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Elastic settlement in soils Elastic settlement in soils

ENB371: Geotechnical Engineering 2 ENB371: Geotechnical Engineering 2


Chaminda Gallage Chaminda Gallage
Chapter 5 Chapter 5
BRAJA M. DAS BRAJA M. DAS
Contents Contents
Review Week 2: Subsurface stresses caused by
surface loading
Settlement in soils: Introduction
Elastic settlement in sandy (granular) soils
Equation- based on theory of elasticity
Improved equation based on theory of elasticity
Use of strain influence factor
Elastic settlement in clay soils
Saturated clay (Janbu et al. 1956)
Subsurface vertical stress increment in
homogeneous and isotropic soils due following
loading conditions on the surface was discussed
Subsurface vertical stress increment in
homogeneous and isotropic soils due following
loading conditions on the surface was discussed
Review Week 2 (1) Review Week 2 (1)
Uniformly loaded infinite area
Point load (concentrated load) Point load (concentrated load)
Uniformly loaded circular area
Strip loading
Uniformly loaded rectangular area
Loading through flexible foundation was assumed Loading through flexible foundation was assumed
Uniformly loaded infinite area Uniformly loaded infinite area
The vertical subsurface stress increment at any depth below
the infinitely loaded area is considered to be the same as the
surface stress due to external load (filling material)
Ground Surface
h

h q
=
Review Week 2 (2) Review Week 2 (2)
q = = =
2 1
Ground Surface
1
z
2
z
1

1
z
2
z
1 1
+
2 2
+
Subsurface stress increment due to a point load Subsurface stress increment due to a point load
r
Review Week 2 (3) Review Week 2 (3)
p
I
z
P
2
=
2 / 5
2
) / ( 1
1
2
3
)
`

+
=
z r
I
p

Influence factor, I
p
z
Subsurface stress increment due to uniformly
loaded circular area
Subsurface stress increment due to uniformly
loaded circular area
Review Week 2 (4) Review Week 2 (4)
c
I q
0
=
Vertical stress increment due to strip area
carrying uniform pressure
Vertical stress increment due to strip area
carrying uniform pressure
q
B
q
B
X
Review Week 2 (5) Review Week 2 (5)
z

z

X
{ } ) 2 cos( sin

+ + =
q
z

z

X
1
R
2
R
)
`

2 sin
2
1
B
X q
z
r
I q
0
=
B L
Define Define m = B/z m = B/z and and n = L/z n = L/z
Vertical stress increment due to uniformly loaded
rectangular area
Vertical stress increment due to uniformly loaded
rectangular area
Review Week 2 (6) Review Week 2 (6)
Influence chart for vertical stress increase Influence chart for vertical stress increase
Newmark (1942) influence chart , based on the Boussinesq solution to
determine the vertical stress increase at any point below an area of any
shape carrying uniform pressure (q
0
).
Chart consists of influence areas which
has a influence value of 0.005 per unit
pressure
The loaded area is drawn on tracing
paper to a scale such that the length of
Review Week 2 (7) Review Week 2 (7)
paper to a scale such that the length of
the scale line on the chart is equal to the
depth z
Position the loaded area on the chart
such that the point at which the vertical
stress required is at the centre of the
chart.
The count the number of influence
areas covered by the scaled drawing, N
Then, vertical stress increase at z depth,
= 0.005 q
o
N
Approximate method to determine the stress
subsurface stress increment (60
0
approximation)
Approximate method to determine the stress
subsurface stress increment (60
0
approximation)
Review Week 2 (8) Review Week 2 (8)
According to this method, the increase in stress at depth z is
) )( (
0
z L z B
L B q
+ +

=
Contours of equal vertical pressure in the vicinity of
(a) a strip area carrying a uniform pressure
(b) a square area carrying a uniform pressure
Contours of equal vertical pressure in the vicinity of
(a) a strip area carrying a uniform pressure
(b) a square area carrying a uniform pressure
The zone lying inside the vertical stress contour of value
0.2q is described as the bulb of pressure
B width of the foundation
Low Low
Large Distributed Large Distributed
Weight Weight
Very Large Concentrated Very Large Concentrated
Weight Weight
Loading on the surface causes deformation/settlement in sub-soils Loading on the surface causes deformation/settlement in sub-soils
Introduction (1) Introduction (1)
Low Low
Weight Weight
Weak Weak
Soil Soil
Weak Rock Weak Rock Strong Rock Strong Rock
Introduction (2): Settlement in soils Introduction (2): Settlement in soils
structure
embankment
Settlement Settlement
profile
These loads produce corresponding increases in the
vertical effective stress,
v

