8 Property Of Employer ............................................................................................. 35 12.9 Measurement And Payment ................................................................................... 35 12.10 Daywork ................................................................................................................. 36 12.11 Idle Time ................................................................................................................ 36 13 ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY (ERT) ............................................. 37

13.1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 37 13.2 Objectives .............................................................................................................. 37 13.3 Equipment And Personnel ...................................................................................... 37 13.4 Personnel ............................................................................................................... 37 13.5 Source Of Power .................................................................................................... 37 13.6 High Impedance Voltmeter ..................................................................................... 38 13.7 Electrodes .............................................................................................................. 38 13.8 Cables .................................................................................................................... 38
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13.8.1 13.8.2

Signal Enhancement ................................................................................ 38 Analytical Software ................................................................................... 38

13.9 Limitations And Interferences ................................................................................. 38 13.10 Recommended Electrodes Arrays .......................................................................... 39 13.11 The Wenner Array .................................................................................................. 39 13.11.1 The Schlumberger Array........................................................................... 40 13.11.2 The Dipole-Dipole Array ........................................................................... 40 13.12 Measurements And Interpretation .......................................................................... 41 13.12.1 Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) ............................................................ 41 13.12.2 Horizontal Profiling ................................................................................... 41 13.12.3 Combined Profiling ................................................................................... 42 13.13 Procedure .............................................................................................................. 42 13.14 Quality Control ....................................................................................................... 43 13.15 Report And Presentation ........................................................................................ 43 13.16 Safety..................................................................................................................... 44 13.16.1 Shock Hazard ........................................................................................... 44 13.16.2 Electrical Storms....................................................................................... 44 13.17 Measurement ......................................................................................................... 44 13.18 Payment ................................................................................................................. 45 APPENDICES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C DESCRIPTION OF SOIL AND ROCK PRODUCTION OF CORE BORE LOG FIELD TEMPLATES

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1 GENERAL
This specification describes the requirements of a geotechnical site investigation to be carried out at the location/s given in the attached schedules. This site investigation specification is intended to provide guidance to geologists and geotechnical engineer and to establish the processes, procedures, and methods for conducting and documenting field investigation of high quality in accordance with standard industry practice.

1.1

Scope of Work

The aim of site investigation is to obtain data representative of the ground conditions and relevant to the project site. It should also provide data which relate to ground conditions beyond the immediate vicinity of the site where soil, rock, groundwater, and existing or future structures may affect or be affected by works. The main objectives of the site investigation are as follows: Assessment of general suitability of the site and neighborhood for the proposed works, from a geological and geotechnical point of view. Provision of suitable geotechnical data for all aspects of an economic, safe and reliable design of foundations, earthworks and temporary works, including assessment of the effects of any previous uses of the site. Assessment of the problems and constraints associated with the construction of the works arising from the soil or groundwater conditions, including temporary works, excavation, trafficability and drainage. Assessment of the quantity, quality and ease of extraction of construction materials suitable for the works, where relevant. Consideration of changes in the stability, drainage or other geotechnical aspects of the site and the surrounding ground and buildings, which might be initiated by the construction works. Comparison of construction by alternative methods or at alternative sites. Occasionally, a ground investigation may be carried out for the following reasons: o o Assessment of the stability of existing structures, works or natural features. Investigation of a foundation or natural ground failure, including excessive settlement, heave, lateral deformation or instability of slopes.

1.2

Site Access

The site is not easily accessible. In order to reach the project site it is required to travel by car to the town of Manalu. From there the road has been eroded and landslides have taken away parts of the access tracks. Motorised access is not possible by road. None of the sites can be accessed directly from the main road, trekking on steep and vegetated slopes are required to reach the different sites. The contractor will be required to construct tracks for its own purposes.

1.3

Temporary Access

The Contractor shall provide all temporary roads and gangways required for the execution of the Works. He shall provide at all times during the progress of the Works, proper means of access

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with ladders, gangways, vehicles etc. and the necessary attendance for inspection of the Works by the Field Supervision Geologist or the SMEC representatives as directed. The cost of carrying out all such work shall be deemed to be included in the Contract Rates.

1.4

Mobilization Demobilization

The Contractor shall mobilize all personnel, drilling equipment, materials and supplies required to execute the Works and shall set up his equipment at the site ready in every respect for operation in accordance with the Field Supervision Geologist representatives instruction. Upon the completion of the Works, the Contractor shall remove all his drilling equipment and installations from the worksites. He shall also remove any remnants of materials that were not used, any waste materials any rejected materials or stores. In general, the Contractor shall leave the work sites in a state of order and cleanliness to the satisfaction of the Field Supervision Geologists demand. Payment for mobilization and demobilization of all drilling plant, including all related equipment, to the site will be made at the applicable lump sum tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities. Payment for movement of drilling plant, percussion (cable-tool) rig and power auger rig and equipment to each drill hole location will be made at the applicable rate tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities

1.5

Safety and Convenience of the Public

During the execution of the Works, the Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that his vehicles, plant, equipment and staff do not cause interference with the operations of other users of roads, logging tracks, footpaths and waterways. The Contractor shall at his own expense provide and maintain at site all lights, warning signs, guards, fencing, etc. for the safety and convenience of the public.

1.6

Codes of Practice

Unless otherwise specified, the works included in the site investigation shall be carried out in accordance with B.S. 5930 Code of Practice for Site Investigations, the B.S. 1377 Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purpose, with the current Australian Standards AS17261193: "Geotechnical Site Investigations", A.S. 1289 Methods of Testing Soils for Engineering Purposes and Suggested Methods for Rock Testing by International Society for Rock Mechanics. Equivalent Standards can be used by mutual agreement with the Engineer. The descriptions of soil and rock shall be as defined in Appendix A.

1.7

Contractors Professional Attendance on Site

The Contractor shall provide an Engineering Geologist qualified with a degree in geology from an approved University. The engineering geologist shall have at least five (5) years experience on site on similar works and shall be subject to approval by the Client, which approval may be withdrawn at any time. The engineering geologist shall be on site full time and shall be responsible for the technical direction and output of the whole of the investigation. The engineering geologists duties shall include geological logging of drill cores and test pits and the preparation of investigation records and Final Fieldwork Reports in English.

1.8

Temporary Building and Sanitary Accommodation

The Contractor shall provide, erect, maintain and subsequently remove such temporary buildings, and proper and adequate conveniences for the use of his workmen to the satisfaction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

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The Contractor shall be responsible for keeping such areas in a clean and sanitary condition and on completion of the Works shall clear the areas and reinstate the ground, all to the satisfaction of the Field Supervision Geologist. The cost of carrying out all such work shall be deemed to be included in the Contract Rates.

1.9

Storage Facilities

The Contractor shall provide proper facilities for the storage and protection of soil and rock samples. The Contractor shall be responsible for storing the soil and rock samples at the site camp at the end of each days work. Rock samples in core boxes shall be stored in a place protected from rain, direct sunlight, wind and surface running water.

1.10 Workmen Accommodation


The Contractor shall be responsible for his workers accommodation. No area on the site or any other location will be provided by the Employer for accommodation.

1.11 Watching and Lighting


The Contractor shall in connection with the Works provide and maintain at his own cost all lights, guards, fencing and watching when and where necessary or by any competent statutory body or other authority for the protection of the Works or for the safety and convenience of the public or others.

1.12 Water and Electricity Supplies


The Contractor shall at his own expense install, operate and maintain throughout the period of execution of the Works all such water and electricity supplies necessary for the drilling sites, and remove all the installations on completion of the Works. The cost incurred in providing the above services shall be deemed to be included in the Contract Rates.

1.13 Discharge of Water


The Contractor shall make adequate provisions for the discharge of any water from the Works to the satisfaction of the Field Supervision Geologist, and to the satisfaction of any person having rights over the lands and water courses over or into which water is discharged. The Contractor shall by means of intercepting grips, drains, bunds or covers take all reasonable precautions to prevent surface or other water from entering any part of the Works and shall reinstate the areas as approved by the Field Supervision Geologist on completion of the Works.

1.14 Damage to and Clearing of Sites


The Contractor shall be solely responsible for any damage caused by his activities within or outside the areas of the sites. Clearing of vegetation for gaining access to locations of subsurface exploration shall be in accordance with the proposals submitted by the Contractor with his tender and approved in the Letter of Acceptance. The limits of clearing shall be as directed by the Field Supervision Geologist. The Contractor shall be responsible to obtain clearance and approval from the respective government authority. Necessary fee as deemed necessary to be included in the cost proposal. No separate payment will be made.

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1.15 Clearance of Site on Completion


As soon as the investigation work is completed, all test pits shall be backfilled and drillholes shall be capped or sealed to the satisfaction of the Field Supervision Geologist. On completion, the Contractor shall remove from site all plant, surplus materials, temporary works and rubbish of any kind, and leave the Site and Works clean and tidy to the satisfaction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

1.16 Facilities for Testing by the Supervising Geologist


Independent sampling and testing may be carried out by the supervising geologist throughout the Contract period and for this purpose the Contractor shall grant the use of the Contractors equipment, supply materials and provide facilities for the supervising geologist. The cost for providing facilities for testing by the Field Supervision Geologist shall be deemed to be included in the Contract Rates.

1.17 Facilities for Other Contractors


The Contractor shall in accordance with the requirements of the Client, afford all reasonable facilities for any other contractors employed by the Employer and their workmen and for the workmen of the Employer and of any other properly authorized authorities on or near the Site of any work not included in the Contract or of any Contract which the Employer may enter in connection with or ancillary to the Works.

1.18 Radio Communication/Amenities/Facilities for Supervising Geologist


The Contractor shall supply, for the duration of the contract period, one mobile radio set, together with battery recharge facilities, for the use of the Supervising Geologist to communicate with the Contractors Site personnel. The radio set shall be maintained and insured by the Contractor. On completion of the Contract, the radio set will be returned to the Contractor (item 1.19).

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2 SITE INVESTIGATIONS - GENERAL


2.1 Equipment
The Field Supervision Geologist should inspect all equipment mobilized to the site by the contractor to ascertain whether the equipment is as specified in accordance with the contractors approved work plan and suitable in condition, quantity, and type to perform the work.

2.2

Positions of Investigations and Leveling

The anticipated types of investigations for each site are shown on the attached Investigation Schedule. This Schedule is tentative only and significant variations may occur. It is not guaranteed that any or all of the investigations will be requested. The tentative locations of some of the investigations are marked on the sketch plans for each site. The Field Supervision Geologist will indicate on site the exact positions of investigations. He/She will direct in what order the investigations are to be performed. The positions will be indicated by the Field Supervision Geologist in sufficient time to allow preparatory work to be completed. Investigation locations can be marked initially using GPS or compass, tape, altimeter or other approximate methods either by the Contractor or the Field Supervision Geologist. A final survey check must be done while drilling or after the investigation has been completed. Survey must include Easting, Northing and elevation of the drillhole collar in UTM units. Investigations shall be performed within 2m of the pegged site. The level of the ground surface at each site will be determined by the Field Supervision Geologist. Where borings are made from excavations, the ground level shall be deemed to be that point on the face, sides or bottom of the excavation, where penetration of the bores commenced.

2.3

Measurements

Except where any description of the work in the Specification, Drawing or Bill of Quantities expressly shows the contrary, measurement shall be made in accordance with the procedure set forth in the latest edition of the Standard Method of Measurement of Civil Engineering Quantities published by the Institution of Civil Engineers. The Field Supervision Geologist is responsible for confirming all locations, lengths, depth and measurements reported by the Contractor are correct and also to ensure that all core boxes, samples, logs, forms, and reports are properly labeled.

2.4

System Internationale Units

Only S.I. (System Internationale) units shall be used during the currency of the contract and in reports. All measurements shall be in metric units.

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3 DRILLING
3.1 Equipment
The Contractor shall advance the drill holes using rotary hydraulic feed rigs with a drilling head capable of accepting `N size drill rods and capable of driving rotary cutting tools tipped with diamonds or tungsten carbide. The rigs shall be capable of drilling vertical and angled holes to a maximum depth of 50-70 m. The rigs have to be equipped in order to work with wireline techniques. Core recovery equipment shall be triple tube retractable swivel-type core barrels. The size of bits, core barrels and casing shall conform to BS 4019 (Rotary core drilling equipment) or as otherwise agreed by the Field Supervision Geologist.

3.2

Priority

The drilling of holes for engineering structures shall receive priority over the drilling of holes for material borrow areas. The priority of all the drillholes will be indicated and confirmed by the Field Supervision Geologist on site.

3.3

Positioning of Drill rigs

The Contractor shall provide such temporary drilling platforms as may be necessary to keep the drilling rig stable and level when putting down drillholes on sloping ground.

3.4

Advance of Drillholes

The Contractor shall advance the drillholes by using rotary drilling methods with casing of not less than `N size. Subject to the approval of the Field Supervision Geologist drilling without casing will be permitted provided that there is no collapse of the wall of the uncased drillhole. A collapse is considered to have occurred when, in the opinion of the Field Supervision Geologist there is a mingling of soil or rock from different depths inside the drillhole. The size of the cased or uncased drillhole shall be such that the requirements described in the following clauses in respect of sampling, ground water observation, field tests and records are satisfied. The Contractor shall be solely responsible for ensuring that the casings are inserted in such a manner as to render them recoverable and the Contractor shall have no claim upon the Employer for damage, loss or delay caused by difficulty or failure to recover a casing. In the event of the collapse of the walls of the drillhole, other methods of stabilising the walls of the uncased drillhole, besides casing, may be allowed subject to the prior approval of the Field Supervision Geologist. Drilling shall be carried out in such a manner and using such sizes of bits, that the maximum core is recovered. This requires close surveillance of wash water, drilling pressures, lengths of runs and all other factors relevant to the nature of the material drilled. The core barrel shall be withdrawn and the core removed as often as may be necessary to secure the maximum possible amount of core. Face discharge bits (as shown in BS 4019) shall be used unless otherwise agreed by the Field Supervision Geologist. Dry drilling methods may be directed by the Field Supervision Geologist. A drag bit, or rock roller bit may be used but only with the prior permission of the Field Supervision Geologist. Where instructed by the Field Supervision Geologist, the Contractor shall increase the size of a drillhole by reaming. The larger casing shall be set concentric with the existing hole and shall be sunk parallel with it.
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3.5

Setting-Out

Setting-out shall be carried out by the Field Supervision Geologist.

