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SANDRA J.

KEISER

MYRNA B. GARNER

BEYOND DESIGN
The Synergy of Apparel Product Development
third edition THIRD EDITION

BEYOND DESIGN
The Synergy of Apparel Product Development

BEYOND DESIGN
The Synergy of Apparel Product Development
SANDRA J. KEISER MYRNA B. GARNER
Fairchild Books | New York

THIRD EDITION

Note:Please correct styles and page numbers as layout is nalized.

EXTENDED CONTENTS
Preface xv Acknowledgments xvii PART ONE: PLANNING FOR SUCCESS 1
CHAPTER 1The Role of Product Development in the Apparel Supply Chain 3 Apparel Supply Chain Overview 4 History 4 Apparel Supply Chain Structure Today 5 Collaborative Product Supply Chains 6 Supply Chain Management 8 Growth Strategies 10 Vertical Integration 12 Horizontal Integration 16 Diversification 16 Globalization 17 The Role of Product Development and Its Variations 17 Wholesale Brands 18 Private Brands: Private Label and Store Brands 18 Summary 20 Key Terms 21 Discussion Questions 21 Activities 22 References 22 CHAPTER 2Business Planning 25 Basic Business Functions 26 Strategic Planning 28 Apparel Product Planning 30 Merchandise Planning 30 Creative Planning 33 Technical Planning 34 Production Planning 34 The Apparel Product Development Process 35 Classification of Products 36 Industry Classification Systems 36 Product Categories 38 Size Range 40 Product Positioning 41 Price Categories 41 Couture 42 Designer Ready-to-Wear 44 Contemporary Designer and Bridge 45 Mass Market 45 Season 47 Branding and Licensing 48 Brand Image 49 Brand Extensions and Lifestyle Brands 49 Brand Equity 49 Brand Portfolios and Brand Umbrellas 50 Other Brand Licensing Variations 51 Summary 52 Key Terms 53 Discussion Questions 54 Activities 54 References 54 CHAPTER 3Consumer Markets 59 Consumer Analysis and Market Segmentation 58 Demographics 59 Age 60 Gender 60 Marital Status 61 Family Size 61 Income 62 Spending Habits 62 Occupation and Education 63 Religion 64 Ethnicity 64 Regional Demographic Data 64 Psychographics 66

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Psychographic Tools 68 Generational Cohort Groups 69 Millennials (or Generation Y) 70 Generation X 72 Baby Boomers 73 Matures 74 New Generational Definitions 74 Market Research Tools 76 Data Collection 76 Environmental Scanning 76 Point-of-Sale Data 76 Data Profiling and Data Mining 77 Video Documentation 78 Neuromarketing 78 Engaging the Consumer 79 Website Engagement 79 Crowdsourcing 80 Style Testing and Wear-Testing 82 Focus Groups 82 Surveys 83 Consumer Privacy 84 General Consumer Trends 85 Long-Term Recessionary Impact 85 Time as a Commodity 85 Fashion Independence 86 Comfort 86 Importance of Fit 87 Masstige 87 Quality vs. Quantity 88 Importance of Brands 88 Wear-Now Clothing 88 Ethical Fashion 89 Defining Your Target Customer 90 Summary 91 Key Terms 91 Discussion Questions 91 Activities 92 References 93 Appendix 3.1: Defining a Customer Profile XXX

Environmental Scanning Influences 106 Current Events 106 The Arts 107 Sports 108 Science and Technology 109 Trend Forecasting Resources 110 Shopping the Market 112 Determining Where to Shop 113 Shopping Domestically 114 Shopping Internationally 114 Color 116 The Color-Forecasting Process 116 Color Associations 116 Textile Consortiums 117 Color Forecasters 117 Fabric 118 Fabric Shows 118 Fabric Libraries 119 Fabric Purchasing 119 Printed Fabrics 120 Trim Studios 121 Silhouette 121 Seasonal Trend Forecasts 121 Responsibility for Trend Forecasting 122 Forecast Formats 122 Summary 124 Key Terms 125 Discussion Questions 125 Activities 125 References 126 CHAPTER 5Color Management 131 Seasonal Color Palettes 130 Merchandising Considerations 130 Relating Color Palettes to Target Markets 133 Age and Life Stage 133 Fashion Level 133 Personal Coloring 133 Geographic Location 134 End Use 134 Managing the Color Story 134 Color Science 135 Color and Light 135 Color Attributes 137 Hue 137 Value 138 Chroma 138 Color Temperature 139 Creating and Mixing Colors 140

PART TWO: CREATIVE PLANNING 99


CHAPTER 4Trend Forecasting 101 Fashion Cycle and Theories of Fashion Innovation 101 Environmental Scanning 105 Long-Term Forecasting 105 Short-Term Forecasting 106

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Additive System 140 Subtractive System 140 Combining Color-Mixing Systems 141 Color Notation Systems 142 Color Management 143 Color Standards and ColorMatching Systems 144 Commercial Color-Matching Systems 145 Color Approval Process 147 Visual Color Approval 149 Digital Color Approval 150 Prints and Yarn-Dyed Fabrics 152 Color Measurement 152 Instruments 152 lIluminants 153 Viewing Geometry 153 Color Measurement Procedures 154 Interpretation of Color-Measurement Data 154 Factors Affecting Color Management 155 Fabric 156 Human Vision 156 Color Calibration 156 Summary 157 Key Terms 158 Discussion Questions 158 Activities 159 References 159 Additional Color Resources 160 CHAPTER 6Fabrication 165 Creating a Fabric Story 164 Fabric Classifications 164 Bottom-Weight and Top-Weight Fabrics 165 Basics vs. Novelty Fabrics 165 Fabric Selection 166 Timing Fabric Decisions 167 Fabric Purchasing 168 Fibers and Yarns 170 Fiber 170 Yarns 173 The Language of Fabrics 173 Wovens 174 Knits 175 Weft Knits 176 Warp Knits 177 Whole Garment Knits 178 Stretch 178 Fabric Weight 179

Hand and Drape 180 Surface Interest 181 Prints 182 Print Scale and Placement 182 Print Sources 182 Designing Prints 185 Direction 185 Repeats 185 Coverage 185 Arrangement 186 Printing Methods 186 Direct Printing 187 Discharge Printing 189 Resist Printing 189 Standards for Print Quality 189 Smart Textiles 190 Nanotechnology 192 Fiber Modifications 192 Finishes 192 Intelligent Textiles 193 Micro-Encapsulation 193 Electronic-Integrated Textiles 194 The Impact of Green 196 Sustainability Impacts of Fibers 196 Cotton and Natural Fibers 196 Regenerated Fibers 198 Synthetic Fibers 199 Sustainability of Textile Processes 199 Recycling 200 Collaborative Sustainability Initiatives 201 Summary 203 Key Terms 204 Discussion Questions 204 Activities 205 References 205 CHAPTER 7Findings and Trim 213 Findings 210 Support Materials 210 Interlining 210 Lining 213 Support Devices 214 Closures 215 Zippers 215 Buttons 217 Buttonholes 219 Hooks and Eyes 220 Hook and Loop Tape Fastener 221 Snaps 221

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Belts 221 Thread 222 Elastics 224 Labels 225 Materials for Labels 225 Government Requirements 225 Brand Labels 225 Label Styles 226 Trims 227 Linear Trims 227 Narrow Fabric Trims 228 Ribbon 228 Passementerie 229 Lace 229 Surface Embellishments 231 Appliqus 231 Embroidery 231 Printed Motifs 232 Decorative Details 233 Ruffles 233 Flounces 233 Smocking 234 Summary 234 Key Terms 235 Discussion Questions 235 Activities 236 References 236 Additional Resources 236 CHAPTER 8Garment Styling 243 Methods for Developing Design Ideas 240 Studying Primary Resources 241 Purchased Garments 241 Printed Sources and the Internet 241 Sketches 242 Design Elements and Principles 244 Design Elements 244 Line 244 Color 245 Texture 246 Pattern 247 Silhouette 248 Shape 249 Design Principles 249 Proportion 249 Balance 250 Emphasis or Focal Point 250 Rhythm 250

Harmony or Unity 251 Garment Variations by Category 251 Tops 252 Tops and T-Shirts 252 Sweaters 253 Shirts and Blouses 253 Jackets and Vests 254 Outerwear Jackets and Coats 256 Dresses 256 Bottoms 258 Skirts 258 Pants 259 Specialty Categories 259 Garment Details 260 Component Parts 260 Necklines and Collars 260 Sleeves and Cuffs 263 Pockets 264 Belts 266 Closures 266 Planning and Sourcing for Garment Details 268 Summary 285 Key Terms 285 Discussion Questions 286 Activities 286 Reference 287 Additional Resources 287 Appendix 8.1: Apparel Design Details Illustrated XXX CHAPTER 9Line Development 293 Approaches to Line Planning 290 Original Designs 292 Style Modification 292 Knockoffs 292 Legal Protection for the Design of Apparel 295 Copyright Protection 295 Innovative Design Protection and Piracy Prevention Act 296 Trademark and Trade Dress 297 Organizing the Line 301 Item Line Development 301 Coordinated Group Line Development 303 Parameters of Line Development 304 Pricing 304 Fashion Level 305 Timing Considerations 306 Balancing the Line 307

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Assortment Variety 307 Assortment Volume 309 Assortment Distribution 309 Communicating Design Concepts 310 Concept Boards 310 Line Review 310 Appendix 9.1: Design Process Visuals 311 Summary 317 Key Terms 317 Discussion Questions 317 Activities 318 References 318 Additional Resources 319

Additional Resources 351 CHAPTER 11Sizing and Fit Specications 357 Sizing 354 History of Womens Apparel Sizing 354 First Sizing Systems 354 Updates 355 Recent Research and Technical Developments 356 Latest Advances 359 Womens Sizing 360 Misses 363 Petites 364 Talls 365 Womens Plus 365 Womens Petites 365 Juniors 367 Maternity 367 Other Merchandise Categories for Women 367 Mens Sizing 368 Suits, Jackets, and Coats 369 Pants 369 Furnishings 371 Young Men 371 Childrens Sizing 371 Infants 371 Toddlers 372 Childrens 372 Girls 372 Boys 373 Metrics and Sizing 373 Garment Fit 373 Grain 374 Set 374 Line 376 Balance 376 Ease 376 Functional Ease 376 Design Ease 378 Sizing Specifications 379 Measurements 379 Tolerances 380 Sampling Process 380 Forms 384 Fit Models 384 Grading 385 Circumference Grading 386 Length Grading 386

PART THREE: TECHNICAL DESIGN 325


CHAPTER 10Translating Concept to Product 327 Patternmaking 324 Methods of Pattern Development 324 Flat-Pattern 326 Pattern Drafting 328 Combination Methods 329 Draping 330 New Patternmaking Technologies 330 Patternmaking Needs 331 Design-Driven Product Development 331 Manufacturing-Driven Product Development 332 Sourcing Patternmaking 332 In-House Patternmaking 333 Patternmaking Services 333 Full-Package Vendors 333 Additional Considerations 334 Standards 335 Specifications 336 Information Included 337 Flats 339 Specification Development 341 Design Specs 341 Technical Specs or the Spec Pack 344 Production Specs 348 Types of Spec Sheet Forms 349 Summary 349 Key Terms 350 Discussion Questions 350 Activities 350 References 350

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Width Grading 389 Uneven Grading 389 Mass Customization 390 Summary 401 Key Terms 401 Discussion Questions 402 Activities 402 References 402 Additional Resources 403 Appendix 11.1: Basic Garment Measurement Points XXX CHAPTER 12Quality Specications and Vendor Compliance 411 A Product Development Perspective on Quality 408 Quality Standards 410 Quality Specifications 411 Specification Libraries 411 Voluntary Testing Methods 411 Sizing Specifications 412 Labeling Standards 412 Mandatory Labeling Requirements 412 Fiber Content 412 Manufacturer Identification 413 Country of Origin 413 Care 414 Voluntary Labeling 414 Trademarks 415 Warranties and Certification 416 Union Labels 416 Size Designations 417 Safety Regulations 417 Flammability 417 Drawstrings and Small Parts 418 Lead Content 418 Preproduction Activities Related to Fabric, Findings, and Trim 418 Specifications for Stitches, Seams, and Edge Finishes 422 Stitches 422 Seams 427 Superimposed Seams 428 Lapped Seams 429 Bound Seams 430 Flat Seams 430 Edge Finishes 430 Production Processes 432

Marker Making 434 Spreading and Cutting 435 Assembly Methods 436 Progressive Bundle System 436 Unit Production System 437 Modular Manufacturing Method 437 Wet Processing 438 Finishing 439 Packaging 440 Postproduction 440 Tolerance 441 Construction Criteria 441 Dealing with Flawed Products 442 Summary 446 Key Terms 446 Discussion Questions 446 Activities 447 References 447 Additional Resources 448 Appendix 12.1: Stitches XXX Appendix 12.2: Seams XXX

PART FOUR: PRODUCTION PLANNING AND DISTRIBUTION 461


CHAPTER 13The Role of Sourcing 463 Sourcing Strategies 454 Sourcing Options 455 Sourcing Domestically 455 Sourcing Globally 457 Where Goods Are Sourced 457 Rationale for Offshore Sourcing 458 Evaluating Core Competencies 460 Sourcing Methods 461 Direct Sourcing 461 Cut, Make, and Trim 461 Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM)/Package Contractors 462 Full-Package Suppliers 462 Sourcing Agents 463 Trade Fairs 464 Offshore Facilities and Joint Ventures 466 Licensing 466 International Trade Policy 467 Current Status of U.S. Trade Policy 468 Regional Strengths 469 The Americas 469 NAFTA 470

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CAFTADR 470 Andean Pact and Mercosur 470 Europe 471 Asia 472 Role of China 474 Asian Trade Policies 474 Africa and the Middle East 475 QIZs 476 AGOA 476 Evaluating Sourcing Options 477 Political Stability and Economic Climate 477 Infrastructure 478 Sourcing Costs 478 Quality Standards 479 Production Vendor Capabilities 481 Workforce Capabilities 482 Response Time 483 Channels of Communication 484 Sustainability 484 Working Conditions 484 Flexible Sourcing 487 Clearing Customs 488 Summary 489 Key Terms 490 Discussion Questions 490 Activities 491 References 491 Additional Resources 492 CHAPTER 14Pricing and Costing 505 The Profit and Loss Statement 497 Net Sales 498 Cost of Goods Sold 498 Gross Margin 499 Profit 501 Pricing Strategies 502 Retail Pricing 503 Wholesale and Private Label Pricing 504 Discounts and Allowances 505 Chargebacks 506 Pricing Laws 506 Product Costing 507 Basic Costing Systems 507 Phases of Costing 508 Precosting 509 Production Costing 511 Postproduction Costing 514

Product Development Costing Variables 514 Material Costs 515 Fabric 515 Trims and Findings 516 Labor Costs 516 Tariff Costs 519 Logistics 521 Insurance Costs 525 Vendor Bids and Contracts 525 Summary 526 Key Terms 527 Discussion Questions 527 Activities 528 References 528 Additional Resource 528 CHAPTER 15Product Distribution 541 Determining Retail Assortments and Delivering the Goods 532 Retail Venues 534 Retail Stores 535 Mass Merchandisers 535 Department Stores 537 Specialty Stores 538 Direct Marketing 541 Catalogs 542 Television Shopping Networks 542 E-Commerce 543 Retail Trends and Strategies in Todays Multichannel Environment 544 Exclusivity 545 Importance of Blogs 546 Technology Tools 547 Social Media 547 Video Streaming 549 In-Store Technology 550 A Global Marketplace 551 Summary 552 Key Terms 553 Discussion Questions 553 References 553

Appendix: Transition to the Job Market 565 Glossary 575 Credits 597 Index xx

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PREFACE
This new edition of Beyond Design: The Synergy of Apparel Product Development reects the current relationship among processes in the overall apparel product development cycle, from inception of ideas to delivery of nished products. Features new to the third edition include full-color visuals, thoroughly updated industry information, and an expanded glossary. The apparel industry has undergone a metamorphosis in recent years, and many commonly held perceptions of the eld must be amended to reect changes in methods, content, and emphasis. The apparel business was built on the concept of fashion change; but as we move further into the 21st century, new technological developments, growing globalization of the industry, and a changing consumer marketplace are making increasing demands to compress the turnaround time required to complete the product development cycle. Computer applications in the design and production of products, enhanced real-time communications, and the increasing complexity of the logistics of global trade are changing the entire face of the apparel product development business. In addition, a changing global economy has increased the demands on product developers to become more active participants in costing and sourcing decisions.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT

This book provides an overview of the processes required to create a garment and provides a framework for these creative and technical processes within the reality of the current business environment. Part One provides the context for the apparel product development process. Chapter 1 describes the development process and its place in the overall product pipeline. The focus of Chapter 2 is the business planning process that provides the foundation for decisions affecting development of apparel products. Chapter 3 approaches the consumer market through an understanding of denable target market groups. Part Two explores concepts within the creative design process. Chapter 4 discusses how to initiate style ideas via trend forecasting. The theories of color selection and usage are the topic of Chapter 5. Chapter 6 introduces the eld of textiles and how fabric selection ts in the overall design process. Chapter 7 discusses how ndings and trims are used to enhance apparel style and provide its unique design characteristics. The focus of Chapter 8 is silhouette development and the process of designing individual garment styles. This chapter concludes with a visual appendix

PREFACE

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on apparel design details by the renowned fashion illustrator Steven Stipelman. Chapter 9 explores methods for developing and editing individual garment style suggestions to form the companys product line. An appendix provides graphic examples of presentation boards introduced within the chapter. Part Three focuses on the processes of technical design. Chapter 10 explains how the design drawing of a style is translated into product through patternmaking and begins to dene the specication forms needed for the subsequent production phases. The concepts of garment sizing and t are covered in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 explores the importance of a quality through the development of product standards and specications, awareness of production methods, and monitoring vendor compliance. The chapter appendices details commercial stitches and seams by their class identication codes. Part Four moves into the production planning and distribution phases of the product development process. Chapter 13 discusses the sourcing of garment components and locating production vendors, with emphasis on the escalating role of global trade, and concludes with an overview of the importation process of goods coming into the United States. Chapter 14 is an overview of the critical pricing and costing process for a product in order to provide both company prot and consumer value. Chapter 15 explores the nal stages of the process through distribution and the evolving marketplace, with emphasis on identication of newest retail venues and business trends. An appendix at the end of the book explores the job market in apparel product development. The book concludes with an updated comprehensive glossary.

