142 views

Uploaded by Thakur Yogendra

n

- Transmission Line Parameter Calculation
- Synchronous Generators
- Lecture02 Tranmission Line Theory
- Basic of Generator
- Cooper Bussmann Short Circuit and Voltage Drop Calculation
- Thermal Power Plants
- N11830 - Line Parameters Calculation
- USER´S MANUAL Power Factory
- EL-4650, EMTP APLICATION GUIDE
- Calculation for Short Circuit Current Calculation using IEC / IEEE Standard
- IEEE Reliability Test System
- Digsilent Dpl Tutorial
- Design of Electrical Systems for Large Projects
- Electrical System Studies for Large Projects Executed at Multiple Engineering Centres
- Substation
- Transient Analysis Two Induction Motors Starting
- TechRef_CableConstants[1].pdf
- Short Circuit Current Level Control
- Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems.pdf
- Synchronous Generators

You are on page 1of 8

Fig. 1: Resistive Loss on a Al transmission line as a function of radius as a percentage loss over 1000km.

Introduction

According to the Department of Energy, California lost about 19.7 x 109 kWh of electrical energy through transmission/distribution in 2008. [1] This amount of energy loss was equal to 6.8% of total amount of electricity used in the state throughout that year. At the 2008 average retail price of $0.1248/kWh, this amounts to a loss of about $2.4B worth of electricity in California, and a $24B loss nationally. [1] This report looks to explain and quantify the two major sources of loss in high voltage AC transmission lines: resistive loss and corona loss. The former occurs because of the non-zero resistance found wire's metal. Corona loss is an ionization of the air that occurs when the electric fields around a conductor exceed a specific value.

Although the conductors in a transmission line have extremely low resistivity, they are not perfect. This section seeks to quantify that loss through computation of the skin depth and power attenuation factors.

Theory The amount of resistive loss in a system can be found estimated by using corona-free transmission line equations to find the amount of power delivered to any point along the wire and subtracting the initial amount of power. The equations for doing so are below: [2]

In the above equation, c is the speed of light and L, the inductance per unit length of the transmission line is given as:

Fig. 2: Corona loss in kilowatts lost per kilometer of wire as a function of radius. An Al 3 phase 765kV transmission line and Peek's formula were used to generate this graph.

The equations for calculating Rl, the resistance per unit length, can be shown below. It includes the formula for finding the wire's skin depth (&delta), which shows how far into the conductor 90% of the power is carried by current. [3]

IB in this equation is correction factor found by using the first two Bessel I functions. Using the above equations, the total amount of power lost due to resistance is equal to the power at a given distance minus the inital power. Since the amount of loss as a percentage is a fixed amount regardless of initial power, the results listed are written as a percentage of total power. The parameters listed above and summaries of the results of these equations can be found in Table 1. In it, there are estimated losses of a typical US power line made of aluminum (case 1), a European power line at 50Hz (case 2), and a line made out of silver (case 3). A comparison of cases 1 and 3 show that building a long transmission cable can save in resistance loss (about $19M/year), but would cost significantly more to build ($18.5B) at 2010 market prices.

Parameter d a L f IB &delta Rl &alpha 0 c Line Separation Conductor Radius Inductance Per Meter Frequency Conductivity of the Metal Bessel Correction Factor Skin Depth Resistance per Meter attenuation factor Permeability of Free Space Speed of Light %PRloss (1km) %PRloss (1000km) 37.2 ppm 3.66% 60 Hz 3.82 x 107 S/m (Al) 1.1 10.5 mm 29.1 /m 18.6 x 10-9/m Case 1 Case 2 10 m 0.015m 2.6uH/m 50 Hz 3.82 x 107S/m 1.1 11.5 mm 26.5 /m 17.0 x 10-9/m 4 x 10-7 H/m 3 x 108 m/sec 34.0 ppm 3.34% 29.3ppm 2.89% 60 Hz 6.17 x 107S/m (Ag) 1.1 8.3 mm 22.9 /m 14.7 x 10-9/m Case 3

Table 1: Resistive loss values using sample parameters and the formulas listed above.