3.6

Identification and Numbering

The system to be used for identification numbering of field exploration will require the allocation of unique numbers for features, investigations, samples and tests, as described below. The Field Supervision Geologist will allocate the investigation number, excavation type, sample number and sample type or test number and test type. The identification numbering sequence and abbreviations for each investigation will be: for Cored Boreholes: BH-SBG-FS-01 etc. for Auger Boreholes: BA-SBG-FS-01 etc. for single Standard Penetration Tests: SPT-SBG-FS-01 etc. for DCP: DCP-SBG-FS-01 etc. for Test Pits: TP-SBG-FS-01 etc. for hand-held drill Boreholes: HS-SBG-FS-01 etc. for Seismic Refraction Lines: SR-SBG-FS-01 etc. for Electric Resistivity Lines: ER-SBG-FS-01 etc.

3.7

Depth of Drillholes

The depths, orientation, number and locations of drillholes are provisional. The Field Supervision Geologist may vary the quantities.

3.8

Drilling Obstruction

It shall be the Contractors responsibility when boulders or other obstacles are encountered to carry the drilling through or past such obstacles or, if directed, to core the obstacle to determine its size and character.

3.9

Abandoned Drillholes

Except with the specific permission of the Field Supervision Geologist, the Contractor shall not abandon or complete a drilling or remove any casing or drilling equipment without first giving the Field Supervision Geologist the opportunity of obtaining the position and depth of the drillhole before abandonment or completion, and any other information which the Field Supervision Geologist may require. No allowance or payment whatsoever will be made for any drilling abandoned or completed without compliance with those stipulations. In addition, in order to receive consideration for payment for abandoned drillholes, the Contractor shall furnish the Field Supervision Geologist with complete records and samples for the depths penetrated in the manner prescribed for completed drillholes.

3.10 Termination of Drillholes


The termination of each drillhole shall be decided by the Field Supervision Geologist. The Contractor shall inform the Field Supervision Geologist immediately on reaching the depth directed by the Field Supervision Geologist.

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3.11 Measurement
Measurement for payment, for moving drilling plant from one position to the next including establishment of temporary drilling platforms and setting up will be made of the number of moves directed by the Field Supervision Geologist. Measurement for payment, of casing left in drillholes at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist will be made of the actual length of casing left in place. Measurement will not be made for casing that is left in drillholes without the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

3.12 Payment
Payment for moving drilling plant from one position to the next including setting up will be made at the rate per move tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities Payment for casing left in drillholes at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist will be made at the applicable rate per linear metre items tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.1.1 and 2.1.2).

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4 BORING AND SAMPLING IN OVERBURDEN


4.1 Drilling in Overburden
Boring in overburden (or other than rock namely alluvium, slopewash and residual soil) shall be by wash boring by rotary drilling using a solid roller, button or drag bit at the end of the drill rods, as directed by the Field Supervision Geologist.

4.2

Disturbed Samples

Disturbed samples with a mass of not less than 1 kg shall be taken by an approved technique at intervals of 3.5 m, unless otherwise directed by the Field Supervision Geologist. Disturbed samples shall be sealed in thick polythene bags or screw-top jars. The bags or jars shall be marked and labelled with the job number, drillhole, sample depth and sample number and blow count if applicable. The samples shall be stored at the drillers camp at the end of each days work and when directed by the Field Supervision Geologist transported to the designated laboratory.

4.3

Undisturbed Samples

When directed by the Field Supervision Geologist, undisturbed tube samples shall be taken using thin-walled open drive or piston samplers, as appropriate to the site conditions and shall be taken at an interval of 3.0 m unless otherwise directed by the Field Supervision Geologist. The sampling equipment shall be approved by the Field Supervision Geologist for the particular site conditions. Before sampling is commenced, the bottom of the drillhole shall be cleaned out with some suitable tool to remove all loose material. Sample tubes must be clean, smooth and rust and dent free with an inside diameter not less than 50 mm. The area ratio of the sampler shall not exceed 10 per cent. The cutting edge is to be machined with a bevel on the outside of the tube which makes an angle not exceeding 5 to the axis of the tube, except that a 45 land not exceeding 0.5 mm in width which will be permitted right at the cutting edge. The cutting edge must be sharp and free from imperfections as would impair the quality of the sample. The tubes shall be lightly oiled with a mineral oil before use. Where open drive samplers are used, ports must be fitted to permit the escape of water or air as the sampler is driven. It must have some effective form of non-return valve to remove the load of water from the top of the sample, thus aiding the safe recovery of the sample. Core catchers are not permitted. Hammering of sample tubes into the soil is not permitted. Tubes must be either smoothly jacked or, where this is not possible; tubes may be advanced into the soil using an auger core sampler. The drive length shall not exceed the sample tube length less 100 mm and shall be recorded to the nearest 20 mm. After being driven to the desired depth the sample tube shall be left for 10 minutes prior to being rotated a minimum of 5 times and then removed from the drillhole. The minimum acceptable sample length shall be three sample diameters. Where recovery is less than the minimum acceptable sample length, the hole shall be cleaned out and another sample attempted. Prior to sealing of the sample against moisture loss, pocket penetrometer and pocket vane shear tests shall be made at the bottom of the undisturbed samples. The pocket penetrometer and pocket vane shear shall be of a type approved by the Field Supervision Geologist and this testing is deemed to have been allowed for in the Contractors rates for undisturbed sampling. All tests shall be recorded in a standard format approved by the Field Supervision Geologist.

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Immediately after pocket penetrometer and pocket vane shear testing and material classification, the sample shall be sealed using non-shrinking wax or mechanical seals. The tube shall be tagged and marked with waterproof ink to show the job number, date of sampling, drillhole and sample number together with depth of sampling and recovery ratio. Each sample tube shall have a unique reference number and the word TOP written on its exterior at the end with the uppermost sample. The samples shall be transported to the laboratory in an approved box lined with shock absorbing material. Whilst in the laboratory (and on site) the samples shall be stored horizontally and rotated 180 twice weekly.

4.4

Mazier Samples

Mazier samples of 76 mm diameter and 1.0 m in length shall be taken at locations as designated by the Field Supervision Geologist. The following basic rules of operation shall be adhered to in obtaining good quality samples: the rate of penetration shall be no greater than the speed at which the outer barrel is able to cut; i.e. the downward force shall be a minimum, the speed of rotation shall be limited to that which will not tear or break the soil sample (generally this will vary from 40 to 125 revolutions per minute) the extension of the inner barrel shoe beyond the outer barrel cutting teeth depends on the soil (generally longer for softer soils) and shall be the least amount which will result in a fully filled inner barrel and which will not cause undercutting or contamination of the sample by drilling fluid, the core catcher shall not be used unless absolutely necessary to retain the soil.

To effect sample recovery, the sample is cored using standard procedure to about 35 mm to 50 mm of the final desired depth, then the drilling fluid is shut off and the coring operation completed. This procedure will result in some compaction of the soil and assist in sample recovery. The minimum acceptable sample length shall be 500 mm. After the completion of the drive, the sampler is withdrawn from the hole and extreme care shall be taken at all times to avoid disturbance. The outer and inner barrel shoes shall be removed without jarring the samples. The soil at the ends shall then be removed to a depth of about 50 mm, to a smooth flat surface. A wooden filler block, previously waxed, shall be placed inside the liner tube at each end and covered with melted wax. The tube shall be crimped over the wood fillers to hold them in place. The samples shall be transported to the laboratory in an approved box lined with shock absorbing material. Whilst in the laboratory (and on site) the samples shall be stored horizontally and rotated 180 twice weekly. In the laboratory two diametrically opposed cuts (less than 10 mm deep) shall be made along each tube using a circular saw or jig saw. The sample shall be carefully split making sure that the soil is torn and not cut. One half of the sample shall be placed in a core box measuring 1.05 m in length such that 1.0 m of continuous sample is stored in each compartment. Boxing and marking of samples shall be as for diamond drill core. The other half of the split sample shall be used for pocket penetrometer, shear vane, classification and moisture content tests. The boxed samples shall be allowed to partially dry to expose the soil structure and shall be logged and photographed in colour. All photographs shall include a standard colour chart to ensure correct colour rendition and shall include the drillhole number, box number and depth.

4.5

Measurement

Measurement, for payment, of non-core drilling (washboring) of holes whether cased or uncased in overburden (other than rock) including the taking of disturbed samples and delivery

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to the laboratory will be made of the length of the holes drilled at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist. Measurement, for payment of dry drilling of holes in other than rock (over burden) to recover core between 50 mm and 60 mm diameter including delivery of core into standard boxes will be made of the length of holes drilled at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist. Measurement, for payment, of recovery and sealing of thin walled undisturbed samples, including visual classification, pocket penetrometer testing, pocket, vane shear testing and transport to the laboratory will be made of the number of acceptable samples recovered and sealed, at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist. Measurement, for payment, of Mazier samples will be made of the number of acceptable samples recovered at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

4.6

Payment

Payment for non-core (wash boring) drilling of vertical or inclined holes in other than rock including taking of disturbed samples will be made at the applicable rates per linear metre tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.2). Payment for dry core drilling of vertical or inclined holes in other than rock will be made at the applicable rates per linear metre tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.3). Payment for recovery and sealing of thin walled U50 undisturbed samples including visual classification, pocket penetrometer testing, pocket vane shear testing and transport to the laboratory will be made of the number of samples recovered and sealed at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist, therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 3.3.2). Payment for Mazier sampling will be made at the rate per sample tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.5). This rate shall be deemed to include sampling, provision of adequate additive, PVC sample tubes, drilling and sampling, provision of core boxes, rubber end covers, sample splitting, visual classification, pocket penetrometer and torvane testing and the provision of colour photographs.

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5 DRILLING AND SAMPLING IN ROCK


5.1 Equipment
Unless otherwise approved by the Field Supervision Geologist core drilling shall be carried out using hydraulic-feed equipment. Side discharge diamond core bits shall be used with a tripletube core barrel and split-steel inners giving a core with a minimum diameter of 50 mm. When approved by the Field Supervision Geologist, wireline core barrels with a split steel liner giving a core with a minimum diameter of 47.5 mm may be used. The core barrels shall not exceed 1.5 m in length except with the approval of the Field Supervision Geologist. With this equipment, drilling lifts (runs) shall be made as often as necessary to obtain the maximum possible core recovery, provided that no lift shall be longer than the core barrel. When less than eighty per cent (80%) of the core is recovered from a run, the following run shall be halved in length, unless otherwise directed by the Field Supervision Geologist. This requirement will normally be waived where the rock is completely or highly weathered. The use of rod-dope or grease on drill rods will not be permitted, nor will drilling mud be used, in spite of its advantages when drilling through fractured caving ground. Soluble oil, as an additive to the drilling water, is permitted.

5.2

Reaming Casing and Grouting

To maintain water return, to identify zones of water losses or to prevent caving-in, the Field Supervision Geologist may direct that part of the drillhole in rock be reamed out and steel casing set in it. Alternatively a length of the hole may be grouted if approved by the Field Supervision Geologist. Cement and water or sand, cement and water may be used to grout the hole. Quick Set or similar should be added to the grout mix to shorten the set time. Grout is to be pumped to the bottom of the hole via the drill rods. The drill rods are to be slowly withdrawn as the grout is injected so that water is displaced by the grout. The length of hole so grouted should be kept to a minimum.

5.3

Angle Drilling

The Field Supervision Geologist may, at a minimum notice of 48 hours before the commencement of drilling, notify the Contractor that the hole shall be drilled at a prescribed angle to the vertical (inclination) and in a given direction (bearing). The angle to the vertical shall not exceed 45. The drill rig setting shall be within 2 of the prescribed inclination and bearing, but the actual angle drilled must be measured to the nearest degree.

5.4

Boxing and Storage of Core

When removing core from the triple tube barrel, the split inner tube shall first be carefully removed using steady hydraulic pressure as required. Removal of the inner tube by hammering is not permitted. The recovered core is to be carefully placed in core boxes. Attached drawing (Figures 1 & 2) shows the dimensions and details of core boxes and the arrangement of core within the boxes. Each compartment shall be 1.05 m in length, to store core from 1.0 m of drilling. Compartments shall be numbered in sequence running from left to right. The drillhole number shall be clearly marked on the end of the box, using paint or waterproof ink marker pens. The cost of core boxes and core loss blocks shall be included in the rates for drilling.

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The depth of each lift shall be marked on the side of the box and also on the core at the end of the lift. The core shall be placed in the box, starting at the lift and working back to the previous lift. (If necessary a correction should be made for core growing or for core which has dropped out of the barrel during lifting). The cores from each drillhole are to be placed in separate core boxes. All core pieces shall be carefully fitted together on breaks in the core due to joints or fractures or on breaks due to drilling stresses. The core must not be spread out or compressed in the boxes. Where core losses occur, a red coloured wooden spacer block of square cross section tightly fitting the core box shall be used to indicate the loss. Where the exact location of the core loss is unknown, the core loss spacer block shall be placed at the top of the lift in which the loss occurred. The core shall be maintained in a tidy, clean and dry condition on each drill site, until drilling operations and logging of the core are completed, and the Field Supervision Geologist has authorised the removal of the core to the permanent core storage building. Photographing of the core shall be done preferably at the same drillhole location. If not possible then it should be done at the drillers camp as soon as possible (refer to Section 12.2 ). The Contractor will be responsible for the safe keeping of all the cores until they are delivered to the designated storage area. If in the opinion of the Field Supervision Geologist cores are lost or damaged due to the fault or negligence of the Contractor, the Contractor may be required to replace them at his own expenses.

5.5

Measurement

Measurement, for payment, of core drilling of holes in rock to recover core between 47.5 mm and 60 mm diameter using a triple tube barrel with split steel liner including supply of core boxes, handling and storing cores, protection and delivery of the core will be made of the length of holes drilled at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist. Measurement, for payment, of reaming of casing into rock will be made of the length of the hole so reamed and cased at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist. Measurement, for payment, of grouting drillholes including the supply of sand, cement and additives to complete the work, standby whilst waiting for grout to set and redrilling the hole will be made of the number of times grouting has been undertaken at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

5.6

Payment

Payment for core drilling of vertical and inclined holes in rock in the stage lengths given will be made at the applicable rate per linear metre tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.3). Payment for reaming of casing into rock will be made at the applicable rate per metre tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.3). Payment for grouting drill holes will be made at the applicable rate tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.3).

