Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

Collection of information regarding a controversial phenomena Elforsk report 13:90

Margaretha Engström, Vattenfall Research & Development AB Sten Bergman, StonePower AB

15 November 2013

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Foreword
Elforsk, which is electricity industry joint R&D company, is responsible for gathering information for the electricity industry on issues that may be of strategic importance and have great impact on tomorrow’s energy systems. The program area Surrounding World and Systems in Elforsk scans ongoing research and development to be able to prepare the industry for important breakthroughs and build necessary knowledge to challenge or affirm further development. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, LENR, is an area which has received increased attention over the past two to three years. When a dozen companies present that they are engaged in commercializing LENR technology, this may possibly indicate an unexpected discovery and this discovery in the future may affect the energy supply in the community. For Elforsk it is thus not about deciding whether LENR phenomena exists or not, but to be prepared if the unexpected should occur. The theory behind the phenomena is not yet clear and verification of its functionality in practical application has been going on and continues. This report, which is written by Margaretha Engstrom on Vattenfall Research and Development and Sten Bergman, Stone Power AB, is a general summary of information that in various ways is accessible about LENR technology. The report makes no evaluation of scientific veracity. Stefan Montin Program area Surrounding World and Systems ELFORSK 2013-11-15

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Summary
Are we on the verge of a new era when it comes to environmental and sustainable power generation? Is there anything new coming up around the corner, which could revolutionize our way of generating heat and electricity and driving tomorrow’s vehicles? Those are the questions that have arisen owing to the field of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) which again has been shown attention. This report is an overview of the field Low Energy Nuclear Reactions or what it sometimes is called Cold Fusion. Devices and arrangements, which are declared to be based on the LENR technology, are now beginning to being demonstrated at some different locations in the world. The energy output of those devices is said to substantially exceed the supplied energy needed to start and stabilize the process. If this is right – which is in question by many – we are confronted with the unexpected -- that there is perhaps a new process which by far surpasses conventional fuel based energy conversion. Furthermore the devices are said to work without any appreciable environmental disadvantage. Or are those results now being shown consequences of error measurements and wishful thinking? Some of what has happened in the area:  Andrea Rossi, an Italian inventor and chemist has developed a reactor called the E-Cat. It's a seemingly simple device, consisting of a metal tube containing a small catalyst of nickel powder in nano size. At startup, the tube is filled with small amounts of hydrogen and is stated to produce a significant excess heat for several months. The company that develops Rossi's device, Leonardo Corporation, claims that their reactors soon are "scientifically" validated and ready for market launch. The Greek company Defkalion, now established in Canada, initially had a partnership with Andrea Rossi, but has later gone its own way in developing its Hyperion hydrogen-nickel reactor. Defkalion has announced that their technology will be launched in 2014. Brillouin Energy Corporation, an American company, claims to have invented what they call the controlled electron capture reaction.

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Joseph Papp already thought in the 70s that energy could be recovered by compression and electromagnetic stimulation of a rare gas plasma. Papp and his latter-day successors Rohner, Klostermann and Weber et. al. claimed that they could extract energy from a conventional piston engine using hydrogen, rare gases, lightning discharge and optionally electromagnetic resonance. Eric Lerner, plasma physicist in the U.S., since the early 90's argued that it is possible to build an inexpensive electricity generation plant by magnetically compress protons and the element boron to directly generate electricity from the formed helium nuclei. He calls his device for Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Machine. Experiments have taken place in Chile and elsewhere and there are also market agents running. The research is based on private contributions. Fleischmann and Pons, described in 1989 how they managed to create "Cold fusion" using palladium electrodes in an electrolyte of heavy hydrogen. However, it has been difficult to repeat their experiments and the cold fusion cooled further.

What has now these in common? Well they are possibly different examples on LENR technology or variants thereof. Scientific validations are now underway in some quarters to confirm functions, managing the engineering aspects and understand the underlying physical mechanisms. Chapter 2 describes some of the model explanations that abound about LENR technology and points at research areas where progress possibly can be expected. Chapter 3 deals with how far validations have come (of those planning commercialization shortly), as well as who has validated what. Skeptics argue that much is untrue. Inventors try to hide their secrets from the public before they are ready to enter the market. Patents taken omit the most essential aspects in the explanations. Chapter 4 addresses a variety of applications , primarily the nickelhydrogen-based LENR-technological inventions. What could be the result of successful demonstrations and test runs?

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Chapter 5 deals with specific issues that might relate to the electricity industry. What is the consequence of small cheap heating / electricity production units? In Chapter 6 the authors discuss some of the more general conclusions coming out of the current development and also the current situation regarding validations. In Chapters 7 and 8 are found some references not given in the running text

ELFORSK

Summary
Are we on the verge of a new era when it comes to environmental and sustainable power generation? Is there anything new coming up around the corner, which could revolutionize our way of generating heat and electricity and driving tomorrow’s vehicles? Those are the questions that have arisen owing to the field of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) which again has been shown attention. This report is an overview of the field Low Energy Nuclear Reactions or what it sometimes is called Cold Fusion. Devices and arrangements, which are declared to be based on the LENR technology, are now beginning to being demonstrated at some different locations in the world. The energy output of those devices is said to substantially exceed the supplied energy needed to start and stabilize the process. If this is right – which is in question by many – we are confronted with the unexpected -- that there is perhaps a new process which by far surpasses conventional fuel based energy conversion. Furthermore the devices are said to work without any appreciable environmental disadvantage. Or are those results now being shown consequences of error measurements and wishful thinking?

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Contents
1 Introduction 1

1.1 Is there a new kind of energy conversion .............................................................1 1.2 How it all started ............................................. .................................................2 1.3 A controversial research .............................................. ......................................3

2 State of knowledge of LENR

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2.1 What is meant by LENR technology? .................................................. .................4 2.2 Which are the explanatory models? .................................................. ..................6 2.2.1 Explanatory models on ball lightning and other plasmoids .....................................7 2.2.2 Some explanatory models around ultracold neutrons ............................................8 2.2.3 Other explanatory mechanisms around low-energy fusion ……………………...................9 2.2.4 Rydberg and Bose-Einstein condition as elements in nuclear reactions ................. 10 2.2.5 Hidetsugu Ikegami hypothesis pycnonuclear fusion ............................................12 2.3 How much is spent on LENR developments? .............................................. ………..13 2.3.1 R & D efforts within the academic world and the authorities ……………………………………13 2.3.2 R & D in companies ............................................ ........................ ………………….14 2.4 Ongoing research in the LENR field ............................................ ........................15 2.4.1 Credibility of practical experiments ............... ............................ ………………………..16 2.5 EU research .............................................. ......................................... …………...17 2.6 Commercialization state ................................................ ....................... …………..18 2.7 Applications of interest .............................................. .......................................20

3 Validated energy plants

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3.1 Validated plasma equipment ........................................................................... 21 3.2 "Validated" nickel-hydrogen LENR plants ........................................ …………………… 22 3.2.1 E-Cat Leonardo Corporation .......................................... ………………………………….. 22 3.2.2 Hyperion Defkalion Green Technologies ........................................................... 24 3.2.3 BEC Brillouin Boiler TM Brillouin Corp. ............................................ ……………….. 25 3.2.4 CIHT cell - BlackLight Power ......................................................................... 26 3.2.5 NANORTM Jet Energy ............................................ …………………………………………. 28

4 Possible applications of LENR technology
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

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Generation of electricity and heat ............................................. ..................... 29 Vehicle applications ................................................ ........................... ………… 29 Aerospace and Space applications .............................................. ....................... 30 Transmutation of radioactive waste .................................................................... 31 Consumer products ................................................ ..........................................32

5 Questions for the power industry

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5.1 Market scenarios ................................................ .......................................... 34 5.2 Environmental and safety issues .............................................. ..................... 35 5.2.1 Unknown negative characteristics ............................................................. 36 5.2.2 Security .............................................. ........................ ………………………………… 37

6 Conclusions

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6.1 Where does the research on LENR technology today? ....................................... 38 6.2 Where is the explanation / why? .................................................. …………………. 38 6.3 Where are the biggest challenges? .................................................. ………………. 39

7 References

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7.1 Articles, reports and protocols ........................................................................ 40 7.2 Websites................................................ ..................................................... 44

8 Attachments

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8.1 Patents ................................................ ................................................ ......47 8.1.1 U.S. .............................................. ...........................................................47 8.1.2 Asia .............................................. ...........................................................48 8.1.3 Europe .............................................. .......................................................48

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1 Introduction
Is it possible to build devices that are inexpensive, safe and which generate heat and electricity at a fraction of today's cost? Can these devices be used for stationary and/or mobile applications? Are they safe and sustainable? This report briefly outlines a handful of such techniques, which in a sense can be classified into the area Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). However, since much of what is described below have not yet been validated and accepted by the scientific community the are significant question marks. But the question is whether now, after all new knowledge keeps emerging that might support the hope for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions? The consequences of any breakthrough can be substantial. 1.1 Is there a new kind of energy conversion?

The breakthrough of Quantum physics at the beginning of the last century led to development of today's nuclear technology. During the past 70 years has we have learned the technical and commercial mastering of many fissions processes and we are now trying to develop fusion technology not least by the ITER project. At the same time continued attempts to LENR develop technology has been made in some parts of the world. It is an area that many regard with great skepticism and as basically impossible to realize and even more impossible to explain with current knowledge. Development has mainly been driven by experimentalists and entrepreneurs. Knowledge of what has been achieved has not disseminated in the normal academic spheres but often through other media. Inventors have often been put against established scientists and LENR technology has more than once been rejected as pure falsehood or wishful thinking. Yet some of the results reported could not straight off be rejected. Nuclear reactions can probably occur in special environments that we do not yet understand. The laws of nuclear physics apply of course also in these environments.

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On 23 March 1989 scientists Fleischmann and Pons featured their sensational discovery that energy could be extracted from palladium electrodes in an electrolyte of heavy hydrogen .Neutrons were stated to play an important role. The term "cold fusion" was coined and many established research teams quickly started to try and repeat and verify the experiments. Very few reported success at the time and the matter cooled down eventually. Today, 2013, a commercial development within LENR area is ongoing. Andrea Rossi with his Energy Catalyst, E-Cat, is one example. In the late 1980s, a researcher from University of Turin, Italy, Don Borghi, ran simple experiments with nickel and hydrogen. In 1993 a report was released from experiments made by CEN Laboratories in Recife ,Brazil , around his experiments in which, inter alia, neutrons and large energy production could be observed.1 Other experiments, roughly contemporary, were said to show that nickel and hydrogen on several occasions caused the explosion of a magnitude, which probably could not be explained by the small hydrogen quantity at hand. The question is whether in any way energy was released, which was not derived from the chemically bound energy of the hydrogen. 1.2 How it all started We have chosen to go back to the mid-1980s, when some spectacular experiments were conducted in the U.S. and then in various ways documented. Joseph Papp conducted experiments based on a conventional combustion engine. The piston space in the engine was redesigned and instead of gasoline was fed a noble gas mixture consisting of helium, argon, krypton and xenon. The machine developed got the name "The Noble Gas Engine", name referring the noble gases. Papp and colleagues (including John Rohner) could show that the machine (which is well documented in its patents) could be run without any fuel additives for about 3 months.
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C. Borghi, C. Giori, A.A. Dall’Ollio, Experimental Evidence of Emission of Neutrons from Cold Hydrogen Plasma?, American Institute of Physics (Phys. At. Nucl.), vol 56, no 7, 1993.