Measured Values In a paper from the American Electric Power (AEP) company published in 1969, the authors make an estimate that the amount of power loss from non-corona based effects is about 4MW over 100 miles in a 1GW transmission system. [7] Converting to metric units, this gives a loss of about 25MW or 2.5% over a 1000km transmission line. This number is consistent with the resistive loss given in a contemporary, selfpublished report from the AEP. [11] In this report, the resistive loss was listed as between 3.1MW/100 miles and 4.4MW/100 miles, depending on the wiring configuration. This corresponds to between a 1.9% and 2.8% power loss over 1000km.

Corona Loss

Corona loss is the other major type of power loss in transmission lines. Essentially, corona loss is caused by the ionization of air molecules near the transmission line conductors. These coronas do not spark across lines, but rather carry current (hence the loss) in the air along the wire. Corona discharge in transmission lines can lead to hissing/cackling noises, a glow, and the smell of ozone (generated from the breakdown and recombination of O2 molecules). The color and distribution of this glow depends on the phrase of the AC signal at any given moment in time. Positive coronas are smooth and blue in color, while negative coronas are red and spotty. [5] Corona loss only occurs when the line to line voltage exceeds the corona threshold. Unlike resistive loss which where amount of power lost was a fixed percentage of input, the percentage of power lost due to corona is a function of the signal's voltage. Corona discharge power losses are also highly dependent on the weather and temperature. Theory The corona factor equation was empirically derived by F.W. Peek and published in 1911.[4] In a later publication, he modified the original equation and he showed that the total amount of power loss in a wire due to the corona effect was equal to the equation below: [5]

For examples of these values and their meaning, please refer to Table 2.

Parameter k0 g0 kd a d f ki V0 Fixed constant Disruptive Gradient in Air Normalized Air Density Factor 1 (25 C, 76 cm pressure) Radius of Conductor Conductor Spacing Frequency Wire Irregularity Factor Line Voltage to Neutral (1/1.73 x Voltage Between Conductors) Disruptive Critical Voltage (g0 ki a kd ln(d/a)) Corona Loss kW/km/line Corona Loss % (1000km line at 2.25 GW)

Sample Value 241 21.1 kv/cm 1 3.5 cm (see Fig. 2) 1000 cm 60 Hz 0.95 (weathered wires) 442 kV (765 kV/1.73) 397 kv 25kW/km 3.3%

As can be seen in Fig. 2, the radius of the conductor has a large effect on the total amount of corona loss. One way of getting lines with a larger effective radius is through the use of bundles, where 2-6 separate, but close lines are kept at the same voltage via intermittent connectors. This reduces the amount of metal needed to achieve a given radius and corona loss. Transient calculations of corona loss can be found in reference [10].

Me asu red Val ues In ref ere nce [6], the aut Fig. 3: Total loss of a 2.25 GWm 3 phase 765 kV transmission line as a function of radius. hor s measured the corona loss of a 765kV, 3 phase, and bundled transmission line to be about 1.87kW/km in fair weather. This amounts to only about a 0.083% loss over a 1000km line. In bad weather, however, the authors measured the loss to be 84.3kW/km, or about a 3.7% loss. Using these numbers and the average price of electricity, a day long rainstorm on a 100km stretch of 765kV wires costs an electric company about $25,000. Looking at voltages greater than 765kV, the Hydro-Quebec Institute of Research measured the amount of corona loss at voltages up to 1200 kV. [8] They found that the corona loss of a 6 and 8 conductor bundles were 22.7 kW/km and 6.2 kW/km, respectively. These numbers were measured in "heavy artificial rain". The discrepancies between [6] and [8] probably stemmed from different radii and conductor spacing. Finally, researches in Finland measured the amount of corona loss in transmission lines under frost conditions. [9] This paper also shows the large reduction in corona loss from bundling wires: about 2.5-5x for each conductor added between 1-3. Under frost conditions, they show that the loss of the lines is about 21 kW for a 2 conductor bundle of a 400kV three phase transmission line.

Fig. 4: Cost of a 2.25 GWm 3 phase 765 kV transmission line as a function of radius. The cost of a transmission line was found by taking the total wire volume and multiplying by the 2010 market price of aluminum ($1.14 per pound).