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES

The text is targeted to sophomore- and junior-year college students and provides enough exibility to accommodate students with varying learning styles. The text may be used in its entirety to provide a one-semester overview of the apparel product development cycle. Alternately, the chapters have been arranged in a manner so that they may be used in a more project-oriented mode over two semesters, where the rst semester emphasizes the creative design processes and the second semester focuses on the technical design aspects of the overall cycle. It is suggested that prerequisites include an introductory textiles course, a basic illustration course, and a garment construction course. A basic understanding of business, including accounting, is suggested as a prerequisite or follow-up to this course, while a patternmaking course could precede or follow this overview, dependent upon how the text is approached. A number of pedagogical features enhance both the overview and projectoriented approaches to the course. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and concludes with a summary, a list of key terms, discussion questions, activities, a list of references, and additional resources, if applicable. Where appropriate, case studies have been added within chapters to amplify the chapter topic. To ensure an accurate and current presentation, the authors have relied on industry contacts, many of whom provided illustrations as well as information about their practices and procedures. The text aims to prepare career-minded students of apparel product development to enter the job market with a realistic, up-to-date understanding of this evolving, dynamic industry.

chapter 4

TREND FORECASTING
Embrace the paradoxes. For every trend you can spot, theres an equally valid countertrend at the other end of the spectrum. There is no longer one right way . . . to design a product, merchandise a line, or assort a department.
ROBYN WATErS

OBJECTIVES
To understand the dimensions of fashion and the life cycle of a fashion trend To learn to use environmental scanning to identify long- and shortterm trends To identify resources available for trend forecasting To understand the importance of shopping the market To become familiar with color, fabric, and silhouette forecasting resources To understand how trends are interpreted for specic markets To identify the personnel responsible for trend forecasting To become familiar with formats for seasonal forecasts

Fashion is a reflection of the prevailing ideas in our society. The concept of fashion applies not only to apparel, but also to literature, architecture, home furnishings, automobiles, technology, and food, to name a few categories (Figure 4.1ab). Fashion helps us to identify what is desirable or beautiful at a given moment in time. In addition to

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gure 4.1a The Geox store in Milan, Italy, manipulates natural sunlight to regulate the interior temperature of the store using hundreds of perforated stainless steel plates in gold, copper, and bronze to mimic the breathability of their shoes. gure 4.1b Apple consistently sets the bar in handheld technology. Here an iPad can be used to track up-to-the-minute fashion trends.

its function as a form of artistic and creative expression, fashion is a response to our functional needs, a platform for new scientific applications, and the stimulus for a huge global business. Fashion is complicated and multifaceted, making it an elusive conceptchallenging to follow, exciting to discover, and fickle should one become too attachedbecause fashion is ultimately about change. To work in a field so subject to change, it is important to be observant, open-minded, and able to see patterns or trends. A trend is the direction in which something (ideas, products, values) tends to move in a way that affects culture, society, or business. Trends represent paradigm shifts that cause us to look at things differently or to do things in new ways. New styles are emotional, technical, psychological, or lifestyle responses to trends that cause us to have a preference for a particular set of product characteristics. Trends make us ready to accept wide leg pants after years of skinny ones; to gravitate toward bright colors rather than neutrals; or to buy the best we can afford rather than the cheapest at specific moments in time. Figure 4.2 gives examples of dimensions on which styles may change in response to trends. Fashion exists at different levels, each of which prioritizes the artistic, functional, scientific, and business aspects of fashion somewhat differently. Fashion levels and their related price points were discussed in Chapter 2. Fashion is also a language through which we identify our affiliations and roles and express our attitudes about age, gen-

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DIMENSIONS OF FASHION

COLOR PALE GRAYED NEUTRAL


VALUE SATURATION HUES

DARK BRIGHT COLOR

SILHOUETTES SHORT BODY-CONFORMING MINIMAL PRIMITIVE/HAND-CRAFTED


HEMLINES FIT DETAILS CONSTRUCTION

LONG ARCHITECTURAL/VOLUMINOUS HEAVILY EMBELLISHED LUXURIOUS

FABRICATION FLAT DULL FINE SOLIDS SMALL REALISTIC


SURFACE QUALITY SURFACE QUALITY GAUGE PATTERN PATTERN SCALE PATTERN STYLE

TEXTURAL SHINY BULKY PATTERN LARGE ABSTRACT

gure 4.2 This chart illustrates a number of dimensions that dene seasonal fashion.

der, power, and sexuality. The target customer was discussed in Chapter 3. Fashion is dynamic. It moves and morphs through a cycle of popularity that is the essence of fashion. Trend forecasters must understand the fashion cycle and the sources of fashion change for their specific market.

FASHION CYCLE AND THEORIES OF FASHION INNOVATION


The fashion cycle, developed from Everrett M. Rogerss work on innovation diffusion, helps us to follow the acceptance and rejection of fashion trends by tracking their movement, pace, and direction. The fashion cycle is most commonly represented by a bell-shaped curve that is plotted using a vertical axis that may represent the number of consumers in a particular stage or unit sales for a particular style as it moves through its fashion cycle. The horizontal axis represents the time that a particular trend remains at each stage of the fashion cycle.

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gure 4.3 The fashion cycle explains how fashion trends evolve through an introductory phase to mass-market saturation, and nally into obsolescence.

At the introduction stage, new trends are introduced on designer runways or put together by influential fashion innovators as part of grass-roots movements. These trends are worn by fashion innovators who have the means to buy designer fashions or who take the lead in putting together innovative street looks that send fashion in a new direction. During the growth stage, fashion leaders or early adopters purchase the fashion as it becomes more widely available at contemporary designer, bridge, and fastfashion contemporary price points. During the acceleration stage the trend is interpreted and widely available at a massmarket level (better and moderate price points) and worn by fashion followers. During the saturation stage, the fashion is at its height of popularity and is widely available to mass markets at all price points. Product developers at all levels should be on to the next trend. During the decline and obsolescence stage, consumers may continue to wear the fashion, but they are no longer interested in purchasing additional items unless it is at greatly reduced prices. Eventually, the fashion item looks dated and is impossible to sell (Figure 4.3).

The fashion cycle is a very important tool for trend forecasters. Product developers must know when their target customer is ready to purchase. Fashion-forward boutiques and fast-fashion chains pride themselves on picking up on trends early for their customers. Equally important to recognizing a new trend is anticipating when a fashion idea is in decline, since new products are planned anywhere from one month to nine months in advance of the season.

DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION

PERCENTAGE OF ADOPTERS

ADOPTER CATEGORIES BASED ON INNOVATIVENESS

INNOVATORS 2.5%

EARLY ADOPTERS EARLY MAJORITY 13.5% 34%

LATE MAJORITY 34%

LAGGARDS 16%

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Fashion ideas diffuse through the fashion cycle at their own pace. Innovations with short popularity spurts, called fads, can be disastrous to a business if the trend was projected to have a longer life cycle or a wider audience. Sometimes a trend is so easy to copy that the market is flooded in a very short time. Because the item is so widely available, consumers tire of it quickly. Some trends are inappropriate for certain groups of customers and never catch on in those markets. Extremely short skirts, spike heels, and exaggerated platform shoes cycle in and out of fashion with young adult markets but are deemed impractical by most middle-aged women and beyond. Most fashion ideas last at least through a selling season, and many continue to evolve over two or more seasons through manipulations of color, fabric, and details that give the idea new life and added longevity. Some styles are so enduring that they never go completely out of fashion. These styles are called classics. The Chanel-style suit, the five-pocket jean, and the slip dress are all examples of classic silhouettes (Figure 4.4ab). Three fashion theories help trend forecasters spot new style trends in different markets. The trickle-down theory is based on the observation that many new fashion ideas start on designer runways appealing to fashion leaders who have the money and taste level to wear new looks. As new ideas gain visibility, they are reinterpreted at lower and lower price points. Once a fashion idea is available to all, affluent customers seek to differentiate their fashion image through the adoption of a new trend. This theory is especially evident in the luxury market. The trickle-across theory helps to explain how digital technology has changed the dynamics of fashion. Many of todays runway styles are available for all to see before they appear in stores. The months between when a garment is photographed on the runway and actually appears in stores give fast-fashion purveyors the time to knock off a similar look at a much lower price. This phenomenon, referred to as fast fashion, allows customers at all price points to adopt a fashion idea simultaneously. Although the original designer version of that idea may only be accessible to the wealthy, lowerpriced versions are available the same season at fast-fashion purveyors such as H&M, Zara, and Forever 21, to name just a few. Fashion ideas that appeal to a younger customer frequently move across market price points simultaneously. The trickle-up theory explains the phenomena of street fashions that originate with avant-garde consumer groups rather than a designer or product developer. Free spirits, uninterested in the cookie-cutter approach to fashion in traditional channels, express their creativity by putting together unique looks of their own. They scour flea markets, army surplus stores, vintage stores, street fairs, and other eclectic but inex-

gure 4.4ab Levis 501 ve-pocket jeans and the Chanel style suit are considered fashion classics. Karl Lagerfeld has been able to keep the Chanel silhouette modern throughout his tenure as designer; here is his spring 2011 interpretation of the Chanel jacket.

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gure 4.5a Marc Jacobs last collection for Perry Ellis in 1993 was inspired by street inuences and is known as his Grunge collection. His inspiration for the collection is an example of the trickleup theory of fashion innovation. gure 4.5b A pop-up store at a Las Vegas trade show features Jay-Zs Rocawear, a streetinspired line.

gure 4.6 Bill Cunninghams photo feature in the New York Times documents what fashionable men and women are wearing.

pensive sources for looks that define who they are and how they think. When these looks take hold and are reinterpreted by designers and mass marketers, the trend is said to be trickling up through the economic structure. The grunge look that began in Seattle in the early 1990s was made mainstream by designer Marc Jacobs in his spring 1993 collection for Perry Ellis (Figure 4.5a). Leading hip-hop artists have built on the popularity of street looks and launched their own clothing lines such as Sean John by Sean P. Diddy Combs, Phat Farm by Russell Simmons, and Rocawear by Jay-Z (Figure 4.5b). Other trends that have trickled up in recent years include cargo pants, low-riders, frayed jeans, and do-rags. New York Times photographer Bill Cunningham has made his career chronicling fashion on the streets of New York and captures trends that trickle down, across, and up. He photographs everything from what editors are wearing at the seasonal collections to what students are wearing on campus. His photos document trends as diverse as animal prints and fur to puffer jackets and platform shoes (Figure 4.6). Trend forecasters such as WGSN, Fashion Snoops, and Doneger D3 also have agents on the street documenting what people are wearing and how they are wearing it in cities as diverse as Antwerp, Barcelona, SaintTropez, Toronto, Chicago, and Los Angeles; ultimately fashion is really about how it is worn, not how it is shown on the runway.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING
Technological innovation, particularly the Internet, and the globalization of fashion have accelerated the rate of fashion change. Charting the course of fashion trends is one of the biggest challenges facing product developers at all levels of fashion. Once a trend is identified, it must be analyzed to determine its application in a particular market. After a trend has taken hold, it must be evaluated to determine whether it will be a short-lived fad, evolve into a second or third season, or have the potential to become a fashion classic. The real-time element of the Internet gives consumers the upper hand. They have immediate access to new looks once they hit the runway, and they expect to find those same looks in stores. That impatience, combined with the quest for newness and individuality that characterizes Generations X and Y, has fashion forecasters scrambling to keep up with the next wave of fashion trends. Designers, trend specialists, and merchandisers are by nature instinctive individuals who pride themselves on their ability to hone in on environmental changes and anticipate the resulting impact on fashion and lifestyles. However, it is wise for them to validate their instincts by utilizing all of the resources available to reduce the inherent risk in trend forecasting. It is great to recognize a trend on its upward ascent and offer merchandise that is well timed. Likewise, missing a trend or miscalculating its longevity can be costly. Environmental scanning is the ongoing process of surveying a variety of resources for economic, political, social, technological, and cultural conditions for insights into the future. It is an important tool for long- and short-term forecasting.

Long-Term Forecasting
Long-term forecasting is the process of analyzing the sources, patterns, and causes of change through the evaluation of current events in order to identify and anticipate directional shifts in business strategies, consumer behavior and lifestyle, and global dynamics. Long-term forecasting is the realm of futurists and trend spotters who chart movements of change, identify potential obstacles, and envision the likely future for five years out or more. Long-term forecasting seeks to identify Major shifts in domestic and international demographics Changes in industry and market structures Changes in consumer interests, values, motivation, and circumstances Breakthroughs in technology and science Changes in the domestic or global economic picture Shifts in political, cultural, or economic alliances between countries

It is integral to both strategic business planning and forecasting fashion trends. For example, the rapid impact of digital technology is a long-term trend that has forced retailers to develop sophisticated web shopping and marketing opportunities and contributed to a shift toward business casual dress over the course of the past decade. As more business is conducted via the telephone and the Internet, there is less person-to-person interaction during the course of a business day. If there is little face-to-face contact with clients, there is less need for formal business attire.

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A number of marketing consultants specialize in long-term trend forecasting. They are frequent keynote speakers at trade shows and professional meetings, alerting the industry to shifting demographics and psychographics that will affect what the consumer wants. These consultants may be hired by individual companies to assess how changing patterns will influence a companys business and offer strategies that tailor the trends they see to the companys particular niche (Table 4.1).

Short-Term Forecasting
Short-term forecasting focuses on current and upcoming events, and pop culture phenomena that can be translated into fashion trends in the next 12 to 18 months. These events are analyzed for cues that can be related to seasonal color, fabric, and silhouette stories to give fashion a fresh look each season. Inspiration may come from a new movie, musical group, or popular television show or it may be inspired by an economic crisis, a war, or an environmental disaster. Events that speak to a younger market may be very different from those that resonate with a more mature market. This is because customer groups vary in lifestyle, generational references, and life experiences.

