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MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

NUFLO

Orifice Plates
for Flow Measurement & Flow Restriction

Orifice plates are one of the most popular devices for the measurement and control of fluid flow. The shape and manufacturing tolerances of plates used in measurement applications are defined in the international standardization publications of ISO, AGA, ASME and others. From the formulas and data within these publications, the relationships and values of flow, differential pressure, and plate bore are determined. In flow control applications, orifice plates are used as restriction devices to regulate fluid flow or reduce the flowing pressure downstream of the orifice plate. The use of a fixed restriction orifice can be beneficial and economic by reducing the demands on other flow system components. Unlike measurement orifices, the sizing and design of restriction orifices are not defined by standardization organizations. Additionally, restriction orifices are often exposed to severe flow conditions associated with large pressure reductions and the related fluid conditions caused by liquids flashing to a gas, cavitation, and sonic (choked) flow. In torturous applications, mimicking the design of measurement orifices is not sufficient. Rather, Cameron offers a variety of solutions involving alternate designs for the leading edge of the bore, increased plate thickness, alternate materials of construction, and multi-stage assemblies embedded with specifically sized orifices. Cameron has decades of experience designing, sizing, and manufacturing orifice equipment using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFS) techniques and other design tools. Cameron has manufactured measurement orifice plates and restriction orifice

plates under North Star and NuFlo brands, and through the collaboration of its Measurement Systems and Flow Control divisions, Cameron's restriction design capabilities include the design of multi-orifice/multi-chamber chokes for regulating flow from high-pressure oil and gas wellheads. Cameron also offers multiple holders for orifice plates. These include holders that fit in or between ring joint flanges, orifice holding blocks, and single and dual orifice fittings. See pages 6 to 8 for detailed descriptions.

Plate Styles
Camerons plate styles include Type 500 a universal plate for use in orifice fittings and Type 580 and 590 ring-joint flange plate holders. See Universal Orifice Plates, page 2. Type 520 a paddle-type plate for use with raised-face orifice flange unions for measurement applications or for installation between standard ANSI flanges in restriction applications. Special options for flat-face flanges with full-face contact are also available. See Paddle Type Orifice Plates, page 3. Gas Prover Style a 2-in. diameter plate for use with a NuFlo gas prover system for measuring the mass or volume of a flowing gas being released to atmospheric pressure. The plate is similar to the Type 500 orifice plate but has a 2-in. diameter to fit in the prover body. See Gas Prover Orifice Plates, page 4.

Bore Designs
The bore in the orifice plate can be shaped or positioned to create advantages for specific measurement applications. Likewise, the bore design can be customized to enhance the performance of flow restriction plates. See Special Profile Orifice Bores, page 4, for illustrations and detailed descriptions of each bore design. Restriction plates can be challenging to engineer due to the extreme conditions to which they are subjected. In applications where a measurement style plate is inadequate, a thick restriction plate or a multi-stage plate may be the answer. A thick plate is as thick as the diameter of the bore. In large diameter applications, the appearance is similar to a wafer meter. Where extreme velocities exist, a thick plate better resists supersonic velocity and erosion. In installations where high sound levels or reduced durability should be avoided, a series of orifices can be used. Each orifice is specifically sized and factory installed in a pipe section which is supplied as a spool assembly.

Design Specifications
NuFlo Orifice Plates feature the following features, options, and capabilities: Edges square and sharp, will not reflect a beam of light when viewed without magnification. Non-counter-bored plates are available on request for bi-directional flow measurement or for restriction applications at no additional charge. Finish 20 micro-inch roughness, directionally polished. Other finishes are optional. Flatness Flat within 0.010 of an inch per inch of dam height (dam height = pipe diameter minus orifice diameter, divided by 2) Material Grade 316 stainless steel. Other alloys are optional. CRN All plates and the ring joint flange plate holder have a Canadian Registration Number confirming compliance with ASME B16.48 and other piping codes. All NuFlo orifice plates are traceable to a mill test report. Markings All plates are marked with the line size, material of construction, bore size, reference temperature, and heat lot number. As an option, the customers tag information can also be included. Plate Size and Thickness Orifice plates are available in line sizes from 1/2-in. to 60 in. Standard line sizes, 2-inch to 12-inch, are commonly available in both 1/8-in. and 1/4-in. thicknesses. Restriction plates are offered in various thicknesses according to calculation results based on line size, bore size, pressure drop, material, and flowing temperature. Vent or Drain Holes Vent or drain holes are an option. Customers must specify diameter and location or pipe schedule.