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6 HAND HELD DRILLING


6.1 Equipment
Coring Equipment The Contractor shall advance the drill holes using water fed rotary hand held drill (hand held concrete drilling machines are appropriate for this task). The drill bit should be `N size in diameter, capable of recovering samples with lengths at least 1.9 times their diameter and should be tipped with diamonds or tungsten carbide. Power Source For electrical powered drills a generator and sufficient wires will be required. Water Supply Two water tanks will be required: one to store enough water to complete the drilling, and a second tank to collect returning water. Support In order to prevent injuries and damage to the core, drill stands, rockbolts and anchors are allowed. Retrieving Tools Hammer, screw driver, wire and other tools which can be used to retrieve the coe sample from the core hole or from the bit.

6.2

Priority

The drilling of samples for engineering structures shall receive priority over the drilling of samples for material borrow areas. The priority of all the samples to be drilled will be indicated and confirmed by the Engineers representative on site.

6.3

Positioning of the Hand Held Drill

When possible, samples should be taken vertically. If the rock surface does not allow for a vertical hole, then the samples should be drilled perpendicular to the ground surface. The equipment is portable. However, the process of drilling one sample can take a long time and the torque of the machine can become a burden for the operator. To prevent relative movement that could result in distorted or broken core, the drill should be supported and braced against the ground.

6.4

Procedure
Ensure that the coring bit is clean before starting. Position the core bit perpendicular to the ground. Connect the water supply to the machine and start a slow flow of water before starting the machine. Core the rock sample. Remove the sample from the drill bit and log it and describe it as per Appendix A and Appendix B.

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The Engineers Representative will be responsible for labelling, registering and wrapping the sample. Clean the drill bit and be sure that all of the core has been removed before drilling the next sample.

6.5

Measurement

Measurement for payment will be made of the number of samples collected. Measurement will not be made for broken samples.

6.6

Payment

Payment for collecting hand held drilling samples will be made at the rate per sample tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 3.3.2).

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7 GROUNDWATER
7.1 Groundwater Observations
During all drilling operations, the Contractor shall have on site an approved electrical water-level measuring device. Levels shall be read to an accuracy of 1 to 2 cm to 50 m depth. All records of measurement shall contain the hole number, date and the time of day on which the measurement was made. The level of the bottom of the hole and the bottom of the casing, if any, shall be measured and recorded at the same time as each water level reading. Readings shall be taken at the beginning of each shift and if any changed condition is anticipated. On completion of the drillhole groundwater observations will continue at weekly intervals until the date of completion of the site works. The cost of groundwater observation shall be included in the rate for drilling tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities. Some drillholes will be nominated as standpipes for groundwater observation. These holes shall be kept open with perforated PVC pipe 25 mm in diameter taken to the bottom of the hole and fitted with a substantial cap at the ground surface. The top of the hole shall be protected with a cover consisting of a threaded plug or cap on the end of the water pipe projecting no more than 100 mm above the ground surface. For a satisfactory groundwater level observation, the drillhole designated as an observation well should be flushed thoroughly with clean water at the completion of the drilling. After the pipe is installed, the surface annulus between the walls of the hole and pipe are to be sealed with concrete to prevent ingress of surface water and to secure the pipe. Provision shall be made for measuring artesian water levels where directed by the Field Supervision Geologist.

7.2

Measurements

Measurement, for payment, for installation of standpipes in drillholes for groundwater observations will be made of the length of perforated 25 mm PVC pipe supplied and installed at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

7.3

Payment

Payment for installing standpipes in drillholes for ground water observations will be made at the applicable rate per metre tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.6). This rate shall not include the cost of drilling the hole.

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8 TEST PITS AND AUGER BORING


8.1 TEST PITS 8.1.1 General
Test pits may be excavated by hand or by machine at locations designated by the Field Supervision Geologist. They shall be excavated and finished in a condition which permits the safe entry into the pit by the Contractors or Employers staff. The Contractor shall provide ladders or other facilities which will enable a close and safe inspection of the excavation by the Field Supervision Geologist.

8.1.2 Size
The pits shall be excavated with the following minimum dimensions: width 1 m, length 1.5 m. The minimum depth shall be 3 m unless ground conditions preclude manual excavation or excavation using a tracked excavator or similar. The pits shall be parallel sided.

8.1.3 Safety
The Contractor shall be responsible for all aspects relating to safety of the pits, including the decision to use or not to use bracing to support the walls. Test pits deeper than 1.5 m deep shall be supported with particular attention given during wet weather and in location where a high water table is present or suspected. Safety helmet shall be worn when entering deep excavation and there shall be workmen remaining outside of the excavation.

8.1.4 Backfilling
Backfilling shall be carried out as soon as practicable after the Field Supervision Geologist gives his approval for backfilling. Backfilling shall be mounded to at least 0.5 m above natural surface.

8.1.5 Logging
Copies of handwritten logs of test pits shall be provided to the Field Supervision Geologist on completion of each test pit. The logs shall be made available to the Field Supervision Geologist at any time upon request for checking. The log shall show a visual description of each stratum, the depth of each stratum, the location of all samples, profiles of pocket penetrometer and pocket vane shear strength with depth (in fine grained clayey soils) and notes pertaining to moisture content variation and groundwater inflow. Logging of the pits shall be carried out as the pit is advanced. The Contractor shall supply one colour print for each test pit.

8.1.6 Disturbed Samples


Disturbed samples with a mass of approximately 1 kg shall be taken at intervals of 0.5 m depth and at changes in soil strata as the pit is advanced. The samples shall be sealed in thick polythene bags or screw-top glass jars to preserve the moisture content. Bulk disturbed samples with a mass of approximately 20 kg shall be taken from depths directed by the Field Supervision Geologist. All samples shall be clearly marked and labelled with the job number, test pit number, sample number and sample depth. The samples shall be stored at the drillers camp at the end of each day, and when directed by the Field Supervision Geologist transported to the laboratory.

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8.1.7 Undisturbed Block Samples


Undisturbed block samples shall be taken by the Contractor from locations selected by the Field Supervision Geologist. These samples will be nominally 300 x 300 x 300 mm, unless a smaller size is approved by the Field Supervision Geologist. Block Samples shall be taken from fresh exposures as the pit is excavated in accordance with U.S.B.R. Earth Manual Test Designation E-2 Part A. The samples, however, shall be immediately sealed, using a light covering of plastic film (e.g. Gladwrap), followed by a tight covering of aluminium foil. The samples shall then be coated in wax to provide an airtight seal before placing in a wooden box. The gaps between the sample and inside of the box shall be filled with wax, expanding polystyrene foam or other material approved by the Field Supervision Geologist in order to minimize handling disturbance to the sample. The wooden box shall be constructed of plywood with a minimum thickness of 12 m, the outside of the box stiffened with timber on the corners and the sides screwed together to provide an adequately strong and robust container for the sample. On the top of the boxed sample, a label shall be clearly marked to indicate; job number and name, pit number, sample depth, sample number and orientation.

8.1.8 Measurement
Measurement, for payment, of excavating test pits including logging and the recovery of disturbed samples and delivery to the laboratory will be made of the depth of each test pit at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist. Measurement, for payment, of undisturbed block samples obtained from test pits will be made of the number of undisturbed samples taken at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

8.1.9 Payment
Payment for excavating test pits, including the recovery of disturbed samples will be made at the rate per metre tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 3.1). Payment for undisturbed block samples will be made at the rate per sample tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 3.3.2).

8.2

Power Auger Boring

8.2.1 General
Power auger holes shall be not less than 100 mm diameter. The auger shall be withdrawn completely from the hole at intervals not exceeding 1 m penetration. A disturbed sample of approximately 0.5 kg shall be taken from the bottom 300 mm of the auger at each withdrawal. Material which is judged to be not representative of the material at the bottom of the hole shall be excluded before sample. No sample shall be collected from the collar of a hole or from auger flights above the bottom 300 mm. Auger flights shall be fully cleaned after each withdrawal. Bagging for moisture content measurement shall be as for disturbed samples as described in Section 4.2 of this Specification. Copies of hand written logs of each power auger hole shall be provided to the Field Supervision Geologist on completion of each power auger hole.

8.2.2 Measurement
Measurement, for payment for power auger holes will be made of the length of auger hole put down at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

8.2.3 Payment
Payment for power auger holes will be made at the applicable rate per linear metre tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item ???).

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9 INSITU TESTING
9.1 Standard Penetration Test 9.1.1 General
During the drilling of cased or uncased vertical drill holes Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) will be undertaken in overburden at depths directed by the Field Supervision Geologist.

9.1.2 Equipment
The equipment shall be in good working condition and shall comply with BS 1377 Test 19. The hammer shall be an automatic trip hammer.

9.1.3 Test Method


The test method shall be in accordance with BS 1377 Test 19. A split-barrel sampler is to be used except that a cone tool may be used in gravels. Blow counts of greater than 25 for 150 mm penetration or greater than 50 for 300 mm penetration are recorded as effective refusal (R). The whole of the material removed from the SPT split tube shall be immediately sealed to preserve its natural moisture content. If more than one type of material is represented, each soil type shall be placed in a separate container, taking care to record the relative position of each material. When a satisfactory sample is not obtained from the split barrel of the sampler, or when a cone tool is used, a representative disturbed sample with a mass of not less than 1 kg shall be obtained by some other approved technique. When testing above the water table, the casing is kept full of water.

9.1.4 Correction of Results


Field test values of N have to be corrected for several factors including the overburden pressure. The greater the overburden pressure the higher the N value for the same density index. For normally consolidated non cohesive soils the best correlation is: Density Index (%) 0 - 15 15 - 35 35 - 65 65 - 85 Conditions Very Loose Loose Medium Dense Dense N1 0-3 3-8 8 - 25 25 - 42 > 42

85 - 100 Very Dense Where N1 = CNN and N is blow count corrected as above for fine sands for coarse sands CN CN = =

2 1 '
3 2 '

where is the effective overburden pressure in tons/square foot (1 tsf = 107 kPa).

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9.1.5 Measurement
Measurement for payment of Standard Penetration Tests shall be made of the number of tests completed at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist, including tests terminated due to high resistance.

9.1.6 Payment
Payment for standard penetration tests will be made at the rate per test tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.2).

9.2

Single Packer Field Permeability Test

9.2.1 General
When directed by the Field Supervision Geologist, single packer permeability tests shall be carried out in sections of diamond drill hole in rock as the hole is drilled. By this method, the bottom section of the hole (3 to 10 m in length) shall be isolated and the rate of water loss from this section under different pressures is measured.

9.2.2 Equipment
Adequate water storage for completion of the test shall be provided. Water used shall be clean and free of suspended matter and sediment. A centrifugal pump capable of delivering at least 100 litres per minute against a pressure of 700 kPa shall be provided. As constant water pressure is required during the test, a reciprocating pump used during normal drilling operation is not acceptable. The water meter shall be capable of accurately reading to 0.5 litres and capable of handling flows up to 100 litres per minute. A second meter shall be available as a check; both meters shall have been recently calibrated. Evidence of the calibration of these water meters will be required prior to their use in the field. To reduce the effects of turbulent flow, the meter shall be connected on either side to straight pipe with a length at least 12 times the rated diameter of the meter. Water pressure shall be measured using an electrical pressure transducer located within the test section at the bottom of the hole. A digital display of the electrical output of the pressure transducer, in terms of kilopascals (accuracy + or - 5 kPa) shall be provided at the ground surface. Water pressure gauges shall be provided as a back-up and check for the pressure transducer. The pressure gauges shall be precision gauges of durable construction and of standard test quality. Pressure gauges shall be selected such that they suit the pressure range. Suitable gauges are: 0 - 500 kPa graduated in 20 kPa increments 0 - 1 000 kPa graduated in 50 kPa increments (for inflating packer)

Because pressure gauges tend to be inaccurate towards the upper limit of their range, it is required that 2 or 3 pressure gauges with different ranges be used as indicated below: Pressure Range Use Gauge With The Range (1 kg/cm2 = 98.07 kPa) 0 - 300 kPa 0 - 500 kPa 300 - 800 kPa 0 - 1000 kPa The pressure gauge shall be coupled directly to the drill rods in the hole so that no bends occur in the water line between gauge and the test section. The water meter should be coupled directly in a straight section of pipe between pump and drill rods. The water line shall be free of angular bends as far as possible. The contractor shall get approval from the Field Supervision Geologist of any other method to measure the water pressure. The test section shall be sealed by an approved pneumatic packer. For other than a packer coupled to `N rods with stream flow couplings or fitted with a
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downhole electrical pressure transducer the head loss within the rods and packers shall be measured for various rod lengths. All measuring equipment should be frequently calibrated. Friction loss through the water system is particularly important. Packers are individually manufactured and each has different frictional characteristics to water flow. The friction loss through each packer and water line is established by connecting the packer and a section of water line to the pressure gauge, water meter and pump. Hydraulic packers should be calibrated in the open position. Water is pumped through the packer and line with flow rates recorded for several readings of back pressure. The addition of a second section of water line provides an incremental increase in friction loss for each length of line. Calibration sheets should identify the packer, rod type, length and date.

9.2.3 Test Procedure


Before testing, the static groundwater level shall be measured at the beginning of the shift. Immediately after drilling the test section, the hole shall be flushed with water pumped through the drill rods until the water return is clear. The packer shall then be lowered into position and inflated. The exact position of the packer and the distance from the collar of the hole to the pressure gauge shall be measured. Water shall be pumped into the hole at gauge pressures as tabulated below for each test section of hole: Vertical Depth Below Surface 3 m to 6 m 6 m to 15 m 15 m to 30 m below 30 m Pressures To Be Used (kPa) 25 50 75 50 25 25 75 150 75 25 75 175 350 175 75 150 350 700 350 150

For each test section three tests shall be conducted at each gauge pressure for equal periods of 5 minutes, or until a steady leakage rate is obtained in two successive 5 minute periods. During the testing, the details of time, gauge pressure, water meter readings, water loss, leakage rate, sealing properties of the test section and any other relevant information shall be recorded on the Pressure Testing Report. A sample form for the Water Pressure Test Report is included in 0. On completion the water pressure test, and removal of the test equipment from the hole, the time of completion shall be entered on the log, the water level in the hole measured and recorded, and the Pressure Test Report signed by the Drilling Supervisor. If the test section cannot be sealed satisfactorily and the leakage occurs between the packer and the hole wall, the packer may be re-set at lower depths until an adequate seal is obtained. The results of this test indicate the water loss in relation to the effective pressure (gauge pressure plus water column pressure less friction loss) which is the interpreted Lugeon value. Results shall be tabulated and plotted graphically to illustrate the pressure/water loss relationship. The best fit straight line (not necessarily through the origin) indicates the incremental flow/pressure relationship. The parallel line to this best fit line, passing through the origin, represents adjustments for water column pressure and is then extrapolated to 1000 kPa to give the interpreted Lugeon value.