Environmental Scanning Inuences


Environmental scanning for both long- and short-term forecasting relies on an analysis of news in a variety of categories. These influences affect both business trends and fashion trends. Current Events Global current events have a major impact on fashion. The events of 9/11, the terrorist attacks in Europe and the United States since that time, and wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have made global citizens around the world feel less safe. Color palettes were neutral and subdued for several seasons after 2001. By 2003, Americans were ready to view the world more positively. Fashion obliged with a return to a more colorful palette that lasted several years. The recession that began in early 2008 had a similarly sobering impact on fashion. The first instinct of product developers was to offer more practical and conservative garments in neutral colors; however, consumers had little inclination to buy these garments as they already had similar things in their wardrobes. Other strategies in the course of the recession have included: Focus on washed-out colors that looked worn and comfortable Focus on bright color to jolt the customer out of their doldrums Resurgence of looking back to past decades, especially those that followed the Great Depression or past recessions New interest in putting together looks with vintage pieces Increased demand for eco-fashions Pressure on product developers to hold or lower their prices Rejection of bling, replaced by a tendency toward a cleaner aesthetic

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Table 4.1 Popular Futurists and Trend Forecasters


Cotton Incorporateds Lifestyle Monitor conducts consumer research regarding consumer preferences in apparel and shopping behavior. A column runs every Thursday in Womens Wear Daily. Iconoculture (www.iconoculture.com) is a consulting company in Minneapolis, Minnesota, that monitors pop culture and the trends transforming society. It is known for its quirky jargon. The companys website features a newsletter and Signs of the Times column. B. Joseph Pine and James Gilmore are known for their books, including The Experience Economy (2011). Their predictions about the evolving consumer-driven economy are changing the way product developers market and distribute apparel. Faith Popcorn co-founded the company BrainReserve in 1974 and is known for her books, The Popcorn Report (1992), Clicking (1997), Eveolution (2000), and Dictionary of the Future (2001). Popcorn is a popular speaker at trade shows and professional meetings and works with a varied array of clients in her marketing consultancy. Her methodology involves scanning a continuous stream of periodicals, monitoring pop culture, shopping stores across the country and abroad, and interviewing consumers in regard to a variety of product categories. Trendwatching.com calls itself an independent and opinionated trend rm that utilizes 8,000-plus trend spotters to scan the globe for emerging consumer trends and business ideas. They report on their ndings in free trend briengs. The company was founded by Reinier Evers and is located in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Watts Wacker is the founder of FirstMatter (www.rstmatter.com), a company known for its ability to identify cultural and business trends through the use of observational research. He has authored or coauthored numerous books, including The 500-Year Delta: What Happens After What Comes Next (1997), The Visionarys Handbook (2001), The Deviants Advantage (2004), and Whats Your Story?: Storytelling to Move Markets, Audiences, People, and Brands (2008). Robyn Waters is the former vice president of trend, design, and product development at Target and author of The Trendmasters Guide: Get a Jump on What Your Customer Wants Next (2005) and The Hummer & the Mini: Navigating the Contradictions of the New Trend Landscape (2006). She currently runs her own consulting rm, RW Trend (www.rwtrend.com), that tracks the latest consumer trends and advises companies on how to stay ahead of the curve. Yankelovich, Inc., (www.yankelovich.com) is a consulting company that specializes in the analysis of consumers, with an expertise in marketing in relation to generational behaviors. President J. Walker Smith and Ann Clurman have authored Rocking the Ages (1998) and Generation Ageless (2007). Zandl Group (www.zandlgroup.com) is a boutique agency that specializes in what is next for business, the culture, and consumers.

Consumer response to these strategies has been unpredictable. Overall it has been observed that consumers are more reflective about their purchases. Many are thinking more about needs vs. wants; they are questioning the sustainability of fast fashion; and they are demanding more transparency when it comes to corporate social responsibility. The Arts The arts have a major impact on fashion. Designers and fashion forecasters make it a point of being the first to see a major art opening or historic costume exhibition. Color forecasters may respond to the mere announcement of a major art exhibition. An exhibit of paintings by Monet, van Gogh, Matisse, or Klimt is sure to influence both seasonal color palettes and textile patterns. The 2010 Yves Saint Laurent exhibit in Paris at the Petit Palais launched great interest in gender-play in dress in (Figure 4.7a). Two 2010 exhibits on Japanese fashion, one in London at the Barbican Museum and the other at the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York, called attention to a more intellectual and conceptual approach to design (Figure 4.7b).

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gure 4.7a The 2010 Yves Saint Laurent exhibit in Paris inspired many designers to revisit gender roles and dress. gure 4.7b Exhibitions in 2010, one in London and the other in New York, explored the design aesthetic of Japanese designers; this was followed by a 2011 exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum featuring the work of Yohji Yamamoto including this yellow ensemble.

gure 4.8a Popular shows such as Gossip Girl often inuence fashion trends. gure 4.8b The movie Black Swan earned an Academy Award for actress Natalie Portman wearing costumes designed by Rodarte.

Popular culture also plays a major role in creating fashion trends. The impact of popular new musical groups is readily apparent in the youth market. Television shows such as Mad Men, Gossip Girl, and Glee have had a recognizable influence on popular fashion (Figure 4.8a), as have movies such as A Single Man (directed, produced, and designed by Tom Ford), Avatar, and Black Swan (Figure 4.8b). An exciting dance troupe or a New York Broadway play can also launch a fashion trend. Many in fashion lament the fact that popular culture has become so linked to fashion that for some, who is wearing the clothes is just as important as the clothes themselves. Movie and television stars have replaced models on the covers and editorial pages of many fashion magazines while large groups of consumers take their fashion cues from celebrity magazines rather than fashion magazines. Sports Popular sports frequently influence fashion. In New York, Ralph Lauren organizes his Madison Avenue store across from the Rhinelander Mansion by specific sports. In any given season, sections might be devoted to golf, boating, hiking, or scuba diving. His spectator sportswear lines frequently take their seasonal inspiration from a popular consumer sport. Tennis player Maria Sharapova licensed her name to Cole Haan (now owned by Nike) for a shoe collection (Figure 4.9). Shaun White, the snowboarder, has a line with Target. Soccer player David Beckham and golfer Tiger

Woods made fashion headlines with their good looks, success in their game, and commercial endorsements. Sports celebrities can give athletic lines tremendous appeal; however, public scandals, such as those that beset Woods in 20092010, can just as quickly tarnish a brands image. Today, thanks to extensive coverage of the Olympics and other nontraditional sports, the stars in such sports as snowboarding, surfing, and skateboarding are influencing fashion. Skinny jeans may have grown out of a need for skateboarders to do their moves without fabric flapping in the wind. Sports can also be a driver for textile technology; the technology developed for Olympic sports eventually finds its way into commercial apparel. Science and Technology Science and technology affect many aspects of fashion, from the colors we can achieve on different mediums, to the fabrications available to designers, to how garments function, to how we care for and dispose of garments. We can grow cotton in colors (Figure 4.10); we can mold fabrics to the body; and we can wire fabrics to monitor the wearers vital signs and whereabouts. We can digitally print fabrics, which will eventually lead to consumers choosing the pattern they want on a garment. New fibers and modifications of existing fibers are constantly being introduced (Figure 4.11). Such innovations can make garments easier to care for and more flexible to use. Variations on home cleaning methods are already on the market. Technology has also influenced garment silhouettes, as we build in pockets for pagers, cell phones, and handheld computers. The next generation of electronic devices will include many that can be built into the garment. Future apparel may include information chips with encoded care and recycling instructions.

gure 4.9 Tennis player Maria Sharapova parleyed her fame on the tennis court into a licensing deal with Cole Haan.

gure 4.10 This childrens apparel collection was made by Art Atlas of Peruvian cotton grown in natural colors.

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gure 4.11 Alpine skier Lindsey Vonn at the 2010 Olympics in Vancouver. The Olympics provide impetus for textile research and development that is often adapted for mainstream activewear lines.

Trend Forecasting Resources


Companies commit sizeable resources to their trend forecasting teams, whether that is for merchandisers, trend managers, or designers. In return, companies expect their creative teams to get trends right. Trend forecasting requires collecting as much information as possible and then using experience and intuition to interpret it for a brands target audience. Ongoing scanning of a variety of media and well-chosen trend forecasting resources helps to mitigate the risk of seasonal design decisions. Designers are expected to validate why their ideas for any given season are right. A new color cannot just feel right; the team must be able to identify where it is coming from, who else is doing it, and why it is right for the customer. The resources designers use to stay in touch will to some extent vary depending on the market for which they are forecasting. Fashion moves at such a fast pace that to be truly creative, design professionals cannot just track trends; they must anticipate what will come next. Research is essential to the creative process. The designer who is not passionate about collecting new ideas in the form of mood images, color chips, fabric swatches, and garment details will undoubtedly get stale. Sometimes ideas may be stored for a long time before the moment is right to use them. While the best trend forecasters use trend services to reinforce their own instincts, good forecasters have an understanding of where the trend is coming from and where it may go next. Tracking trends is about not just looking at fashion but also looking at demographics, behavior, technology, lifestyles, and current events through print or online resources. Trend forecasters scan the headlines of the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and weekly news magazines to ensure that they stay current with national and international events. Many of these resources offer web-based services that can send out daily headline alerts and links via e-mail or phone applications. Additional business periodicals such as Fortune, Forbes, and Fast Company provide similar alerts and links. Business news specific to the apparel industry supply chain can be gleaned from Womens Wear Daily, just-style.com, and the NRF SmartBrief (Table 4.2). The most detailed fashion trend forecasts are subscription-based with prices geared to the business consumer rather than the individual. Once a trend appears in a consumer publication such as Vogue, Elle, InStyle, Harpers Bazaar, or NYLON, consumers expect to find examples of that trend in-store. Trend forecasting providers such as

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Table 4.2 Sources for Media Scanning


General news Televised/cable network news: ABC, CBS, CNN, FOX, MSNBC, NBC, PBS News weeklies: Newsweek, US News and World Report, Time National newspapers: New York Times, Washington Post, USA Today Business, consumer, and technology trends Consumer trends: Advertising Age, Brandweek, www.trendwatching.com, www.rstmatter.com, www.iconoculture.com, www.trendsresearch.com Business news: Business Week, Forbes, Fortune, Wall Street Journal Technological developments: Fast Company, Wired, American Scientic Publications covering the ne arts, performing arts, and popular culture scene Architectural Digest, Veranda, Art and Antiques, Ornament, American Art Review, Vanity Fair, New Yorker International views The International Herald Tribune, The Economist Apparel industry/textile/fashion news Womens Wear Daily (WWD), just-style.com, Collezioni Donna, French Vogue, Collezioni Trends, Textile View, View2, Viewpoint, WeAr, Dressing, Gap Press, Fashion Trends Forecast, NRF SmartBrief, style.com, vogue.com Specic markets: Earnshaws Review, Accessories, Kidswear, Sportswearnet.com, Sport & Street

Doneger Creative Services and Trend Union provide a mix of print, Internet access, and consultant services. Other services such as Fashion Snoops and WGSN are primarily web-based offering dynamic coverage of fashion forecasting topics and the ability to add content as it becomes available. These services cover runway fashion for both men and women, as well as the childrens, beauty, and home markets. They also cover trade shows, street fashion, and what is happening at retail, making them an invaluable tool, particularly for those companies that do not have the resources to send their own personnel on trips to gather trend research. These services have personnel located in fashion centers all over the world, attending trade shows and tracking what people are wearing, what is in-store, what is selling, and what is not. They project their best analysis of what will be next in terms of color, fabric, silhouettes, and details. They support their projections with trend reports and runway photographs, photographs of store windows, and photographs of fashions they observe on the street (Figure 4.12). All of these services are

gure 4.12 Fashion Snoops is a full-service online trend resource.

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gure 4.13 Rachel Zoes inuence as a fashion stylist goes way beyond her celebrity clients.

priced in the thousands of dollars annually, making them out of reach to most entrepreneurial businesses. Thanks to the continued open access of the Internet, there is a wealth of free information available to businesses; however, it requires more selectivity and interpretation to be useful. Style.com and Elle.com as well as the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal offer daily coverage of the collections in New York, London, Paris, and Milan. The Internet and social media offer free access to fashion bloggers, some of whom are enjoying growing influence particularly with teen and young adult markets. Likewise cable TV provides access to a pop culture view of fashion with shows that help consumers revamp their closet, dish the celebrity choices at awards shows, and promote the opinions of hot fashion stylists, e.g., Rachael Zoe and the Kardashians (Figure 4.13). Forecasting services can be the eyes and ears for product developers. These services can save the trend forecasting or product development team a lot of time by validating their observations and interpreting and alerting them to emerging trends.

SHOPPING THE MARKET


The trends identified through environmental scanning must be verified and then interpreted for a product developers target customer. Product developers and trend forecasters make it a practice to shop key markets for their category in order to watch new trends. Timing is a critical element of fashion. The right fashion, introduced too soon, quickly turns into a loss; however, carrying a silhouette or color beyond its fashion cycle is equally costly. Impending change is confirmed when fashion forecasters see the first signs of it in the marketplace. This happens first in the fashion centers of the world. Trend forecasters rely on shopping the market to get a sense of how consumers are likely to respond to the stimuli to which they are exposed and to ensure a certain amount of consistency in how trends are interpreted. Shopping a cross section of their own stores helps trend forecasters understand how their products are being merchandised, where they are selling best, and where they are not resonating with the customer. Trend forecasters also regularly shop the competition to understand where competitors may have anticipated trends more or less the same way. Most brands make it a practice to identify other brands that they consider their competition and those that they look to for inspiration. They identify benchmark brands from those competitors whose goods, services, and processes are the best performing in their class. Aspirational brands are those brands for which the existing brands target audience would like to buy but for economic reasons they cannot afford. Aspirational brands are a great source of inspiration if they are correctly identified because they give clues as to how the target customer aspires to dress. When shopping locally for work or pleasure, trend

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forecasters note what is sold from one week to the next, engage sales associates in conversation to collect their insights, and are always on the alert for trends and consumer responses.

Determining Where to Shop


Product developers must determine which shopping venues will yield the most valuable information for their specific market, product category, price point, and fashion calendar. If they develop outerwear, they might shop Toronto; for resort, they may visit Saint-Tropez. New York, Los Angeles, Paris, Milan, Barcelona, Tokyo, and Antwerp are other common shopping destinations (Figure 4.14). Some product developers have a budget that enables them to purchase garments for inspiration. Product developers that work derivatively have large shopping budgets with which to buy samples that will become the basis for styles in their new seasonal line. Designers for wholesale brands, or private label brands that have their own design team, generally sketch the ideas they see, using those ideas as departure points for their own designs. They tend to purchase garments only when a material or construction is so unusual that they require it for reference. Shopping guides are available to help novice trend forecasters locate major shopping areas. New, innovative venues are featured in Womens Wear Daily, Vogue, Harpers Bazaar, InStyle, and Lucky, as well as subscription-based services. Shopping the market is serious business. Days are long, as designers and merchandisers must cover a lot of ground in a short amount of time. They shop the areas that are relevant to the line they are developing, not according to what appeals to them personally. They try to take in relevant museum exhibitions that might affect trends. They may shop vintage stores and flea markets to find unique details and trims that can be incorporated into a line (Figure 4.15ab).

gure 4.14 Most full-service trend resources offer shopping reports that detail what is selling and key shopping venues in fashion cities all over the world.

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gure 4.15ab Flea markets and vintage stores offer unique nds for apparel product developers; here a vintage store in New York and a booth in the Paris ea market that specializes in vintage trims.

Shopping Domestically
Some trend forecasters confine their shopping research to domestic locales, such as New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago. New York City offers the largest assortment of fashion in the United States. Los Angeles has long been on the cutting edge for casual wear and is also considered important for womens contemporary fashion and mens wear. With the present focus on celebrities as fashion role models, Los Angeles takes on added importance as a shopping resource. Any fashion professional that is responsible for shopping the market must keep a file of hot new shopping locales, as these sections of the cities tend to change frequently. Fifth Avenue in New York was once the domain of upscale fashion merchants. Today, it is dominated by prototype chain stores such as Gap, Banana Republic, and Levis. Madison Avenue continues to be home to many high-end signature stores. It is also interspersed with bridge label signature stores and a few chain stores such as Victorias Secret. Soho is the center for retailers of young, trendy fashions and cutting-edge signature stores. As rents in Soho soar, trendy new designers are opening businesses in Nolita (north of Little Italy) and in the meat-packing district. Fast-fashion stores such as Uniqlo, Topshop, and Forever 21 have recently opened prototype stores near Times Square (Figure 4.16).

gure 4.16 The Times Square area is becoming a center for fast-fashion prototype stores including the UK retailer Topshop.

Shopping Internationally
Many American product developers shop in Europe, Tokyo, Hong Kong, and Canada to find inspiration. International designers are known for their innovation and creativity, while American designers are often characterized as more marketable and mainstream. By shopping Europe, domestic product developers avoid knocking off

one another and bring back ideas that may not be widely distributed in the United States. Product developers reinterpret these ideas to fit the American market. As more and more wholesale and retail product developers aspire to grow globally, international trend research takes on added importance. It is valuable for trend forecasters to shop signature stores in the city in which the designer is based. These stores tend to have the most complete selection. If a product developer is strongly influenced by a particular designer, the developer may want to visit that designers signature store in each major city in which he or she shops, knowing that the merchandise will vary from store to store. Concept stores, such as Colette or LEclaireur in Paris, are popular with trend researchers, designers, and buyers. They are known for bringing together a mix of trend-right garments from key designers each season (Figure 4.17). Trend teams do not all shop in the same places. Junior product developers may shop the avant-garde areas of London, Paris, and Amsterdam. Bridge designers may be more influenced by designer ready-to-wear in London, Paris, and Milan. Accessory designers will look to innovative creators such as Gucci, Prada, and Dolce & Gabbana. Cutting-edge shopping areas change constantly. Trend forecasters must plan their trips carefully in order to cover the most relevant markets for a particular season. Although the pace of fashion change continues to escalate, fashion remains an evolutionary process. Next seasons hot new trend tends to develop out of the season that

gure 4.17 Colette is a concept store in Paris known for assembling key looks from cuttingedge designers each season.