Orifice Sizing
Customers also rely on Cameron for expert sizing of orifice applications. Cameron offers free quotations for measurement and restriction orifice plates and provides bore dimensions or calculation results for a nominal charge. The screen image below shows calculations for a multi-stage orifice assembly. All calculations are provided for advisement purposes only.

Universal Orifice Plates


Type 500

The Type 500 Orifice Plate is a standard design used in most brands of single and dual chamber orifice fittings. Non-NuFlo brand dual chamber fittings may require a nitrile seal ring. This seal ring is available as an optional accessory from Cameron. Type 500 plates also fit Type 580 and Type 590 ring joint orifice plate holders (see page 6) for line sizes 10 inches and smaller. For line sizes larger than 10 inches, the customer must specify the plate outside diameter (OD) dimension (see table on page 6). When ordering, please specify: 1. Type number 2. Line size 3. Plate OD (Dimension A) if not as listed on page 3 4. Material 5. Plate thickness (Dimension B) if not as listed on page 3 6. Orifice bore type 7. Nitrile seal ring (optional; required for use with some non-NuFlo brand dual chamber fittings)

When sizing a restriction orifice plate, it is important to remember that the orifice plate is a fixed opening that is selected based on only one set of conditions. Therefore, when a range of conditions are provided, a determination must be made as to which single set of conditions should be used for the sizing. Upon request, a what-if analysis for testing the effectiveness of the plate with other flow conditions can be performed once sizing is completed.

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

Type 500 Dimensions


Diameter of bore to be specified by purchaser B

Line Size

Plate O.D. A

Plate Thickness2 B

Blank Weight3 (lbs)

3/4 1 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3


A Dia.

1.125 1.312 2.000 2.437 2.812 3.437 4.406 6.437 8.437 10.687 13.079 16.563 20.563

1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/4 1/4 1/4 3/8 3/8

0.06 0.06 0.11 0.17 0.25 0.34 0.55 1.18 4.06 6.41 9.61 23.20 39.16

4 6 8 10 12 16 20

FLOW

Type 500 Orifice Plate

1. All dimensions in inches. 2. Other thicknesses available. 3. Weight for thickness shown.

Paddle Type Orifice Plates


Type 520
D

NuFlo Type 520 Orifice Plates are used with raised-face orifice flange unions for measurement applications and installed between standard ANSI flanges for restriction applications. Cameron also supplies special versions for installation between flat-face flanges with full-face contact. The plate and handle are a one-piece seamless design on 1/8-in. thick orifice plates for line sizes 2-inch though 6 inch and ANSI classes less than 900. On all other plates, the handle is welded to the plate as standard; one-piece construction is available as an option. The flange ANSI class and other standard information is stamped on the handle. Each handle includes a hole as indicated in the table below. When ordering, please specify: 1. Type number 2. Line size and ANSI class 3. Plate OD (Dimension A) if not as listed 4. Material 5. Plate thickness (Dimension B) if not as listed 6. Orifice bore type 7. Nitrile seal ring (optional; required for use with some non-NuFlo brand dual chamber fittings)

A Dia.

Diameter of bore to be specified by purchaser

B FLOW

Line Size

Handle Hole Diameter

1/2 thru 2 2-1/2 thru 12 14 thru 24 26 and larger

1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4

All dimensions in inches.