Settlement refers to the compression that soils undergo as
a response of placing loads on the surface
Introduction (3): Significance Introduction (3): Significance
If the settlement is not kept to tolerable limit, the desired
use of the structure may be impaired and the design life of
the structure may be reduced
It is therefore important to have a mean of predicting the
amount of soil compression or settlement amount of soil compression or settlement
Total settlement in soil due to loading Total settlement in soil due to loading
Deformation of soil and
rock grains
Compression of air and
water in voids
Drainage of water and
Deformation of soil and
rock grains
Compression of air and
water in voids
Drainage of water and
Elastic Deformation
(Immediate
settlement) (S
e
)
Elastic Deformation
(Immediate
settlement) (S
e
)
Introduction (4) Introduction (4)
Drainage of water and
air from voids allowing
compression of soil
skeleton
Creep movements
plastic adjustment of soil
fabric under a constant
effective stress
Drainage of water and
air from voids allowing
compression of soil
skeleton
Creep movements
plastic adjustment of soil
fabric under a constant
effective stress
+ Primary
Consolidation (S
p
)
+ Primary
Consolidation (S
p
)
+ Secondary
Compression (S
s
)
+ Secondary
Compression (S
s
)
S
e
+S
p
+S
s
= Total Settlement S
e
+S
p
+S
s
= Total Settlement
Timing Timing
time time log time log time
elastic elastic -- immediate immediate -- fully recoverable fully recoverable
1 week to several years 1 week to several years
Introduction (5) Introduction (5)
s
e
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
e
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t
primary consolidation primary consolidation
due to removal of water due to removal of water
inelastic inelastic
time time--dependent dependent
partial recovery only partial recovery only
secondary compression secondary compression
creep of particles creep of particles
inelastic inelastic
time time--dependent dependent
unrecoverable unrecoverable
0.5yr 0.5yr 5yr 5yr
50yr 50yr
Elastic (immediate) settlement of soil (S
e
) Elastic (immediate) settlement of soil (S
e
)
AA
Introduction (6) Introduction (6)
Caused by the elastic deformation of soil particles when
the effective stress is increased
Fully recoverable
Not time dependent (occur within very short time)
Calculations generally based on equations derived from
theory of elasticity
AA
HH
FFFF
FFFF
uniform uniform
axial axial
stress, stress,

= = HH / / EE
= F = F // AA
= / = / = / = / = / = / = / = /
= = = = = = = = EE
theory of elasticity
F
o
r

or
F
o
r

or
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
Introduction (7) Introduction (7)
Flexible foundation: uniform contact pressure, non-uniform
deformation
Rigid foundation: non-uniform contact pressure, uniform
deformation
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
(contact pressure and settlement in clay)
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
(contact pressure and settlement in clay)
(a) Flexible foundation in clay
Introduction (8) Introduction (8)
(b) Rigid foundation in clay
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
(contact pressure and settlement in sand)
Flexible vs Rigid Foundation
(contact pressure and settlement in sand)
(a) Flexible foundation in sand
Introduction (9) Introduction (9)
(b) Rigid foundation in sand
Elastic properties (E Youngs
modulus) of clay and sand
Elastic properties (E Youngs
modulus) of clay and sand
In the case of an extensive, homogeneous deposit of
saturated clay, it is a reasonable approximation to assume
that E is constant throughout the deposit
Introduction (10) Introduction (10)
In the case of sand, however, the value of E varies with
confining pressure and, therefore, will increase with depth
and varies across the width of the loaded area
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 1
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 1
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (

=
Bowels (1987) Bowels (1987)
'
0
soil of ratio s Poisson
foundation the on pressure applied net q
s
=
=