9.2.4 Measurement
Measurement, for payment, of performing and recording results of single packer drillhole permeability tests will be made of the number of tests carried out at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

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9.2.5 Payment
Payment for performing and recording single packer drill hole permeability tests in the stage lengths 0-50m and 50-100m will be made at the applicable rate per test tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.1).

9.3

Constant Head Permeability Tests

9.3.1 General
When directed by the Field Supervision Geologist constant head permeability tests shall be carried out in holes with or without casing.

9.3.2 Equipment
The Contractor shall provide all equipment necessary for performing the tests accordance with USBR Earth Manual Test Method E19 or E18 Section 4 as applicable. The equipment shall consist of but not be limited to: a means for maintaining the water level at a constant level. This constant level will be approximately at natural surface. a water reservoir of at least 200 litres capacity to feed the constant water level system a means of measuring the volume of water consumed to the nearest 1 litre

9.3.3 Test Method


The tests shall be performed as constant head inflow tests in accordance with the USBR Earth Manual Test Method E19 or Test E18 Section 4. The tests shall be performed in clean holes free of loose soil particles using a method of hole support which is appropriate for the ground conditions. For example an open unsupported hole may be appropriate in residual clay soils, or open-ended casing may be appropriate for saturated alluvium. The method of hole support shall be subject to approval by the Field Supervision Geologist. Prior to testing the dimensions of the hole, depth of casing (if any) and natural level of the groundwater shall be recorded. The constant water head, the level of which is to be recorded, shall be maintained until a constant flow rate has been clearly established or for a minimum of 1 hour, whichever is the lesser. Records of time and volume of water shall be maintained to indicate the flow rate. A sample of soil of at least 1 kg weight shall be obtained from the test zone. This sample shall be classified in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System.

9.3.4 Test Results


Test records shall include all hole dimensions, the natural groundwater level, applied head and a tabulation showing the volume of water entering the soil and the corresponding time. The coefficient of permeability of the test zone shall be calculated and a description of the soil in the test zone given.

9.3.5 Measurement
Measurement, for payment, of providing, setting-up and dismantling constant head permeability apparatus will be made of the number of tests performed at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist. Measurement for payment, of performing and recording results of constant head permeability tests will be made of the time taken to perform tests carried out at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

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9.3.6 Payment
Payment for providing, setting-up and dismantling constant head permeability apparatus will be made at the rate per test tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.4). Payment for performing and recording constant head permeability tests in drillholes, including rig standby will be made at the rate tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.4).

9.4

Variable Head Permeability Tests

9.4.1 General
When directed by the Field Supervision Geologist variable head permeability tests shall be carried out in auger holes or drillholes, with or without casing. The tests will either be of the falling head type or raising head type, where the water level is initially lowered by bailing or pumping.

9.4.2 Equipment
The Contractor shall provide all equipment necessary for performing the tests including: a means of lowering the groundwater level by pumping or bailing. a means of measuring the water level in the hole using an electrical type water level indicator

9.4.3 Test Method


The tests shall be performed using a method of hole support appropriate to the ground conditions. The method of support shall be subjected to the approval of the Field Supervision Geologist. Prior to testing the dimensions of the hole, depth of casing (if any) and natural level of the groundwater (to an accuracy of 2 cm) shall be recorded. In the case of falling head permeability tests, water shall be added to the hole to a specified level. Tabulation shall be provided of the time and corresponding water level in the hole as it falls to the natural groundwater level. The water level in the hole shall be recorded until it reaches the natural groundwater level or for a minimum of 6 hours whichever is the lesser. In the case of rising head permeability tests water shall be removed from the hole by pumping or bailing to a specified level. Tabulation shall be provided of the time and corresponding water level in the hole as it rises to the natural groundwater level. The water level in the hole shall be recorded until it reaches the natural groundwater level or for a minimum of 6 hour whichever is the lesser. A sample of soil of at least 1 kg weight shall be obtained from the test zone. This sample shall be classified in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System.

9.4.4 Test Results


Tests records shall include all hole dimensions, the natural groundwater level, initial head of water and a tabulation showing the water level in the hole and the corresponding time. A description of the soil in the test zone shall be provided and the coefficient of permeability calculated.

9.4.5 Measurement
Measurement, for payment, of providing bailing or pumping apparatus including the bailing out or pumping out of auger holes or drillholes will be made of the number of tests performed at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

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Measurement, for payment, of performing and recording results, of variable head permeability tests will be made of the time taken to perform tests carried at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

9.4.6 Payment
Payment for providing bailing or pumping apparatus, including bailing out or pumping out the auger holes or drillholes will be made at the rate per test tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.3). Payment for performing and recording variable head permeability tests in drillholes, including rig standby will be made at the rate tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.3). Payment for performing and recording variable head permeability tests in auger holes, will be made at the rate tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.3).

9.5

Pressuremeter Tests

9.5.1 General
When directed by the Field Supervision Geologist pressuremeter tests shall be carried out in uncased drillholes or auger holes in residual soil or weathered rock.

9.5.2 Equipment
The pressuremeter and associated equipment shall incorporate the following features: a pressure indicating system which enables pressure measurement to an accuracy of better than 5% to a maximum pressure of 10 MPa; a system which enables measurement of hole diameter to an accuracy of better than 0.01 mm. The system shall measure diameter directly; systems based on the measurement of volume of a test cell are not acceptable. Acceptable pressuremeters include the OYO 100, LNEC and similar. The measurement of diameter shall be across at least one diameter.

The equipment shall be in the opinion of the Field Supervision Geologist in good working condition. It shall be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturers procedures and such calibration details shall be submitted to and be to the satisfaction of the Field Supervision Geologist before testing commences.

9.5.3 Testing Procedure


The equipment shall be operated according to the manufacturers recommended procedure, unless this Specification requires otherwise in which case this Specification shall be followed. The hole into which the pressuremeter is to be placed shall be drilled or augered in such a manner so as to cause minimum disturbance and moisture content change to the side walls of the hole. The hole shall be circular and drilled to the tolerances specified by the equipment manufacturer. Pressure increments shall be selected by the Contractor to give: at least four points before the membrane contacts the side of the hole. at least eight points up to yield and two points after yield. The yield point is to be clearly established, unless the maximum pressure of 10 MPa or the diameter limit of the equipment is reached first.

The pressure for each increment is to be applied quickly and then maintained at a constant value for 1 minute. Diameter readings are to be recorded 30 sec. and 60 sec after the pressure increment has been applied. Test Results

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Test records shall indicate the following: hole number test depth, measured to the depth of the sensors (usually middle of the pressuremeter) a tabulation showing at least gauge pressure (kPa) and diameter reading (mm) after 30 sec and 60 sec for each pressure increment a plot of pressure versus hole diameter worksheet showing the Contractors calculation of Youngs modulus and shear strength according to Ladanyis method. This final data shall be presented on sheets a sample of which will be supplied by the Field Supervision Geologist.

9.5.4 Measurement
Measurement, for payment, of pressuremeter tests and membranes shall be of the number of successfully completed tests, the number of attempted tests and the total number of membranes used for work performed at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist. Measurement per test shall include the execution of the test and the calculation and presentation of the results.

9.5.5 Payment
Payment for successful pressuremeter tests in drillholes will be made at the rate tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.5). Payment for successful pressuremeter tests in auger holes will be made at the rate tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.5). Payment for pressuremeter tests which are attempted but which are not successful will be made at one half the rate for successful pressuremeter tests in drillholes or auger holes tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.5). Payment for membranes damaged beyond repair during pressuremeter tests will be made at the rate per membrane tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 2.4.5).

9.6

Insitu Density Test

9.6.1 General
In situ density tests will be undertaken in test pits at locations and depths directed by the Field Supervision Geologist in accordance with British Standard BS 1377: 1975 Test 15A

9.6.2 Equipment
The Contractor shall provide all equipment necessary for performing the test in accordance with BS 1377: Test 15A, including the following: a pouring cylinder with base plate a cylindrical metal calibrating container an adequate supply of clean sand with a particle size between 0.3 and 0.6 mm a field balance with a capacity up to 25 kg readable and accurate to 1 kg.

9.6.3 Test Method


The test method shall be in accordance with BS 1377 test 15A. A sample of the clean sand to be used is to be presented to the Field Supervision Geologist for approval prior to the test.

9.6.4 Measurement
Measurement for payment of in situ density tests shall be made of the number of tests completed at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.
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9.6.5 Payment
Payment for density tests will be made at the rate per test tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities.

9.7

Shear Vane Tests

9.7.1 General
Shear vane tests shall be performed where directed by the Field Supervision Geologist, but will generally only be performed in clayey alluvium, slopewash or residual soil. They shall be performed either in holes drilled with drilling mud or using a penetration vane.

9.7.2 Equipment
The shear vane apparatus shall be a precision device and shall satisfy the requirements of BS 1377 Test No. 18 `Determination of Shear Strength in the Field by the Vane Test, except where this specification indicates otherwise in which case this specification shall be followed. The apparatus shall enable resistance and remoulded soil shear resistance. The Contractor shall supply three standard sizes of rectangular vanes (not tapered ends) measuring 51 mm, 76 mm and 102 mm in diameter. Rods used for applying torque to the vane shall be new, free of bends and shall not be used for other drilling or testing functions specifically SPT tests. Rod stabilisers shall be provided at intervals of 3 m. Provision shall be made for anchoring the shear vane body to prevent counter rotation. The Contractor shall provide a recent certificate or calibration for the load measuring device.

9.7.3 Test Procedure


After installation of the vane of a size and at a depth directed by the Field Supervision Geologist, the Contractor shall wait 20 minutes before commencing the test. The vane shall be rotated at a constant rate of between 5 and 6 degrees per min and recordings of load versus angular rotation shall be made at intervals of 5 degree rotation. After the soil has been sheared, the vane shall be rotated rapidly for 8 revolutions and the remoulded shear resistance shall be measured after a delay of 5 minutes. Measurement of remoulded shear resistance shall be made over an angular rotation of at least 90 Field results shall include details of job number and site name, hole number, depth of test, dimensions of the vane, a graph showing torque versus angular rotation, and calculations of peak and remoulded shear strength

9.7.4 Measurement
Measurement, for payment, of shear vane tests will be made of the number of tests performed at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist including execution of the test and calculation of the test results.

9.7.5 Payment
Payment for performing and recording shear vane tests will be made at the rate per test tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities.

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10 LABORATORY TESTING
10.1 GENERAL
Laboratory tests shall be carried out at a laboratory or laboratories experienced in the required testing and approved by the Field Supervision Geologist. All storing, preparation and testing of samples shall be in accordance with the relevant British Standards and Codes of Practice, in particular BS 1377 and BS 5930, unless this Specification requires otherwise in which case this Specification shall be followed. For example the description of soil and rock shall be as defined in the Appendix A. Where no relevant standard exists, the testing shall be carried out in accordance with good laboratory practice and to the approval of the Field Supervision Geologist. The Field Supervision Geologist and any person authorised by him shall have access at all times to the tests being carried out in the laboratory and the Contractor shall aloud him every facility for and every assistance in obtaining this access. If requested, the Contractor shall give three days notice of carrying out a particular test. The Contractor shall carry out laboratory testing in accordance with the testing schedule provided by the Field Supervision Geologist. Tests shall be performed only in a laboratory which is approved for the particular test on a particular sample, and all such tests shall be carried out in the same laboratory unless the Field Supervision Geologist approves otherwise. In addition to the information required to be submitted on tests in accordance with this Section, bench or work sheets on all tests shall be included with the draft test results.

10.2 LABORATORY SOIL TESTING


Laboratory tests on soils and weathered rock may include the following: natural moisture content (BS 1377 Test 1A) linear shrinkage (BS 1377 Test 5) liquid and plastic limits (Atterberg test) (BS 1377 Tests 2B and 3) determination of pH (BS 1377 test 11 A) dry density emersion crumb dispersion (AS 1289. C. 8. 1) organic content (BS 1377 Test 8) sieve analysis (particle size distribution) (BS 1377 Test 7 A) hydrometer analysis (particle size distribution) (BS 1377 Test 7 D) particle density (BS 1377 Test 6A) oedometer consolidation (BS 1377 Test 17) permeability tests on saturated samples in a triaxial cell as part of saturated consolidated undrained triaxial test. unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests on undisturbed or remoulded samples. saturated consolidated undrained triaxial tests on undisturbed or remoulded samples. pore pressure dissipation tests on remoulded samples in a triaxial cell (some as part of SCU triaxial tests) standard and modified compaction (BS 1377 Test 12)
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total sulphate content of soil

10.3 TESTS ON ROCK MATERIALS


The tests may include the following: sodium sulphate soundness (5 cycles, ASTM C88) potential reactivity of aggregate (Chem. Method C289) petrologic examination (by thin section) unconfined compressive strength of drill core including Modulus and Poissons Ratio. (ISRM 1978 (a)) point load index tests on drill core (across core diameter and along core axis) (ISRM). slake durability (ISRM 1978 (b)) Los Angeles Abrasion Test (ASTM C131-81 AASHO T96 - 1982); Specific Gravity and Water Absorptions (BS 812-2: 1995); 10% Fines Test (BS 812-111: 1990); Flakiness Index (BS 812-105.1: 1989). Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for Concrete (ASTM C-295-98);

The testing shall include the laboratory crushing of drill core or rock spalls to prepare the test samples and this is deemed to be included in the unit rate for each test.

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11 TEST METHODS
Tests on Soils

11.1 Oedometer Consolidation Tests


The consolidation specimens shall be not less than 75 mm in diameter with diameter to thickness ratio of between 3 and 4. For increasing load the following pressures shall be used: 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 kPa. Consolidation shall be measured by an extensometer reading to 0.002 mm. Each load shall be maintained for 24 hours. For decreasing load the following pressures shall be used: 400 and 50 kPa. The 400 kPa pressure shall be maintained for 4 hours while the 50 kPa pressure shall be maintained for 20 hours. The rate for consolidation testing shall be deemed to include moisture content determination, specific gravity determination and reporting. The test report shall include the following: sample dimensions initial and final moisture contents initial and final saturation particle density settlement time data and plots void ratio versus pressure tabulations and plots Cv, Mv and k tabulation and plots versus pressure.