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The engine developed 40-50 kW of power continuously. Sometimes 100 - 200 hp could be recovered during the months that the machines were tested. This spectacular experiment was questioned by science world. After Papp’s death in 1989 his aide, John Rohner, continued development into what came to be "The Plasmic Transition Machine ". 2 Around 1985, Dr. Eric Lerner, plasma scientist from USA, Came up with a suggestion about a so-called Dense Plasma Focus Machine(DFP) 3. The principle was based on the acceleration of protons, magnetic compression and bombardment of boron atoms in a relative small limited volume. DPF technology was validated only partially. Interesting, however, was that Lerner's idea came from astrophysical observations how galaxies rotate and form energy, and that the device was reported to generate electricity directly. 1.3 A controversial research

The LENR phenomenon is reported to have many properties similar to superconductivity and superflow. These phenomena consist of a collective behavior of elementary particles which show up as quasiparticles such as phonons, plasmons and polaritroner. Many of the hypothetical explanations for LENR include quasiparticles such as phonons, polaritroner and plasmons. Plasma phenomena can also participate in some of the processes. Electric and magnetic fields can there via nonlinearities be connected together via plasma resonances. Formation of neutrons can occur via different hypothetical models. It should be emphasized that all phenomena that are present must give rise to nuclear reactions to create the kinetic energy.

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http://peswiki.com/energy/PowerPedia:Joseph_Papp%27s_Noble_Gas_Engine (2013-1015)
Lerner E., Magnetic self-compression in laboratory plasmas, quasars and radio galaxes, Part I, Laser and Particle Beams (1986) vol 4, part 2; pp 193-213

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2 State of knowledge about LENR
"Cold Fusion" became a hot topic in the spring of 1989. Researchers Fleischmann and Pons came into the spotlight on March 23, 1989 when they claimed that they have been experimentally shown that slow neutrons could be produced by using palladium electrodes in a electrolyte of heavy hydrogen. But the attempts have been challenged and been difficult to repeat. In recent years it seems that the interest in "Cold fusion" or LENR as it is now called, has increased. At the end of 2012 about 1700 published articles could be counted within LENR area. 2.1 What is meant by LENR technology? So far, no validated theory or explanation model could be presented which provides support for LENR. One reason may simply be that Low Energy Nuclear Reactions cannot occur. Other reasons could be that:  Experiments on LENR have been performed in different and non-repeatable manners, (which does not follow the practice of performing similar experiments on several independent laboratories to eliminate measurement errors, etc.). The phenomenon is strongly non-linear. Sometimes it is said the same experimental setup has shown great energy exchange, sometimes nothing. Or it is something entirely that is going on

By use of heuristics increased knowledge has been reached on conditions for generating an energy yield from processes by some described as LENR. However, distinct scientific evaluations of these experiments are lacking. The results reported from various experiments with devices that is reportedly under LENR technology suggests the following:   It can not be solely chemical energy as the reported energy generation is several magnitudes higher than can be obtained from chemical bonds. It may not be nuclear energy of the known type as there are no residual radionuclides nor 4

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measured fast neutrons or gamma radiation. Both fission, as we know it from today's nuclear power plants, and thermo nuclear fusion, which we know from the sun, can be excluded. It is known that very special conditions of nanoscale metal are required for the reaction. What role the metal has is not known. Confidence in the operation of LENR is thus controversial and within certain groups severely criticized. However, there is information that indicates that scientists already at the early 1900s may have created LENR effects.4 As an example, the Swedish physicist John Tandberg in 1927 claimed that he had succeeded fusing hydrogen into helium under pressure in an electrolytic cell with palladium electrodes, but he did not get his claimed patent. When Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, made their attempt with cold fusion, they used palladium and deuterium in a electrolytic environment. The earliest experiments with LENR continued using palladium-deuterium in a electrochemical cell. Others tested different variants with other catalytic materials. Very few people reported successful trials and then in a few experiments. The LENR effect was at that time not replicable. With time also other metals demonstrated the same phenomena as with hydrogen and palladium.5 Moreover the LENR process in dry environment developed in which hydrogen gas is packed into in a metal. The combination of nickel and hydrogen were first applied by professor Francesco Piantelli. Several other Italian professors have since researched with nickel and hydrogen together with nanomaterials, such as Sergio Focardi and Francesco Celani but also American professor George Miley. If we assume that the LENR phenomenon exists, then perhaps nickel-hydrogen-LENR is the process closest to commercialization ___________________
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Friedrich Panethand Kurt Peters, Über die Verwandlung von Wasserstoff in Helium, Naturwissenschaften 14 (43): 956–962, en artikel som senare drogs tillbaka.
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Se F. Celanis presentation på CERN Colloquium den 22 mars 2012, http://indico.cern.ch/getFile.py/access?resId=3 & materialId=slides & conf Id=177379, där även övriga presentationer finns på http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=177379

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for energy applications. Against this background, this report mainly deals with validations of nickel-hydrogen reactors, in addition to other information that may be of interest for further investigations of LENR technology from an energy industry perspective. Knowledge of LENR-technology from manufacturers is not independent. (See the chapter on validation studies below). The only study by independent researchers , is validation conducted by researchers from the University of Bologna together with Swedish researchers from Uppsala University and KTH. But this one cover sonly the energy exchange. This leaves many questions from an industrial perspective, in addition to an accepted theoretical explanation of the whole process. It should be of significant interest for energy market operators whether it is possible to develop and commercialize LENR. Such development would open new business opportunities, but would simultaneously challenge the existing structure of the energy system. A central issue is also the time profile of the equipment claimed to be close commercialization, as long lead times stands energy investments, from both planning and commissioning as well as depreciation periods. That the technology appears to be able to scale down makes it of course very interesting in applications with distributed power generation. From energy and climate perspective LENR technology could, given that it is possible to develop the technology, have undreamt of importance. 2.2 What are explanatory models? It has been speculated that LENR-phenomena may occur in quite different environments. It also means that the explanations for these phenomena are very different. In many cases, there is a lack of scientific stringency. In some cases there are no explanations at all. To give you a picture how different scientists, inventors and innovators see it, there is below a selection of the hypothetical explanations which now prevail. The selection is the authors' own choice. If "new physics" is needed it is about phenomena that can occur in particular environments. The basic physics cannot be changed. The models of explanation described below are not entirely randomly selected. They reflect some models that in one or the other way possibly can support each other as there 6

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can be logical connections and possibly causal chains. Some model approaches are criticized for violating established principles. Some other theoretical explanations are based on the assumption that the standard model of elementary particles is not adequate, which then contradicts the established scientific perception.6 2.2.1 Explanatory models on flash of ball lightning and other plasmoids Ball lightning has long fascinated man. How can light globes be formed, move through solid materials such as walls and such? What made that Papp’s and other second plasma machines seemed to work? Clint Seward, at Electron Power System in US, has described how plasmoids (ball lightning) can possibly be formed in nature from an initial lighting discharge. 7 The resulting magnetic field traps electrons and gives these closed ring characteristics, which in turn creates a rotating current that maintains itself. (Maxwell's equations take care of both geometries and time derivatives.) Other researchers, e.g. Sanduoloviciu 8 have experimentally demonstrated a very unusual phenomenon occurring in plasma context. Namely something that just man is capable of in nature; that entropy decreases in the system. In other words, the plasma has the ability to self organize and create a system that does not exhibit greater disorder when let loose but creates order out of chaos. It is interesting to note the plasmoid ability to create a negative (dynamic) resistance. In other words, a plasma, could then become "superconducting". (Is this something that might explain the extremely high magnetic fields which can sometimes are observed in tornados?) It may also be mentioned that the U.S. Defense Department through DARPA is investing in R & D in the ball lightning area in which to conduct research into as _______________________
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Exempelvis Einstein-Cartan-Evans, ECE, teorin, se http://drmyronevans.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/paper230.pdf
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Seward. C et al., Ball Ligtning explained as a stable plasma toroid, http://www.electronpowersystems.com/ 8 Sanduloviciu et al., Non-linear phenomena in plasma as a consequence of selforganization, Dept. of Plasma Physics, Al.I. Cuza Univ., 6600 lasi, Romania

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they write "understanding and quantifying the interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic waves with the plasma in flames. " The DARPA plan for 2013 says further: "experimentally attempt 3-D observation of HF-induced plasma structures and potentially determine relative HF power absorption for different altitudes, frequencies and geophysical conditions ". The Joseph Papp’s "Noble Gas Engine" created a toroidal plasma by a compressed noble gas, which then probably also became ionized. A high voltage pulse generates a magnetic field and an electron plasma is formed (perhaps in the way that Seward claims?) By applying a radio frequency electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 50-350 MHz the system resonances are exited. These are explanatory models about the initiation of the LENRprocess, which however does not say anything about what nuclear reactions provide the energy. 2.2.2 Some explanatory models around ultra cold neutrons One in the LENR-world rather often referenced explanation is provided by Preparata, Widom and Larsen, or W-L theory 9 as it is usually termed. In short it says:  By supply of energy (in the form of heat or electro magnetic energy) so-called surface plasmons are created. When those get in the resonance condition the created plasmons (heavy electrons) interact with protons or deutrons. According the presented theory then cold neutrons (with ultra low momentum) and neutrinos are formed. The cold neutrons transmute surrounding elements, hydrogen and e.g.nickel, which then form new (unstable / or stable) isotopes plus electrons and anti-neutrinos. From

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WL theory, see eg http://newenergytimes.com/v2/sr/WL/WLTheory.shtml and their explanation of neutron production in YN Srivastava, A. Widom, L. Larsen, A primer for electro weak induced low-energy nuclear reactions, Pramana - journal of physics, Vol. 75, no. 4, October 2010, p. 617-637, A Widom, L. Larsen, Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces, European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields, Vol. 46, No. 1, April 2006, 107-112, and A. Widom, J. Swain, YN Srivastava, Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas, http://arXiv:1305.4899v1 [hep-ph] 19 May 2013

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Hydrogen change to alpha particles (ie helium nuclei). Theory makers means that electron capture in protons and deutrons process becomes the process when plasmons have high energy, i.e. inverse beta decay.  The formation of heavier unstable nuclides leads to further decay and radiation which is absorbed in the material and is assumed to be converted to heat. The released amount of energy keeps the system running, leaving also quite a lot which can be taken out in heat or electricity. Any gamma radiation formed in connection with certain transmutations is converted by surface plasmons to IR photons (i.e. thermal radiation). Some soft X-ray radiation may possibly also transpire.