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precedes it. Trend forecasters cannot become so visionary that they lose perspective as to what their customer is ready for. But they also cannot be so staid that they miss the next wave. The remainder of this chapter looks at how each element of fashioncolor, fabrication, and silhouetteis conceived for a given season.

COLOR
Color is one of the first stimuli a customer responds to when shopping. This makes accurate forecasting of tomorrows trend-setting colors a key to survival in the world of fashion. Color can make clothes purchased a few years ago look outdated. This is not to say that consumers will automatically buy a new color that they do not like or that is not becoming. Younger generations are most open to wearing any color that is trendy; older customers tend to limit the colors they purchase to those they believe look good on them. Thus, color forecasts need to be interpreted for different consumer groups and specific market categories. The decision about a seasonal color palette is one of the first to be made in the product development process. The seasonal color story will be the basis for solids, prints, and yarn-dyed fabrics in a variety of fibers, across all styles in the line. Product developers review a variety of sources before making color decisions.

The Color-Forecasting Process


The process of color forecasting begins two to two and a half years in advance of a selling season. It is based on environmental scanning, which identifies the nonfashion events that influence fashion trends and lifestyle themes. For instance, will a new president and first lady affect style at the White House? How can the prolonged interest in environmental issues be adapted beyond green to other earth-friendly colors? How does the constant threat of terrorism influence color?

Color Associations
The Color Marketing Group, the International Colour Authority (ICA), and the Color Association of the United States (CAUS) are the largest color organizations (Figure 4.18). Members of these groups are color specialists representing some of the biggest companies in the world. These organizations provide forums for their members to come together to discuss the various issues of color, network with other industry professionals, exchange information, become familiar with new technology, and forecast color directions. Working in committees, they forecast one to three years in advance for a variety of industries, including fashion, transportation, architecture, communications and graphics, toys, and textiles. Their color palettes project the course that colors are likely to takewarmer or cooler, lighter or darker, clearer or grayerand the relative importance of a hue.

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gure 4.18 The Color Marketing Group hosts semiannual conferences where members share their nonproprietary research on color trends to develop a Color Directions Forecast.

Textile Consortiums
Consortiums of textile manufacturers, such as the Cotton Council, the Wool Bureau, and the Manmade Fiber Producers, refine early color forecasts for their own markets. Each of these organizations develops a seasonal color story that is geared to the enduse categories of the markets it supplies. The predictions come to life as textile manufacturers present their seasonal lines at global fabric fairs that occur about one year before a consumer season.

Color Forecasters
Color forecasting specialists such as D3 Doneger Design Directions, Huepoint, and The Color Box offer subscription color services for a fee. These services generally release their forecasts 12 to 18 months prior to a season. This is about 6 to 12 months after organizations such as the Color Marketing Group and CAUS have made their predictions. This extra time gives these services a chance to refine the earliest color forecasts and break them down into predictions for various markets and price points. A subscription generally includes four to six forecasts a year geared to the mens, womens, or childrens market. Each forecast is made up of five to nine color palettes mounted with a visual that suggests a unifying theme. The colors are generally shown as small bundles of yarn or embroidery floss, which are referred to as poms. Some subscriptions include duplicate poms for the subscriber to use as they develop its own seasonal palette. The duplicate poms may also be used at color presentations and at individual consultations in which the general forecast is analyzed for specific application to a product developers business. Written material that is included with each palette suggests how to create color harmonies and identifies the markets for which each palette is most appropriate. Product developers who subscribe to these services may also schedule private consultations to further interpret the color projections for their market. This consensus-building process is, in a sense, a self-fulfilling prophecy whereby each level of color forecasting builds on the one before it so that the color message

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consumers see is somewhat unified across all markets, brands, and price points. Like fashion, color forecasting is an evolutionary process. Color morphs from season to season, with each seasonal palette taking direction from the season that preceded it and giving a hint of what is to come in seasons that follow. Color cycles can are tracked by season and major color forecasting agencies predict seasonal colors 18 to 24 months in advance. Like the bell curve of the fashion cycle, colors are introduced; they increase in popularity; their use becomes saturated; and then they become obsolete, typically over a three-year period ( Jones 2002). Color forecasters know when a color story first developed and how it has evolved through the market. They ask a series of questions. Was the color in the market last season? How saturated was it? Was the story based on clear primary colors or offbeat, unusual ones? How should the color story be developed for the next season? Color themes help the customer understand the importance of new colors. Color forecasters achieve a visual rhythm of where colors have been and where they are going as they work their way through the bell curve. In most cases, the designer, bridge, and better markets accept new colors first. A new color story may not surface in the mass market until a year later. That is why color cycles often span three years. However, a number of mass-market companies take pride in featuring new fashion colors very quickly, especially if they serve a young market that is tuned in to fashion but is on a limited budget.

FABRIC
The task of researching seasonal fabrics goes on simultaneously with color research and determination of a color story. Many services that provide color forecasts also offer fabric forecasts. These sources alert the product developer to new technology, fibers, blends, and finishes by providing descriptions, swatches, and sketches of possible applications. They also confirm how color palettes and color harmonies are being combined with textile fibers, fabrics, and textures to create a seasonal look. Designers may rely on these sources and on magazine sources for preliminary research so that they recognize new materials in the marketplace. Womens Wear Daily, Textile View, and View2 are but a few of the periodicals that product developers rely on for information on fabric trends.

Fabric Shows
Fabric is a medium that must be touched and draped to be appreciated. Toward that end, a number of domestic and international fabric and yarn shows are held each year to give product developers an overview of what is available. These shows provide an opportunity for yarn and fabric vendors to introduce their seasonal lines. Fabric show vendors frequently have prototype garments made to help sell their newest offerings. These garments can inspire a product developer to think about new and offbeat ways to use a traditional fabric. The shows also feature an area in which trend forecasters can share their seasonal predictions. Seminars and speakers are offered throughout the run of the show to alert

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product developers to trends and new technology. By attending such fabric fairs, designers and product developers can confirm developing trends, identify new resources, and order sample fabric yardage. Sample yardage can be used for creative experimentation before committing to production yardage. It is important for designers and product developers to attend these shows so that they keep abreast of what is new. Important shows include the International Fashion and Fabric Exhibition and European Preview held in New York, Premire Vision in Paris, and Interstoff Asia in Hong Kong. There is growing interest in Asian fabric exhibits because of their proximity to significant production sources (Figure 4.19). A number of other national and international shows appeal to regional markets or specialize in particular kinds of fibers and fabrics. Product developers must determine which fabric shows best match the needs of their category in terms of product type and price point.

Fabric Libraries
Fabric associations often assemble representative samples of fabrics for a given season that can be reviewed in their fabric libraries. Using the library can save a designer or product developer the time it would take to visit a number of vendor showrooms in order to identify in advance which sources have the fabric they are seeking.

Fabric Purchasing
Most of the buying that takes place at large fabric and fiber shows is for sample quantities. Larger commitments are made after the product developer has had time to experiment with the fabric and determine how important it will be to the seasonal line. Product developers prefer to postpone their final commitment to fabrics until the last possible moment in order to minimize risk.
gure 4.19 Attendees at the Texworld fabric show in New York.

Fabrics are not always ordered as they are shown. Once a product developer commits to a fabric, the developer may work with the vendor to adapt the fabric by modifying its weight, color, or pattern scale. With the widespread use of offshore sourcing, many of the samples purchased at fabric shows are shared with offshore sourcing agents who attempt to have the fabric duplicated at a lower cost. This has contributed to the compression of the fashion cycle because low-cost product developers are able to knock off high-price fabrics, sometimes in the same season the fabrics are introduced.

Printed Fabrics
Product developers in certain categories rely on printed fabrics to make their line unique. Childrens apparel, dresses, and lingerie are examples of categories that rely heavily on prints. Prints can be acquired in one of several ways. Some product developers select prints from a fabric suppliers seasonal line. Other product developers rely on their creative design teams to develop prints in-house. Prints developed in-house are then sourced out to a textile finisher, who prints the pattern on the fabric of its choice. Yet other product developers purchase prints from print studios. Purchased prints may be developed on the computer or rendered by hand. Direction by Indigo is part of Premire Vision and takes place in Paris, New York, and Brussels; Print Source is a stand-alone print show in New York (Figure 4.20). Like fabric shows, these shows give print designers a venue for showing their work and give product developers who depend on prints an opportunity to shop a variety of print designers from all over the world. Prints can also be purchased from print agents,

gure 4.20 Fabric prints are exhibited at Direction by Indigo, part of the Premire Vision Fabric Show.

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who have showrooms that are open year-round. Print agents may design their own prints as well as represent individual domestic and international print designers for a sales commission. The cost of a single print may range from $400 to $500.

Trim Studios
In addition to print studios, there are trim studios that specialize in generating ideas for interesting trims and details such as embroideries, pin tucking, lace insertion, and so forth (Figure 4.21). Their swatches are offered as inspiration and generally are not available in yardage. It is up to the product developer to find a sourcing partner that can duplicate the technique. Trim swatches are generally priced about the same as prints. Often these swatches offer multiple ideas. These resources are especially important in seasons when trims and embellishment details predominate.

gure 4.21 Trim studios specialize in generating ideas for interesting trims and details.

SILHOUETTE
In modern fashion, silhouettes appear to be the element that changes least from season to season. A silhouette is the term used to describe the outline or shape of a garment. Todays customers are happy with the array of silhouettes available in tops, pants, skirts, jackets, dresses, and outerwear. Although fabric and color may change substantially from season to season, silhouettes usually vary in proportion and details. Periodically, there is a major shift from fitted silhouettes to less-constructed ones. Silhouette inspiration comes from a variety of sources. Trend services often suggest changes in silhouettes and details. Some generate fashion sketches that incorporate a variety of ideas into single garments. These sketches may be overdesigned or missing necessary seams and darts for fit; this forces subscribers to reinterpret the ideas for their given market, rather than use them exactly as they were drawn, which in turn helps to minimize the possibility that multiple subscribers will come out with lines that look very much the same. Other trend services take photographs of looks spotted on the streets in major fashion centers. As more and more fashion ideas trickle up from the streets rather than down from the runways, clothes worn in Saint-Tropez, Paris, London, Tokyo, New York, Los Angeles, and other trend-setting locales can be very inspirational. Shopping the market is perhaps the best source of silhouette inspiration.

SEASONAL TREND FORECASTS


Each seasonal collection offered by a product developer is the result of trend research focused on the target market it has defined for itself. Product developers may offer anywhere from two to six seasonal collections per year, depending on the impact of fashion trends in a particular product category and price point. Womens wear companies are more sensitive to the whims of fashion and produce more frequent lines; mens wear

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companies present two to four lines a year, and childrens wear firms typically present three to four seasonal collections. For wholesale brand product developers, seasonal presentations correspond to the wholesale markets in which their lines are presented for sale to retailers. Store brand and private label product developers work on slightly different calendars because the presentation of their lines is internal, but in general their product development seasons parallel those of branded product developers. Within each seasonal collection, product developers design groups of garments based on a specific theme. Each theme is linked to a color and fabric story and has a particular fashion direction. Delivery of each group is typically scheduled at intervals throughout the selling season to provide the consumer with a continuous flow of fresh merchandise options.

Responsibility for Trend Forecasting


The responsibility for trend forecasting varies from company to company, depending on its organizational structure. A companys approach to trend forecasting is often related to whether it is a wholesale brand or private label product developer. Many large product developers have trend departments that are responsible for pinpointing the initial trends of the season for their company. The advantage of a trend department is that the various divisions within the company will work from the same forecast, thereby giving a unified look to the sales floor. Merchandisers are also key players in determining trend direction. They often come from a buying background and are skilled at anticipating what the customer is ready for. Finally, it is the designer who uses his or her ability to translate the trends identified into saleable garments in the right colors, fabrics, and silhouettes. In the end, it is the collective vision of these three groups that determines a given brands direction. In companies that develop wholesale brands, where products must be clearly differentiated from the competition, the design team and the merchandiser generally work in tandem to develop the seasonal trend forecast. Together they review subscriptions to design resources, shop and interpret the market, attend trade shows, and meet with suppliers to determine the design direction that is right for their company. Large private label product developers often have a trend department because of the need to coordinate the research for multiple brands within a portfolio. Merchandisers and designers then fine-tune the direction from that point. Figure 4.22 illustrates a fashion forecast flowchart.

Forecast Formats
The members of the product development team responsible for trend forecasting use a variety of formats to share their seasonal research. The degree of formality in the presentation depends on how widely within the organization the information will be presented. Designers for wholesale brands spend less time on formalizing their trend forecasts because they are responsible for both the research and creation of the line. They tend to

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FASHION FORECAST FLOWCHART


Communication with Supply Chain Partners

Historic Sales Data

Competitive Scan

Environmental Scan

Consumer Scan

Fashion Scan

TRANSLATE

Color

Fabric

Silhouette

Details

EDIT FOR TARGET MARKET

MERCHANDISE AND ASSORTMENT PLAN

work directly from informal collections of swatches and tear sheets to select the actual colors, fabrics, and prints they will use for each item or group in the line. Trend teams for private brands must prepare more formal presentations because their forecasts are applied to multiple categories across the mens, womens, and childrens divisions. In these organizations, a few key members of the team are responsible for interpreting market trends for the entire organization. Their presentations must clearly define appropriate trends for each division and category that develops product. They generally present their ideas to both the product development team (merchandisers, creative and technical designers) and the buying staff of their organization (Figure 4.23). By inviting the buyers input early in the product development process, there is more ownership of the resulting line across company functions. Ultimately, product developers of store brand and private label lines still sell the line they develop to the buying team. Introducing buyers to new seasonal trends at the same time that the product development team is starting to put the line

gure 4.22 A fashion forecast owchart.

gure 4.23 A spring 2012 Versace mens wear concept board.

together ensures that buyers are better prepared to commit to quantities when the line is finalized. Early collaboration makes this process go more smoothly. In these organizations, trend forecasters frequently develop a seasonal trend book that highlights important trends in color, fabric, silhouette, and details for each category and division served. The information in the seasonal trend book is presented formally in the form of a multimedia presentation. Each team receives its own trend book, development samples are hung around the room, storyboards are displayed, and a PowerPoint presentation summarizes the most important trends for the season.

SUMMARY
Fashion is a reflection of our times. It is a means of expression that reflects how we respond to everything happening in the world around us. Fashion trends are influenced not only by runway designs but also by developments in functional apparel and street fashion. Fashion trends evolve in cycles, with fads lasting for a very short time and fashion classics lasting for many seasons. Product developers at all levels of fashion use environmental scanning to identify trends that will have an impact on consumer lifestyles and marketplace conditions. To spot the possible influences on the fashion trends for a particular season, fashion forecasters must stay up to date on current events and new developments in the arts, sports, science and technology, and the social and cultural scene. Shopping the market helps trend forecasters see how trends are playing out in fashion centers around the world. Major trends may start anywhere in the world. Sometimes they begin locally and their influence spreads; other times a trend seems to catch on simultaneously in many big cities across the globe. Trend forecasters must be aware of the development and movement of these trends. Trend forecasting begins with research on color. Early color forecasts are available up to two years before a fashion season, with subsequent reports offering refined projections for particular market groups. Color projections help to drive fabric developments. Fabrication trends revolve around popular fibers, texture interest, woven patterns, and prints. Color and fabric developments drive silhouette changes. In Western society, popular silhouettes remain fairly consistent from season to season, but proportions and details change to reflect new fashion themes. Trend forecasting is an integral part of the product development process. Forecasting services provide trend reports four to six times a year. Major shopping trips and visits to fabric fairs are usually scheduled twice a year, but the research process itself is ongoing. Product developers and trend forecasters are always on the lookout for a clue to the next trend. Each product developer must decide which member of the product development team is responsible for trend research and which resources are most appropriate for

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the companys target market. Wholesale brand design teams are generally responsible for their own trend forecasting. Merchandisers or special trend teams may be responsible for trend forecasting at private brand product developers. The process begins by collecting tear sheets, color chips, and fabric swatches that reflect an important theme. By the end of the trend forecasting process, the trend team has determined overall themes and the related color stories, fabrics, and silhouettes that will make up each group offered.

KEY TERMS
aspirational brands benchmark brands classics concept stores environmental scanning fads fashion fashion cycle long-term forecasting short-term forecasting silhouette trend trickle-across theory trickle-down theory trickle-up theory

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. In class, look at some photos from the most recent couture or designer collections. Which elements in each design might go on to influence mainstream fashion? 2. Identify a current fashion that is likely to be short-lived. Identify a current fashion that appears to be a fashion classic. How do they differ? 3. Identify several current events in the political, global, and cultural arena. What impact might they have on fashion? 4. What colors are currently popular in various consumer markets? Try to distinguish color preferences at several different price points and in several specialty markets. 5. How has Burberry used its signature plaid in new and innovative ways to revitalize the popularity of the label?