Type 520 Dimensions


125 lbs. & 150 lbs. ANSI A 250 lbs. & 300 lbs. ANSI A For all Pressure Ratings 125 to 2500 lbs. ANSI B C D

Line Size

400 lbs. ANSI A

600 lbs. ANSI A

900 lbs. ANSI A

1500 lbs. ANSI A

2500 lbs. ANSI A

1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 30 36

1-7/8 2-1/4 2-5/8 3 3-3/8 4-1/8 4-7/8 5-3/8 6-7/8 7-3/4 8-3/4 11 13-3/8 16-1/8 17-3/4 20-1/4 21-1/2 23-3/4 26 28-1/8 34-5/8 41-1/8

2-1/8 2-5/8 2-7/8 3-1/4 3-3/4 4-3/8 5-1/8 5-7/8 7-1/8 8-1/2 9-7/8 12-1/8 14-1/4 16-5/8 19-1/8 21-1/4 23-3/8 25-5/8 27-3/4 30-3/8 37-3/8 43-7/8

2-1/8 2-5/8 2-7/8 3-1/4 3-3/4 4-3/8 5-1/8 5-7/8 7 8-3/8 9-3/4 12 14-1/8 16-1/2 19 21-1/8 23-1/4 25-3/8 27-1/2 30-1/8 37-1/4 43-7/8

2-1/8 2-5/8 2-7/8 3-1/4 3-3/4 4-3/8 5-1/8 5-7/8 7-5/8 9-1/2 10-1/2 12-5/8 15-3/4 18 19-3/8 22-1/4 24 26-3/4 28-7/8 31 38-1/8 44-3/8

2-1/2 2-3/4 3-1/8 3-1/2 3-7/8 5-5/8 6-1/2 6-5/8 8-1/8 9-3/4 11-3/8 14-1/8 17-1/8 19-5/8 20-1/2 22-5/8 25 27-3/8 n/a 32-7/8 n/a n/a

2-1/2 2-3/4 3-1/8 3-1/2 3-7/8 5-5/8 6-1/2 6-7/8 8-1/4 10 11-1/8 13-7/8 17-/18 20-1/2 22-3/4 25-1/4 27-5/8 29-5/8 n/a 35-1/2 n/a n/a

2-3/4 3 3-3/8 4-1/8 4-5/8 5-3/4 6-5/8 7-3/4 9-1/4 11 12-1/2 15-1/4 18-3/4 21-5/8 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/4 1/4 1/4 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 1/2 1/2

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

1 1 1 1 1 1 1-1/4 1-1/4 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2 1-1/2

All dimensions in inches.

Gas Prover Orifice Plates


Gas prover orifice plates are designed specifically for use with the NuFlo Gas Prover System. The system comprises a 2-inch NPT NuFlo prover body and a prover plate. The 316 stainless steel plate is similar to the 1/4-in. Type 500 orifice plate, but has a 2-in. diameter to fit inside the prover. Bore size selections are based on anticipated flow rates. The prover body is constructed of carbon steel and features both a 1/4-in. FNPT and a 1/2-in. FNPT pressure port. The principle of operation relies on the velocity of the gas flowing through the orifice reaching the speed of sound. Given that the prover vents to atmosphere, supersonic velocity occurs when the upstream pressure is greater than 10 psig. Once this velocity is obtained, the actual flowing volume passing through the bore cannot increase and is said to be choked. By measuring the upstream pressure and knowing the upstream temperature and reference density of the gas, the flowing density, mass flow and volume can be computed.

Orifice Bore Profiles


Square Edge (Standard) Bore

For the common square edge concentric bore orifice, the bore and bevel is the standard method of limiting the plate edge thickness. Unless otherwise specified, plates will be beveled to the current accepted AGA standards.

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

Quadrant Edge Bore

min 1/8" thick

The quadrant edge bore is an orifice with the inlet edge rounded. Instead of beveling, the plate is counterbored to the desired edge thickness. The radius of the quartercircle bore is a function of the orifice-to-pipe ratio (d/D). Thickness at the throat is equal to the radius. This bore is specifically designed for viscous fluids such as heavy crudes, syrups, and slurries with Reynolds Numbers below 100,000.

R D d

45

c c =1.5 d but less than D

R =d

0.734 1
4

0.638

Eccentric Bore

Eccentrically bored orifice plates are plates with the orifice off-center, or eccentric, as opposed to concentric. The bore of the eccentric orifice normally is inscribed in a circle which is 98% of the pipe diameter, so that solids or slurries may pass through. Eccentric orifice plates are used in many industries including heavy and light chemicals, steel, paper, nuclear and petrochemicals.