It may be noted that a NASA scientist, Joseph Zawodny, has taken out a patent on a method of producing heavy electrons (U.S.20110255645A1). This is done by stimulating the resonance of surface plasmons / polaritons on electrically conducting surfaces. 2.2.3 Other explanatory mechanisms around low-energy fusion Hanno Essén, at KTH, has put forward the following idea / model possible explanation behind the low-energy nuclear reactions and especially for the Rossi-type nickel powder-hydrogen:  All materials emit electrons when heated. A metal powder will thus contain an electron plasma in the area between the metal particles and density will increase with the temperature. Such a system will be highly polarized and especially nickel, which is well known to dissolve the H2 -molecules in individual atoms.

It is known that plasma can collapse over a given density, called Greenwald border 10. Zuin 11 et.al. has recently described that this occurs when the magnetic field energy density comes up on par with the restmass energy density of the electron. _______________________
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M. Greenwald, Density limits in toroidal plasmas, Plsma Phys. Control Fusion 44 (2002) R27-R80
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Zuin M., et al. A first principles explanation for the density limit in Magnetized Plasmas, arXiv: 1001.4480 [physics.plasma-Ph] (2010)

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Essén 12 believes that when this happens the magnetic energy will greatly dominate over the electric energy.  In this plasma dominated by very high magnetic energy density, "filamentation" will take place 13 . Spontaneous wire resembled growths of current paths and magnetic fields occur (Perhaps like solar flares?). These growths branching out and one could observe electrons dash off. Electrons possibly have relativistic velocities. Fast electrons and growths produce normal so called Pinch (pinch effect). This pinch effect, which is due to the magnetic field compresses the stream, can for sufficiently fast electrons mean that these will cause Coulomb barrier to break for the charged particles present 14. Since Coulomb barrier is the largest problem in fusion plasma physics (and normally requires temperatures of millions of degrees), this mechanism could then be of very large interest. In the hot fusion plasma Pinch effect is not stable. In the metal powder plasma maybe there are ongoing random pincher who come and go, but enough of them to allow time for one or another fusion to take place.

The pinch in this case cause electron densities at the cores high enough to allow Coulomb barrier to be bypassed for fusion between protons and / or protons and atomic nuclei, or the occurrence of some other transmutation process .15 2.2.4 Rydberg- and Bose-Einstein-conditions as elements in nuclear reactions Several theories addresses the conditions for quantum tunnelling through Coulumb barrier to occur. ___________________
12 13 14 15

H. Essén, Classical diamagnetism, magnetic interaction energies and repulsive forces in magnetized plasmas, Europhysics Letters (EPL) 94, (2011) pp. 47003-1-5 http://www.plasma-universe.com H. Essén, The exact Darwin Lagrangian, Europhysics Letters (EPL) 79, (2007) pp. 60002-1-3 H. Essén, catalyzing Fusion with Relativistic Electrons, arXiv: physics/0607138v1 [Physics.plasm-ph], July 2006

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Energy pulses of oscillating nano plasma (plasmons) or mechanical oscillations (phonons) causes densification of the hydrogento super heavy hydrogen. There, ionized matter can condense to Rydberg state.16 Her dipole moment is believed to give rise to an electric field (plexitrons) that catalyze the fusion of the hydrogen nuclei or deuterium nuclei at the right frequency by tunnelling through Coulomb barrier. The Shukla-Eliasson effect means that a new electrical potential occurs screened by degenerated electrons, which are related with Bohm's quantum potential and other characteristics of electron correlations. This negatively charged potential allows the positively charged particles and ions to be combined in the atomic structures of the nano plasma, as well as for critical points and phase transitions in the nano plasma.17 Defkalion’s Hyperion reactor is explained by that hydrogen molecules are ionized into excited hydrogen states in which Rydberg atoms are included. The hydrogen is assumed to resolve into electrons and protons, where acceleration of the charged particles generates magnetic fields. The manufacturer has measured magnetic field peaks at 1.6 Tesla lasting a few seconds after each high voltage pulse. Here superconducting Bose-Einstein condensate from protons assume to be accelerated from the high voltage pulses which initiate the process.18 The protons are said to be capable to form pairs, which interact in integer spin forming boson clusters. In what is called Bosenova deuteron-deuteron-reactions occurs that form the He-4. This is done with nano explosions. Residual material with several different nuclides suggests that the high energy density in turn can give rise to fissions processes. _____________________________
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Hydrogen in the Rydberg state described eg in Leif Holmlid, Largeion-cluster HN+ of RydbergMatter: Stacks of the planar cluster H7, International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 300, Issue 1, 30 January 2011, pp. 50-58, Rydberg Materials will also be discussed as an explanation in Pekka Soini's LENR-invention described in patent application WO2013076378 A2
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PK Shukla, B. Eliasson, Novel attractive force between ions in quantum plasmas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165007 (2012), Erratum: PRL 108, 219 902 (E) (2012); PRL 109, 019 901 (E) (2012)
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Yeong E. Kim, John Hadjichristos, Theoretical Analysis and Reaction Mechanisms for Experimental Resultas of Hydrogen-Nickel Systems, Purdue Nuclear and Many Body Theory Group (PNMBTG) Preprint-PNMBTG-10-2013 (October 2013), Invited paper presented at ICCF-18, University of Missouri, July 21-27, 2013

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2.2.5 Hidetsugu Ikegami hypothesis on pycnonuclear19 fusion In contrast to the thermonuclear fusion that takes place on the sun, there is a fusion that occurs due to pressure, pycnonuclear fusion. Astrophysicists have shown in ultra-dense materials fusion reactions may be observed down to the temperature of zero Kelvin. Furthermore, these nuclear reactions have been shown to be noticeable in the laboratories where explosive chain reactions of from the fusion are possible.20 Neutron production has also been reported in the experiments performed with proton beams against lithium led by Professor Hidetsugu Ikegami from the University of Osaka. The result of collaboration between the Universities of Uppsala and Osaka is documented in various reports from 2002 to 2006. The experiments resulted in an exchange of energy that could not be explained with ordinary thermonuclear fusion. These are the known experimental trials in the LENR area in Sweden as presented in Ultradense Nuclear Fusion in Metallic LithiumLiquid.21 The description model of pycnonuclear fusion made by Ikegami in The Nature of the Chemonuclear Transition 22explains how chemo nuclear fusion is a pycno nuclear fusion, which thus is known from astrophysics. Deuterons in the keV-range are penetrating the lithium atoms s-orbital elektron cloud to form intermediate LiD-atoms. At this energy nuclear collisions dominate over the electric in the attenuation process. Energy of the deuterons is sufficient to compress the molecule down to approximately 7% of the original volume, hence the name pycno which means dense. This leads to a formation of the two cores inside the now common K- and L-electron shells with a distance of less than 1 pm. The fusioned atomic state makes an adiabatic transition to nuclear fusion reaction with a certain probability as determined by Gamow factor, i.e. the probability factor of two nuclei opportunity to break Coulomb barrier to perform a nuclear reaction. _________________
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Pycno = dense

S. Son, NJ Fisch, Pycnonuclear reaction and possible chain reactions in an ultradense DT plasma, Physics Letters A 337 (2005) 397-407 H. Ikegami, T. Watanabe, R. Pettersson and K. Fransson, Ultradense Nuclear Fusion in Metallic Lithium Liquid, A report on Research Performed at the R & D Center, Sakaguchi EH VOC Co.. under the auspices of the Swedish Energy Agency, ER 2006:42
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H. Ikegami, The Nature of the Chemonuclear Transition, TSL note, Uppsala 2012

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The process can be considered within the framework of thermo dynamics of chemical reactions in dilute solutions. Arrhenius equation for spontaneous chemical reactions is applied. Arrhenius equation defines a chemical reaction rate at a certain temperature by starting with the activation energy and the likelihood for successful collisions between the molecules. The change in Gibbs free energy in the exponent of the amplification factor is negative in the case presented by the reaction of deuterons and lithium to the LiD. Accordingly, a gain of e(-ΔG/kT)with many magnitudes of nuclear fusion reactions in metallic lithium liquid is achieved. It is easy to fall into complex scientific reasoning including quantum physics, plasma physics, quantum electro dynamics , etc. The above discussion intents only to describe some hypothetical mechanisms that theorists explore. Experimentalists care maybe slightly less for theories , as long as things go in the right direction and the explosions are controllable. As a summary you can say that among all the explanatory models that abound around the LENR phenomena it may be possible that the same phenomena manifests itself in different ways, or different phenomena manifest themselves in the same way or in different ways . It is quite possible, however, that certain common characteristics can be distinguished. These will be discussed at the end. Ikegami's model still explains how nuclear reactions come about, even if the road to them is full of ambiguities. 2.3 How much is spent on LENR developments? Investments on LENR are difficult to estimate, since no public figures are stated with the exception of a few cases. Therefore below only a few examples are mentioned. 2.3.1 R & D efforts in the academic world and by authorities A university with a focus on LENR is the University of Missouri. They have established the Sidney Kimmel Institute for Nuclear Renaissance ( SKINR ) from a donation of $ 5.5 million made by philanthropist Sidney Kimmel . The institute was established in April 2012

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as a unit within the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Missouri , reporting directly to the Vice Chancellor for Research Dr. Robert V. Duncan.23 Examples of R & D funds for military research are DARPA ( U.S. Department of Defense ) budgets for 2013 and 2014. For example, the area Fundamentals of Nanoscale and Emergent Effects and Engineered Devices has a budget of $ 5.159 million for 2013 and $ 6.5 million for 2014. Program content describes, i. a, the intention to " try to understand and exploit natural phenomena for the development of more effective and powerful devices . This includes the development of devices and structures to enable photonic devices at multiple wavelengths, construct palladium microstructures with large deuterium loads to study absorption thermodynamics and effects, and enable real-time detection as well as the analysis of signals and molecules and origin of emergent behaviour in correlated electron systems . " 2.3.2 R & D within business companies An example of how R & D is financed by manufacturing enterprises is Brillouin Energy Corp. They got the funding for a "second stage" of $ 20 million as a conditional agreement with Sunrise Securities of New York , NY ( www.sunrisecorp.com ): 24 • In Sunrise's offer is included a purchase of 15% of BEC 's "post -money" , conditional on BEC goes back and completes successful testing of its reactor NHB ™ at SRI Sunrise also offer conditional provisional agreement on acquiring at least a " stranded asset" of a conventional fired small-scale power plants (5-10 MW) with existing conventional generation equipment, and replace old boiler with Brillouin 's hot reactor NHB ™, along with the renewal of a power contracts or steamheat contract with an industry or a power company.