ACTIVITIES
1. Using the Internet and recent periodicals, identify several trends recently promoted by futurists. Brainstorm as to how these trends will influence fashion. Design students should take one prediction and design a series of garments inspired by that prediction in their sketchbooks. 2. Using Pantone chips, paint chips from the hardware store, yarn, embroidery floss, or swatches of fabric, develop a seasonal color story of six to eight colors that relate to a seasonal theme from a color forecasters perspective. Present your color story

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on a board that includes a mood picture, color samples, and color names. Be sure to title your board to communicate a theme. VariationLook at a color projection from a color service or an Internet resource. Interpret that color story for an existing product developer such as Gap, H&M, or Esprit. Develop a color story for a coordinated group or a group of separates for that label. 3. Using swatches from your schools fabric library, develop a fabric story of three to five fabrics for a coordinated sportswear group. Identify your product category and price point. Make sure that your fabric story offers enough choice in colorization, solids vs. patterns, and fabric types to make all of the garments that are typically included in a group. Mount your fabrics and give your fabric story a name. 4. As a class, select a product developer and develop a storyboard for an upcoming season. Research trends by shopping the market and using whatever resources are available to you. Begin by collecting tear sheets, color chips, and fabric swatches that you believe will be influential. Present your forecast as a series of boards or in a PowerPoint presentation.

REFERENCES
Abrahmson, V., M. Meehan, and L. Samuel. 1999. The future aint what it used to be: The 40 cultural trends transforming your job, your life, your world. New York: Riverhead. Jones, S. J. 2002. Fashion design. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Mathews, R., and W. Wacker. 2004. The deviants advantage: How fringe ideas create mass markets. New York: Three Rivers Press. Mathews, R., and W. Wacker. 2008. Whats your story? Storytelling to move markets, audiences, people and brands. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson. Pine, B. J., II, and J. H. Gilmore. 2011. Rev. ed. The experience economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. Popcorn, F. 1992. The popcorn report. New York: HarperCollins. Popcorn, F., and L. Marigold. 1997. Clicking: 17 trends that drive your businessand your life. New York: HarperCollins. Popcorn, F., and L. Marigold. 2000. Eveolution: The eight truths of marketing to women. New York: Hyperion. Popcorn, F., and A. Hanft. 2001. Dictionary of the future. New York: Hyperion. Smith, J. W., and A. Clurman. 1998. Rocking the ages. New York: HarperCollins. Smith, J. W., and A. Clurman. 2007. Generation ageless. New York: HarperCollins. Wacker, W. 1997. The 500-year delta: What happens after what comes next. Hackensack, N.J.: LPC Group. Wacker, W., J. Taylor, and H. Means. 2001. The visionarys handbook. New York: HarperCollins. Waters, R. 2005. The trendmasters guide: Get a jump on what your customer wants next. New York: Penguin. Waters, R. 2006. The Hummer and the Mini: Navigating the contradictions of the new trend landscape. New York: Penguin.

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chapter 11

SIZING AND FIT SPECIFICATIONS


Sizing data have consistently shown that the average woman in America is a size 14.
SUsAN REDA, STORES.orG

OBJECTIVES
To dene sizing as interpreted in todays market To examine the history of voluntary sizing standards To identify the size categories of womens, mens, and childrens apparel To understand the difference between body measurements and garment measurements To identify the measurements used in the sizing of apparel To apply garment measurements to specication forms used for samples and production To dene t and its components To understand the role of dress forms and t models To understand the application of measurements grading patterns

Garments must be designed and produced to fit target customers. Product developers tend to believe that if the line they produce is selling, there is no problem with fit. Yet consumers consistently cite fit as their biggest frustration in purchasing apparel. Product developers have a responsibility to provide a degree of consistency of sizing across styles and product offerings, to meet customer expectations, and to communicate brand identity to potential customers. This consistency is achieved through the use of a sizing

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system. Apparel product developers are responsible for determining their firms sizing system as a reflection of the needs of their target customers. The key to achieving desired fit in garments produced by offshore vendors is to communicate accurate measurement and fit requirements via specification sheets and to verify sample garment measurements before approving contracts and production runs.

SIZING
Sizing refers to the assignment of a particular body type into categories that reflect the body measurements of those in that size group. Sizing issues are common to all categories of clothing, including mens and childrens, but are more fully documented in womens ready-to-wear. Womens sizing issues appear more complex because of changing fashion, arbitrary sizing nomenclature, and evolving body types. One of the major sources of some of the sizing problems in the apparel industry is the diversity of the U.S. population. Because of the presence of many different ethnic groups, the U.S. population of approximately 313 million people poses a more complex sizing challenge than any other consumer market in the world. Homogeneous populations are much easier to supply. For example, in Japan only a dozen sizes of womens apparel are typically needed. In the United States, by comparison, womens clothing is developed and sold in categories for misses, juniors, petites, womens, womens petite, and maternity, with about eight to twelve sizes in each category. In addition to the issue of diversity, the typical American figure has been evolving because of intermarriage and lifestyle changes, including eating habits and general fitness. Product developers and buyers must be knowledgeable about the target population of the geographic area to which they market if they are to produce apparel that will fit their target customers.

History of Womens Apparel Sizing


In the past, sizing charts were developed to reflect groupings of young women and mature women. Numbers were assigned that reflected the age or girth of the women within these groupings. Early in the 20th century, firms that were producing garments for catalog sale needed to have some consistency in the measurements of their products so that consumers could purchase garments without trying them on. This need precipitated some of the first American sizing charts. The original charts became inadequate as more and more garments were produced for an increasingly diverse population of consumers. Although some attempts were made to standardize sizing in the United States, the Federal Trade Commission and the Bureau of Standards of the Department of Commerce (DOC) could only recommend measurements that were in common use in the business. There are no mandatory sizing standards in the United States. Available tables serve only as voluntary guidelines for product development and as starting points for each firm to size its styles for its target customers. First Sizing Systems The first full sizing system in the United States consisted of a set of size charts based on anthropometric data collected by the military in 1941. The data comprised body

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measurements of women in the U.S. Army at that time. The measurement data were analyzed by OBrien and Shelton, and the results were published by the DOC in 1948 (ASTM 2005). The original database was geared toward younger white women and contained a low representation of women above the age of 55. Recognizing the inadequacy of the original charts, largely caused by lack of ethnic diversity and age group representation, the DOC revisited the original database and updated the sizing charts for women. The resulting revised standard was published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as Voluntary Product Standard PS 42-70 in 1971. This revision also proved to be of limited usefulness because limitations in the original database continued to have an impact on the final charts. The government finally revoked the standard and turned the charts over to what was the American Society for Testing and Materials (now ASTM International); ASTM assigned the task of updating and monitoring the voluntary apparel sizing standards to Committee D13.55, a subcommittee of the larger textiles committee that develops and refines voluntary standards in many areas of textile and apparel testing and materials for the United States. Over the years, the original military measurement data have been reworked and adapted several times. In 1994, ASTM published a revision of the misses size range as voluntary standard D5585-94. This revision was based on information collected from manufacturers, retailers, and the U.S. military and was believed to reflect measurements actually in use in the industry. Updates Newer contributions of actual body measurement data were added in the late 1980s when a group of academics from the University of Arizona at Tucson directed a study that measured a large sample of women above age 55. Although this study was heralded as a way of improving fit for the female population, some found that its results only added to the problem. The variations between the mature and general populations tended to occur only in the location and distribution of weight and shape. The study discerned no need for a separate size range because it found that mature womens measurements tended to parallel those of younger populations in most areas of the body. However, the results did reflect the need for fitting changes for mature consumers to accommodate: Vertical slippage due to lost muscle tone and compression of the vertebrae Thickening of the waist A tendency of the head and shoulders to roll forward, causing a broadening of the back and a shortening of the front bodice areas

In 2001, ASTM released another update, D5585-94R01 Standard Table of Body Measurements for Adult Female Misses Figure Type, Sizes 220 (ASTM 2005). To appreciate the complexity of the voluntary sizing charts that were available, note that 39 girth, vertical, length, and width locations and measurements for each of ten sizes, 2 through 20, were identified and measurements given (Figure 11.1). This standard was withdrawn in 2010 because it had not been updated within the ASTM time requirements for revision.

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bb

e cc f g a x h dd ee b c jj ff gg j d u w t z q r g

Form Measurement/Dimensions v a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. y j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x. y. Bust girth Waist girth High hip girth Hip girth Midneck girth Armscye girth Upper arm girth Elbow girth Wrist girth Thigh girth Mid-thight girth Knee girth Calf girth Angle girth Vertical trunk Cross-back width Cross-chest width Bust point to bust point Neck to bust point Armscye to waist length Waist to hip/seat height Shoulder length Arm length, shoulder to wrist Arm length, shoulder to elbow Underarm length Waist length, front Waist length, back Shoulder height High hip height Low hip height o aa p

hh

z. aa.

bb. Stature (Height) m cc. ee. ff. dd. Waist height

gg. Crotch height hh. Knee height ii. jj. ii n Ankle height Crotch length (total)

gure 11.1 Body forms with list of measurement points.

During the past decade, ASTM updated other size ranges, including those for petites and womens sizes, and in 2006 added a new maternity table of sizes to their voluntary standards. A variety of updated tables for men and children were also made available. The end result of all of these past efforts to standardize the sizing charts is that individual companies wishing to use the ASTM voluntary sizing charts do so, but they are free to adapt them to their own needs. Many consumers, manufacturers, and retailers agreed that the voluntary sizing standards available up to this point did not fully represent womens actual body measurements. Recent Research and Technical Developments SizeUSA was an anthropometric research study developed by [TC]2, industry participants, and the DOC. The purpose of this study was to gather actual body measurement data on U.S. consumers using a 3-D measurement system and a body scanner; that data was fed into measurement extraction software (See Case Study 11.1, The [TC]2 Body Scanner; Figure 11.2). Data collection was completed in September 2003. Jim Lovejoy, SizeUSA director, reported that measurement data were gathered on more than 10,000 participants: 63 percent women and 37 percent men. The ethnicity of the participants was 51 percent white, 18 percent black, 16 percent Hispanic, and 15 percent Asian and other; they came from the eastern, western, and central regions of the country (SizeUSA 2008).

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ANYONE WHO HAS ever been frustrated by trying to determine which size shirt, jeans, or other clothing item will t best or has spent a lot of time going through the alteration process will benet from technology developed by [TC]2, the Textile/Clothing Technology Corporation. This technology is a three-dimensional body measurement system that includes a white light-based scanner and proprietary measurement extraction software. The [TC]2 scanner has gone through several generations of development since it was rst introduced. The latest version is approximately four by ve feet and can t into most stores existing dressing rooms. The scanner captures hundreds of thousands of data points of an individuals image, and the software automatically extracts dozens of measurements. The [TC]2 scanner was used for the SizeUSA study that gathered body measurement data on almost 11,000 women and men from major cities throughout the United States. This data is now being used by many rms within the apparel industry in their efforts to improve their apparel size offerings and provided much of the body measurement data used in the updating of the new ASTM voluntary sizing standard for misses apparel. The SizeUK study also used the [TC]2 scanner, collecting measurement data on 11,000 people in Great Britain for industry use in improving their nations apparel sizing. A National Childrenswear Study conducted in 2009 used this scanner to collect data on 2,500 boys and girls in Great Britain aged 4 to 17, representing the rst available database of actual body measurements of children. Size Thailand and Size Mexico surveys are now underway using this scanner for data collection in those nations. The captured measurement information from the scanner can be electronically compared to garment specications and other data in order to recommend the size an individual should purchase or use as a basis for made-to-measure clothing. Numerous apparel computer-aided design (CAD) packages have made-to-measure or pattern-alteration functions that can be

used in concert with the scanner-based measurements to create a custom pattern for the customer. The measurements are formatted specically for the target apparel CAD package so that the input of the data to the system and the output of the madeto-measure pattern, either to a fabric cutter or to a plotter, occur automatically. Additionally, the possibility exists for the customer to view the t and appearance of both made-to-measure and standard-sized garments as a computer simulation (virtual try-on). The garment is draped on the consumers three-dimensional scanned image, and he or she can see how the garment looks and ts before the purchase is made. This technology has tremendous implications for consumers shopping throughout all distribution channels, including bricksand-mortar, catalog, and online.

case study 11.1 The [TC]2 Body Scanner

gure 11.2a The new NX-16 Scanner from [TC]2 has smaller footprint than previous body scanners. gure 11.2b Before stepping into [TC]2s body scanner, a woman dons shorts and top that will not distort her gure.

Source: Adapted from Textile and Clothing Technology Corporation 2001; SizeUSA 2008; and author communications with [TC]2

Janice Wang claims that the root cause of many ill-fitting garments is the industry misconception that the hourglass figure is the dominant body shape today (Speer 2006, 40). The SizeUSA data analysis of womens measurements showed that the hourglass is the least dominant shape even though the industry had persistently based its grade rules on that shape. In her work with the SizeUSA scanned data, Cynthia L. Istook defined nine body shapes and honed in on four dominant types: Rectangle shapebust and hips are basically the same circumference; the waist is less than 9 inches smaller than the bust. This shape represents 46.12 percent of the sample. Spoon shapehips are larger than the bust by 2 inches or more; the waist is less than 9.25 inches smaller than the bust. This shape, sometimes called pear shape, represents 20.92 percent of the sample. Inverted trianglebust is larger than the hips by 3.6 inches or more; the waist is less than 9 inches smaller than the bust. This shape represents 13.83 percent of the sample. Hourglassbust and hips are basically same circumference; the waist is smaller than the bust by 9 inches or more. This shape made up 8.4 percent of the sample.

Other shapes comprise 10.72 percent of the scanned participants and varied in shape descriptions (Speer 2006, 40). Figure 11.3 reflects the four most commonly recognized female body shapes in the United States. Additional general findings from SizeUSA are: Of those surveyed, 58 percent of the women thought they were somewhat to quite a bit overweight People get larger as they age, especially through the waist and hip area Only 10 to 20 percent of most groups fit the ASTM standard size tables, primarily because they are closer to a pear shape than an hourglass (Modern Uniforms 2004).

In 2008, Istook reexamined the prevalence of basic body types and confirmed that the rectangle shape was indeed the most predominant shape in women; however, she determined that the oval shape was more prevalent than the spoon and a bottom hourglass (pear) was found more often than the inverted triangle (SizeUSA 2008). According to [TC]2, the SizeUSA study findings have been taken into consideration by more than 50 companies, including Victorias Secret, Jockey, Chicos, and J.C. Penney (Weathers 2007). Many of these firms have adjusted their companys fitting standards to reflect these findings. J.C. Penney had previously used the hourglass figure type but adjusted its grade rules to reflect the more dominant shapes of its customers. Mike Hannaford, Penneys manager of technical design, reported that changes were made to the companys private label collections. Patterns were cut fuller and the differential between the waist and hips was adjusted to be more in line with current proportions (Reda 2006). The Intellifit system, owned by Unique Solutions Design, LTD, employs a scanner that uses radio waves to take consumer measurements. This technology is similar to the scanners used in airports. Harmless radio waves go through clothing to accurately measure the body. The Intellifit approach is to partner with companies that produce and sell apparel.

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gure 11.3 Four most common female body shapes in the United States today.

Hourglass Body Shape

Ruler (Rectangle) Body Shape

Spoon Body Shape

Cone (Triangle) Body Shape

Companies collect body scan data of their customers and apply those results to their sizing grade rules. Davids Bridal used the Intellifit system to measure 5,000 of its customers and converted the resulting data into new fit specs and grade rules for its products (Weathers 2006). Intellifit has measured globally over 230,000 individuals which represents the largest sizing database of its kind in the world (Unique Solutions 2009). Levi Strauss, Lane Bryant, and Fashion Bug Stores have been using this technology to improve the accuracy of their sizing systems. A new version of the Intellifit scanner, named Me-Ality, has become available in some shopping locations in the U.S. for consumers to use as a virtual fitting room for locating garments that will fit their bodies (Body Scanner 2011). Numerous universities throughout the United States and elsewhere in the world continue to work with newly available measurement data from body scans and establish new paradigms for sizing. Susan Ashdown at Cornell University has been one of the pioneers in the field, seeking applications for scanned data to improve the fit and sizing of apparel products for women, especially taking into consideration the potential for offering fewer sizes but in different shapes. Latest Advances It is an exciting time in the technical design field of apparel product development, as new scanned measurement data becomes available and is applied to apparel sizing. We are now beginning to see the results of body scanning research trickle out into applications

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in the marketplace. For example, in August 2010 Levis introduced a new line of womens jeans based on three distinct body shapes rather than simply on size (Levi Strauss 2010). Other firms, such as Eddie Bauer and Lands End, are providing information regarding their garments shape and fit, in addition to basic size identification, in their catalogs and online product offerings. Some significant changes in apparel size labels and sizing charts are also beginning to show up in retail stores across the United States. As this book was being completed, ASTM Internationals new D5585-11 Standard Tables of Body Measurements for Adult Female Misses Figure Type, Size Range 00-20 was issued (ASTM International 2011, 1). The measurement tables in this new standard for misses apparel sizes evolved from evaluation of data from the industry, DOC data, Caesar Study data, SizeUSA Study data, and documentation verifying the new measurement tables through utilization of a 3D Avatar developed by Alvanon, Inc. This new sizing standard for misses sizes introduces many changes from previous versions, many of which may be directly attributed to the availability of new scanned body measurement data and previously unavailable computerized modeling capabilities. For example, a standard of 5 feet, 5 inches height (representing approximately 65 percent of the average U.S. adult female population) is used throughout the size range. The height in the previous standard varied from 5 feet, 3.5 inches for a size 2 to 5 feet, 8 inches for a size 20. The new standard also adds smaller sizes 00 and 0 to the previous range of sizes 2 to 20. See Table 11.1. Another significant difference between previous versions and the new ASTM standard is incremental growth between sizes at different key points on the body, which makes increases and decreases at different rates in some areas of the body rather than following a lock-step graded measurement change between sizes. According to some industry practitioners, use of incremental measurements was not a viable option prior to the availability of computerized grading capabilities. Perhaps the most visible change to those familiar with previous apparel sizing standards is the inclusion of two body types for each of the sizes, straight and curvy, with different measurements applied to these two body silhouettes.