) 1948 , (
) 1934 , (
2 / '
4 0
from elasticity of modulus Average
Fox factor depth I
er Steinbrenn factor shape I
foundation of corner for B
foundation of centre the for B B
B z about to z
E
f
s
s
s
=
=
=
=
= =
=
fundation of corner the at
foundation of centre the at
, 1
, 4
=
=

level foundation from rock the Depth to


foundation the of Depth D
foundation the of Length L
foundation the of Width
f
=
=
=
=
H
B
I
s
= shape factor I
s
= shape factor
2 1
1
2 1
F F I
s
s
s

+ =
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 2
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 2
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (

=
1
s

F
1
and F
2
can be obtained from tables using m and n or can
be calculated
F
1
and F
2
can be obtained from tables using m and n or can
be calculated
) 2 / (
' '
B
H
n
B
L
m
foundation the of centre the at
settlement the calculate To
= =
B
H
n
B
L
m
foundation the of corner a at
settlement the calculate To
= = ' '
Variation of F
1
with m and n
Variation of F
1
with m and n with m and n with m and n
Variation of F
2
with m and n
Variation of F
2
with m and n with m and n with m and n
I
s
( shape factor ) can be calculated I
s
( shape factor ) can be calculated
2 1
1
2 1
F F I
s
s
s

+ =
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 5
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 5
) 2 / (
' '
B
H
n
B
L
m
foundation the of centre the at
settlement the calculate To
= =
B
H
n
B
L
m
foundation the of corner a at
settlement the calculate To
= = ' '
2
1
2
1 0 1
tan
2
'
) (
1
A
n
F
A A F

=
+ =

) 1 ' ' '


'
1 ' ' '
' 1 ) 1 ' ' (
ln
) 1 ' ' 1 ( '
' ' ) 1 ' 1 (
ln '
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
1
2 2
2 2 2
0
+ +
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
n m n
m
A
n m m
n m m
A
n m m
n m m
m A
I
f
= depth factor I
f
= depth factor
|
|
|

|
=
L
D
f I
f
, ,
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 6
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 6
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (

=
|
|

\
=
B B
f I
s f
, ,
I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B
I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B
I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B I
f
can be obtained from charts using D
f
/B,
s
and L/B
Due to the heterogeneous nature of soil deposits, the
magnitude of E
s
may vary with depth. For that reason, Bowles
(1987) recommended using average of E
s
Due to the heterogeneous nature of soil deposits, the
magnitude of E
s
may vary with depth. For that reason, Bowles
(1987) recommended using average of E
s
z E

f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (

=
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 9
Elastic settlement of sandy soil under flexible foundation
(Equation based on theory of elasticity) - 9
z
z E
E
i s
s

=
) (
smaller is whichever B or H z
z depth a within elasticity of ulus soil E
i s
, 5
mod
) (
=
=
Example 1 - 1 Example 1 - 1
A flexible shallow foundation 1 m X 2 m is shown below.
Calculate the elastic settlement at the centre of the
foundation.
A flexible shallow foundation 1 m X 2 m is shown below.
Calculate the elastic settlement at the centre of the
foundation.
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (

=
Example 1 - 2 Example 1 - 2
f s
s
s
e
I I
E
B q S
2
0
1
) ' (

=
z E
E
i s

=
) (
B = 1 m, L = 2 m B = 1 m, L = 2 m
B m z 5 5 = =
z
z E
E
i s
s

=
) (
kPa E
s
400 , 10
5
) 2 000 , 12 ( ) 1 000 , 8 ( ) 2 000 , 10 (
=
+ +
=
For centre of foundation For centre of foundation
10
5 . 0
5
) 2 / (
' , 2
1
2
' , 4 = = = = = = =
B
H
n
B
L
m
5 . 0
2
1
2
' = = =
B
B
Example 1 - 3 Example 1 - 3
10 ' , 2 ' = = n m
From tables, F
1
= 0.641 F
2
= 0.031 From tables, F
1
= 0.641 F
2
= 0.031
659 . 0 031 . 0
3 . 0 1
3 . 0 2 1
641 . 0
1
2 1
2 1
=


+ =

+ = F F I
s
s
s

709 . 0 , 3 . 0 , 2
2
, 1
1
= = = = = =
f
I figures from
L
D

mm I I
E
B q S
f s
s
s
e
27 . 12 01227 . 0 709 . 0 659 . 0
400 , 10
) 3 . 0 1 (
5 . 0 4 150
1
) ' (
2 2
0
= =