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23 24

http://iccf18.research.missouri.edu/files/day2/SKINR_Overview.pdf http://www.slideshare.net/ssusereeef70/brillouin-bus-sum4512

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Key experts connected to the Sunrise, including former Director of the California Public Utilities Commission ( CPUC ) 's independent power division, has already offered possible candidates for takeovers which are available at negligible cost and who already have power contracts Upon successful testing of NHB ™ at SRI , Sunrises offer of $ 20 million will fund a full commercial launch of this model, including"Merchant power supplyretrofit "

2.4 Ongoing research in the LENR field Today there are over 1000 peer-reviewed articles about LENR , sometimes up to 1700 are mentioned. Many of these can be read on the website http://lenr-canr.org . Most deal with palladium and deuterium in the electrolytic environment, as this was the reaction which in 1989 was described by Fleischmann and Pons. The focus of the disciplines of researchers in the field belongs to is electrochemistry, solid state physics, nanotechnology , analytical chemistry and quantum electrodynamics. LENR is not found in the situations nuclear scientists normally work with namely core processes where neutrons are moving pretty quickly (2000-3000 m / s). By process of elimination, one might think that LENR is a complex physical process (perhaps including weak interactions ) 25 and not a normal nuclear physics strong interaction process such as fission and fusion. It happens transmutations of hydrogen into helium and even heavier substances in some LENR experiments. How this in detail proceeds is difficult to say as the process in some cases occurs in crystalline materials at a scale of 2 to 10 nanometres, possibly larger, with pulses of the correct frequency or " dusty plasma " or noble gas plasma . Many competing explanations exist. A validated theoretical explanation probably will take many years to find. The process, to first find phenomena which can not be explained theoretically until later, is the usual way of transformative knowledge. However the lack of theory on LENR technology does not prevent it to be introduced on the market. To become market approved there is a need of a
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25

An example of such a complex interaction is described in J. Swain , A. Widom , YN Srivastava, Electro Strong Nuclear Disintegration in Condensed Matter , http:// arXiv: 1306.5165v1 [nucl-th] 19 June2013

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security certificate from an approving organization , such as Underwriters Laboratories, UL. Leonardo Corporation received such a safety certificate for the industrial version of the E-Cat 1 MW from SGS. 26 2.4.1 Credibility of practical trials With the trial-and-error method, researchers have come a long way. On the Internet there are recipes with materials and process explanation for how LENR experiments can be performed.27 An example is the Pirelli experiment in electrochemical environment , implemented by teachers and students at the Leopoldo Pirelli Industrial University in Rome and described in the Web.28 One of the experiments in the reactor Athanor achieved a surplus energy of 400%. It is more difficult to independently carry out experiments with the dry gas version including nickel and hydrogen. This requires skills on geometric relationships of nickel container, grain size of the powder and the amplitude and frequency of electric pulse to start the process . Furthermore, knowledge about controlling the process so that it does not end in an explosion (which happened numerous times). Therefore, a deeper knowledge should be acquired about how this commercial nickel-hydrogen process works. From the below described validations of commercial processes , as far as known , only two were performed by researchers not funded by the companies whose devices were validated. This involves equipment from Defkalion and Leonardo Corporation. The validation of Defkalion Hyperion reactor was performed, however, by an industrial scientist with the commercial company personnel present. MIT has had open courses on LENR technology in January 2012 and 2013.29 In 2012 the course was demonstrated LENR equipment from Jet Energy , which reportedly worked during 6 months.30 At the conference, ICCF -18 at Missouri University a video test was shown July 23 2013 where Defkalion from Milan in public demonstrated the function of its
_________________________________ 26 SGS Italia SpA , the Voluntary Certificate of Compliance with Safety Requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC (Annex SGS I) 27 e.g. on http://22passi.blogspot.se/2012/04/lathanor-delliis-pirelli-di-roma-1.html 28 See burst of http://roma.repubblica.it/cronaca/2012/04/19/foto/il_reattore_ costruito_dagli_studenti-33583028/1/ 29 http://student.mit.edu/searchiap/iap-BD6D0CF8E170B284E0400312852F4A61.html, 2013-08-19 30 http://cdn.coldfusionnow.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/HagelsteinPdemonstra.pdf , 2013-08-19

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Hyperion reactor.31This should be looked at as a commercial company showing their product under development. There is a test protocol from the public demonstration.32 A general acceptance of LENR - validations comes first when LENR devices have been tested at a, from manufacturer independent, site and by independent researchers. In addition, probably openness on all the materials and parameters for interpreting the devices' behaviour is probably needed. Credibility at large comes first if also other LENR manufacturers make demonstrations of their equipment. So far, no complete independent demonstration of all parameters in a LENR reactor was performed. Researchers from Bologna and Uppsala University only had the opportunity to study the energy exchange from Leonardo Corporation Hot -Cat reactor in December 2012 and March 2013, see results under "Validated " nickel hydrogen LENR plants. 2.5 EU research ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ) has in different European contexts rendered needs to invest EU research on LENR . Examples include a proposal on materials research for LENR in the EU 33 and the meeting arranged by Amalia Sartori , chairman of the ITRE Committee of the European Parliament and ENEA Commissioner Giovanni Lelli at 3 June 2013.34 The meeting was hosted by the member of the ITRE Committee Edit Herczog . At the meeting, cooperation in LENR research between ENEA in Italy, Stanford Research International and Energetics LLC in the United States since 2004 was presented. The Naval Research Laboratory , NRL , The United States joined the collaboration in 2008 and since 2010 is also the University of Missouri involved in research collaboration.
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31 32

See the webcast on http://new.livestream.com/triwu2/Defkalion-US

Hyperion devise Functional & Performance Test Plans & Test Results , Test code: 3.2.30 , http://iccf18.research.missouri.edu/files/day2/Protocol_and_test_results.pdf 2013-08-19
33

John Veiga Benesch ( Ed ) , Forward Looking Workshop on Materials for Emerging Energy Technologies , EUR 25350 EN, European Union 2012
34

See ENEA 's website where participants' presentations are available.

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At the meeting was also a review of palladium - deuterium researchers about LENR's reproducibility and real effect. The participants were from the United States, electro chemist Michael McKubre (Stanford Research International, SRI) , Robert Duncan ( Vice Chancellor for Research , University of Missouri ) and Graham Hubler (Director of the Sidney Kimmel Institute for Nuclear , University of Missouri ) , from Italy participated Vittorio Violante ( LENR Research Coordinator , ENEA and professor at Universitàdegli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata , Rome ) and from Germany participated Konrad Czerski (Professor at Uniwersytet Szczeciński , Poland and the Technische Universität Berlin) . 2.6 Commercial status of LENR A number of companies are planning to commercialize products that they claim are based on LENR technology. Their products will probably be launched in the energy market before a theoretical generally accepted explanation exists. Market introduction is dependent upon many factors, including functionality and technology maturity, security, patent rights , economics, environmental benefits and acceptance among politicians and the public. Leonardo Corporation has three types of devices: E-Cat , Hot-Cat ( high temperature E-Cat ) and a device that is controlled by gas. The Hot -Cat device is designed for electricity generation combined with steam turbine. They have launched the Industrial 1 MW plant for heat called the E-Cat, which as stated by the company, can be delivered four months after order. The company is said, to his American partner to have delivered three plants, one E-Cat for warmth, an E-Cat with gascontrol and a Hot-Cat for electricity generation. These three plants have the american partner as stated by the company further delivered to customers, not clear to who. Defkalion Green Technologies has two main tracks in the launch of its technology: devices for energy conversion and licensing its technology to consumer product manufacturers whose products require energy for their function . They claim to have licensed its technology to about 20 companies for the operation of various products .Two of these companies have been presented as one of Europe's largest car manufacturer and the world's largest mobile phone company. Hyperion is planned to be ready for market in 18

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2014 in the range of 10 kW to 1 MW + with a COP (Coefficient of Performance), i.e. energy yield, of 6 - 18. At the public demonstration during the ICCF -18 from Milan on 22 July 2013 technology arrangement and instrumentation was under the full control of Defkalion. Due to problems with degassing the reactor, which was reported to be sensitive to small amounts of other gases than hydrogen, it gave only a COP of 2. This is not then taken into account entalpi content in heat of vaporisation, which had given a much higher COP. Brillouin Corporation's device is called BEC Brillouin Boiler™. They have received $ 20 million in venture capital from Sunrise Securities Corporation in New York City to outfit a coal power plant with a LENR -powered boiler in size 5-10 MW.35 The agreement includes key expertise in contact with Sunrise, where previously the Director of the independent power division at the California Public Utilities Commission, CPUC , has already offered potential acquisition candidates available for minimal costs , with the existing electricity contracts. When Brillouin has a developed reactor for industrial use is not known. BlackLight Power's technology is a wet electrolytic cell , where hydrogen from water steam is used as the energy source. Their technique is said to be able to generate electricity directly without intermediate heat generation . BlackLight Power has also a dry process which is adapted for heat and steam-powered electricity generation. Also here are the plans unknown to market launch. Jet Energy's appliance Nanor ™ with designer Mitchell R. Swartz is still in the demonstration phase. LENUCO whose device today generates 100-300 W, plans commercial scale of 3 kW to 30 kW in 2013 / 14. Owner George H. Miley , holds the first American LENR patent, which was issued July 24, 2012 : U.S. 8 227 020. _____________________
35

See p. 14 in the presentation http://www.slideshare.net/ssusereeef70/brillouin-ppttechnical32712

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NicHEnergy , a R & D company started by Francesco Piantelli , has equipment which today generates 10-100 W. Metal Energy is a sister company that plans to commercialize the technology. 2.7 Applications of interest If LENR technology is shown to work and be repeatable, controllable and scalable, there are a variety of application areas where it could be applied. As we can not yet say anything about the cost of the commercial installations that may be considered ( at large scale ) , we have to make a rough hypothetical approach. Regarding investment costs, we can assume that manufacturers use market prices for their goods to become very competitive compared with established energy sources. The actual material for reactors as well as hydrogen and nickel , are however low cost. Operating costs amounts to, if we start from nickel - hydrogen reactions, the cost of nickel powder and hydrogen / deuterium refills. The different designs that figure has probably different ways of dealing with refills etc. The original fuel charge is also likely to be affected in different applications. A stationary power plant can get more volume and longer operating cycle, a vehicle maybe less.