11.2 Unconsolidated Undrained Triaxial Tests (Undisturbed Specimen)


The test specimen shall have a minimum diameter of 75 mm. Each test shall consist of one three-stage multistage test conducted at cell pressure nominated by the Field Supervision Geologist. Drainage of the specimen shall be prevented at all times and shearing shall be conducted at a constant rate of strain. Each stage shall be terminated when the deviator stress reaches a maximum or 8% strain, whichever is first. Reporting of the test results shall be as for undrained triaxial tests on undisturbed samples.

11.3 Unconsolidated Undrained Triaxial Test (Remoulded Specimen)


Unconsolidated Triaxial tests shall be performed on samples compacted to a relative density and moisture content specified by the Field Supervision Geologist. The test specimen shall have a minimum diameter of 75 mm and shall be compacted in a 75 mm or 100 mm diameter mould. Compaction shall be in five equal layers and the surface of each layer shall be scarified before the placeman of the next layers. The final density of the specimen shall be within one per cent of the specified while the moisture content shall be within one per cent of that specified. Each test shall consist of one three-stage multistage test conducted at cell pressure nominated by the Field Supervision Geologist. Drainage of the specimen shall be prevented at all times and shearing shall be conducted at a constant rate of strain. Each stage shall be terminated when the devisor stress reaches a maximum or 8 % strain, whichever is first. Reporting of the test results shall be as for undrained triaxial tests on undisturbed samples.

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11.4 Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Tests With Pore Pressure Measurement (Undisturbed Specimen)
Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Tests with Pore Pressure Measurement shall be conducted on undisturbed specimens at least 60 mm in diameter for tube samples and at least 75 mm in other cases. The height to diameter ratio of the sample shall be between 2 and 2.5. The method of sample preparation and testing shall conform to the procedures outlined in the The Measurement of Soil Properties in the Triaxial Test by A. Bishop and D. Henkel or as directed by the Field Supervision Geologist. The specimen shall be drained from the base end only and pore pressure measurement shall be from the top. Each test shall consist of one three-stage multistage test or three single stage tests as directed by the Field Supervision Geologist. The specimen(s) shall be back saturated at a pressure in excess of 400 kPa and this pressure shall be maintained during each stage of consolidation and shearing. Prior to the initial stage of consolidation the ratio of pore pressure increase to minor principal stress increase shall be checked to ensure that saturation is complete. The specimen(s) shall be consolidated initially and between each stage of shearing at three effective pressures as described below. one triple stage test consolidated to effective cell pressures of 100 kPa, 200 kPa and 400 Kpa, one double stage test consolidated to effective cell pressures of 200 kPa and 400 kPa, one single stage test consolidated to effective cell pressure of 400 kPa.

Each consolidation stage will be of a minimum duration of 24 hours or until consolidation is complete. The deviator load shall be applied at a constant rate of axial strain commensurate with the permeability of the specimen. The pore pressure shall be monitored during shearing of the sample. Sufficient readings shall be taken to enable full plots to be prepared of the total and effective stress paths. The effective deviator stress and effective major/minor principle stress ratio shall be calculated and recorded during the tests. In the case of multistage tests the stage shall be terminated when the effective stress ratio reaches a maximum, except for the final stage of a test which shall be taken to large strain. Each test report shall consist of the sample dimensions description and sketch of the failed specimen, initial and final moisture contents and unit weights, Coefficient of Consolidation calculations, graphical plots of deviator stress versus strain, Mohr circle and p-q plots and determination of total and effective values of apparent cohesion and friction.

11.5 Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Test With Pore Pressure Measurement (Remoulded Specimen)
Consolidated Undrained Triaxial tests with Pore Pressure Measurement shall be performed on samples compacted to a relative density and moisture content specified by the Field Supervision Geologist. The test specimen shall be 75 to 100 mm in diameter and compacted in a manner identical to that described in Section 5.4.2 of this Specification. The specimen(s) shall be prepared, tested and reported on in a manner identical to that described in Section 5.4.1. Consolidation of the Specimen(s) shall be at pressures as directed by the Field Supervision Geologist.

11.6 Pore Pressure Dissipation Test


Pore pressure dissipation tests shall be performed on undisturbed samples or samples compacted to a relative density and moisture content specified by the Field Supervision Geologist.

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The tube specimen shall have a minimum diameter of 65 mm for tube samples and at least 75 mm in other cases, with a height 2 to 2.5 the diameter. If required the specimen shall be compacted in a manner identical to that described in Section 5.4.2 Specimens shall be set up in a triaxial cell and saturated with the assistance of a minimum back pressure of 400 kPa. The pore pressure B shall be determined by increasing the cell pressure to the desired level and measuring the pore pressure response. Consolidation of the specimens is then allowed by dissipation of the pore pressure (drainage) from one end of the specimen while pore pressure is monitored at the other end. The rate of pore pressure dissipation and volume change shall be measured. Each pore pressure dissipation test shall consist of a series of five cell pressures. The Coefficient of Consolidation drained bulk modulus of deformation and Coefficient of Permeability shall be computed. If a pore pressure dissipation test (using three cell pressures) is undertaken as part of a saturated consolidation undrained triaxial test with pore pressure measurement, payment for the pore pressure test will be made at one half the rate for pore pressure tests tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (Item 8.2.3).

11.7 Compaction Tests


Compaction tests shall be carried out in accordance with BS 1377 Test 12 also known as the 2.5 kg hammer test. A standard compaction test shall consist of a series of five specimens compacted at different moisture contents. The sample shall be air dried and each specimen shall be compacted with material that has not previously been used in a compaction test. Each specimen shall be cured at a given moisture content for 24 hours prior to compaction. Tests on Rock

11.8 Point Load Diametrial & Axial Test


The point load-axial & diametral test shall be performed in accordance with the procedure suggested by the International Society for Rock Mechanics Suggested Method for Determining Point Load Strength (to replace original document published in 1972). The test report should contain calibration data for the test machine and at least the following information for each sample tested: The sample number, source location and rock type, and the nature and in-situ orientation of any planes of anisotropy or weakness Information on the water content of the rock at the time of testing. Information on which specimens were loaded parallel, perpendiculars or at unknown or random directions with respect to planes of weakness. A tabulation of the values of P, D, (W, De2 and De if required), Is, (F if required) and Is (50) for each specimen in the sample. For all isotropic samples, a summary tabulation of mean Is (50) values. For all isotropic samples, a summary tabulation of mean Is (50) values For all anisotropic samples, a summary tabulation of mean Is (50) values for subsamples tested perpendicular and parallel to the planes of weakness and of the corresponding Is (50) values.

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11.9 Uniaxial Compression Test (Ucs)


The uniaxial compression test on a rock core shall be performed in accordance with the International Society for Rock Mechanics Suggested Method for Determining the Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Deformability of Rock Materials Part 1: Suggested Method For Determination of Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Rock Material and Part 2: Suggested Method for Determining Deformability of Rock Materials in Uniaxial Compression. The test report should contain calibration data for the test machine and at least of the following information for each sample tested: Lithological description of the rock Orientation of the axis of loading with respect to specimen anisotropy, e.g. bedding planes, foliation etc. Source of sample, including: geographic location, depth and orientations. Dates and method of sampling and storage history and environment. No of specimens tested. Specimen diameter and height Water content and degree of saturation at the time of test Date of testing and type of testing machine Test duration and stress rate. Modes of failure e.g. shear axial cleavage, etc. Any other observations or available physical data such as specific gravity, porosity and permeability citing the method of determination for each. Uniaxial compressive strength for each specimen in the sample, expressed to three significant figures, together with the average result for the sample. The Pascal (pa) or its multiple shall be used as the unit of stress and strength.

11.10 Measurement
Measurement, for payment, of laboratory testing will be made of the number of tests carried out at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

11.11 Payment
Payment for laboratory testing by the Contractor will be made at the applicable rate per test tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (items 4.1 and 4.2). Such rates shall include all costs for transportation, preparation of samples for testing and reporting of results.

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12 RECORDS AND REPORTING


12.1 Shift Reports
While any work under this Contract, is being done at the specified site, the drilling supervisor shall fill in the Shift Report at the drillsite. A Shift Report Book shall be maintained at each drillsite and kept up to date at all times. Records to be entered using the format of the form provided in the 0 comprise the following technical data; Site location and area description, Hole number, date, weather description, hours worked during shift, foremans name, Description of drilling rig, rig number, Water levels as described in Clause 2.4.1 with full details of any fluctuation and of the condition and return of water flush during each drilling run. Daily water level readings in holes shall be taken by the Contractor at the following times in all holes: o o before work commences in the morning after work has finished in the evening,

Total depth and orientation of each hole. Type of operation (e.g. drilling, reaming down casing, water pressure testing, hand augering, test pitting etc.) with details of the particular operation. Methods of advancing the hole, type of core barrel or wash boring bit, Core recovery in each run, with possible reasons for core loses if these occurred, together with commencing and terminating depths of each drill run and times, Lengths of hole for which casing was used and diameter of such casing and of uncased hole; the record should show the relation between the depth of hole and the depth of casing at all times. Losses or gains of drilling water, quantities estimated as percentage and depth, changes in colour and at what depth. A complete record by depth and number of each sample taken or attempted, length of sample recovered, type of sample, number of blows used, reference number of sample. A note of the depth and type of any test e.g. standard penetration test, falling head test etc. Data obtained during test should be attached to the Daily Site Record. A complete visual classification, according to the definition in Appendix A together with the Unified Soil Classification System of soils encountered, the samples taken, together with the depth below ground level of each change of stratum. Details of backfilling and grouting. Details of any instrumentation installed. Details of delay and breakdowns. Any other relevant information and details of any other operations for which the Contractor may require additional payment.

The Contract rates for drilling all holes shall include for provision of the daily field records.

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12.2 Photographs
The Contractor shall supply one colour print photograph of the appropriate cores in the core box together with one clean and legible copy of the completed drill log. The photograph shall be supplied to the Field Supervision Geologist within two weeks of the completion of the drillhole. One copy of every photograph shall also accompany each copy of the Contractors Final Report. Core photographs shall be taken normal to the core box with box sides parallel to the edges of the print and the core box occupying most of the picture. Two sequential core boxes may be stacked together on a frame for each photograph. Core should be surface damp and the boxes placed against a matt background to avoid reflection. Each photograph shall include a standard colour chart and scale laid along the length of each box marked off in lengths of 100 mm. The boxes when photographed shall have a clearly marked identification sheet bearing: Project Number Project Title Hole Number Box Number Depth range

The labels and titles of the photographs shall be of professional quality. The final prints shall be to the satisfaction of the Field Supervision Geologist. The Contract Rates shall include for all photographs as specified.

12.3 Exploration Logs


Logs of drillholes, auger holes and test pits shall be provided in the form of the specimen sheets at the end of the Specification. One log is to be used for cored and a separate log for non-cored holes as shown in the Appendix B. All the logs shall include descriptions of all strata including details of the soil macro-fabric (such as frequency, orientation and nature of discontinuities such as joints, shears, bedding, crushed seams or weathered seams) and details of samples taken, and an account of all observations and field tests. Logs of drillholes shall include notes on the nature, quantity and colour or the flush returns. The description and classification of rocks shall be as in the Appendix A. The Field Supervision Geologist will provide a sample of a typical log in the field. All logs shall be subject to the approval of the Field Supervision Geologist and two draft copies shall be submitted to the Field Supervision Geologist not more than one week after the hole is completed. The Contract Rates for forming holes and test pits shall include for the preparation of logs and for any standing time of plant and labour during logging.

12.4 Clarity Of Records


Particular attention shall be given on site to ensure that all investigation records are written down without delay and that they are accurate, complete, clear and legible. Black ink shall be used for hand-written work. Faint photocopies will not be acceptable. If data is omitted for any reason, the reason must be stated.

12.5 Interim Laboratory Test Results


The laboratory testing of samples shall commence immediately after being ordered by the Field Supervision Geologist and duplicate copies of the interim results obtained shall be supplied to the Field Supervision Geologist within one week after completion of each test. The Contract Rates for testing samples shall include for complying with these requirements.

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12.6 Progress Reports


The Contractor as well as the Site Geologist should provide the Field Supervision Geologist progress reports on the site activities on a weekly basis. Those reports must include: A list of investigations completed since the previous report was issued, Number of samples taken, Current ongoing investigations and locations, Next investigation to be performed and approximate date of works. Number of in situ tests performed, Health and safety as well as environmental issues. This section must include any accident, incident or near-miss occurred on site.

12.7 Final Report


The Contractors Final Report shall contain only factual data. Interpretation of, and recommendations relating to the factual information are not to be presented. The report shall consist of: a brief outline of the various field and laboratory method used. a map showing the location of field tests (to be supplied by the Field Supervision Geologist) drillhole logs auger hole logs test pits logs detailed results of all field tests a summary of laboratory tests results detailed results of all triaxial consolidated and compaction tests.

The format of the report, log sheets and laboratory sheets shall be as approved by the Field Supervision Geologist. The Contractor shall provide the Field Supervision Geologist with one draft copy of the final report. Only after approval by the Field Supervision Geologist shall the Contractor provide the Field Supervision Geologist with two original and two copies of the final report.

12.8 Property Of Employer


All the results of the work included in the Contract including originals of test pit and drill logs, drawings and bench or work sheets, original negatives of core photographs together with all the samples and cores obtained shall be deemed to be the property of the Employer. No sample or core shall be damaged or discarded without the written permission of the Field Supervision Geologist. Samples and cores not selected for laboratory testing shall be delivered to the Field Supervision Geologists store after conclusion of the site work.

12.9 Measurement And Payment


Site work shall qualify for payment upon receipt by the Field Supervision Geologist of the logs and photographs specified in this Clause. Measurement shall be as set forth in the Bill of Quantities. No other measurement or payment will be made.

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12.10 Daywork
A Daywork Schedule is provided to cover work ordered or approved by the Field Supervision Geologist and not otherwise covered in the Bill. The daywork rates do not apply to idle time.

12.11 Idle Time


Payment for idle time shall be made in accordance with the Schedule of Payment for Idle Time only in respect of the number of hours within the Contractors normal daily working hours (excluding overtime work), during which the Contractors equipment and personnel on the Sites are awaiting instructions from the Field Supervision Geologist or are idle at his written request. No payment shall be made for idle time occurring in consequence of any other provisions of the Contract, not for delays due to weather, floods or other circumstances beyond the control of the Employer or the Field Supervision Geologist.

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13 ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY (ERT)


13.1 Scope
This specification describes the minimum requirements that will be accepted for the conduct of field investigation, data processing, interpretation, quality assurance, presentation and reporting of electrical resistivity tomography studies (ERT). No specific standard procedure exists to perform ERT, only some international guides offer widely accepted procedures. This document uses as main reference the ASTM D 6431-99 and the EM-1110-1-1802. However, other approaches than the ones here presented may be used if they are technically justified and agreed with the Field Supervision Geologist.