Tap angle 180

D d

90

Segmental Bore

Segmentally bored orifice plates are provided for measurement where solids are entrained in a gas or liquid flow stream. The circular portion of the bore is inscribed within a circle which is normally 98% of the pipe diameter. The segmental opening may be placed either at the top or bottom of the pipe. Industries using these bores include sewage treatment, steel, chemical, water conditioning, paper and petrochemical.

Tap angle 180

D d

90

Special Restriction Orifice Bores


Thick Restriction Bore
small D D > 2"

Conical Reverse Bevel Restriction Bore

Some restriction applications are designed with the assumption that the fluids will reach sonic velocity through the bore of the restriction (critical flow). It is more predictable to achieve sonic velocity through the bore of a thick plate and a thick plate can withstand the mechanical wear associated with sonic velocity.

The conical orifice is a measurement orifice installed in the flow line with the bevel facing upstream. It is applied in low Reynolds Number applications. Due to reduced machining, this style is more economical than the quadrant bore typically used for measurement of viscous fluids, and is sufficiently accurate for most restriction applications.

Multi-Stage Restriction Assembly

A multi-plate restriction assembly reduces the flowing pressure in stages as a means of reducing noise pollution or improving the durability of the restriction element. Flow is kept subsonic and non-cavitating at each stage by adding stages. Each assembly is custom-engineered by Cameron for specific operating parameters. Most assemblies are welded with non-removable plates. These assemblies are commonly used in blowdown applications in which gases are vented to atmospheric pressure with minimal emitted sound.

4D D d

Ring Joint Orifice Plate Holders


Cameron offers three types of NuFlo ring joint orifice plate holders that fit between ring joint flanges. Type 580 and Type 590 plate holders use a standard Type 500 plate, which allows for economical replacement to renew or change the bore size. The orifice plate is not included with the plate holder and must be ordered separately. The Type 560 plate holder is a rugged one-piece design that includes an integral plate. In conformance with ASME B16.2, all three types of plate holders feature an oval gasket ring. Octagonal rings are available on request. Standard materials are carbon steel and 316 stainless steel; however, NuFlo plate holders can be manufactured from nearly any alloy.
Orifice Plate Alloys Available
304 316 316 L 317 321 347 410 416 Duplex A516-7N Monel K-Monel Hastelloy B, C Inco 600 Inco 625 Stellite Overlay Titanium Tanalum

Other sizes, materials, ANSI and special flange ratings are available on special order. When ordering, please specify: 1. Type number 2. Line size 3. API ring number or ANSI flange pressure rating 4. Material 5. Quantity 6. Orifice bore type (for Type 560 only) 7. Plate OD (inches) if not as listed below (for Type 560 only) 8. Plate thickness (inches) if not as listed below (for Type 560 only)

Line Size

Plate O.D. A

Plate Thickness B

12 14 16 18 20 24 26 30

12.593 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000 24.000 26.000 30.000

1/4 1/4 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 3/8 1/2

Other materials available on request.

Type 560 plate holders are available in all sizes and ring numbers. Please note that 2-in. through 8 in. sizes have 1/4 in. thick plates as standard; therefore, 1/8 in. should be added to the Approx. Gap dimensions given in the table on page 7 for accurate measurement. Type 580 plate holders sizes 1 1/2 in. and up are available in all API ring numbers. Type 590 plate holders are available in 2-in. size and up in all ring numbers except 2-in. R-23 and 2 1/2-in. R-26.

All dimensions in inches. These dimensions are specific to large-diameter Type 500 plates used with Type 580 and 590 plate holders. For smaller-diameter plate dimensions, see the Type 500 Dimensions table on page 3.