Womens Sizing
Womens clothing is sized for adult women and is assigned numbers that reflect the relationship of height, bust, waist, hip, and torso length measurements. The difference from one size to the next in a range is called the grade. Before the ASTM standards were developed, a 2-inch grade was used between all sizes. A 2-inch grade rule reflects the difference in girth of the bust, waist, and hip measurements as they increase from size to size. When earlier ASTM standards came into being, many manufacturers used a 1-inch grade difference between smaller sizes, a 1 1/2-inch grade difference between sizes 10 to 14, and a 2-inch grade difference between sizes larger than 14. In addition to the girth measurements, manufacturers decided whether the proportional increase was consistent all over. For example, did height and length increase along with circumference? Were changes only to the circumference? Or was a combination of these measurements most appropriate for a companys target customer? In the new ASTM

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Table 11.1 Comparisons of ASTM and SizeUSA Body Measurements


Women ASTM D5585-95R01, Sample Size 8 ASTM D5585 - 11, Sample Size 6 Curvy Straight ASTM D5585-95R01 Average Size 14 ASTM D558511 Average Size 14 Curvy Straight SizeUSA Average Median Men ASTM D624098(2006) Sample Size 40 ASTM D624098(2006) Median Size 42 SizeUSA Average 42 42.6 36 36.9 42 41.6 510 11/16 59 NA 185 Chest 40 Waist 34 Hips 40 40 3/8 40 3/8 40.7 32 1/2 34 34.3 43 1/4 42 1/2 43 55 55 53.9 54 Height 510 1/4 148 Weight NA NA NA 35 1/4 35 1/4 39 27 28 1/2 31 38 1/4 37 1/2 41.5 55* 55* 56 1/2 NA NA NA Bust 35 Waist 27 Hips 37 1/2 Height 55* Weight NA

*Note that sample styles for women are sometimes done for a model gure taller than 59. Source: ASTM 2005; ASTM International 2011; and Size USA. 2008

misses standard, the height remains the same throughout while the body increases in girth, creating an issue for those who are significantly taller or shorter than average in height. As the findings of the SizeUSA study and the body silhouettes identified in ASTMs new voluntary sizing standard are applied, there is potential for continuing and significant changes in industry grading and grade rule applications. Product developers must choose a sample size as a starting point for sizing garments. The sample size represents the body measurements from which the size range they plan to offer is developed. It is recommended that manufacturers use a midsize as the sample size within the range. This necessitates grading down to the smallest size and up to the largest size, and results in a more accurate grade than if the grading were done in only one direction. A misses size 8 or 10 was commonly designated the sample size, but recently designers have indicated a preference to use a size 6. (See Table 11.1.)

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It is particularly telling that the measurements of that size 6 today are more reflective of a size 8 in previous ASTM sizing standards. Although a midsize sample designation yields a more accurate grade, some manufacturers select the slightly smaller sample size than their dominant customer sizes because sample size garments are frequently the ones available for advertising shoots and special promotions. Refer back to Table 10.1 in Chapter 10 for a listing of typically used sample sizes in other categories. Because manufacturers make their size designations independent of one another, the variations from one company to the next can be extreme; the measurements of the actual garments labeled as being a particular size vary considerably from one company to the next. Manufacturers contribute to sizing confusion when they increase the body measurements of their size designations so that the size numbers actually fit women of larger dimensions. This migration to larger measurements in a labeled size is commonly referred to as vanity sizing. Vanity sizing is placing a smaller size label on a larger size garment. Hence, a woman of size 12 proportions may wear a size 10 or even an 8. Most apparel manufacturers have adjusted their company sizes to reflect their own niche customers. As a result, no two brands fit exactly the same. A woman can wear a size 4 in Banana Republic clothes, a size 6 in Ellen Tracy, and a size 10 in Ann Taylor (Reda 2006). Viewed from the consumer perspective, this inconsistency in products has produced a phenomenon called size migration, which means that one woman typically fits into a range of three or more sizes, depending on the manufacturer and cut of the garment. Consumers have been confused by these inconsistencies and have been putting pressure on manufacturers to improve their sizing systems. This pressure is expected to increase as nonstore purchases, such as catalog and Internet sales, continue to grow. Many retailers and product developers are including body measurement charts in their catalogs and on their websites so customers can make informed selections. Industry sources are encouraging the use of actual body measurement data on the size chart designations from individual firms. Rather than requiring a sizing standard that must conform to specific body measurements, they are suggesting that manufacturers may call a size any number they wish as long as they communicate the actual body measurements that the garment is designed to fit on the hangtag, label, website, or catalog. Chicos is a company that has successfully devised its own unique sizing system by designating basic size offerings as 0 through 3, new extended sizes through 4.5, and then explaining this system with a measurement chart in its stores, in its catalogs, and on its website (www.chicos.com). Even with all the variations in sizing applications that are found in the marketplace, some generalizations regarding the groups or categories of product sizing may be made. The names of the size categories of womens apparel currently in use include misses, petite, tall, womens plus, womens petite, and junior. (Figure 11.4 reflects five of these.) A newly recognized sizing category that has gained importance is maternity, which is not pictured here.

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gure 11.4 Comparison of silhouettes for womens size categories.

Tall

Misses

Petite

WomensPlus

Junior

Misses Misses sizes are designed to fit adult females of average build. Records indicate that a body from 5 feet, 5 inches to 5 feet, 6 inches was considered an average height when this category was established; the new misses standard uses 5 feet, 5 inches throughout. The ASTM voluntary standard for misses previously identified sizes in this category range from 2 to 20, even numbers only, but has now added sizes 00 and 0. Retail stores typically stocked only sizes 6 to 16 in their misses merchandise mix, but today many stores are offering smaller sizes including 2 and 4, and sometimes 00 and 0. This begs the question of whether these smaller sizes actually reflect smaller people or if vanity sizing has been accepted in order to fit larger people into the commonly offered misses size range. Industry sources indicate that more than half of the U.S. female population would wear a size larger than size 14 if the previous ASTM body measurements were routinely applied, and the SizeUSA study confirmed that assumption. It is of great interest to the authors that the bust size for a size 14 in the previous ASTM standard was 39 inches while in the new standard it is 40 3/8 inches, driving home the reality that vanity sizing has truly been applied in the industry over the past decade. This fact has great implications for product developers, for they must decide which sizes they will offer within this range and identify the actual measurements and shape of their target customers in order to produce marketable products that meet the expectations of their customer base.

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Petites Petites are designed for shorter women5 feet, 4 inches and underwho are of average build. Unfortunately, there is considerable disagreement about whether shorter means short height only or the scale is smaller all over. The most recent ASTM petite size range standard is published for even sizes from 2P to 20P and reflects girth measurements similar to those for misses sizes, but scaled down in height. Retailers typically stock sizes 2P to 14P in petites. Once again, producers have been increasing the girth of the garments while leaving the size numbers the same, thereby leaving the truly small woman without many options and opening a larger target customer base for those sizes at the upper range without putting larger numbers on them. We are beginning to see size 00P and 0P being offered, especially online by firms such as Gap, Ann Taylor Loft, and Macys. Designed for the truly petite adult body, these tiny sizes indicate that smaller consumers complaints have been heard. Before availability of SizeUSA measurement data on the petite population, the only sources of body measurement data for this size range were medical and insurance records, the military, and guesstimates from individual manufacturers that were used to create an ASTM petite sizing standard. In late 2011 ASTM was in the process of updating the petite size standard to more accurately represent this portion of the population. We now know that the average female in the United States is 5 feet, 3.9 inches tall and weighs 157 (median 143) pounds, which puts her at the larger end of the industrys petite size category; yet most apparel in the marketplace is provided for the misses size category. (See Figure 11.5 for size distribution found at retail.) This information suggests that the petite market may be open for significant additional development. Already some brands have discovered a very viable emerging market for

gure 11.5 Retail sizes typically worn by women in the United States.

SIZES TYPICALLY WORN BY THE AMERICAN WOMAN

MISSES (SIZES 1620) 18%

PLUS SIZES 22% MISSES PETITE (SIZES 214) 18%

MISSES (SIZES 214) 29% MISSES TALL (SIZES 214) 6% JUNIORS (SIZES 1-15) 7%

Source: Retail Forward Shopperscape 2004

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the larger petite sizes, such as 16P and 18P, and additional potential for the womens petite range (see below). Talls A few brands include talls in their product mix. These products are sold along with the misses sizes, especially in bottoms categories (skirts and pants), and are designed for women who are of average girth but above average in height (up to 6 feet, 1 inch). Recognizing the changing shape of the U.S. population, Gap introduced tall size offerings to its website and several other retailers have incorporated talls into their stores merchandise mix. In light of the changes to the misses standard that caps the height of that size range at 5 feet, 5 inches, it is anticipated that many product developers will begin to see an increase in requests for tall sizes that provide the length needed by those consumers who are taller than average in height. ASTM has also recognized that need and is currently working on this issue. (See Case Study 11.2, Outsize Is In.) Womens Plus Womens plus sizes are for the adult woman of average to above-average height but who is fuller and more mature, especially in torso girth, and typically weighs more than the misses category figure. The ASTM International Standard D6960-04 voluntary standard chart for this range was revised in 2004 to include sizes 14W to 32W. The old standard began by overlapping the girth in sizes 16 through 20 but assumed women were of greater overall height, estimated initially at 5 feet, 6 inches and above. This category now commonly begins with a 14W or 16W for a woman of average height and a more developed, rounded contour. The typical range produced or stocked at retail is 14W to 24W, but additional sizes are becoming more readily available. For example, Talbots begins its womens plus range with a size 12W, which provides for more room in the waist area than a misses size 12. Womens Petites In the past, a range for shorter-than-average women of full figure was produced and distributed as half sizes. The category was greatly misunderstood, especially by consumers, and has been replaced by a designation called womens petites. This category is designed to reflect a shorter figure of larger girth, generally with a fuller torso and shorter sleeves and hemlines, in comparison to the misses category. When available, these sizes are usually found in 12WP to 20WP. Currently, the consumer in this size range is hard-pressed to find many styling options available to her at retail. Some claim that larger womens size offerings are often relegated to a remote location in the store, if they are available at all. With an aging population, the findings of the SizeUSA study, and the growing issue of obesity in this country, the womens and womens petite size ranges are poised for significant growth as a market sector.

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case study 11.2 Outsize Is In, but Will Apparel Retailers Latch On?

OUTSIZE CLOTHING, WHICH includes plus sizes, talls, and petites, has boomed with increased sizing, population, and obesity rates. Not only that, but the outsize clothing market has a large population of consumers who are ready and willing to spend, according to just-styles report: Global market review of outsize clothing: forecasts to 2012. Although annual apparel sales growth in the United States has slowed to around 3 to 4 percent in recent years, the plus-size market itself is forecast by researchers to continue growing at least 10 percent a year topping $62 billion in 2012. As for Western Europe, 47 percent of the UK female population wears a UK size 16accounting for one-third of all womens wear sales. The market review quotes Richard Kirk, CEO of Bonmarch, as saying: A quarter of all Bonmarch sales come from the extra-large sizing area. There is clearly a gap there to exploit and no one . . . is really lling. . . , apart from specialist mail order companies. With more than 50 percent of adults in western populations now overweight or obese, countries such as Mexico, South Africa, and regions such as the Caribbean are also heading for both a higher proportion of plus sizes and a faster growing market. Neglecting the plus-size market dismisses a very large group of people and fails to maximize the potential revenues of a group that has both the money and desire to spend on fashion, just-styles report observes. However, it is thought that the outsize clothing sector would benet from innova-

tion and growth. New plus-size retailers are beginning to follow the lead of Charming Shoppes, with its Lane Bryant stores, in trying to meet consumers fashion and t expectations, and offer one-of-a-kind shopping experiences. J.C. Penney was also credited with organizing programs and events to make oversize consumers feel special. Selling points of these stores included providing larger dressing rooms, wider aisles, and knowledgeable sales associates, the report adds. However, some retailers struggle to add plus-size options without alienating current consumers or changing their stores image. All too often, plus-size departments are located on the very bottom or very top oors, which are often quieter and emptier. This is thought to lead to a message for consumers of, We dont care about you. The report found that some retailers were considering moving their plus sizes into the regular-size areas as a consequence. It was also deduced that petite consumers faced a similar challengewith a perceived lack of oor space for specialty sizes a common criticism. Exclusively online retailers have ourished in the outsize market by offering larger-size consumers the opportunity to shop online and try on clothing in the privacy of their own homes. While this is not a new phenomenon, the e-tailer and sizing charts are proving increasingly important to buyers.

Source: Adapted from Just-style.com 2007. 2011. All content copyright just-style.com

Juniors Junior sizes fit a woman of about 5 feet, 6 inches with a shorter torso and longer limbs, and less mature body development than the misses category. The category is labeled with odd numbers from 1 to 19 in newest revision of ASTM International Standard D682902 (2008) found on their website (ASTM International 2008b). Although many retailers still limit the range they stock on the floor to sizes 5 to 13, some retailers are offering additional sizes within this range, especially online. The junior market reflects both a body type and a younger styling aesthetic. Even with a smaller market share in terms of numbers of consumers, this size range is very visible in the marketplace and has many styling options available to them. Maternity Expectant mothers buying maternity clothing have different sizing needs as their body dimensions change during pregnancy. A newer size grouping, maternity, evolved within the industry and is now represented by ASTM D7197-06, Standard Table of Body Measurements for Misses Maternity Sizes Two to Twenty-Two (2-22) (ASTM International 2006a). The increased visibility of this niche market and consumer desire for fashionable wear specifically designed for pregnant women precipitated the development of the new range of sizes in this product category. Other Merchandise Categories for Women Throughout the womens size categories, manufacturers have attempted to control their stock-keeping units (SKUs) by combining some sizes. This is particularly true in the sportswear product classifications and in the separates and coordinate categories where knit fabrics are common. In these categories, products may be sized as small (S), medium (M), large (L), and extra-large (XL). These sizes are typically based on the chest measurement, reflecting the misses sizes from 6 or 8 through 16 or 18. The consumer must seek out the size charts to determine which option that firm elected to use, which can cause some confusion in the marketplace. Nevertheless, when combining these sizes into four groups, the combination size must of necessity cover the larger body to be represented in that size. Some suppliers also produce petites in the combined ranges, but they typically elect to begin with a smaller size, labeled petite, before the small, medium, and large sizes. Some producers have also grouped womens sportswear into fewer sizes. The designations used in womens sportswear are 1X, 2X, and 3X and parallel the combining of the womens range into three size groups for sizes 14W through 24W. Another possible use of combination sizes reflected in the marketplace is the combining of junior and misses sizes, such as 7/8, 9/10, and 11/12, to accommodate varying torso lengths. Sizing for some kinds of womens apparel, such as nightwear, lingerie, and other products categorized as intimate wear, is identified by other means. For example, bras are sized with a two-part designation that has evolved from a French system. The size is a number representing an under-bust measurement plus 5 to 6 inches, depending on

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the manufacturer. The second part of the size designation is a letter representing the cup size, usually ranging from an AA or A to a D or DD. Measuring over the fullest part of the bust and finding the difference between that measurement and the underbust measurement identifies the cup designation. The average cup is 2 inches larger than the bra size and is labeled a B. The AA is 1/2 inch larger than the under-bust measurement, the A is 1 inch larger, the C is 3 inches larger, the D is 4 inches larger, and the DD is 5 inches larger. Specialty sizes through 58 G/H are available on-line. Panties are most commonly sold in sizes 5, 6, and 7, which parallel the hip measurements of the misses size range. The larger womens sizes of panties are typically sold in sizes 8 through 11. Pantyhose are most often found in average, tall, and queen, based on height and weight. Womens categories of ready-to-wear sizing have been characterized by some confusion from the beginning. Some of this lack of consistency may be attributed to the fact that womens apparel styling is in a constant state of flux due to fashion trends. In addition, womens alterations have traditionally not been a part of the original price of the garment; as long as the product was selling, the manufacturer had little motivation to be precise in the fit. The female customer had to either pay for alterations or shop until she found something that fit her. As lifestyles of consumers continue to change, demands on time become more rigorous, and the ramifications of a weakened economy and escalating prices continue to be felt, this laissez-faire approach to sizing may require continued rethinking on the part of producers.