709 . 0 , 3 . 0 , 2
1
, 1
1
= = = = = =
f S
I figures from
B B

Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of


sandy soil-1
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil-1
Mayne and Poulos (1999) presented an improved formula for
calculating the elastic settlement of soil (sand) under
foundation load taking into account:
Rigidity of the foundation
Mayne and Poulos (1999) presented an improved formula for
calculating the elastic settlement of soil (sand) under
foundation load taking into account:
Rigidity of the foundation
Depth of embedment of the foundation
Increase in elastic modulus of the soil with depth
Location of rigid layers at limited depth
Depth of embedment of the foundation
Increase in elastic modulus of the soil with depth
Location of rigid layers at limited depth
foundation of ulus Elastic E
layer soil le compressib of ulus Elastic E
foundation of diameter Equivalent B
foundation of
centre the below settlement elastic The S
f
S
e
e
=
=
=
=
mod
mod
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil-2
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil-2
( )
2
0
0
1
s
E F G e
e
E
I I I B q
S =
foundation of thickness t
factor correction embedment Foundation I
factor correction rigidity Foundation I
depth with E of
iation the for factor Influence I
depth Foundation D
soil ratio s Poisson
foundation of ulus Elastic E
E
F
s
G
f
s
f
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
var
'
mod

level foundation from rock the Depth to = H


For rectangular foundation For rectangular foundation
foundation of width B
BL
B
e
=
=

4
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil-3
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil-3
( )
2
0
0
1
s
E F G e
e
E
I I I B q
S =
foundation of length L
foundation of width B
=
=
For circular foundation For circular foundation
foundation of diameter B
B B
e
=
=
kz E E
s
+ =
0
z with ulus elastic soil in increase of rate k
foundation of bottom the from depth z
depth foundation at soil of elasticity E
mod
0
=
=
=
Influence factor for the variation of E
s
with depth Influence factor for the variation of E
s
with depth
) , (
0
G
B
H
kB
E
f I = =
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil- 4
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil- 4
( )
2
0
0
1
s
E F G e
e
E
I I I B q
S =
e e
G
B kB
Foundation rigidity
correction factor
Foundation rigidity
correction factor
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil- 5
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil- 5
( )
2
0
0
1
s
E F G e
e
E
I I I B q
S =
3
0
2
2
10 6 . 4
1
4
|
|

\
|
|
|
|
|

\
|
+
+
+ =
e
e
f
F
B
t
k
B
E
E
I

Foundation embedment
correction factor
Foundation embedment
correction factor
1
( )
2
0
0
1
s
E F G e
e
E
I I I B q
S =
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil- 6
Improved equation for Elastic Settlement of
sandy soil- 6
( )
|
|

\
|
+
=
6 . 1 4 . 0 22 . 1 exp 5 . 3
1
1
f
e
E
D
B
I

Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain


influence factor - 1
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor - 1
The settlement of granular soils can also be evaluated by the
use of semiemperical strain influence factor proposed by
Schmertmann (1978).
The settlement of granular soils can also be evaluated by the
use of semiemperical strain influence factor proposed by
Schmertmann (1978).
z
I
q q C C S
z
z
=

2
) ( z
E
I
q q C C S
s
z
e
=

0
2 1
) (
f
z
D q
foundation the of level the at stress q
soil in creep for account to factor correction a C
embedment foundation of depth the for factor correction a C
I
=
=
=
=
=
2
1
factor influence Strain
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor - 2
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor - 2
z
E
I
q q C C S
z
s
z
e
=

2
0
2 1
) (
Correction factor for depth (C
1
) and correction factor for creep (C
2
) are
given by:
Correction factor for depth (C
1
) and correction factor for creep (C
2
) are
given by:
|

\
|
+ =
|
|

\
|

=
1 . 0
log 2 . 0 1
5 . 0 1
2
1
years in time
C
q q
q
C
given by: given by:
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor - 3
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor - 3
z
E
I
q q C C S
z
s
z
e
=