13.2 Objectives
The objectives of the electrical resistivity investigation with respect to the site studies are: To obtain the electrical resistivity of the sub-surface materials, To locate the boundaries of materials with different resistivity, To map geologic features such as lithology, structure, fractures, and stratigraphy, To measure the depth to water table, depth to aquitard and ground water salinity, To delineate groundwater contaminants, and To identify artificial buried structures such as tunnels, pipes, cables and others.

13.3 Equipment And Personnel


In order to perform surface resistivity a source of power, a means to measure the current, a high impedance voltmeter, at least four electrodes, the necessary cables to connect the electrodes to the source of power and the adequate software to process the data are required.

13.4 Personnel
The operator provided by the contractor must be experienced with the surveying techniques related to the described test. The operator must also be familiar with the regional and local geology. The operator shall provide assessment on the feasibility and best approach for each survey at each site location.

13.5 Source Of Power


Power can be supplied by dry cell batteries for smaller alignments targeting shallow depths and low resistivity materials or by motor generators for larger alignments targeting larger depths or high resistivity materials. For engineering purposes voltages tend to range from 90 V to several hundred volts. Although in theory, the most effective methodology is to use direct current, in practice this type of current is not commonly used for two reasons: The electrodes can produce polarized ionization fields that cause the current and potentials in the ground to be different from those in the electrodes, and The natural earth currents and spontaneous potentials can induce additional potentials to those caused by the applied current.

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In practice, alternating current is used to avoid the above issues. Very low frequencies (usually below 20 Hz) will result in resistivity measurements essentially the same as the direct current resistivity.

13.6 High Impedance Voltmeter


Although other methods are available, the most common potential measuring circuits are derived from the same source as the potential across the current electrodes. This ensures that variations in the current will affect both equally and not interfere with the balance point.

13.7 Electrodes
These will be four metal stakes preferably of bronze, copper or steel with a bronze jacket. Electrodes should be about 50 cm in length and should be driven into the ground in a careful manner to ensure a good electrical contact. If the ground is rock or hardened soil and stakes cannot be driven in properly, sheets of aluminium foil can be buried in shallow depressions or within wetted mounds of soil.

13.8 Cables
Insulated wire must be used. Connections between the electrodes and the insulated wire must be waterproofed. No excessive leakage along the cables will be allowed.

13.8.1 Signal Enhancement


When not enough power can be generated with portable equipment, signal enhancement capabilities can be applied. These will also be used in noisy areas to improve the signal-to-noise ratio.

13.8.2 Analytical Software


Nowadays, most of manufacturers provide analytical programs together with the instrumentation to be used on site. Most of the commercial products available can provide good results. However, technical judgment is required during the analysis of the data.

13.9 Limitations And Interferences


Equal Resistivity Electrical resistivity can provide very useful data from the ground. However, the reaction of the ground to a passing current is not unique for each individual structure or lithology. Different structures and lithologies can produce the same resistivity response. A good knowledge of the local geology is imperative for a proper analysis of the data. Horizontal Model Most interpretation models assume layers parallel to the ground. Some arrays can detect lateral variations in resistivity, but generally the modellers tend to assume horizontal and parallel boundaries. Thin Layers Thin layers or multiple layers with very little variation in resistivity can easily be missed. Equivalence Two layers with different resistivity and different thickness can be interpreted as the same layer if the product of their thickness and resistivity is equal. Suppression Highly resistant layers interbedded between highly conductive layers can easily go undetected.

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Impervious material The applied current will not be able to circulate if extremely resistant materials are encountered in the ground. Natural Noise Ambient sources of noise such as lighting or groundwater currents can interfere with the final results. Geologic Noise Certain minerals or local inhomogeneities near the electrodes can induce variations to the measured resistivity. Cultural Noise Electrical or electromagnetic fields produced by nearby artificial features such as power lines, radio stations, tunnels or pipelines can interfere with the final results. Leakage If the wire used to connect the electrodes is not properly insulated, electrical current can be induced to the ground at points other than the electrodes. Tests for leakage shall be made at the time of each measurement. All electrical interferences during the tests should be noted and included in the final report.

13.10 Recommended Electrodes Arrays


Although there are several options for the electrodes arrays and they all can be valid if technically justified, the most common arrays are the Wenner array, the Schlumberger array and the Dipole-Dipole array.

13.11 The Wenner Array


This array consists of equally spaced electrodes along a line.

The apparent resistivity can be calculated as follows:

Where: a = electrode spacing V = measured voltage, and I = current The easiest way to set the Wenner array is to have two measure tapes pinned with their zero mark at the centre point of the array and extending in opposite directions. After each reading the potential electrodes are moved by half the increment in the electrode spacing each and the current electrodes are moved by 1.5 times the increment. The ratio between successive spacings can be calculated as follows:

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Where: n = number of points to be plotted in each logarithmic cycle. Six points per cycle is the minimum recommended. Advantages of the Wenner array are: The signal to noise ratio is much higher than in other arrays. It is very convenient in environments with high noise. It requires less current to reach greater depths. Batteries last longer and smaller size batteries can be used.

13.11.1

The Schlumberger Array

The electrodes are unequally spaced along a line.

Where AB > 5 MN, the apparent resistivity can be calculated as follows:

where: AB = distance between current electrodes, MN = distance between potential electrodes, V = measured voltage, and I = current The distance between the potential electrodes is maintained while the distance between the current electrodes is increased every successive reading. Spacing increments between the current electrodes are usually logarithmic. Advantages of the Schlumberger array are: It is less affected by nearby geologic interferences, It is less susceptible to contact problems, It can identify lateral variations, and It is faster than other tests since the potential electrodes position is fixed.

13.11.2

The Dipole-Dipole Array

This consists of a closely spaced pair of current electrodes and a closely spaced pair of potential electrodes.

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The apparent resistivity can be calculated as follows:

where: n = distance between innermost electrodes, a = distance between the current electrodes and also the potential electrodes, V = measured voltage, and I = current Advantages of the Dipole-Dipole array are: Shorter lines can reach larger depths, Since short cables are used, the current leakage is also reduced, and It can provide detailed information on the dip direction of electrical horizons. This is very useful in areas with lateral discontinuities.

13.12 Measurements And Interpretation


The most common uses of electrical resistivity surveys are Sounding (depth) and Profiling (horizontal) measurements. Combined uses of the two measurements are frequent in engineering site investigations since it is important to identify both: vertical and horizontal variations in the ground.

13.12.1

Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES)

These measurements identify changes of resistivity in depth for a single location. While the centre point of the array remains fixed, the spacing between the electrodes is increased after every consecutive reading. Increasing the electrodes spacing will also increase the depth and volume of material measured. Consecutive measurements are usually spaced on a logarithmic scale. The apparent resistivity values are then plotted on a log-log scale against the electrode spacing. A minimum of 6 measurements is required to reduce the interference of noise. Variations of the apparent resistivity in depth can help to identify changes in lithology, stratigraphy and groundwater table. Sounding interpretation assumes horizontal and parallel layers and data is analysed in a quantitative way. By identifying layer thicknesses and depths to resistivity horizons the apparent resistivity is converted to layer resistivity.

13.12.2

Horizontal Profiling

Measurements are conducted along a line at a given depth. Measurements are taken with a fix electrode spacing at several stations along the profile line. Several profiles along an area can help to produce contour maps of ground resistivities. Horizontal profiling is useful to identify lateral variations in resistivity related to particular geological features.
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Qualitative analyses of the data are common. Apparent resistivity values are plotted along a profile line or as contours on a map. The interpreter then should look for variations and anomalies in the plotted data. This requires the interpreter to have a good knowledge of the local geology and usually to know what features are being targeted.

13.12.3

Combined Profiling

In engineering surveying it is very common to realise sounding surveys at different points along a grid. These vertical profiles are then plotted in cross sections and interpreted according. The result is usually a 2D or 3D model of the ground resistivity.

13.13 Procedure
The following steps are recommended to be followed during the implementation of the survey. Other procedures may be acceptable if technically justified and approved by the Field Supervision Geologist. a) Site Inspection: A visual inspection of the site to assess if it is feasible or not to conduct the test. If the site conditions are not favourable, then modifications may be required. Modifications of the original plan will have to be reported and approved by the Field Supervision Geologist. b) Feasibility Test: An initial measurement needs to be conducted in order to assess the adequate resistivity contrast of the ground. This test should also be used to assess the signal-to-noise ratio on site. c) Layout: The cross section lines and target depths will be as per the Terms of Reference document provided by the Field Supervision Geologist. It will be up to the contractor to set the adequate layout to meet these targets. Variations on the proposed layout must be consulted and approved by the Field Supervision Geologist. d) Surveying: All electrodes location and line orientations must be surveyed. Survey of each position must include Easting, Northing and Elevation. Steep surfaces or irregular topography can result in systematic reversals. Survey lines should aim for a straight line on a flat surface. In irregular terrains, the line of electrodes should be laid out along the same contour level if possible. If the electrodes cannot be aligned along a straight line or are located at different elevations, their position should be carefully surveyed. e) Electrical Contact: The electrodes should be driven into the ground at the desired intervals. It is imperative to assure that the electrodes are in good electrical contact with the ground. If the ground is rock or hard soil and cannot be easily penetrated with the electrodes, sheets of aluminium foil can be buried in shallow depressions or within mounds of wet soil. If the contact resistance between the electrodes and the soil is too high, salt water can be used to facilitate the circulation of the current. f) Check for Leakage: Excessive leakage is not allowed. A check to verify that the layout has been properly arranged and that the cables are in good condition must be performed before any measurement. The following procedure should be followed to check for excessive leakage: a. b. c. d. Make one resistivity measurement with one current electrode disconnected and its wire insulated from the system. Make a resistivity measurement with the first current electrode reconnected and the second current electrode disconnected. Make a resistivity measurement with the apparatus connected normally. If either resistivity measurement with one current electrode disconnected is not at least one order of magnitude higher than with both current electrodes connected, then excessive current leakage exists and must be corrected before proceeding.

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g) Conduct the Measurement: Once all the preliminary checks and surveys have been completed, the operator can proceed with the resistivity measurements according to the chosen array. h) Qualitative on-site interpretation: This interpretation is not meant to be final but merely for quality control purposes.

13.14 Quality Control


In order to ensure an adequate quality of the survey, the following items should be used: The operator should be familiar and possess a copy of all the field procedures. The operator should maintain a field log with all the procedures used on site. All changes to the proposed layout should be properly documented and included in the final report. Any condition observed on site that could have an impact on the survey results should be documented and included in the final report. During or immediately after each measurement a plot of apparent resistivity against electrodes spacing (for sounding) or at each station (for profiling) should be produced. If the plot showed that the quality or quantity of the data received is not adequate the operator will have to amend the survey accordingly. Calibration and standardization: each manufacturer provides its own calibration instructions for each set of equipment. These recommendations should be used for a routine check before starting the fieldwork each day, after a repair has been completed and on a periodic basis.

13.15 Report And Presentation


The final report must be presented in English and include the following items: Purpose and scope of the resistivity survey, Geologic setting, Limitations of the resistivity survey, Assumptions made, Description of the equipment and the data acquisition parameters used, Location and orientation of the resistivity survey plotted on a site map, Type of array (or arrays) and number of electrodes used, Location of the centre of the spread, Orientation of the profile line, Spacing between the electrodes and location (including Easting, Northing and Elevation) if they are not on a flat surface along a straight line, Any corrections applied to the field data, Results of the field measurements including: o o Copies of the raw data, and Plots of apparent resistivity against electrodes spacing (for sounding) or versus station location (for profiling). Analytical method, and

Method of interpretation including: o

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Software used.

Interpreted results and any qualifications and alternate interpretations, Format of recording data, References for any supporting data used in the interpretation, Persons responsible for the resistivity surveys and the data interpretation, and Presentation of data and interpretation including: o For Sounding: Single geoelectric sections for each individual survey, Geoelectric cross sections or contour maps for the combination of various surveys. o o For Profiling: Measurements can be presented as a profile or as a contour map. Conceptual Model: the final report should include a conceptual geological model based on the profiles obtained from the different surveys combined with the geological knowledge of the site.

13.16 Safety 13.16.1 Shock Hazard


With applied potentials of hundreds of volts, dangerous and potentially lethal shocks could be caused. In order to prevent these hazards, it is important to: Never energise the electrodes while they are being handled, Eliminate contact of personnel with any equipment while electrical current is flowing, If no electrical measurements are being made, the power source should be physically disconnected from the wires, All persons near the measurement should be made aware of when the current is flowing and when it is not, Sufficient personnel should be on site to observe the entire electrode array while the test is being conducted, and Sufficient personnel and signage should be placed on site to prevent contact by passersby.

13.16.2 Electrical Storms


The arrangement, electrical potentials and size of the electrodes make the electrode arrays a likely target for lightning. Electrical resistivity surveys should never be attempted during electrical storms.

13.17 Measurement
Measurement, for payment, of Electrical sections including layout, measurement, interpretation and report will be made of the length of each section at the direction of the Field Supervision Geologist.

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13.18 Payment
Payment, of Electrical sections including layout, measurement, interpretation and report will be made at the rate per section and metre tendered therefore in the priced Bill of Quantities (item 3.4).

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SOIL DESCRIPTION/CLASSIFICATION (Based on disturbed and undisturbed samples - SPT)

A1 Soil Classification Group Symbol (Refer to USCS Classification) Use block letters
Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)
FIRST AND/OR SECOND LETTERS type of soil (Soil Group Symbol) Symbol/Prefix G S M C O Pt Definition Gravel Sand Silt Clay Organic Peat SECOND LETTER grading and plasticity (Soil Group Qualifiers) Letter/Prefix P W H L M C Definition (Subgroup) Poorly graded (uniform particle sizes) Well graded (diversified particle sizes) Liquid limit < 50% - low to medium plasticity Liquid limit > 50% - low to medium plasticity Silty Clayey

The classification system can be applied to most unconsolidated materials, and is represented by a two-letter symbol. The group symbols are combined with qualifiers which indicate grading, plasticity or secondary components (refer to second letter).