Summary

This report shows the how to estimate both corona and resistive losses in wire and also gives experimental results. Fig. 3 provides an estimate of the total amount of loss in a system as a function of the conductor radius. Looking at this figure, the amount of loss drops dramatically as the wire radius increases to about 4cm. If made of solid metal (as the formulas above assume), this would be a fairly unwieldy size. Because of this, power line companies bundle smaller lines to keep both building and loss costs as low as possible. Fig. 4 shows the total amount of theoretical power loss and cost of a 1000km high voltage transmission line. As the wire gets larger, the amount of loss decreases as about 1/r (resistive) and quadratically to 0 (corona). Larger wires also incur a quadratically larger cost, and eventually reach a break-even point where larger conductor radii do not make financial sense. It should be noted that this figure (wrongly) assumes a solid, homogeneous wire. Power lines, in addition to being bundled, also contain a cheaper steel core on the interior of the wire. This is because once past the skin depth into the wire, where 90% of the power is carried, the resistivity of the wire becomes less important. 2010 C. Harting. The author grants permission to copy, distribute and display this work in unaltered form, with attribution to the author, for noncommercial purposes only. All other rights, including commercial rights, are reserved to the author.

References

[1] M. Bowles, " State Electricity Profiles 2008," US Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA 0348(01)/2, March 2010. [2] W. Hayt and J. Buck, Engineering Electromagnetics (Mcgraw-Hill, 2006), pp 346, 486. [3] F. Rachidi and S. Tkachenko, Electromagnetic Field Interaction with Transmission Lines From Classical Theory to HF Radiation Effects (WIT Press, 2008). [4] F. W. Peek, "The Law of the Corona and the Dielectric Strength of Air," Transactions of A.I.E.E. 30, 1889 (1911). [5] F. W. Peek, Dielectric Phenomena in High-Voltage Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 1929), pp 169-214. [6] N, Kolcio et al., "Radio-Influence and Corona-Loss Aspects of AEP 765-kV Lines" IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems PAS-88, No.9, 1343 (1969). [7] G. S. Vassell and R. M. Maliszewski, "AEP 765-kV System: System Planning Considerations" IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems PAS-88, 1320 (1969). [8] N. G. Trinh, P. S. Maruvada and B. Poirier, "A Comparative Study of the Corona Performance of Conductor Bundles for 1200 kV Transmission Lines," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems PAS-93,940 (1974). [9] K. Lahti, M. Lahtinen and K. Nousiainen, "Transmission Line Corona Losses Under Hoar Frost Conditions," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 12, 928 (1997). [10] X. Li, O. Malik and Z. Zhao, "Computation of Transmission line Transients Including Corona Effects," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 4, 1816 (1989). [11] " Transmission Facts," American Electric Power.

- Transmission Line Parameter CalculationUploaded byksg9731
- Synchronous GeneratorsUploaded bySyed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain
- Lecture02 Tranmission Line TheoryUploaded bySai Adarsh
- Basic of GeneratorUploaded bysrexpower
- Cooper Bussmann Short Circuit and Voltage Drop CalculationUploaded bycloobpsp
- Thermal Power PlantsUploaded bypayments8543
- N11830 - Line Parameters CalculationUploaded byFalconegypt
- USER´S MANUAL Power FactoryUploaded by马俊
- EL-4650, EMTP APLICATION GUIDEUploaded byivanhhn
- Calculation for Short Circuit Current Calculation using IEC / IEEE StandardUploaded byibmmoiz
- IEEE Reliability Test SystemUploaded bygforti
- Digsilent Dpl TutorialUploaded byAsimenia Korompili
- Design of Electrical Systems for Large ProjectsUploaded byDhivya Natarajan
- Electrical System Studies for Large Projects Executed at Multiple Engineering CentresUploaded bygtgreat
- SubstationUploaded byKopi143
- Transient Analysis Two Induction Motors StartingUploaded byMarko Istenic
- TechRef_CableConstants[1].pdfUploaded byRafat Thong
- Short Circuit Current Level ControlUploaded bymshahidshaukat
- Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems.pdfUploaded bydinhqui
- Synchronous GeneratorsUploaded bychinnarao
- Transmission lossesUploaded by11751175
- Synchronous MachinesUploaded bynandhakumarme
- IEEE-TPC Tutorial Line Losses 26 July 2010 Final2Uploaded byDale Douglass
- Applications of Line Model of EmtpUploaded byMarin Rivera Granados
- Losses in Transmission LinesUploaded byEr Ashish Baheti
- Electrical Substations Ais-gisUploaded byAndres Felipe Mendieta
- Substation Switching SchemeUploaded bymehrbloor@gmail.com
- EMTP simul(6)Uploaded bykjfen
- Dynamic Line Rating in the world - OverviewUploaded byDalibor Kladar
- TechRef Overhead Line Models[1]Uploaded byLalo Pato