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3 Validated energy facilities
Since many experiments are carried out for a long time, but only recently begun to be classified as LENR , we have chosen to describe the validation of some energy facilities , which can be attributed to the class unknown phenomena , but with a possible connection to nuclear processes. We also take up some of the initial experiments, which have pure plasma physical background and some later experiments , which are collectively termed LENR technology. 3.1 Validated plasma machinery One of the machines that are documented and partly officially validated is Joseph Papp’s "Noble Gas Engine". Papp, as in 70 - and 80's worked with brothers Robert and Tom Rohner. "The Rohner Group" has continued to work with Papp’s machine and some video footage is available.36 In the scientific validation, conducted by Richard Feymann at CalTech , Papp worked with Jimmy Sabori and brothers Tom and Robert Rohner. The validation was debated when the machine exploded. Machine development continued after Papps death 1989 med different mechanical variants of Papps original machine. It is unclear whether these were validated. John Rohner was granted a patent on a " Plasmic Transition Process Engine " on November 18, 2009 ( US20110113772A1 ) Heinz Klostermann eventually came into the picture and took in 2006 also his own patent (US7076950B2) . Several different development companies have been relevant but it is unclear what substance has come out. In December 2012, a plasma machine, rather like Rohner later models was seen in a German patent. This patent (DE102011103832A1), by Jürgen Weber is based on a nickel piston and hydrogen. Whether this has been built or not is unclear. What is clear however is that the hydrogen gas must be heated to temperatures between 150-500 °C. _____________________
36

http://pappengine.com/videos.htm

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3.2 " Validated " nickel-hydrogen LENR facilities We have in our screening found eight "surveys" of the LENR process as such. One of these was conducted by Edmund Storms and published in 2010 in Naturwissenschaften.37 In addition to these processvalidations there are a number of validations of more or less developed plants for commercialization, which are those presented below. Validation of energy generation in the below reports concerns COP (Coefficient Of Performance), outbound useful energy divided by the energy input. 3.2.1 E-Cat Leonardo Corporation Leonardo Corporation has several public validations of their LENR devices, of which only the last one was made by an independent third party. The various devices are described on their website.38 The industrial 1 MW E-Cat has a safety certification by SGS Italia S.p.A. The first validation is not performed by an independent third party but published by Leonardo Corporation. The report named Report on the internal test Performed on the “Hot-Cat " is dated 16 July 2012. Executors of the validation was Fabio Penon , M.Eng. in nuclear power , product specialist Fulvio Fabiani , M.Eng. , and David Bianchini, M.Sc. in physics and specialist in measuring radiation. The test lasted for 6.48 hours with an average power density between 58 and 117 kW / kg and an energy density of 378-758 kWh / kg COP is not calculated in the report, but it is mentioned that the energy emitted can not come from chemical reactions. The next report from the Leonardo Corporation is dated October 9, 2012 and the test is conducted by Fabio Penon . The reactor was studied in self-sufficient state for 118 hours. The power density was calculated to 163.4 MW / kg. Energy input was 278.4 kWh of energy produced 3 357 kWh, giving a COP of 11.7. Leonardo Corporation's own Hot Cat tests have been questioned in terms of electrical measurement of the input power to the
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37

Edmund Storms , Status of cold fusion, Naturwissenschaften October 2010 , Volume 97 , Issue 10, pp. 861-881
38

Leonardo Corporation product descriptions on http://ecat.com/ecat-products/ecat-1-mw

and http://ecat.com/ecat-products/ecat-ht-hot-cat-prototype

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process. When the process is running in stand-alone mode this counter argument is not valid. The validation made by independent scientists is carried out with respect to the energy exchange in the period from 13 to 17 December 2012 by Giuseppe Levi , Bologna University, Evelyn Foschi , Bologna, and during 18 to 23 March 2013 of the Giuseppe Levi , Bologna University, Evelyn Foschi , Bologna ,Torbjörn Hartman , Bo Höistad , Roland Pettersson and Lars Tegnér , Uppsala University and Hanno Essén , KTH.39 The result of this validation included i.a the high energy exchange , high energy density and no detected radiation. The validation showed that energy from Hot-Cat can not only be of a chemical nature. It should be noted that for commercial reasons researchers was not allowed to access all facts. Therefore the scientific community criticism of how the tests were performed. The first test: The equipment was operated with an energy consumption of 35 kWh and generated net 160 kWh. The heat in the form of convection and radiation from a Hot Cat was calculated. As result power density of 7 kW / kg and energy density of 680 kWh / kg was reached.This means that a Hot-Cat generates more than conventional energy sources. In this test COP = 5.6 ± 0.8. The second test: The equipment was operated with 33 kWh and 62 kWh generated net. The estimated power density was 530 kW / kg, and energy density 61 .103 kWh / kg . In this test COP = 2.6 ± 0.5. In both tests, the reactor was stopped intentionally and not because of fuel consumption .Thus, the calculated energy density units should be considered as lower than the actual values . The Hot-Cat that scientists validated proved with conservative assumptions to have an energy density of around 100 000
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39

Giuseppe Levi , Bologna University, Evelyn Foschi , Bologna, Torbjörn Hartman , Bo Höistad , Roland Pettersson and Lars Tegnér , Uppsala University, and Hanno Essén , KTH, Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device , http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.3913v3

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times that of gasoline and a power density of about 1 000 times that of gasoline. Forbes has published a Ragonediagram where the Bologna result is plotted, see: http://www.forbes.com/sites/markgibbs/2013/05/20/finallyindependent-testing-of-rossis-e-cat-cold-fusion-device-maybe-theworld-will-change-after-all/ 3.2.2 Hyperion Defkalion Green Technologies Defkalion Green Technologies Hyperion reactor was tested by Michael A. Nelson, who is an independent energy consultant, with a background as a NASA employee for 30+ years. He conducted the test not as NASA employee, but as a representative of the New Energy Foundation ( a non-profit organisation which was established in 2002 and based in the state of New Hampshire) and who paid the test. Hyperion has also been demonstrated for the Greek government. In Michael A. Nelson test summary, published October 18, 2012 the following is stated: 1. The device generated surplus energy. 2. Demonstration showed that Defkalion could have full control over the reaction to start it, stop it, increase and decrease. 3. The reaction is dependent of hydrogen. 4. The reactor contents were removed and weighed to 59 grams, most of which were ceramic containers. Reaction was found to emit more energy than a chemical reaction from the known amount of the corresponding mass, suggesting that a nuclear reaction is involved. 5. There were error ranges associated with all the data that are not yet fully secured. 6. Defkalion is sincere in their efforts with accurate measurements and to demonstrate their technology's performance with its confidence that they can achieve a COP > 1 for a sufficiently long time in order to exclude the possibility of a chemical reaction. A preliminary glance at the facts reactor has had a good operation on COP > 3. 24

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The product sheet from Defkalion highlights the selling points :

40

“Nickel and hydrogen, electric power heating, chemical assisting preheating media not to be disclosed, max pressure 150 bar, continuous use temperature max 1100 C, COP better than 1:25 for 5-11 kW series A and C, better than 1:35 for 10-45 kW series B and D.” These high rates of energy exchange have not been verified public yet .Not verified information mentions that previous tests have shown a COP > 20. 3.2.3 BEC Brillouin Boiler
TM

°

Brillouin Corp.

Several researchers have suggested that deuterium fusion may have occurred in certain metal hydrides. BEC means that there may be other mechanisms that release the binding energy of the e.g. helium. A lot of experimental results are reminiscent of those that can be paired with deuterium fusion, for example, the amount of helium formed, heat production etc. and also the production of tritium. Deterium fusion is quite close as hypothesis. No gamma ray formed. No fast neutrons can be observed. Also there is no need for energy levels to break down Coulomb barrier. Brillouins hypothesis among other things says that it would be possible to: • Run the reaction at significantly fewer protons in the metal matrix than the 85 % + that other groups need • Start the reaction process in milliseconds, rather than wait for unknown factors that cosmic rays • Free excess heat and produce helium using protons instead of deutrons • Run the reaction in normal palladium, nickel or tungsten • Increase the power output of the high pressure / high temperature designs
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40

Defkalion Green Technologies leaflet about Hyperion Series A, B, C and D are available on http://aromapress.com/ ~ defkalio/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/2011-11-30_HyperionSpec-Sheet.pdf

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Brillouin Energy Corporation apparatus, BEC Brillouin Boiler ™, has two validations of independent testers .41 However, they are probably paid by Brillouin Energy Corp. and therefore not ranked as "third party validations. One of them is conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratories. The other of DR. Michael McKubre from Stanford Research International ( SRI) , which also thereafter joined their advisory board.42 3.2.4 CIHT-cell - BlackLight Power BlackLight Power's continuous process for power generation converts regular water vapour (H2O) into electricity, oxygen, and a new, more stable form of hydrogen which the company calls hydrino. This releases more than 200 times more energy than pure hydrogen at incineration, according to Dr. Randell Mills, Chairman, CEO and President of BlackLight Power, Inc., and inventor of BlackLight Power process. Dr Mills says BlackLight Power has reached an important milestone in the upscaling of the process, which typically produces a gain (COP) of more than 10 times over a long period and in the scale 10 W. Now the company reportedly plans a 100W system and believes that a 1.5 kW unit for household use will be in operation as early as 2013.43 BlackLight Power's cell has been validated for 30 to 70 days of continuous operation of six different configurations of individual and groups of researchers, which they consider to be independent. They have their doctorates from universities such as MIT and Caltech . Whence these researchers have received payment for their validations are not known . Therefore, the following result from six validation protocol are not considered third party validations. ________________________
41

See http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/04/brillouin-had-los-alamos-and-sri.html 2013-0819 , image 13 in the presentation: http://www.slideshare.net/ssusereeef70/Brillouin-ppttechnical32712 and http://episin.blogspot.se/2011/07/brillouin-energy-reactor-beingtested.html, 2013-08-19
42 43

Board of Brillouin Energy presented on http://brillouinenergy.com See BlackLight Power's website http://www.blacklightpower.com