Grading Well graded Good representation of all particle sizes from the largest to the smallest Poorly graded On or more intermediate sizes poorly represented Gap graded On or more intermediate sizes absent Uniformly graded Essentially single size material Fine grained soil The physical properties of fine grained soils are dominated by silts and clays The definition of clay and silt soils is governed by their Atterberg Limits. Clay soils are characteristics by the properties of cohesion and plasticity with cohesion defines as the ability to deform without rupture. Silt exhibits cohesion but have low plasticity or are nonplastic. Organic soils are distinguished from other soils by their appreciable content of vegetation matter, usually derived from plant remains The soil usually has a distinctive smell and low bulk density The USC System uses the symbol Pt for partly decomposed organic material. The O symbol is combined with suffixes O or H depending on plasticity When roots or root fibres are present their frequency and the depth to which they are encountered should be recorded. The presence of roots or root fibres does not necessarily mean the material is an organic material by classification

Organic soils

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Coal and lignite should be described as such and not simply as organic matter
Major divisions Group symbol GW GP GM GC SW SP SM SC ML CL OL MH inorganic CH organic OH Pt Group name well graded gravel, fine to coarse gravel poorly graded gravel silty gravel clayey gravel well graded sand, fine to coarse sand poorly-graded sand Silty sand clayey sand Silt (low plasticity) Clay (low plasticity) organic silt, organic clay silt of high plasticity, elastic silt clay of high plasticity, fat clay organic clay, organic silt peat

Symbol chart/Soil Classification Chart


clean gravel <5% gravel smaller than #200 > 50% of coarse fraction Sieve Coarse retained on No. 4 grained soils (4.75 mm) sieve gravel with >12% more than fines 50% retained on No. 200 clean sand (0.075 mm) sand sieve 50% of coarse fraction passes No.4 sieve sand with >12% fines silt and clay liquid limit < 50 inorganic organic

Fine grained soils more than 50% passes silt and clay No.200 sieve liquid limit 50

Highly organic soils

A2

Soil Name (use block letters)


CLAY, SILT, SAND, GRAVEL, COBBLES and BOULDERS The presence of fill must be indicated (FILL refer to soil origin) Coarse grained soils more than 50% of the material less than 60mm is larger than 0.06mm (> 60 m) Fine grained soils more than 50% of the material less than 60mm is smaller than 0.06mm (< 60 m)

The USCS separates soil types on the basis of particle size to;

Classification by particle size


Name Clay Silt Sand Fine Medium Coarse Fine Medium Coarse Sub-division < 2 m 2 m 60 m 60 m 200 m 200 m 600 m 600 m 2 mm 2mm 6 mm 6 mm 20 mm 20 mm 60 mm 60 mm 200 mm > 200 mm Size

Gravel Cobbles Boulders

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A3
Plasticity

Plasticity or Particle Characteristics of Soil


Degree a soil can be molded or reworked causing permanent deformation without rupturing The quality or state of being plastic; especially: capacity for being molded or altered The ability to retain a shape attained by pressure deformation - Particle shape Angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded, rounded, flat, elongate - Texture: rough, smooth, polished - Non-plastic or low plasticity - Intermediate plasticity (lean clay) to high plasticity (fat clay) - Contain clay, silt or sand and some decayed organic matter - Fibrous and clayey peat with presence of organic matter and high water content

Soil Description
BOULDERS COBBLES GRAVELS SANDS SILTS CLAYS ORGANIC PEATS

1. Plasticity (for silt and clay) Non-plastic (Np), Low plasticity (Lp), medium plasticity (Mp) or high plasticity (Hp)
Plasticity Description Non-plastic Low Criteria A 3.175 millimetre. Thread cannot be rolled at any water content. The thread can barely be rolled and the lump cannot be formed when drier than the plastic limit. The thread is easy to roll and not much time is required to reach the plastic limit. The thread cannot be rerolled after reaching the plastic limit. The lump crumbles when drier than the plastic limit. It takes considerable time rolling and kneading to reach the plastic limit. The thread can be rerolled several times after reaching the plastic limit. The lump can be formed without crumbling when drier than the plastic limit.

Medium

High

2. Particle characteristics of soil Gravel & cobbles angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded, rounded, flat, elongate Sand (Texture) rough, smooth, polished

Particle shape and texture The shape and surface texture of the coarse grained particles should be described Particle Angularity may be expressed as rounded, sub-rounded, sub-angular or angular
Description Angular Sub-angular Subrounded Criteria Particles have sharp edges and relatively plane sides with unpolished surfaces Particles are similar to angular description, but have rounded edges Particles have nearly plane sides, but have well-rounded corners and edges

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Rounded

Particles have smoothly curved sides and no edges

Particle form can be equidimensional, flat or elongate


Description Flat Elongated Flat and Elongated Equidimensional Particles with width/thickness > 3 Particles with length/width > 3 Particles meet criteria for both flat and elongated Characterize/describe the shape of three-dimensional solids/objects Criteria

Surface texture can be glassy, smooth, rough, pitted or striated

A4

Colour of Soil (in moist condition)


Black Orange White Yellow Grey Green Red Blue Brown

The colour of the soil should be described in the moist condition using simple terms:

This may be modified as necessary by light or dark. Borderline colours may be described as a combination of two colours, e.g. red-brown. For soils that contain more than one colour terms such as: e.g. Speckled Mottled Blotched Streaked Very small (<10 mm dia) patches Irregular Large irregular (>75 mm dia) Randomly oriented streaks

Pale grey with orange brown, brown to light yellowish brown Pockets, blotches and bands of colours

A5

Secondary And Other Minor Soil Components-Name Including its Estimated Proportion, Plasticity or Particle Characteristics And Colour
Where a soil contains an appropriate amount of secondary material, the name includes each of the secondary components (greater than 12 %) in increasing order of significance, e.g. sandy silty clay
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Secondary and minor components should be individually described in a similar manner to the dominant component Minor components of a soil are included in the description by means of the terms some and trace as defined below;
Description Presence just detectable, little or no influence on soil properties Presence easily detectable, little influence on soil properties Approximate Proportion (%) 05 5 12

Minor soil components


Term Trace Some

E.g. trace of gravel

A6

Conditions Of The Soil


If its particles stick together, a soil possesses cohesion If it can be easily moulded without cracking, it possesses plasticity Cohesion and plasticity depend on the moisture content of the soil It is helpful to record in the field the apparent consistency of the soil as an indicator of cohesive or plastic behaviour

Moisture (disturbed and undisturbed), consistency (undisturbed only) and density index

A6.1

Moisture Natural Moisture Content

Dry (D) Little or no moisture evident. Soils are running; absences of moisture, dusty, dry to the touch Moist (M) Darkened in colour with cool feel. Granular soil particles tend to adhere. No free water evident upon remoulding of cohesive soils; dump but no visible water Wet (W) Saturated; visible free water, usually soil is below water table In addition the moisture content of cohesive soils can be estimated in relation to their liquid or plastic limit.

A6.2

Consistency (Response of soil to applied force at various moisture content)

Estimates of the consistency of a clay or silt soil may be made from manual examinations, hand penetrometer test, SPT results or from laboratory test to determine undrained shear or unconfined compressive strengths. The classification of consistency is defined by table below; consistency also can be measured using Atterberg Limits (liquid limit & plastic limit) Consistency of fine-grained soils (Cohesive soils)
Term Very soft Soft Firm SPT Nvalue 02 24 48 Unconfined Strength (kPa) < 25 25 50 50 100 Field Identification Easily penetrated by fist. Samples exudes between fingers when squeezed in the fist Easily moulded in fingers. Easily penetrated 500 mm by 500 thumb Can be moulded by strong pressure in the fingers. Penetrated only with great effort

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Stiff Very Stiff Hard

8 15 15 30 > 30

100 200 200 400 > 400

Cannot be moulded in fingers. Indented by thumb but penetrated only with great effort Very tough. Difficult to cut with knife. Readily indented with thumb nail Brittle, can just scratched with thumb nail. Tends to break into fragments

Unconfined compressive strength as derived by a hand penetrometer can be taken as approximately double the shear strength (qu = 2 Cu) A6.3 Density Index (Relative density for coarse-grained soils cohesive soils) The in situ density index of granular soils can be assessed from the results of SPT or cone penetrometer tests. Density index should not be estimated visually.

Density of granular soils/coarse grained soils (Non-cohesive soils)


Term (Relative Density) Very Loose Loose Medium Dense Dense Very Dense SPT value 03 38 8 25 25 42 > 42 Static cone value qc (MPa) 02 25 5 - 15 15 20 > 20 Density Index (%) 0 15 15 25 25 65 65 85 > 85

A7

Structure Of Soil (undisturbed state) zoning, defects and cementing

Structure of soil definition: The arrangement and organization of primary and secondary particles in a soil mass is known as soil structure. (Soil structure refers to how the individual sand, silt, and clay particles are arranged into stable aggregates)
Description of structure of soil Stratified Laminated Fissured Slickensided Blocky Lensed Homogeneous Criteria Alternating layers of varying material or colour with layers at least in. thick; note thickness. Alternating layers of varying material or colour with the layers less than in. thick; note thickness. Breaks along definite planes of fracture with little resistance to fracturing. Fracture planes appear polished or glossy, sometimes striated. Cohesive soil that can be broken down into small angular lumps which resist further breakdown. Inclusion of small pockets of different soils, such as small lenses of sand scattered through a mass of clay; note thickness. Same colour and appearance throughout.

1. Zoning A sample may consist of several zones of differing in colour, grain sizes, or other properties. Terms to classify these zones are: a. Layer continuous across exposure or sample b. Lens discontinuous with lenticular shape
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c. Pocket irregular inclusion (each zone should be described, their distinguishing features and the natural of the interzone boundaries) 2. Defects Defects which are present in the sample can include: a. Fissures the direction, size and spacing of fissures
Term Very thickly bedded Thickly bedded Medium bedded Thinly bedded Very thinly bedded Thickly laminated Thinly laminated Term Very widely spaced Widely spaced Medium spaced Closely spaced Very closely spaced Extremely closely spaced Scale of bedding spacing (coarse soil) >2000mm 600-2000mm 200-600mm 60-200mm 20-60mm 6-20mm <6mm Scale of spacing of other discontinuities >2000mm 600-2000mm 200-600mm 60-200mm 20-60mm <20mm

b. Roots (containing organic matter) presence of roots or root holes c. Tubes (hollow) d. Casts (infilled) Defects should be described giving details of dimension and frequency. Fissure orientation, planetary, surface condition and infilling should be noted. If there is tendency to break into blocks, block dimension should be recorded.

3. Cementing - In aggregate formation, a number of primary particles such as sand, silt and clay are brought together by the cementing or binding effect of soil colloids. The cementing materials taking part in aggregate formation are colloidal clay, iron and aluminium hydroxides and decomposing organic matter. Whatever may be the cementing material, it is ultimately the dehydration of colloidal matter accompanied with pressure that completes the process of aggregation. Cementing materials e.g. colloidal clay, iron and aluminium hydroxides and decomposing organic matter, colloidal Fe oxides Cementing agent e.g. calcium carbonate
Description for cementation Weak Moderate Strong Criteria Crumbles or breaks with handling or little finger pressure. Crumbles or breaks with considerable finger pressure. Will not crumble or break with finger pressure.

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A8

Soil Origin (indicated in block letter) dispositional history

e.g. FILL, ALLUVIUM, COLLUVIUM, SLOPEWASH, RESIDUAL SOIL, TOP SOIL etc. (Requires further geological evidence and field observation) Based on the soil material description, soil structure and its relationship to other soil and rock materials Residual soil Material which appears to have been derived by weathering from the underlying rock. There is no evidence of transport Colluvium - Material which appears to have been transported from its original location. The method of movement is usually the combination of gravity and erosion Landslide debris An extreme form of colluvium where the soil has been transported by mass movements. The material is obviously distributed and contains distinct defects related to the slope failure Alluvium - Material which has been transported essentially by water. Usually associated with former stream activity Fill material - Material which has been transported and placed by man. This can range from natural soils which have been placed in a controlled manner in engineering construction to dumped waste material. A description of constituents should include an assessment of the method of placement ROCK DESCRIPTION (Based on an assessment of cores recovered by drilling)

A9 A9.1

Rock Name, Grain Size, Texture And Fabric, Colour Rock Name

Use block letters

A9.2

Grain Size

Grain size or particle size refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment. Grain size is an important textural parameter of clastic rocks because it supplies information on the conditions of transportation, sorting, and deposition of the sediment and provides some clues to the history of events that occurred at the depositional site.

A9.3

Fabric

Rock's fabric describes the spatial and geometric configuration of all the elements that make it up [geometrical arrangement of all the structural elements within the body. It can be regarded as the structural texture of the rock. Only structural elements observed on a relatively small scale (hand specimen and microscopic size) are normally considered as fabric, not large-scale structure. Thus fabric study effectively involves structural analysis at grain-size level

A9.4

Types of fabric
Primary fabric a fabric created during the original formation of the rock, e.g. a preferred orientation of clast long axes in a conglomerate, parallel to the flow direction, deposited by a fast waning current. Shape fabric a fabric that is defined by the preferred orientation of inequant elements within the rock, such as platy- or needle-like mineral grains. It may also be formed by the deformation of originally equant elements such as mineral grains.