2
0
2 1
) (
The strain influence factor I
z
for square (L/B=1) or circular foundations and
foundations with L/B10 is shown here. I
z
diagrams for foundations with 1<L/B<10
can be linearly interpolated
The strain influence factor I
z
for square (L/B=1) or circular foundations and
foundations with L/B10 is shown here. I
z
diagrams for foundations with 1<L/B<10
can be linearly interpolated
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor - 4
Elastic settlement of sandy soil using strain
influence factor - 4
Procedure for calculation of S
e
using the strain influence factor Procedure for calculation of S
e
using the strain influence factor
Step1: Plot the variation of I
z
with depth
Step2: Plot the actual variation of E
s
of
soil with depth. E
s
can be calculated
from SPT or CPT results
Step3: Approximate the actual variation
Step1: Plot the variation of I
z
with depth
Step2: Plot the actual variation of E
s
of
soil with depth. E
s
can be calculated
from SPT or CPT results
Step3: Approximate the actual variation Step3: Approximate the actual variation
of E
s
in to number of layers of soil
having constant E
s
Step4: Divide the soil layer from z=0 to
z=z
2
into number of layers which will
depend on breaking in continuity in I
z
and E
s
diagrams
Step5: Prepare a table to obtain
Step6: Calculate C
1
and C
2
Step3: Approximate the actual variation
of E
s
in to number of layers of soil
having constant E
s
Step4: Divide the soil layer from z=0 to
z=z
2
into number of layers which will
depend on breaking in continuity in I
z
and E
s
diagrams
Step5: Prepare a table to obtain
Step6: Calculate C
1
and C
2
z
E
I
s
z

Example 2 -1 Example 2 -1
A 3 m wide strip foundation on a
deposit of sand layer is shown along
with the variation of modulus of
elasticity of the soil (E
s
). The unit
weight of sand is 18 kN/m
3.
Calculate the elastic settlement of
foundation after 10 years using the
strain influence factor.
A 3 m wide strip foundation on a
deposit of sand layer is shown along
with the variation of modulus of
elasticity of the soil (E
s
). The unit
weight of sand is 18 kN/m
3.
Calculate the elastic settlement of
foundation after 10 years using the
strain influence factor.
1
.
5

m
kPa q 200
0
=
3 m
2
) (MPa E
s
6 Mpa
3
=
strain influence factor. strain influence factor.
Depth (m)
15
7.5
12 Mpa
10 Mpa
3
/ 18 m kN =
z
E
I
q q C C S
z
s
z
e
=

2
0
2 1
) (
Example 2 -2 Example 2 -2
kPa q 200
0
=
) (MPa E
s
3
/ 18 m kN =
2 . 0 =
z
I
5 . 0 =
z
I
z I
z
z
1 . 0 2 . 0
3 0
+ =

10 0 . 3 , = =
B
L
B L
5 . 0 =
z
I
) 3 ( 9 / 5 . 0 5 . 0
12 3
=

z I
z
z
9 / ) 3 ( * 5 . 0 5 . 0 = z I
z
Example 3 -3 Example 3 -3
Layer No z [m] E
s
[kPa]
Z to the
middle of
layer
I
z
at the
middle of
layer
1 2.0 6000 1.0 0.3 0.0001
2 1.0 12000 2.5 0.45 0.0000375
] / [
3
kN m z
E
I
s
z

2 1.0 12000 2.5 0.45 0.0000375


3 4.5 12000 5.25 0.375 0.000141
4 4.5 10000 9.75 0.125 0.0000563
kN m kN m z
E
I
s
z
/ 000334 . 0 ] / [
3 3
=

Example 3 -4 Example 3 -4
4 . 1
1 . 0
10
log 2 . 0 1
1 . 0
log 2 . 0 1
922 . 0
27 200
27
5 . 0 1 5 . 0 1
2
1
=
|

\
|
+ =
|

\
|
+ =
=

=
|
|

\
|

=
years in time
C
q q
q
C
kPa D q
kPa q
f
27 5 . 1 18
200
= = =
=

mm m z
E
I
q q C C S
z
s
z
e
75 075 . 0 000334 . 0 ) 27 200 ( 4 . 1 922 . 0 ) (
2
0
2 1
= = = =