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K.V. Ramanajachary was a professor of chemistry and biochemistry at Rowan University. His areas of expertise are metals oxidation chemistry , electrical and magnetic properties of materials , and ionconducting polymers and oxides. Professor Ramanajachary found that CIHT-cells had a COP between 1.6 and 7.35. Terry Copeland, a chemical engineer from MIT, who has worked at Duracell and other battery manufacturers and at Altair Nanotechnologies Inc., evaluated CIHT cells during two occasions in November and December 2011. Dr. Copeland found that the COP was between 2 and 5.5. Henry Weinberg was during the validation currently professor of chemical engineering and chemical physics and a professor of materials engineering at the California Institute of Technology , and has a long resume in academia with various professorships at various universities. Professor Weinberg found that CIHT cell had a COP = 10. A team from the Fortune 500 companies list of U.S. DOD advisers, which consisted of an R & D program director who has worked for NASA, a Ph.D. in Physics and a Ph.D. in chemistry with fuel cell expertise. These researchers found that CIHT-cells with nickel had for 5 - 27 days COP > 2 after stabilization, but some even over 300. Cells with molybdenum instead of nickel had a COP of up to 2420. Nick Glumac was a professor at the University of Illinois in Mechanical Engineering since August 2007. He conducted the validation as a technology consultant at Mahomet. Professor Glumac found the energy yields from 10 and up. Cells with molybdenum gave a COP ~ 2000 while nickel cells had after 17 days COP between 9.1 and 14.4. Two Ph.D. from the Enser Corp. have made an evaluation. Enser is a company working for the U.S. military with missile batteries. They have 25 researchers in electrochemistry. James K. Pugh is ENSERs technical director. He is an expert in physical organic chemistry and electrochemistry. Ethirajulu Dayalan is a research fellow in electrochemistry who worked for, among other things NASA and the U.S. Army. The two researchers found that CIHT cells had a COP ~ 100. 27

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3.2.5 NANORTM Jet Energy Jet Energy's device NANOR ™ in mW range was tested at MIT in January - June 2012 and was displayed publicly. The equipment was claimed to have a COP of 12-14 during testperioden.44 Their LENR reactor shows similar energy and power densities as Leonardo Corporation's Hot-Cat, as evidenced by Ragone diagram on their website: http://world.std.com/~mica/cft.html, entitled "Why is cold fusion so important ? "The diagram was presented July 23, 2013 at the Conference ICCF18.

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44

http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/06/mit-lenr-device-publicly-running-for-6.html 2013-08-19

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4 Possible applications of LENR technology
4.1 Electricity and heat production If LENR technology works as it is said, today highly conceivable applications are district heat production and heat and steam generation for industrial processes. The reason why the equipment would likely come first to engineer frequent customers is safety. Leonardo Corporation has only security certificates to 1 MW machines and still has a process underway for the security certificate for small plants to residential customers. The company expects that retail market is taking off if the experiences of the industrial customer facilities are good. LENR devices, if they work, would in the future be able to compete against both the central heating side as the retail side, including be alternatives to heat pumps and bio energy. Even plants for electric power generation could be possible. One example is the Hot Cat for electricity generation tested in Bologna. Again, one can expect that the industrial customer experiences are expected to underpin security certification for the consumer market. U.S. reports concerning plans to reinvest in old coal plants by replacing coal boilers against LENR-reactors. LENR-devices might in the future compete with fossil-and nuclear power generation as well as electricity sales to retail and industrial customers. The company Kresenn report development underway for LENR - operation of datacentraler.45 4.2 Vehicle applications If LENR technology works one important application might be vehicle fuelling. Papp’s original machine was based on a conventional combustion engine. Rohner, Klostermann and Weber's designs are all motor applications with pistons and flywheel. The explosion chamber, however, is replaced with the plasma compartment. ___________________________
45

See http://www.kresenn.com/ 2013-08-19

29

ELFORSK LENR-reactors for vehicle drive are also studied by LENR Cars Sàrl in Lausanne.46 The construction displayed on this site reminds of other LENR-devices with the difference that it will provide electricity. Possibly this is done via the thermoelectric conversion. Options as a heat source in Stirling engines are also mentioned in terms of vehicle drives. LENR Cars Sàrl has a patent application by the name of Low Energy Nuclear Thermoelectric Systems , U.S. 2013 / 0263597 A1 , publication date 10 October 2013. There are reports that Toyota and Honda have investments in LENR research to produce LENR powered cars.47 Toyota has also collaboration with researchers at the Universities of Osaka and Kobe.48 If and so, when the application in vehicles arises, it will be in competition with electricity, biogas and hybrid vehicles. SPAWAR , NRL , DARPA , DTRA and DIA have conducted research on LENR, i.a. for military transports.49 DIA published Nov. 13, 2009 report, Technology Forecast: Worldwide Research on Low- Energy Nuclear Reactions Increasing and Gaining Acceptance , and they conclude : " ... the military potential of Such high-energy -density power sources is enormous . And since the U.S. military is Unmatched user of liquid fuel for transportation, LENR power sources could produce the greatest transformation of the battlefield for U.S. forces since the transition from horsepower to gasoline power." 50 4.3 Aerospace and Space Applications NASA and Boeing are exploring opportunities with future LENR operation for eco-friendly operation of the flight, as described in the NASA report: NASA/CR-2012-217556Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N +4 Advanced Concept Development.51 An important
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46

Nicolas Chauvin , LENR Powered Electric Vehicles , Proceedings ILENRS -12, Williamsburg, USA , July 1-3 , 2012
47

http://coldfusiondevices.com/cold-fusion/cold-fusion-devices-to-power-cars-in-thefuture
48

http://energycatalyzer3.com/news/toyota-is-active-in-cold-fusion-research-again, 201210-01
49

These organizations are the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command , U.S. NavalResearch Laboratory , the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency , Defense Threat Reduction Agency and Defense Intelligence Agency whose publications can be downloaded from www.lenr-canr.org
50 51

DIA - 08 911003 , p. 6

The report is available on http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20120009038_2012008934.pdf

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aspect is how aviation could be developed if the fuel weight is reduced to almost zero. For military flight applications it is seen the possibility of developing a supersonic plane that has almost unlimited mileage. For space applications , reusable launch vehicle with increased payload (50% more ), no maintenance and the ability to build ever smaller spaceship. NASA is therefore studying LENR - operation of rymdsonder.52 4.4 Transmutation of radioactive waste Transmutation of nuclides present in used nuclear fuel into stable nuclides have been performed at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries by Yasuhiro Iwamura.53 These experiments have been independently replicated by Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories.54 Although Osaka and Iwate University in Japan has replicated försöken.55 Among others , successful experiments were conducted with the transmutation of to96Mo42 .
133

Cs55 to

141

Pr59 and

88

Sr38

Francesco Piantelli has a patent application for the treatment of radioactive waste, WO/2013/046188 -A Method and a device for treating radioactive material , with publication date 4 April 2013. SPAWAR has April 16, 2013 received patent U.S. 8,419,919 , entitled System and method for generating particles where "Generated particles may be captured by other nuclei to create new elements, to remediate nuclear waste ...". If this transmutation method can be carried out in a larger scale and with reasonable economy, there may be a possibility of neutralizing the nuclides
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52

Xiaoling Yang and George H. Miley , A Game- Changing Power Source Based on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions ( LENRs ) , presentation at NETS 2012, March 19-23, 2012
53

Y. Iwamura , Observation of Nuclear Transmutation Reactions induced by D2 Gas Permeation through Pd Complexes , in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science , Marseille, France 2004 and http://indico.cern.ch/getFile.py/access?resId=5&materialId=slides&confId=177379
54

Introducing the Yasuhiro Iwamura at the American Nuclear Society LENR session 201211-14 San Diego, which can be viewed on video to http://www.lenrcoldfusion.com/2012/12/09/yasuhiro-iwamura-ans- presentation - LENR transmutation/ and scientific publishing : T. Hioki , N. Takahashi, S. Kosaka , T. Nishi, H. Azuma , S. Hibi , Y. Higuchi , A. Murase , T. Motohiro , Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry Study on the Increase in the Amount of Pr Atoms for Cs -Ion - Implanted Pd / CaO Multilayer Complex with Deuterium Permeation, Jpn . J. Appl. Phys. 52 (2013) 107301 (8 pages ) , DOI: 10.7567/JJAP.52.107301
55

http://www.e-catworld.com/2012/12/report-toyota-replicates-mitsubishi-lenrtransmutation-experiment/ 2012-12-07

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from today's nuclear fuel that can not be used as fuel for generation IV reactors . 4.5 Consumer products Defkalion has stated that they license their technology to various manufacturers of consumer products. Themselves, they will reportedly commercialize their technology for sea vehicles. If successful, it means a competition with electricity for charging mobile phones and operation of portable consumer products of all kinds. Alex Xanthoulis , CEO of Defkalion , has stated that : 56 • Collaboration is ongoing with six companies for the development of special applications. Many of these companies are included in the top 10 companies in the world in their field. Applications covered include: unmanned aerial vehicles , computers , water heaters, electric power generation , greenhouse , ship management, cars, water desalination / purification and large turbines . • License agreement for the manufacture of consumer products are signed with companies in Italy, France , Greece ( Defkalion 50%), Canada and South Africa. 1,300 companies in about 78 countries are interested . License price has previously been € 40.5 million.