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

2'' 1/8'' 1-1/4'' B B

2'' 1-1/4'' 1/8'' B Spring Clip

2'' 1-1/4'' 1/8''

Orifice Plate Hold-Down Screws

Snap Ring A Type 560 Integral Plate Seal A Type 580 with Snap-Ring Clip A Type 590 with Hold-Down Screws

300 - 600 lbs. ANSI Line Size API Ring # A B Approx. Gap* API Ring #

900 lbs. ANSI A B Approx. Gap* API Ring #

1500 lbs. ANSI A B Approx. Gap* API Ring #

2500 lbs. ANSI A B Approx. Gap*

1/2 3/4 1 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 3-1/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

R-11 R-13 R-16 R-20 R-23 R-26 R-31 R-34 R-37 R-41 R-45 R-49 R-53 R-57 R-61 R-65 R-69 R-73 R-77

29/32 1 1 1 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-3/16 1-3/16 1-3/16 1-5/16 1-5/16 1-3/8 1-7/16

4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 4-1/4 5-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4

19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 23/32 23/32 23/32 23/32 23/32 23/32 13/16

R-12 R-14 R-16 R-20 R-24 R-27 R-31 n/a R-37 R-41 R-45 R-49 R-53 R-57 R-62 R-66

1 1 1 1 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 n/a 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-3/16 1-3/16 1-7/16 1-9/16

4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 n/a 5-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4

19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 5/8 5/8 17/32 n/a 17/32 17/32 17/32 17/32 21/32 21/32 23/32 27/32 3/4 3/4 25/32

R-12 R-14 R-16 R-20 R-24 R-27 R-35 n/a R-39 R-44 R-46

1 1 1 1 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-1/16 n/a 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-3/16

4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 n/a 5-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 7-1/4 8-1/4 8-1/4 9-1/4 9-1/4 10-1/4 11-1/4

19/32 19/32 19/32 19/32 1/2 1/2 1/2 n/a 1/2 1/2 9/16 9/32 23/32 3/4 25/32 1 1 7/8 1

R-13 R-16 R-18 R-23 R-26 R-28 R-32 n/a R-38 R-42 R-47 R-51 R-55 R-60 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

1 1 1 1-1/16 1-1/16 1-13/16 1-3/16 n/a 1-5/16 1-7/16 1-7/16 1-9/16 2 2-1/8 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 6-1/4 n/a 6-1/4 7-1/4 7-1/4 8-1/4

19/32 19/32 19/32 1/2 1/2 9/16 9/16 n/a 19/32 19/32 19/32 5/8

R-50 1-35/16 R-54 1-7/16

8-1/4 1-1/16 9-1/4 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 7/8 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

R-58 1-11/16 R-63 R-67 R-71 R-75 R-79 1-7/8 2-1/8 2-1/8 2-1/8 2-5/16

R-70 1-11/16 7-1/4 R-74 R-78 1-9/16 1-7/8 7-1/4 9-1/4

All dimensions in inches. * Approximate distance between flanges.

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

Orifice Holding Blocks


Orifice holding blocks are used between standard flanges and are ideal in retrofit applications or when exotic wetted materials are used. When exotic or non-metallic materials are used, the cost of orifice flanges with the desired pressure rating can be expensive and difficult to obtain. Orifice blocks provide an effective and economical solution. They are available in line sizes from 1-in. to 12-in., and in ANSI classes as low as 150. Flange taps are standard in all sizes. The tap hole inside diameter (ID) varies with line size. When ordering, please specify nominal line size, line ID, gasket thickness, and material desired.
1/8'' Orifice Plate Type 520 1/2'' NPT 1'' 1''

Single and Dual Orifice Chamber Fittings


Orifice fittings provide an alternative to holding an orifice plate between flanges. They allow for easier and faster inspection or replacement of the orifice plate. Measurement accuracy is assured by centering the orifice plate in the pipe bore. A dual chamber fitting allows the plate to be changed without depressurizing the flow line or interrupting the flow. Fittings are available for line sizes ranging from 2 inches through 6 inches. See NuFlo Single and Dual Orifice Fitting Models 4055 and 4042 and Clif Mock Model 5030 Orifice Fitting technical data sheets and related accessory data sheets for details.
1-7/8'' Orifice holding blocks 4-1/8'' face to face Raised face or flat face, weldneck, threaded or slip-on flange (provided by customer)

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS
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