Mens Sizing
Mens sizes include clothing designed for the fully developed adult man. The category includes the major classifications of mens clothing, sportswear, and furnishings. Mens apparel is most often sold in numbered sizes that represent body measurements, although some products are identified by figure type. As with womens sizing, ASTM has developed a voluntary sizing standard for men, ASTM D6240 - 98(2006) Standard Tables of Body Measurements for Men Sizes Thirty-Four to Sixty (34 to 60) Regular (ASTM 2006b). Mens wear sizing, designed for the average male, tends to be more consistent than sizing of womens wear because mens styles do not fluctuate as much as womens. In addition, men do not always shop for themselves and since someone else may be making the purchases, there is greater dependence on the sizing labels. For these reasons, the sizing nomenclature used in mens wear has traditionally more closely represented actual body measurements than the arbitrary numbers found in womens wear. Although using size measurements to designate sizes has been effective for many years, since the 1990s menswear has experienced increasing instances of vanity sizing, especially in mens casual pants. A reduced availability of tapered woven shirts that hug the torso had also been noted; consumer demand and fashion have recently converged and woven shirts with a slimmer torso have began reappearing in the marketplace.

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In 2009, the SizeUSA User Group Meeting focused on the mens measurement data collected in the 2003 sizing study. Su-Jeong Shin reported that 56 percent of the men in the survey would not fit in the standard regular sizing for mens apparel. Her analysis separated men into four categoriesslim; heavy inverted (athletic or big/tall); slant inverted (regular); and short, round top (Davis 2009). It will be informative to see how these findings are interpreted by product developers who work with mens apparel in the marketplace. (See Case Study 11.3, Availability of Mens Big and Tall Sizes Is Improving.) Suits, Jackets, and Coats Mens suits, jackets, and coats are labeled first with the chest girth measurement followed with height classifications such as short, regular, tall or long, and extra tall. The majority of men wear a 38 to 44 size, based on 2-inch increments, but some manufacturers expand their range to include sizes from 32 to 50. Most products are produced only in even sizes, although a few uneven sizes are included by some producers, especially in smaller sizes such as 33, 35, and 37. The size is expressed as a number for the chest girth followed by a letter representing the torso length, such as 36S (S for short), 38R (R for regular), or 44L (L for long). Suits include both a jacket and slacks. The styling of the jacket will affect the size of the slacks that come with it. A drop of 6 to 10 inchesthe difference in the circumference between the chest and waist measurementis common depending on the cut of the suit. Continental styling tends to reflect a more tapered style with up to a 10-inch drop to the waist, while traditional styling tends to reflect a more rectangular body cut, with the more typical 6- to 7-inch drop. Both styles tend to reflect slim styling through the slacks. Athletic cuts in suits tend to be more tapered from chest to waist, but also tend to include more ease in the leg thigh area to accommodate a more fully developed muscle structure. A separate category of sizes for those men of expanded midsection girth compared to chest and shoulder width, with a 4-inch drop, is available and labeled Portly. Pants Pants sizes are based on two basic measurements. The waist girth is the most common and is usually stocked by the retailer in even sizes from 28 to 40, in 2-inch increments. A few retailers also stock pants in 1-inch increments in the smaller sizes, such as 29 or 31. The second number in pants sizing represents the inseam measurement, which typically ranges from 29 to 34 inches. This inseam measurement is taken on the inside of the leg from the crotch seam to the bottom of the hem of the pants. Dress slacks are usually sold with hems unfinished; they are then custom-tailored to length upon purchase. Although it is not generally publicized, manufacturers typically use a third measurement when sizing pants. Called the rise, it is the measurement from the top of the inner leg seam at the crotch to the top of the waist. Within the business, the rise is most often identified as short or regular and corresponds to the variation in torso

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case study 11.3 Availability of Mens Big and Tall Sizes Is Improving

IN 2011, JCPENNEY unveiled The Foundry Big & Tall Supply Co., a new retail concept targeted to this growing market segmentone that has pitted Penneys directly against the other major players in the mens industry, all of whom have identied this niche as one ripe for expansion. The biggest player is Casual Male Retail Group Inc., which operates nearly 500 stores including four Destination XL superstores, which combine all of the companys concepts: the moderate Casual Male merchandise as well as the more-upscale Rochester Big & Tall, along with shoes. The Mens Wearhouse Inc., which does $300 million in business in extended sizes within its stores already, has committed to test three freestanding Big & Tall stores in 2011. The retailer has said that sales in extended sizes are running 40 percent higher than its regular-size business. And Jos. A. Bank Clothiers Inc., which launched a website devoted to these sizes earlier this year, has also reported success within the category. And Penneys wants a chunk of the pie, which is estimated to be a $6 billion annual business. The Foundry will start its retail rollout with six stores in the Dallas market. By 2013, the chain is expected to expand to 100 units and then triple that number within ve years. This is a mens specialty store, not a family department store, said Steve Lossing, president of The Foundry and a 20-year mens wear retail veteran. The stores are actually designed to replicate a microbrewery and feature an urban, industrial feel with concrete and wood oors, brick walls, steel and wood xtures, and modern lighting. An unusual compo-

nent of the design is the tting area, or tank room, which replicates the cylindrical copper tanks in a brewpub. We know guys hate to shop, but we want him to feel he can hang out and relax in our store, Lossing said. The assortment ranges from furnishings and sportswear to tailored clothing and shoes, or soup to nuts, according to Lossing. In focus groups prior to opening, potential customers said they hated having to go to three different stores to complete their wardrobes, hence the comprehensive mix. The Foundry carries a mix of national brands and private label. Private brand overall is around one-third of the assortment and is most heavy in basics such as polos, T-shirts, and shorts. In stores, The Foundry carries from 1XL to 6XL and 1XLT to 5XLT in sportswear, but up to 10XL online. Shoes run from 10 regular to 16 wide. Tailored clothing sizes will run up to 54L in stores and up to 60 online. Prices range from $20 for a T-shirt to $200 for a suit coat. The target shopper for The Foundry is afuent, professional, and generally 45 or older, although some younger customers may be lured by . . . more contemporary collections. He generally makes over $75,000 a year. There are a lot of big and tall competitors out there, [Lossing] said. Were not the only ones who have identied it as a growth area. In fact, he said the B&T population is expected to grow 25 percent over the next 10 years while the regular population growth will be at. People are just getting bigger and taller, he said.

Source: Adapted from Palmieri 2011

length of the target customer. However, some catalogs use the terms regular and long to describe the distinction between their two categories of rise. As a basis of comparison, mens jeans tend to have a low rise, while slacks for the average to tall male usually provide a regular or tall rise. Furnishings Mens furnishings include other items of clothing such as shirts, ties, underwear, sleepwear, and accessories. Dress shirts are sized on a two-number system that is based on the neck size and the sleeve length. The neck circumference is identified first, by half-inch increments. A number representing the length of the sleeve, measured from the center back to the wrist bone, follows this. The average mens dress shirt size is a 15/34, which indicates a 15 inch neck circumference and a 34-inch sleeve length. Sport shirts are usually sized S, M, L, and XL. This system enables the producer to provide more style options in fewer sizes and keep the total SKUs under control. Most other mens products, such as sweaters, underwear, and pajamas, are sized by chest measurement and labeled S, M, L, and XL. Belts are typically sold by waist measurement. Due to the voluntary nature of sizing systems and the introduction of vanity sizing into the mens market, consumers need to consult any sizing tables provided for an individual firms product offerings. Young Men Young mens sizes are designed for those whose builds have not reached full maturity. Sizes are labeled with the same number or letter designations as the parallel mens products. The difference is that the garments are proportionately smaller. Their relationship to mens sizes is comparable to that of junior sizes to misses sizes in the womens market.

Childrens Sizing
Sizing for childrens apparel was originally based on age groups. However, consumers purchasing childrens clothing have been told for decades that they should never base size selection on the childs chronological age. Because there is so much variation in the growth patterns of children, the size of childrens clothing should be based on the height and weight of the child. The first body measurement study of children was completed in the UK in 2009. Called Shape GB, it scanned and measured 2,500 boys and girls aged 4 to 17 (Shape GB 2011). The results are eagerly awaited by the industry, as no actual body measurement data had been available on children in the past except through medical records of height and weight. One premise of the study is that body shape may prove to be as important as size. Infants Infants apparel is styled for babies from birth to approximately 18 months of age or whenever the child begins to walk. Infant wear available in the marketplace may be

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labeled preemie, 03 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months, but it is designed to represent the height and weight of the babies, not their age. The recent extensions at both ends of the size range reflect the clothing needs of premature infants and those of larger infants in the population who are not yet walking. Lettered sizing is sometimes used and is labeled XS or NB for newborns, S, M, L, and XL. The industry has encouraged the use of height and weight charts on hangtags for products in this category. As with other size ranges, ASTM has a voluntary standard, ASTM D4910 - 08 Standard Tables of Body Measurements for Children, Infant SizesPreemie to 24 Months, available for designers to use as a base for development of infants apparel (ASTM 2008a). Toddlers Toddlers apparel is styled and sized for children who are walking but not yet toilettrained. This means that there must be more room in the crotch area to accommodate diapers. There may be other aspects to the clothing that accommodate changing diapers, as well. The sizes in this category are 2T, 3T, and 4T, which correspond to the height and weight of children at this stage of development. Childrens By the time children are out of diapers, they are ready for childrens sizes, which are sized unisex from 2 to 6x or 7. These sizes also are categorized by height and weight, increasing proportionately. An interesting side note, depending on the brand, a size 6x is typically a 6 made bigger around while a 7 tends to taller but of similar girth to a 6. The size labels S, M, L, and XL may be substituted for the parallel number in this category. Products in this group are styled and marketed for preschool-age children. At present, the size ranges for children and for toddlers have no available body measurement data other than measurements used within the industry itself. No aggregate scanned data of childrens body measurements is yet available for the United States. The ASTM voluntary standards previously available for designers to use for product development in these sizing groups were withdrawn in 2009 as being out of date with no immediate plans for updating them in the near future. Girls Girls sizes are designed to fit girls of approximately 7 to 11 years of age, although parents are once again advised to consider the height, weight, and development of the individual child. Retailers had typically carried only sizes 7 to 14 for an average body weight for the corresponding height, although many are now providing for other categories of body builds such as slim and plus-size apparel for those of smaller or largerthan-average builds, respectively. This preteen market, sometimes referred to as tweens, has become a significant growth market segment at retail. Those involved in providing apparel products for this market segment need to be attuned to any future availability of updated sizing data for this group.

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Boys Boys sizes are designed for boys approximately 7 to 17 years old with developing bodies. They are usually placed in the childrens category for both manufacturing and government classification purposes, although the styling in this category becomes more adult as the sizes progress upward. The full range is labeled 2 to 24, but most retailers carry only even-numbered sizes from 8 to 20. The ASTM standard correlates sizes in this range to height, weight, chest, and waist measurements. There are a few manufacturers that go beyond the regular build to include slim and husky categories for those boys who are of slight or heavier build for their heights.

Metrics and Sizing


The United States is currently one of only three nations in the world that do not use the metric system. Therefore, when product developers do business with suppliers and vendors in other countries, it becomes critical to recognize that conversions to metric measurements may be necessary in order to guarantee communication about the intended size and shape of products. European Union (EU) countries refuse to accept products that are not graded according to the metric system, and garments produced in the United States for export to the EU may require metric labels. The requirement of metric measurements may become even more of an issue in the United States as the system used for determining tariffs for textile products is calculated using metric measurements. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has developed its own set of standards regarding size of garments, which are helpful when working with offshore vendors or preparing to market goods outside of the United States. They are available online from the ISO website under the category 61.020: Clothes (ISO 2011). In recent years many nations, including Mexico, China, and the UK, have undertaken sizing studies of their populations using computerized scanning equipment. Like the United States, these nations have determined they need to revise their sizing standards for manufactured apparel to reflect current population demographics. The EU also has a separate code that uses body measurements in centimeters to reflect the size of a garment. Although there have been some initiatives to standardize labeling practices for the sizing of apparel throughout Europe, such as EN 13402, sizes still vary widely, even within the same country (Miller 2010). If a firm from the United States is planning to sell products in the EU, those garments will need to be labeled in their sizing format.

GARMENT FIT
The biggest complaint from consumers about apparel products is that the customer cannot find something that fits. According to Kathleen Fasanella (1998, 106), the fundamental problems underlying the complaints are an outdated median-size measuring standard, inconsistent grading, and a lack of understanding of comfort. Manufacturers who focus on products that consistently fit their target market find they have greater

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consumer satisfaction and greater overall sales. The reader is reminded that sizing is based on body measurements, whereas fit is based on garment measurements. According to Lee and Steen (2010, 286), customer expectations of fit are influenced by: Fashion trends and styles Fabrics (textures, weight, drape and hand) Context (social, cultural, political, and other issues) Intended functions of the garment Target consumers (age, gender, body type, lifestyle, demographic, income)

As we look at the basic tenets of what constitutes good fit, we see that there are some fundamental guidelines to help us assess whether a garment fits, but even then we are confused by fabric innovations and properties of the materials used in new style construction. The issue is further complicated by individual preferences and the influences of what constitutes fashion rightness at any given time. Simply stated, fit implies the conformance of the garments to the shape and size of the individuals who wear them. The five elements of fit, identified by Erwin, Kinchen, and Peters, are grain, set, line, balance, and ease (Erwin, Kinchen, and Peters 1979). These five elements, while interrelated, describe different aspects of fit.

Grain
Grain reflects the direction of the threads in the fabric used in a garment. The lengthwise grain in most garments should run parallel to the height of the body at center front and center back, while the crosswise grain should run perpendicular to the lengthwise threads. When the garment is on-grain, with lengthwise and crosswise threads meeting at exactly 90 degrees, it will hang evenly and appear symmetrical; when off-grain, the garment may twist or hang crooked. The exception to the basic on-grain concept is in bias-cut garments that are cut with the threads running at 45-degree angles to the floor. Bias-cut garments tend to stretch out as they hang and will be very uneven if they are not cut carefully to true bias (45 degrees). Bias is the property that provides the unique softness and fluidity of many draped garments. Errors in grain can be caused by incorrectly placing the pattern blocks on the fabric before it is cut or by the fabric itself being skewed or bowed. These can be expensive mistakes, for once cut off-grain the garment itself cannot be repaired and the pattern or fabric choice must be revised. Grain in knit fabrics is established by the direction of the ribs and wales of the knit construction. They follow the same general grain criteria as woven fabric warp and filling threads; the additional properties of stretch and draping ability contribute to the fluidity of these fabrics.

Set
Set reflects a smooth fit with no unwanted wrinkles. If unintended wrinkles appear in the garment, it typically means that the garment is too small or too large in the area

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where the fabric pulls or sags. A savvy pattern maker can identify problems in fit by observing the direction of the wrinkles. These fitting problems can then be corrected while the garment is in the sample stage, before it goes into production. In general, diagonal wrinkles tend to point to areas where a garment is too snug. For example, if a bustline is too tight, wrinkles tend to form in the side seams and point to the crown of the bust; if the crotch line of a pair of pants is too snug in the hip or rise, wrinkles will form across the lap or in the back thigh area and point toward the crotch. Horizontal wrinkles across the back into the armscye reflect too tight a fit, while horizontal wrinkles across the high shoulder indicate the back neck area is too short. If a garment is too large or the shape is too long, horizontal or vertical wrinkles or folds tend to appear. For example, if a coat is too wide through the shoulder, vertical folds tend to appear across the back or into the armscye and the collar lapels gap away from the torso. Knit fabrics tend to be more forgiving in garment fit, and consumers will tolerate a closer set in many of these garments because the snugness does not infringe on body movements. In practice this feature is what makes many knit fabrics so appropriate for active sportswear. However, since such a high percentage of apparel available in the marketplace today is made of knits, there is a tendency for the consumer to endure woven apparel fitted closer to the body, even if it reflects many signals to the observer of clearly being too snug (Figure 11.6ab).

gure 11.6a Wearing garments that are too small for the body creates a mufn top at the waist. gure 11.6b Mens business suits require attention to not only the t of the jacket, but the t of the slacks. While this jacket may be an approximate t, the slacks are far too big.