1 . 0 1 . 0
\ \
kN m kN m z
E
I
s
z
/ 000334 . 0 ] / [
3 3
=

Elastic settlement of foundation on


Saturated Clay
Elastic settlement of foundation on
Saturated Clay
Janbu (1956) proposed an equation for evaluating the average settlement of
flexible foundation on saturated clay soils
Janbu (1956) proposed an equation for evaluating the average settlement of
flexible foundation on saturated clay soils
s
e
E
B q
A A S
0
2 1
=
s
E
A
1
is a function of H/B and L/B
A
2
is a function of D
f
/B
A
1
is a function of H/B and L/B
A
2
is a function of D
f
/B
foundation on the pressure applied Net q
clay of elasticity of Modulus E
level foundation from rock the Depth to
foundation the of Depth D
foundation the of Length L
foundation the of Width
0
s
f
=
=
=
=
=
=
H
B
Elastic settlement of sandy soil
under rigid foundation
Elastic settlement of sandy soil
under rigid foundation
Load Load
stress stress
Load Load
stress stress
) , ( ) (
93 . 0
centre flexible e rigid e
S S
deflection deflection deflection deflection
Elastic Modulus, E (MPa) Elastic Modulus, E (MPa)
S
t
e
e
l
S
t
e
e
l
(
2
1
0
k
)
(
2
1
0
k
)
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
(
2
0
k
(
2
0
k
--
4
0
k
)
4
0
k
)
H
a
r
d
w
o
o
d
H
a
r
d
w
o
o
d
(
5
k

(
5
k

--
2
0
k
)
2
0
k
)
H
a
r
d

C
l
a
y
H
a
r
d

C
l
a
y
S
o
f
t

C
l
a
y
S
o
f
t

C
l
a
y
D
e
n
s
e

S
a
n
d
D
e
n
s
e

S
a
n
d
L
o
o
s
e

S
a
n
d
L
o
o
s
e

S
a
n
d
))
G
r
a
n
i
t
e
G
r
a
n
i
t
e
(
5
0
k
(
5
0
k
--
1
0
0
k
)
1
0
0
k
)
M
u
d
s
t
o
n
e
M
u
d
s
t
o
n
e
(
2
0
0
(
2
0
0
--
8
k
)
8
k
)
S
a
n
d
s
t
o
n
e
S
a
n
d
s
t
o
n
e
(
3
k
(
3
k
--
2
0
k
)
2
0
k
)
M
u
d
s
t
o
n
e
M
u
d
s
t
o
n
e
(
2
0
0
(
2
0
0
--
8
k
)
8
k
)
1
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
2
0
0
,
0
0
0
2
0
0
,
0
0
0
1
0
0
,
0
0
0
1
0
0
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
11
S
t
e
e
l
S
t
e
e
l
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
H
a
r
d
w
o
o
d
H
a
r
d
w
o
o
d
Soil Soil
Rock Rock
H
a
r
d

C
l
a
y
H
a
r
d

C
l
a
y
S
o
f
t

C
l
a
y
S
o
f
t

C
l
a
y
D
e
n
s
e

S
a
n
d
D
e
n
s
e

S
a
n
d
L
o
o
s
e

S
a
n
d
L
o
o
s
e

S
a
n
d
G
r
a
n
i
t
e
G
r
a
n
i
t
e
M
u
d
s
t
o
n
e
M
u
d
s
t
o
n
e
S
a
n
d
s
t
o
n
e
S
a
n
d
s
t
o
n
e
XW XW
HW HW
MW MW
SW SW
FF
CW CW
M
u
d
s
t
o
n
e
M
u
d
s
t
o
n
e
Elastic parameters Elastic parameters -- clay clay Elastic parameters Elastic parameters -- clay clay
EE
Soft clay
Medium clay
4.1 20.7 MPa
20.7 41.4 MPa Medium clay
Stiff Clay

All saturated clays
20.7 41.4 MPa
41.1 96.6 MPa
0.5 (no vol. change)
Elastic parameters Elastic parameters -- sand sand Elastic parameters Elastic parameters -- sand sand
EE
Loose sand Loose sand
Medium sand Medium sand
Dense sand Dense sand
10 10 -- 24 MPa 24 MPa
17 17 -- 28 MPa 28 MPa
34 34 -- 55 MPa 55 MPa Dense sand Dense sand
Silty sand Silty sand
Sand and gravel Sand and gravel

Loose sand Loose sand
Dense sand Dense sand
34 34 -- 55 MPa 55 MPa
10 10 17.25 MPa 17.25 MPa
69 69 172 Mpa 172 Mpa
0.1 to 0.3 0.1 to 0.3
0.3 to 0.4 0.3 to 0.4