- Google BookUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Accountant and DriverUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- 2075 LeavesUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- ReadmeUploaded byBol Cao
- Albert EinsteinUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Interview of NEA MD Mukesh Kafle March-1-2015Uploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Arc Hydro Tools 2.0 - OverviewUploaded byPiara Guadalupe Arroyo Castillo
- PS3_28Uploaded bygolsang
- Wiring Designs yogiUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Arc HydroUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Migration IlajUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Meter 6adke FormUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- trio75tloutdUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- 81807617Uploaded byThakur Yogendra
- नखोज्नु है मलाई बसन्त ऋतुको हरियालीमाUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- How to Open Nfo FilesUploaded byali
- A CsrUploaded bymanohargud
- Readme!Uploaded byThakur Yogendra
- LicenseUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Letter FormatUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- USANDO FreeHand MXUploaded byisau Menjivar
- Ieee in DetailsUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Toefeel BookUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- E-Sewa FAQUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- How to Open Nfo FilesUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- EnvironmentUploaded byKarki2
- San CharUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- Analysis Report PsseUploaded byThakur Yogendra
- New Text DocumentUploaded byThakur Yogendra

- kuliahALLMMPEDU3772DEC0910Uploaded byWaniNso
- 9709_s09_ms_1Uploaded byThapa Gorkha
- Class ProblemsUploaded byHammad
- Securing Cranes for Storm Winds Uncertainties and Recommendations PresentationsUploaded byAshley Dean
- SteelTech_Product_Catalogue.pdfUploaded byTeodoro Quintana
- MDIwMTQ0MDU=.pdfUploaded byAjay Kumar
- Soal Mid Semester 1 Tahun 2014 - FisikaUploaded byIftita Selviana
- s4Uploaded byBárbara de Oliveira
- NBC Certified Air Balancing Specification - NewUploaded byRe-gee Lechuga
- Profile Calculation[1]Uploaded byAtsis Papadopoulos
- Electronics Testing With a MultimeterUploaded byLoiLeVan
- Injection Molding Methods Design, Optimization, Simulation of Plastic Flow Reducer Part by Mold Flow AnalysisUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Lecture 16Uploaded byravindrababug
- G. F. R. Ellis, U. Kirchner and W. R. Stoeger- Multiverses and physical cosmologyUploaded byDex30KM
- Parametric ResonanceUploaded byLeo Kuts
- Paper70_ICARA2004_401_407Uploaded byMahmoud El-Mahdy
- ESD EthernetUploaded byVishwanath Gaonkar
- Knutsson, M. - IC Engine Intake Noise PredictionsUploaded byThomas Moura
- Lesson Plan CMOSUploaded bysurendar147
- Iluminacion LED Albeo GEUploaded byMario Serrano
- Corpare Bond Work Index and Hard GroveUploaded byWaterdrop' 'Dew
- EQ21Uploaded byAbdulselam Maru
- Classes of Idioms and Their InterpretationUploaded bydana
- SAT-NTSE-Pape-Chandigarh-Solution.pdfUploaded bygirish
- s11191-009-9214-6Uploaded byDagoel Sriyansyah
- DerivationsUploaded byRaja Gopal A
- Moving Mirror GoniospectroradiometerUploaded byAmanda Jiang
- NeurophysicsUploaded byOlimpiu Ant
- IndoGAS Student Paper Competition_LNG Distribution Scheme and Polygeneration Technology Utilization for Sumba Island DevelopmentUploaded byperdana surya
- Why CPVC Pipes FailUploaded byNikita Kadam