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http://matslew.wordpress.com/2013/07/24/comments-on-defkalion-reactor-demo-inmilan/ 2013-08-15
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5 Questions for the power industry
LENR - effects appears to be demonstrated in laboratory experiments. Now lacking is evidence that the energy conversion process is suitable for industrial electricity- and heat -production. Experiences from development of other techniques show that practical problems can arise on the way to commercialization. Therefore, there is considerable uncertainty about if and when commercialization will occur. The validation of the Leonardo Corporation's Hot Cat was conducted by several university researchers together. While academic criticism has been directed at university researchers validation, it seems still very trustworthy.57 A Hot-Cat is operating at high temperature with much its energy emitted as radiation. Earlier LENR - devices have been measured with calorimetry, where fluid calorimetry has proven to provide the most accurate results. Calorimetry is well suited for lower temperatures that emit energy in the form of convection. Presumably, therefore, the more complicated method of measurement with measuring radiation was chosen for validation of Hot-Cat .The researchers stated in the article that they have made conservative estimates so no doubt exists that a large energy output resulted from the Hot-Cat they measured . Many questions remain about LENR development. If the development is successful, these questions are valid: • What performance variations could be expected at the mass produced devices? • Which performance values can be guaranteed in addition to a net energy gain? • How does the process work?
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Göran Ericsson , Stephan Pomp, Comments on the report " Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [ arXiv : 1305.3913 ] by G. Levi , E. Foschi , T. Hartman , B. Höistad , R. . Pettersson, L.Tegner , H. Essén , arXiv : 1306.6364v1 [ physics.gen -ph ]

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• How safe is the equipment? • Can you trust a certain uptime? • Is the equipment controllable? • What skills are needed to operate and maintain a LENR facility? • Will LENR be primarily used for electricity- and heat- production for sale or in equipment that requires energy? • What cost of production of electricity and heat can be expected? • How fast can LENR technology be introduced in the energy market ? • What opportunities and threats does it represent for the different players in the market? 5.1 Market scenarios Is it possible to speculate on the future market scenarios at this point? Maybe it is possible, but the conditions are unclear. Does LENR exist in practice? Is the technique robust? Is it safe that no external neutrons, magnetic, gamma rays, etc. comes out ? Can the equipment be operated without running amok? Given that the engineers solve the above problems, a rough sketch of an imaginary market could be painted. Most likely in the first phase, heat production will be interesting for industries, residential areas and perhaps eventually later for individual households. Similarly,in the third world e.g. in desalination of seawater at low costs. Power generation, either directly or indirectly may be interesting in step two. Here direct conversion or transformation via Stirling engines, or thermionic converter may be considered. Maybe magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion will be considered? Everything depends on the cost of creating high temperatures. 34

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Today there is a trend towards electrification of the vehicle fleet. The scenarios painted point towards a large percentage battery cars and plug-in hybrids in 2030. Perhaps a breakthrough for LENR should change the image. 5.2 Environmental and safety issues LENR technology's positive attributes (whether it operates commercially) are given as the reason for that at least a dozen companies are developing it. If LENR technology is successful, it has possibly the following benefits: • No carbon dioxide emissions • No hazardous chemical substances • No distribution of radioactivity • No ionizing radiation (at least not outside appliances) • Virtually sustainable (extremely small amount is needed, and LENR devices are powered by nickel with the advantage that the world's nickel resources are abundant ) • Low production cost (the inputs nickel and water has low cost) • Small and compact devices (easy to place on different locations) • Modular technology and suitable for large scale power generation (easy to scale up and down) The matrix on the next page compares the different types of energy in terms of the degree of carbon neutrality, renewability and sustainability. 35

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Carbon dioxide
Fossil fuels Nuclear power (fission) Biomass wood without ash return No Yes Yes, with replanting

Renewability
No No, but plenty uranium in oceans Yes, but change mineral balans in soil

Endurance
No No No/Yes Depends on soil and yes at no social barriers Yes, at no social barriers Yes, at no social barriers Yes, at no social barriers Yes, at no social barriers

Biomass wood with ash return LENR Sun and wind Waterpower

Yes, with replanting Yes Yes Yes

Yes No, but no limits Yes Yes

5.2.1 Unknown negative characteristics Which are the negative characteristics with LENR remain unknown until industrial users gain access to reactors for testing in the applications that the technology might be used for. Laboratory tests at universities are not enough to find the technology back side, even if they needs to be done before the industrial testing. The disadvantages are to be studied as these so far are not publicly investigated. There are few data about process details (because of patents and intellectual properties). LENR process seems to require specific conditions to work, making the security issues to be clarified. Some information exits that high electric and magnetic fields are generated, which may mean a need for shielding.58 The technology status different ________________
58

See Figure 5 by Y. Kim and J. Hadjichristos on https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/handle/10355/36783 , 2013-08-12

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constructions of LENR devices have , is an area that will be discussed in the energy community if LENR companies manage to launch their products . LENR technology's potential competitiveness with other energy sources is not only dependent on economic conditions, but also the environmental and how they are valued. The table on the previous page brings up comparisons of different environmental aspects. In addition to these LENR is reported be free of harmful emissions into air and soil and no environmentally hazardous waste remains. 5.2.2 Security issues An important aspect about LENR technology is of course the level of safety of the technology. What effects might occur? Can neutrons be formed and how much gamma radiation can come out? Are there any problems with explosions and how do you keep apparatus stable with adequate safety margins? All these questions must surely be resolved in an engineering acceptable way before the technology can be put to use.

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6 Conclusions
Which conclusions can be drawn from the ongoing research and development when it comes to phenomena that have something to do with LENR? 6.1 Where do we stand concerning LENR technology today? At present, LENR technology is no longer about believing or not believing, but rather about having a constructively sceptical approach and to accept that certain LENR devices appear to output more energy than they reasonably should with classical assumptions about the underlying processes. It will certainly take time before all aspects around this branch of technology have been exhausted. A number of validations of LENR technology is going on. Various devices have been patented. Some of them have been built. A lot have been tested by more or less independent attempts. Studies are going on in defence industries, space industry and others. Various companies are supporting tests. Some universities are beginning to give courses and others get to grips with other basic studies that can have a connection with LENR. Which companies will first commercialise the technology remains to be seen, though. 6.2 Where to find the explanation(s)? At this moment it is difficult to judge the degree of "scientificity" behind the proofs, validations and results that are being presented. But maybe that is of secondary importance? "Results are results" and theories will come later. LENR technology should possibly be able to stand for a breakthrough paradigm shift in the energy sector. The investments that are now being made should urge us to reflect and to be careful with positive scepticism. The material that we went through in this study indicates that the reported LENR phenomena can be interconnected with:    Strongly nonlinear processes Presence of electromagnetic fields Stimulation of the systems' various single resonances in plasma state or solid state 38

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 

Plasma phenomena in totally or partially ionised gases and in so-called dusty plasmas High energy exchange through various conceivable nuclear reactions, transmutations, etc.

6.3 Where are the biggest challenges? If LENR depends on quantum mechanical processes, it's probable that some nonlinear effect is involved. Most likely also some electro dynamical effect with resonances is involved. This implies that scaling up can be difficult to control. Likewise, it appears that the number of control parameters and guidance are not so easy to get consistent with each other. How do thermal and electrical processes interact? The E-cat reactor which was developed by Leonardo Corporation needs external heat to operate. The external source also appears to be necessary for running the device safely. Other LENR devices are building on excitation of the system's resonances. The knowledge of how these are selected, driven and controlled are still company secrets that do not appear in patent descriptions. At the same time, this shows that challenges of the LENR technology, should it work, are that the process is complex, but not necessarily complicated. A likely development scenario is that a whole lot of trial and error experiments remains to be performed to possibly master precise control and repeatability. Safety issues must be meticulously studied, especially a [possible] appearance of high energy particles and radiation, magnetic fields etc.

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7 References
7.1 Articles, reports and protocols
Johan VeigaBenesch (Ed), Forward Looking Workshop on Materials for Emerging Energy Technologies, EUR 25350 EN, European Union 2012 C. Borghi, C. Giori, A.A. Dall’Ollio, Experimental Evidence of Emission of Neutrons from Cold Hydrogen Plasma?, American Institute of Physics (Phys. At. Nucl.), vol 56, no 7, 1993. F. Celanis presentation på CERN Colloquium den 22 mars 2012, http://indico.cern.ch/getFile.py/access?resId=3&materialId=slid es&confId=177379, där även övriga presentationer finns på http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=177379 Nicolas Chauvin, LENR Powered Electric Vehicles, Proceedings ILENRS -12, Williamsburg, USA, July 1-3, 2012 Terry Copeland, Catalyst Hydrino Transition (CIHT) Electrochemical Cell Validation, November and December 2011 DIA 08-0911003, 2009-11-13, with the title Technology Forecast: Worldwide Research on Low-Energy Nuclear reactions Increasing and Gaining Acceptance DIS Scientific & Technical Memorandum 55/2/00 Clemmow Dougherty, Electrodynamics of Particles and Plasmans, John Wiley& Son, 1969 Göran Ericsson, Stephan Pomp, Comments on the report "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [arXiv:1305.3913] by G.Levi, E.Foschi, T.Hartman, B.Höistad, R.Pettersson, L.Tegnér, H.Essén, arXiv:1306.6364v1 [physics.gen-ph]
H. Essén, Catalyzing Fusion with Relativistic Electrons, arXiv:physics/0607138v1 [physics.plasm-ph], July 2006

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H. Essén, Classical diamagnetism, magnetic interaction energies and repulsive forces in magnetized plasmas, Europhysics Letters (EPL) 94, (2011) pp. 47003-1-5 H. Essén, The exact Darwin Lagrangian, Europhysics Letters (EPL) 79, (2007) pp. 60002-1-3 M.W.Evans, H. Eckardt, D.W. Lindstrom, New ECE equation from the fundamental definition of the tetrad and application to low energy nuclear reaction, avseddattpublicerasi Journal of Foundations of Physics and Chemistry 2013 2 (1) Fitzgerald M., Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society, First Quarter 1878, Publisher The Royal Society, London, 1878, pp 160-161. Nick Glumac, Final Consultant Report, January 2012 M. Greenwald, Density limits in toroidal plasmas, Plsma Phys. Control Fusion 44 (2002) R27-R80 T. Hioki, N. Takahashi, S. Kosaka, T. Nishi, H. Azuma, S. Hibi, Y. Higuchi, A. Murase, T. Motohiro, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Study on the Increase in the Amount of Pr Atoms for Cs-Ion-Implanted Pd/CaO Multilayer Complex with Deuterium Permeation, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52 (2013) 107301 (8 pages), DOI: 10.7567/JJAP.52.107301 Leif Holmlid, Large ion-cluster HN of Rydberg Matter: Stacks of planar clusters H 7, International Journal of Mass Spectrometry,Vol. 300, Issue 1, 30 January 2011, Pages 50–58 Hyperion device Functional & Performance Test Plans & Test Results,testcode:3.2.30, http://iccf18.research.missouri.edu/files/day2/Protocol_and_test _results.pdf H. Ikegami, T. Watanabe, R. Pettersson och K. Fransson, Ultradense Nuclear Fusion in Metallic Lithium Liquid , A report on research performed at the R&D Center, Sakaguchi E.H VOC Co. under the auspices of the Swedish Energy Agency, ER 2006:42
+

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H. Ikegami, The Nature of the Chemonuclear Transition, TSL note, Uppsala 2012 Independent Technology Evaluation Study, Phase 1 – Test Plan Development for BlackLight Power CIHT Technology, January 2012 Y. Iwamura, Observation of Nuclear Transmutation Reactions induced by D2 Gas Permeation through Pd Complexes, in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Marseille, France 2004 Yeong E. Kim, John Hadjichristos, Theoretical Analysis and Reaction Mechanisms for Experimental Results of HydrogenNickel Systems, Purdue Nuclear and Many Body Theory Group (PNMBTG) Preprint-PNMBTG-10-2013 (October 2013) Invited paper presented at ICCF-18, University of Missouri, July 21-27, 2013 Lerner E., Magnetic self-compression in laboratory plasmas, quasars and radio galaxes; Part I, Laser and Particle Beams (1986) vol 4, part 2; pp 193-213 Giuseppe Levi, Bologna University, Evelyn Foschi, Bologna, Torbjörn Hartman, Bo Höistad, Roland Pettersson och Lars Tegnér, Uppsala Universitet, samt Hanno Essén, KTH, Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device, 201305-16 med senaste revideringen2013-06-07, http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.3913v3 [physics.gen-ph] Lewis E., Consideration about plasmoid SupercondictivityPhenomena, http://padrak.com/ine/ELEWIS5.html Phenomena and

Matsumoto T., Experiments of One-Point Cold Fusion, Fusion technology, 24, 332 (Nov 1993) Michael A. Nelson, John Hadjichristos m.fl.,Test Plans & test Results, Hyperion lab devise Functional & Performance Test Protocol, September 2012 Friedrich Panethand Kurt Peters, Über die Verwandlung von Wasserstoff in Helium, Naturwissenschaften 14 (43): 956–962.