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Crystallographic preferred orientation in plastically deformed rocks, the constituent minerals commonly display a preferred orientation of their crystal axes as a result of dislocation processes. S-fabric a planar fabric such as cleavage or foliation; when it forms the dominant fabric in a rock, it may be called an S-tectonite. L-fabric a linear fabric such as mineral stretching lineation where aggregates of recrystallised grains are stretched out into the long axis of the finite strain ellipsoid, where it forms the dominant fabric in a rock, it may be called an L-tectonite. Penetrative fabric a fabric that is present throughout the rock, generally down to the grain scale, although this does also depend on the scale at which the observations take place.

e.g. Cleavage, foliation, bedding, lineation, schistosity, mylonitic foliation etc., S-tectonite

A9.5

Texture

Refers to the sizes and shapes of grains, the relationships between neighbouring grains, the orientation of grains within a rock, and arrangement of the component mineral grains List of rock texture:

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Adcumulate Agglomeritic Adamantine a type of lustre Amygdaloidal Anhedral Antitaxial veins Aphanitic Aplitic; aplite Augen textured gneiss Axiolitic texture Botryoidal brecciated Bedding fissile; bedding fissility Boudinage; boudins Cataclastic Chilled margin Clastic; see also breccia Cleaved Crenulated Cross-bedding Cross-stratification; also trough-cross stratification. Cumulate; see also layered intrusion Decussate Devitirification; devitrified Dendritic texture; dendrites Diatextite; see also schlieren and migmatite Embayed minerals; see igneous texture Euhedral Eutaxitic Epiclastic Fiamme

Foliation Fissile; see also Bedding fissility. Fossiliferous Glomeroporphyritic Gneissose; gneissic Granoblastic Granophyric Granulitic Graphic Holocrystalline Hyaline texture Imbricate Jointed Lepidoblastic Leucocratic; see also melanocratic Lineation, lineated L-tectonite Mesocumulate Mylonitic Nematoblastic Ocelli oolitic; see also limestone Ophitic texture Orbicular texture Orthocumulate Panidiomorphic Perthitic Phaneritic Phyllitic Pisolitic Porphyroclastic Porphyroblastic Porphyritic texture; see also porphyry Ptygmatic (folding); see migmatite

Quench textures; see obsidian, tachylyte or aphanitic Rapakivi texture Sandy Schistose; schistosity Shear; sheared; shear fabric Slaty; slaty cleavage Specular Spinifex texture; see also komatiite S-tectonite Stratabound Stratiform Stromatolitic Stylolitic Subhedral Symplectite Tuffaceous Vesicular texture Variolitic Vitreous Vuggy

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A10

Strength
Field guide assessment should be confirmed with POINT LOAD TEST (ISRM) Reference: Int. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. and Geomech. Abstr. Suggested Method for Determining Point Load Strength. Vol. 22 No. 2 1985 pp. 51-60. Axial and Diametral test

A11

Weathering Profile as per ISRM terminology 1981


Symbols W1

Classification of the state of rock weathering, according to BGD (ISRM 1981) Term Description No visible sign of rock material weathering; perhaps slight Fresh discolouration on major discontinuity surfaces Discolouration indicates weathering of rock material and discontinuity surfaces. All the rock material may be Slightly weathered discoloured by weathering and may be somewhat weaker than its fresh condition. Less than half of the rock material is decomposed and/or Moderately disintegrated to a soil. Fresh or discoloured rock is present weathered either as a discontinuous framework or as corestones. More than a half of the rock material is decomposed and/or Highly weathered disintegrated to a soil. Fresh or discoloured rock is present either as a discontinuous framework or as corestones. Completely All rock material is decomposed and/or disintegrated to soil. weathered The original mass structure is still largely intact.

W2

W3

W4 W5

*The classification system proposed by ISRM, designated as Basic Geotechnical Description of Rock Masses (BGD)

A12
e.g.

Structure Of The Rock


Sedimentary bedded, laminated (< 20mm thick) Metamorphic foliated, banded, cleaved Igneous massive, flow banded

Larger scale [the spacing or thickness should be given]

A13

Carbonaceous Rock

Carbonaceous rock and its thickness should be mentioned e.g. Carbonaceous shale

A14

Defects

Defects Type Bedding Plane (BP); Cleavage (CL); Crushed Seam (CS); Crushed Zone (CZ); Drilling Break (DB); Fracture (FC); Handing Break (HB); Infilled Seam (IS); Joint (JT), Seam (SM); Shear Seam (SS); Shear Zone (SZ); Vein (VN); Void (VO); Fault (FA).

A15

Total Core Recovery % (TCR)


Summed length of all pieces of recovered core expressed as a percentage of length drilled and should be measured (nearest 2%) When the core is highly fragmented the length of such portions is estimated by assembling the fragments and estimating the length of core that the fragments appear to represent

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A16

Fracture Frequency (F)

The no. of natural discontinuities intersecting a unit length of recovered core

A17

Rock Quality Designation % (RQD)


Modified core recovery percentage in which all the pieces of sound core over 10cm long are counted as recovery and are expressed as a percentage of the length drilled The smaller pieces resulting from closer jointing, faulting or weathering are discounted (<10cm) If the core broken by handling or by the drilling process (fresh break rather than natural break), the fresh broken pieces should be fitted together and counted as one piece provided they form the requisite length of 10cm Material that is obviously weaker than the surrounding rock such as over-consolidated gouge is discounted (even if it appears as intact pieces that are 10m or more in length) This type of material will normally be recovered when using the most advanced drilling equipment and experienced or carefully supervised drilling crews The length of individual core pieces should be assessed along the centre line of the core (so that discontinuities that happen to parallel the drill hole will not usually penalize the RQD values of an otherwise massive rock mass

A18

Orientation Of The Discontinuity

To log the apparent orientation of discontinuities intersecting the core (measure the acute angles of intersection relative to the core axis)

A19

Spacing of Discontinuity

In rock with marked bedding plane or foliation, it should be possible to match the individual core pieces such that the actual spacing of obliquely intersected bedding joints, foliation joints or other regular intersecting joint set can be estimated

A20

Others

Coloured Photograph wetting of the core before photography produces excellent contrast between different rock types and any form of mineralogical banding (does not help in the observation of discontinuities due to general darkening that that occur with wetting)

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B1
B1.1

General Information
Identification
Bore Number Sheet Number Project Number

Each log sheet is uniquely identified by a block at the top right corner which contains:

The project number is the SMEC project/job number which is allocated for costing/record purposes. The bore number is a project specific number, normally consecutive, which is allocated within the project. In some cases it is preferable to allocate groups of numbers to particular features identification can be assisted by the use of alphanumeric values. In some cases it can be useful to use the prefix S to denote SMEC bores and a second prefix such as D, A, H, or C for cored (diamond) bores, auger bores, hand augers and cone penetrometers (e.g.; SD02). In projects where SMEC is drilling additional bores it is preferable to continue to use the existing bore numbering system with or without the prefix S. The sheet number identifies the different log sheets within the log of the complete drillhole. The investigation is commonly associated with a specific project. The upper section of the log should contain: Field Supervision Geologist Name Name of the Project Feature (within project)

B1.2

Location

If the bore is not accurately located the information obtained may be useless. The location description should consist of: A description of the feature location Location by coordinates Identification of the coordinate system Additional information on the location of the bore can be given in the notes (see below).
It is conventional on engineering projects to provide coordinates as East and North of the origin but if necessary West and South can be used. The location by coordinates can be determined by survey or identification on the appropriate plan. It is considered that location to the nearest metre in plan is sufficient. More detail implies accuracy which cannot be justified.

B1.3

Elevation

Of equal, and sometimes higher, importance than location is the information on the elevation of the point from which the depth information is measured. This should be the ground level at the site of bore. Where the elevation is based on an assumed or local datum, this should be indicated. It is considered that measurement of elevation should be presented to 0.1 m, as more detail would imply greater accuracy than can reasonably be achieved by the usual site investigation methods.

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B1.4

Orientation

Hole Angle: Angles are expressed in relation to horizontal with positive angles upward and negative angles downward: e.g. a hole drilled vertically downwards is at -90 degrees and a hole into the crown of a tunnel could be at +30 degrees. Hole Direction: The direction of holes at angles less than 90 degrees should be expressed in relation to magnetic north as a three-figure value: e.g. a hole drilled in a north-east direction has a direction of 045 degrees. If the direction is determined in relation to another feature: e.g. Grid North, this should be noted.

B1.5

Personnel and Dates

This information at the foot of the drill log provides some background for assessment of effective investigation methods and should include: Contractors Name Equipment type and model Date Commenced Date Completed Name of person who logged the core Name of person who checked the log

B1.6

Notes

A space has been provided at the foot of each log sheet for relevant notes. These notes may include details of instrumentation installed in the drillhole or particular features which are not covered elsewhere.

B2

Geotechnical Log of Cored Drillhole

The information in the main section of each log sheet includes data on: Drilling conditions Material substance descriptions Test results Rock mass defects descriptions

Presentation is in the form of columns containing data on specific features with reference to depth/length measured along the core from the ground surface. By correction for ground surface elevation and hole angle, an elevation scale for the drillhole information can be determined. In most projects the engineering designs are based on elevations rather than depths, and where data on ground elevation is available, both depth and elevation should be shown on the logs.

B2.1

Elevation/Depth

The Elevation/depth column contains a scaled depth/length, measured along the core. The recommended scale is markings at 0.2 m intervals and a total length of 10 m per sheet. The depths chosen should be in multiples of 10 m, e.g. 0 m to 10 m, 10 m to 20 m etc., independently of the depth at which coring is commenced. The elevation is marked to the left of the depth. In the preparation of a log a change is marked by a solid horizontal line across the appropriate column. Where the change is transitional, or not accurately known, a dashed line is used. These

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changes are plotted to scale. The depth/elevation of all changes are shown by a line without a written value.

B2.2

Drilling

Information obtained during the drilling process is plotted in three columns on the left hand side of the log. These include the drilling method, hole support, drill water return, and water levels. Method - This column details the drilling method/core barrel size by inserting an appropriate abbreviation with a line drawn at the level of each change in method. Abbreviations which apply are: AS ADV ADT WR WD NQ HQ Auger Screwing Auger Drilling with V-bit Auger Drilling with TC Bit Washbore drilling with roller bit Washbore drilling with drag or blade bit NQ core barrel HQ core barrel

NMLC NMLC core barrel

Support - The use of mud or steel/PVC casing to support the sides of the hole is shown by the insertion of the support type in the support column. A line across the column denotes the length of hole supported. Water - Groundwater affects the design and construction of most subsurface projects, and information on this aspect is often less than satisfactory. The groundwater level should be measured at the beginning of every shift. Water levels are plotted with the conventional sign () and date in the column. The return of circulating drilling fluid to the surface is a rough indication of the subsurface permeability. Loss of drilling fluid is shown by the symbol () with a comment on the percentage of return lost. Evidence of groundwater inflow to the drillhole is indicated by () at the appropriate level.

B2.3

Substance

This section contains a graphic summary of material type, weathering, substance description, and estimated strength classification.

B2.4

Graphic Log

The graphic log presents a simplified indication of material types based on the material type. Standard USGS symbols may be used or other available and appropriate graphic symbols. The same symbols should be used throughout the project. Areas of no core should contain the core loss symbol of a diagonal cross.

B2.5

Weathering

The classification of rock mass weathering shall be as described in Appendix A: Classification of Rock. Areas of "no core" should be left blank.

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B2.6

Description

The material name is given in CAPITALS and is based on the observations included in the description. For engineering purposes the material properties are more important than the correct name, and it is recommended that a simple identifying name is used based on a general knowledge of the regional geology and features observed in the core. Reference should be made to the Appendix A: Classification of Rock for additional information regarding the description of rock masses. Areas of "no core" should be labelled "No Core Xmm" with, if practicable, a comment on the reason for the lack of core. It is considered that the use of the term "No Core" is more correct than "Core Loss" as the lack of core may reflect a void rather than poor drilling technique. The area of "no core" need not be marked by lines across the description column unless it is suspected that the zone of no core represents a clearly defined zone in the rock mass. These lines should be positioned at the likely spot where is a gap in core. By convention, if there is no positive indication, the area of nocore is located at the top of the run.

B2.7

Strength

The estimated rock substance strength is indicated graphically in the strength columns. This classification is based on a visual assessment of the strength class with calibration provided by comparison with testing of the core samples. Field estimates of strength should be changed to make them consistent with the results of testing. Reference should be made to the Appendix A: Classification of Rock for additional information regarding the strength of rock. Areas of "no core" should be left blank.

B2.8
Type

Testing

The type of test carried out in the drillhole, or on core samples, is identified and located in the testing column. The test type is identified by a letter codes. Test types include: P CO I H U PD PA Pressuremeter Test Core Orientation Impression Device Hydraulic Fracturing Unconfined Compressive Strength Point Load Strength Index (Diametral) Point Load Strength Index (Axial)

Samples taken for laboratory testing, e.g. petrographic analysis, should be located and identified by a the bore ID and depth. Result The results of the identified tests are included in the adjacent column. These results may be abbreviated with full details provided if necessary in separate test result sheets.

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B2.9

Defects

The geotechnical log is incomplete without a detailed description of the defects which are present in the rock mass. It is the frequency, orientation and character of the defects which govern the engineering properties of the rock mass. The core recovered includes defects which are: Natural (present in the undisturbed rock mass) Drill Induced (fracturing due to the drilling action, possibly on planar features which may be tight in the rock mass) Core Handling (produced during core removal, boxing and rock testing) The assessment should be based on the logging of natural defects only, but in many cases it is difficult to differentiate between natural and drill induced fractures. If extensive fracturing results from the drilling process, it may indicate that the rock contains sufficient incipient defects to affect the engineering performance of the rock mass, and should not be ignored.

B2.10

Core Recovery

The length of core recovered from each run should be measured and compared to the actual length of the run.

Recovered Length 100 Run Length Core recovery % =


A core recovery should be provided for each run and the calculated recovery rounded to the nearest whole percentage. Where a stub of core is left down the hole and is recovered the next run the recovered stub should be included in the original run. Stubs of core left down the hole after the last run are shown as no core.

B2.11

Rock Quality Designation (RQD)

The RQD is the percentage of sound core with a fracture spacing of greater then 100mm. In general drilling induced breaks should not be included in the calculation of RQD, although where there are incipient fractures opened by the drilling, these may be included.

Length of Sound Core 100mm 100 Length of Run RQD % =


Areas of very low strength, extremely low strength, with soil properties, or no core cannot be included in the length of sound core. An RQD should be calculated for each run and rounded to the nearest whole number.

B2.12

Fracture Spacing

The method of recording of fracture spacing depends on the amount of fracturing in the core. Generally all natural defects should be identified, described and the defect spacing measured parallel to the core axis. However, where the defects are closely or very closely spaced (<100mm) it is often not feasible to describe every defect and a general description may be provided. In this case the average fragment length parallel to the axis of the core is recorded as the fracture spacing.

B2.13

Description
Depth
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The natural defects in the core are described by:

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Type

Type Angle Width Planarity Roughness Infilling Coating

Refer to Appendix A: Classification of Rock for full description of defect types Angle The angle (also known as delta angle) of the defect should be measured from a plane normal to the core axis. For vertical bores this represents the dip of the defect. For angled holes the delta angle can be plotted on a stereonet to give a range of possible orientations. Width Measured in millimetres normal to the walls of the defect. May be left blank in less than 1mm. Planarity Described using the following codes: PL IR CU UN Roughness Described using the following codes:
SL SM RO

Planar Irregular Curved Undulating

Slickensided Smooth Rough

Coating Described using the following codes:


CL ST VN IN Clean Stained Veneer (<1mm) Infill (>1mm)

Infill Material type described using the following codes: C CA CH CY Carbonaceous Material Calcite Chlorite Clay

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FE G Q

Iron Oxides Gypsum Quartz

Where many closely spaced defects have similar properties a general defect description may be put in the Planarity, roughness, coating infill column. The wording should be "Unless otherwise described, defects are....."

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