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Fabio Penon, Report on the internal test performed on the ”hot cat”, 2012-07-16 Fabio Penon, Testprotokoll utgivet av Leonardo Corporation 2012-10-09 James K. Pugh, EthirajuluDayalan, Evaluation of Electrical Power Generation by BlackLight Power’s Catalyst Induced Hydrino Transition (CIHT) Cells, April 2012 K.V. Ramanujachary, Validation of Electrical Power Generation by Second-Generation CIHT Technology, November 2011 SGS Italia S.p.A., Voluntary Certificate of Compliance with Safety Requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC (Annex I) Sanduloviciu et al., Non-linear phenomena in plasma as aconsequence of self-organization, Dept. Of Plasma Physics, Al.I.Cuza Univ., 6600 lasi, Romania Seward. C et al., Ball Ligtning explained as a stable plasma toroid, http://www.electronpowersystems.com/ P. K. Shukla and B. Eliasson, Novel attractive force between ions in quantum plasmas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165007 (2012); Erratum: PRL 108, 219902(E) (2012); PRL 109, 019901 (E) (2012), DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.165007 S. Son, N.J. Fisch, Pycnonuclear reaction and possible chain reactions in an ultra-dense DT plasma, Physics Letters A 337 (2005) 397–407 Y. N. Srivastava, A Widom, L Larsen, A primer for electroweak induced low-energy nuclear reactions, PRAMANA – journal of physics, vol. 75, No. 4, October 2010, sid. 617-637, DOI: 10.1007/s12043-010-0143-3 Edmund Storms, Status of cold fusion, Naturwissenschaften October 2010, Volume 97, Issue 10, pp 861-881

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J. Swain, A. Widom, Y. N. Srivastava, Electrostrong Nuclear Disintegration in Condensed Matter, http:// arXiv:1306.5165v1 [nucl-th] 19 June 2013 Henry Weinberg, CIHT Validation Report, January 2012 A Widom, L Larsen, Ultra low momentum neutrons catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces, European Physical Journal C – Particles and Fields, vol. 46, No 1, April 2006, 107112, DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s2006-02479-8 A. Widom, J. Swain, Y.N. Srivastava, Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas, http://arXiv:1305.4899v1 [hep-ph] 19 May 2013 X. Yang, G. H. Miley, A Game-Changing Power Source Based on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs), presentation at NETS 2012, March 19-23, 2012 M. Zuin et al., A first principles explanation for the density limit in magnetized plasmas, arXiv:1001.4480 [physics.plasma-ph] (2010)

7.2 Webpages
http://aromapress.com/~defkalio/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/2011-11-30_Hyperion-Spec-Sheet.pdf http://www.blacklightpower.com http://brillouinenergy.com/ http://cdn.coldfusionnow.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/12/HagelsteinPdemonstra.pdf http://coldfusiondevices.com/cold-fusion/cold-fusion-devices-topower-cars-in-the-future http://drmyronevans.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/paper230.pdf http://ecat.com/ecat-products/ecat-1-mw http://ecat.com/ecat-products/ecat-ht-hot-catprototype

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http://www.e-catworld.com/2012/12/report-toyota-replicatesmitsubishi-lenr-transmutation-experiment/ , 2012-12-07 http://www.e-catworld.com/2013/04/celani-warns-of-lenrexplosions-at-low-temperatures/ http://www.enea.it/it/Ufficio-Bruxelles/news/newadvancements-on-the-fleischmann-pons-effect-paving-the-wayfor-a-potential-new-clean-renewable-energy-source http://energycatalyzer3.com/news/toyota-is-active-in-coldfusion-research-again http://episin.blogspot.se/2011/07/brillouin-energy-reactorbeing-tested.html http://www.forbes.com/sites/markgibbs/2013/05/20/finallyindependent-testing-of-rossis-e-cat-cold-fusion-device-maybethe-world-will-change-after-all/ http://indico.cern.ch/getFile.py/access?resId=5&materialId= slides&confId=177379
http://iccf18.research.missouri.edu/files/day2/SKINR_Overview.pdf

http://jet.xvm.mit.edu/ http://www.kresenn.com/ http://lenr-canr.org http://www.lenr-coldfusion.com/2012/12/09/yasuhiro-iwamuraans-presentation-lenr-transmutation/ http://matslew.wordpress.com/2013/07/24/comments-ondefkalion-reactor-demo-in-milan/ https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/handle/10355/36783 http://newenergytimes.com/v2/sr/WL/WLTheory.shtml

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http://new.livestream.com/triwu2/Defkalion-US http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/04/brillouin-had-los-alamos-andsri.html http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/06/mit-lenr-device-publiclyrunning-for-6.html http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/201200090 38_2012008934.pdf http://old.enea.it/com/ingl/New_ingl/publications/pdf/Cold_Fusio n_Italy.pdf http://pappengine.com/videos.htm http://peswiki.com/energy/PowerPedia:Joseph_Papp%27s_Nobl e_Gas_Engine http://www.plasma-universe.com http://roma.repubblica.it/cronaca/2012/04/19/foto/il_reattore_c ostruito_dagli_studenti-33583028/1/ http://www.slideshare.net/ssusereeef70/brillouin-bus-sum4512 http://www.slideshare.net/ssusereeef70/brillouin-ppttechnical32712 http://student.mit.edu/searchiap/iapBD6D0CF8E170B284E04003 12852F4A61.html http://world.std.com/~mica/cft.html http://22passi.blogspot.se/2012/04/lathanor-delliis-pirelli-diroma-1.html

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8 Attachments
8.1 Patents Patenting in the LENR area has been going on for two decades. The following is a selection that has a bearing on the process that is near commercialization. When functioning facilities are available for public inspection in the market, one can assume that the patent applications filed are granted. 8.1.1 USA MIT announced April 12, 1989 their application for a patent based on the theoretical work of Peter L. Hagelstein where Fusion apparatusWO1990013129 A3 with publication date November 29, 1990 is included. Peter L. Hagelstein has also applied for patents Methods and apparatus for energy conversion using materials comp rising molecular deuterium and molecular hydrogen - deuterium WO2006128109 A3 , publication date October 11, 2007 , WO2006055294 A3 , publication date 13 December 2007, Method of and apparatus for thermal energy to-electrical energy conversion WO2008017924 A3, 18 December 2008. University of Utah licensed December 2, 1993, all of its LENR patents to ENECO , a new company created to conduct business on LENR - discoveries, but said in March 1998 that it would no longer defend its patents. Leonardo Corporation has a patent in the U.S., Method and apparatus for carryingout nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction, publication number U.S. 2011 / 0005506 A1 and date 13 January 2011. Francesco Piantellis U.S. patent application has the name Thin nano structured layers with high catalytic activity on the nickel or nickel alloy surfaces and process for their preparation, 20120134915, with the date 31 May 2012. Brillouin Energy has patent applications: Drive circuit and method for semiconductor devices US20070268045 A1, 22 November 2007 and WO2007137268 A3, 10 April 2008, Energy 47

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generation apparatus and method WO2007130156 A1, A2 , respectively . A3, September 6, 2007, November 15, 2007, respectively . 31 January 2008 EP1971985 A2, September 24, 2008 , US20110122984 A1 , 26 May 2011. BlackLight Power's electrolytic process is patent filed 18 March 2010, 17 March 2011 and 30 March 2012. Their dry process is patent filed April 28, 2008 July 29, 2009, 18 March 2010, 17 March 2011 and 30 March 2012. However, the U.S. Patent Office USPTO rejected all patents in the LENR field. Despite this, George H. Miley with company LENUCO managed to get a patent, U.S. 8,227,020 B1 , entitled Dislocation site formation techniques , issued 24 July 2012. 8.1.2 Asia The U.S. company Brillouin Energy has patented their LENR – reaktor in China: Patents Registry, Intellectual Property Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region , Application No. 09108065.4, Publication No . HK1132580, at http://ipsearch.ipd.gov.hk/patent/ereg/fssr02100.jsp?AH_NO= 09108065 8.1.3 Europe Francesco Piantelli along with Sergio Focardi and Roberto Habel have applied for patent with Energy generation and generator by means of an harmonic stimulated fusion publication number PCT/IT95/00008 and Date 3 August 1995. Next patent application is Method for producing energy and apparatus there fore , Publication Number WO2010/058288 and Date 27 May 2010, which was granted January 16, 2013 as EP 2368252 B1 . The third patent by Francesco Piantelli entitled Method and apparatus for generating energy by nuclear reactions of hydrogen adsorbed by orbital capture on a nanocrystalline structure of a metal, WO/2013/0082/19, January 17, 2013 with completion 7 March 2013. The patent Method for producing energy and apparatus there fore it is only LENR patent for nickel-hydrogen applicable throughout Europe.

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Franscesco Celani has an European patent application on nano structured nickel : Nanostructured thin layers having high catalytic activity on surfaces of nickel and its alloys and a process for obtaining them WO2011/016014A2 , Feb. 7 2012. Andrea Rossi, Leonardo Corporation , has been denied an European patent for his E-Cat , but has a U.S. patent application for the US2011/005506 A1 , Publication Date 13 January 2011. However, he has an Italian patent Processo ed apparecchiatura per ottenere reazioni esotermiche, in particolare da nickel ed idrogenoMI2008A000629 issued April 6, 2011 with a validity until 9 April, 2028. Etiam OY has a patent application Thermal-energyproducing system and method, WO2013076378 A2, Publication Date 30 May 2013. LENR Cars Sàrl, has a patent application by the name of Low Energy Nuclear Thermoelectric Systems , U.S. 2013 / 0263597 A1 , Publication Date 10 October 2013.

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