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Line
Line refers to the manner in which the structural lines of a garment conform to the lines of the body. An example of this criterion is that side seams should hang straight on the body and perpendicular to the floor. Center front and center back seams should also be straight and perpendicular to the floor. Curved lines in garments should follow the contour of the body and bust darts should point to the crown of the bust without actually coming to or over the crown.

Balance
Balance occurs when the right and left sides of the body appear to be even when viewed from the front, back, and side. Although poor posture is often the culprit in this area, bad balance can be caused by errors in patternmaking or by inaccurate construction techniques. Most people are not perfectly symmetrical, right and left, but the eye can be easily fooled into the appearance of symmetry by appropriate design and accurate construction. Asymmetry can become a real issue when customizing garments for individual consumers with physical differences, but today computer patternmaking tools provide solutions for coping much more easily with these issues.

Ease
The last of the fit elements is the most complex because it involves all parts of the garment in different ways. Ease is the amount of difference between the body measurements of the intended wearer and the measurements of the finished garment. Garments must have ease added to the base body measurements so that they can be worn. Ease allowances vary according to the intended look of the garment and the type of fabric used. For dresses, tops, jackets, and coats, the ease allowance is usually determined by the bust measurement. For skirts and pants, ease is usually determined by the measurement of the hips. It is important for product developers to recognize that the sizing charts discussed earlier in this chapter reflect body measurements, whereas product measurements must include all forms of ease. The amount of ease required to make any garment wearable is classified into two categories: functional ease and design ease (see Figure 11.7ab, Table 11.2, and Table 11.3). Functional Ease Functional ease, or wearing ease, is the amount added to body measurements to compensate for body movement. Functional ease is required in order for the garment to actually be worn. Manufacturers of garments made of woven fabrics typically provide wearing ease of approximately 2.5 inches in the bust, 1 inch in the waist, and 2 inches in the hip. Pattern companies that produce for the home sewing market typically allow a minimum wearing ease of 2 inches, 1 inch, and 1 1/2 inches for the bust, waist, and hip, respectively.

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gure 11.7a Fit-type descriptions for tops and dresses. gure 11.7b Womens pant t types.

SLIM

NATURAL

RELAXED

OVERSIZED

Functional ease requirements in general are significantly less for knit fabrics than for wovens. The traditional rules of ease are also in a state of flux because of the introduction of spandex into many fabrics, such as in denim used for jeans and knit fabrics used for T-shirt tops. Spandex content provides fabrics with elasticity, enabling a much tighter fit with less functional ease than is required of a regular woven fabric.

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Table 11.2 Ease Allowances for Misses Sizing


Close-Fitting Bust Waist/hip Waistband Crotch depth Armhole Upper arm/ sleeve Elbow Wrist Thigh/knee/ leg opening Shoulder seams Across back 1/22 1/22 1/41/2 3/41 12 12 Fitted 24 23 1/2 - 3/4 11 1/2 23 23 Semi-Fitted 45 34 3/41 1 1/22 34 34 Loose-Fitting 58 46 12 22 1/2 45 45 Oversized over 8 over 6 over 2 over 2 1/2 over 5 over 5

1/21 1/2 12

12 1/21 23

23 12 34

34 23 45

over 4 over 3 over 5

01/4

1/41/2

1/21

11 1/2

over 1 1/2

1/2 - 3/4

3/41 1/4

1 1/42 1/2

2 1/23 1/2

over 3 1/2

Note: Most blazer/suit jacket ease minimums use semi-tted measurements; most coat/outerwear ease minimums use loose-tting measurements. Source: Myers-McDevitt 2009, 360

Functional ease also varies with the garment type, whether the fabric is a stable woven or stretch knit, and intended use of the garment itself. For example, swimsuits must be snug so that they do not stretch out when the wearer uses them to actually swim. Uniforms often need to provide more functional ease for greater body movement or extension during wear. Design Ease The second type of ease is design ease. It reflects the amount added to the combined body and functional ease measurements to make the garment produce the look desired by the designer. Although design ease is not technically required for the garment to be worn, it is typically needed in varying amounts to complete the intended look of the garment. The amount of design ease used at any given time varies significantly depending on the individual garment style and the fashion of the time. In the 1980s and 1990s, looser garments were fashionable, such as oversized sweaters and T-shirts; in the 2000s, these styles reflected less design ease and conformed more closely to the body.

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Table 11.3 Ease Allowances for Mens Sizing


CloseFitting Chest Waist/seat Waistband Armhole Upper arm/ sleeve Elbow Wrist Thigh/knee/ leg opening Shoulder seams Across back 13 1 1/22 1/41/2 12 23 Fitted 35 23 1/23/4 23 34 SemiFitted 57 34 3/41 34 45 LooseFitting 79 46 12 45 56 Oversized over 9 over 6 over 2 over 5 over 6

11 1/2 1 12

1 1/22 1/2 11 1/2 23

2 1/23 1/2 1 1/22 1/2 34

3 1/24 1/2 2 1/23 1/2 45

over 4 1/2 over 3 1/2 over 5

1/41/2

1/23/4

3/41

12

over 2

3/41 1/4

1 1/42 1/2

2 1/23 1/2

3 1/24 1/2

over 4 1/2

Source: Myers-McDevitt2009, 360

SIZING SPECIFICATIONS
The measurements for a new garment style are based on a combination of body measurements, functional ease required for body movement, and styling ease to achieve the desired look for the product. The trend toward outsourcing production necessitates providing accurate garment measurement specifications to vendors to ensure finished garments will be the desired size and shape. It is critical that those individuals seeking positions as technical designers have fully developed skills in taking accurate measurements and in working with fractions and decimals.

Measurements
Garment measurements must be clearly communicated on the specification sheets that are used for patternmaking and sampling. Critical measurements that are different from usual, such as for a new style, may be communicated via technical sketches with the locations and measurements carefully identified. During patternmaking and audits of production samples, key points of measure are evaluated to ensure that the garments will conform to the original concept. Examples of key points to include in measurements of garment tops are collar circumference or minimum neck stretch (in knits); bust or chest circumference; armhole, sleeve opening, and sleeve length;

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and center back length. Key points to measure on garment bottoms include waist, hip, front and back rise, functional zipper opening, and pant inseam or center back skirt length. These measurements are of such importance in todays sourcing environment that a complete list of measurement locations and their descriptions is included in Appendix 11.1. This list of precise locations enables anyone involved in the product development process to communicate exactly where to measure a garment to achieve the intended final measurements in finished garments. The measurements are then recorded on specification sheets that are used to communicate construction directions to production vendors (Figure 11.8).

Tolerances
When written specifications are developed from overall standards, such as those described in Case Study 11.4, Quality Assurance Standards: How to Measure Apparel, product developers must understand that tolerances also need to be clearly spelled out to reflect what will be accepted during the construction process. A tolerance is the difference between the allowable minimum and maximum on a process or finished measurement. If a finished garment falls between those specs, it will be acceptable; but if it goes under or beyond the tolerance, it will be rejected. Each company develops its own standards for tolerances for each type of product it produces and uses them when spelling out the written specifications for each new style. In general, torso girth measurements can vary +/ (plus or minus) 1/4 inch to +/ 1/2 inch, depending on the size and style. A few measurements, such as the sweep of a skirt, may vary up to +/ 3/4 inch. Shorter or smaller detailing seams usually move down to a +/ 1/8 inch acceptable variation. An example of this lower variation requirement might be the length of the shoulder seam or the width of a pocket. Tight tolerances of +/ 1/16 inch are reserved for critical details such as the length of collar points or buttonholes. The smaller the tolerances, the more precise the machine operators must be during construction. The type of product will also affect the amount of tolerance permitted. For example, a pair of sweatpants made of fleece may have more flexible or looser tolerances than a brassiere that has many small parts and cannot withstand much variation before the overall structure of the garment is impaired.

Sampling Process
Styling and fit are evaluated throughout the product development cycle. It is wise to make any changes needed in the overall fit of the sample before the garment is graded to other sizes and goes into full production. To determine if the styling and fit are truly developing as desired, sample garments are produced and placed on dress forms and/ or live fit models to evaluate the grain, set, line, and balance. Needed adjustments are made to the sample, transferred back to the pattern blocks and spec sheets, and the

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THE FOLLOWING MEASUREMENT standards are recommended for use in checking sample garment measurements against the measurement specication sheet for an individual style. Give all measurements in inches. Record measurements to the nearest one-eighth of an inch. Use a exible vinyl or soft tape measure (not metal). Measure with the garment smoothed at on a table. Do not allow any portion of the garment to drape over the edge of the surface. Measure extended neck openings, cuffs, skirt sweeps, waistbands, and leg openings as follows: 1. Woven fabricsextend garment fully, without distorting stitches. 2. Knit fabricsextend garment to its maximum stretch.

If a measurement is stated as along curve or at edge that is shaped, the tape measure should be walked around the curve (held and pivoted at intervals maintaining the exact shape to perform the measurement), or held on its narrow edge to follow the edge accurately. A point of measure using the term high point shoulder (HPS) must be laid at so side seams are even. High point is determined to be the point at the shoulder and neck intersection where the natural fold of the garment falls. Measure circumference as follows: 1. Woven garmentsrequire full circumference measurements. 2. Fine knits or sweater knit garmentsrequire at measurement of half circumference.

case study 11.4 Quality Assurance Standards: How to Measure Apparel

gure 11.8 Sample garment measurements must be checked against the spec sheet before a garment goes into full production.

process is repeated until a satisfactory fit is achieved for the final production pattern. In traditional environments, it was not unusual to require repeated evaluation cycles to achieve final approval. Myers-McDermott (2009, 21) suggests that a fit session worksheet is commonly used in the industry to record the evaluation stages of production samples and suggests the following stages of sample spec development: The sampling process begins with the first measurements developed from a sketch or any garment sample that did not come from a production vendor. Revised specifications are recorded after fitting a first garment. Any changes or corrections are recorded in the revised spec column on the spec sheet to use in adjusting the pattern blocks. If a full-package vendor provides a first sample directly from a sketch, this column is not used. The first sample column is used to list measurements of the prototype submitted by a production vendor. If the measurements are not suitable, the technical designer changes the column or puts the correction in the comments column. This process may be repeated with a second or third sample until results are deemed suitable. The final spec column lists the approved specs determined after the sample evaluation. In most cases these numbers will reflect the revised spec or sample spec measurements.

See Figure 11.9 for an example of a fit session specification/fit worksheet used during the sampling process. Please note that one column on the fit session worksheet is an out of tolerance column that is used to let the vendor know when a samples measurement is beyond the allowed limits for construction discrepancies and identifies the area as needing further attention during production. The final production sample from a vendor becomes the guide for producing the garment in quantity. It should provide the vendors with any additional information they may need to know in order to comply with the product developers requirements, such as the following: Identification of right and wrong side of the fabric Where to put topstitching details What trims to use Size-specification verification Overall quality expectations Suggested sewing order Which production machinery to use to achieve desired results Time required for each step of production (Myers-McDevitt 2011, 45)

Some of these items will be spelled out in additional spec sheets that accompany the sample, while others may be established by the production sample itself. The details required by the product development staff will also be heavily influenced by whether

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Callie Blake Collection


FIT SPECIFICATION WORKSHEET

N EW Y ORK , NY 10012 212-555-7357

Style #: 4682 Season: Fall 2012 Description: Princess Jacket Brand: Callie Blake Tech Designer: M. Garner Status: Prototype

Size Range: 6-1 8 Sample Size: 8 Date First Sent: 4/22/2011 Date Revised: 5/10/201 1 Fabrication: Poly/wool blend

gure 11.9 Fit specication worksheet for evaluation of sample measurements.

FRONT

BACK

CODE*

POINT OF MEASURE

TOL +/-

PROTOTYPE SIZE 8

REVISED SPEC

FIRST SAMPLE

FINAL SPEC

COMMENTS

13 10 36 43 49 94 27 3 3

Across shoulder Bust, 1 below armscye Sleeve length from shoulder Armscye Upper arm Sweep - close d Sleeve opening CB length from CBN CB length from HPS

1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8

17 40 23 3/ 4 21 14 3/ 4 43 1/ 2 11 3/ 4 29 1/4 29 3/ 4

*Code numbers represent numbers from the company standard in Appendix 11.1 This form is hypothetical and repr esents a small portion of up to 50 specific measu rements needed for a woven jacket Based on: Lee and Steen (2010). p.46; and Myers-McDermott (2 009), p. 22.

the firm is using cut, make, and trim (CMT) or full-package vendors. We will address some of these topics in more depth as we move into quality specifications and vendor compliance in Chapter 12. In product development environments the overall sampling process has benefited significantly from increased use of newly available scanned measurement data. When accurate garment fit measurements are ascertained earlier in the process, redundancies in the sampling process can be eliminated. Decreasing the number of repeated garment samples has helped product developers reduce overall product development time and extraneous costs.

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gure 11.10a New inverted triangle, spoon, and rectangle dress form shapes supplement Alva Products traditional hourglass form. gure 11.10b TUKAforms Soft Flesh Form from Tukatech can be squeezed just like the human body to achieve better garment t.

Forms Dress forms are partial body shapes placed on a stand to use in patternmaking and fitting activities. Wolf Form Company, Superior Model Form, Fabulous Fit, and Alvanon all provide forms for the industry. These companies are able to provide forms in a myriad of body shapes varying from torsos on a stand to bodies with legs, and in a variety of size measurements for men, women, and children. Alvanon is able to use scanned measurement data to develop dress forms that replicate a firms target customer, from either aggregate data or a body scan of the company fit model. Companies frequently update their forms to represent the body types and sizes of the customers they are currently attempting to please (Figure 11.10ab). Fit Models To establish the appropriate ease, sample garments are often tried on fit models. Fit models are individuals who have been selected to represent the age and build of the target customer and who conform to the measurements of the intended master size of

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the original design (Figure 11.11). Fit models are able to move around in the garment and help establish if the garment is providing the level of comfort and movement that will be required of it after it is sold to the consumer. They are frequently used in the designer and couture environments, but they also provide significant contributions to the development of active sportswear merchandise categories.

gure 11.11 Oscar de la Renta works with his design team to establish the t of a garment on a live t model.

Grading
Garment styling and fit are established based on one size in a range, typically designated as the master or sample size. As previously mentioned, the most common sample size in womens clothing has been a misses size 8 or 10. However, some firms are now moving to size 6 due to vanity sizing. Each new style of garment introduced by the product developer requires that a master pattern be developed in the sample size and that each of the styles master pattern blocks be established. These pattern blocks are then scaled up for the larger sizes and down for the smaller sizes that are being considered for production. This process of scaling the master size of a garment to the range of sizes to be produced is called grading. The basic concept of grading is that the difference between the sizes of the garment pieces should evolve from the body measurements taken from a sizing chart. The potential for error in the grading process is great, but techniques have been developed to achieve satisfactory results. It is anticipated that new sizing standards from ASTM, based on DOC, industry, and SizeUSA scanned

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body measurement data, will continue to provide information for improvements in the grading of garments to fit real people rather than relying strictly on linear grade rules. The amounts that are added (or subtracted) from each measurement as it changes from one size to the next are referred to as grade rules. Most companies have developed a set of grade rules that they routinely apply to the new styles they develop. Note that the rules are different for woven fabrics than for knits as the elasticity of the fabrics heavily influences the fit and grading requirements of finished garments. The sets of measurements that reflect the increments between sizes for each of the grade rules are referred to as grade rule tables. Figure 11.12 reflects the grade rules to be applied to a sample garment begun during development of sample specs; Figure 11.13 shows the application of the final graded measurements to be used for monitoring vendor compliance during production. Any one of several methods can be used for grading. It can be done by hand drafting, in which case each piece is drawn out by hand. In todays business environment, grading is usually done with a grading machine or a computer grading system. (Figure 11.14ab shows examples of a pattern-grading machine for hand grading and grading being done by computer.) Circumference Grading Grade rules are developed to accommodate size variations in girth, length, and width. Circumference grade indicates how much the garments are to increase in overall girth from one size to the next. It is very important that the growth be distributed somewhat evenly around the body rather than being added in one location. The garment will become distorted if it is added in one place. Also it is critical that if one pattern block is increased, such as the underarm seam in a blouse, the sleeve that is to be sewn to that bodice must also be increased in the area where the seams are to come together. There are a myriad of similar decisions to be made throughout the garment whenever the size or the fit is adjusted. The girth measurements are typically the most changed from one size to another size, as individuals tend to reflect more differences in girth than in height. Length Grading Length grade refers to the measurement to be added to the length of garment pieces as sizes vary in height. Length must be added in proportion to the bodys natural growth. The typical amount of 1/4 inch in length per grade in the bodice has been distributed evenly by applying 1/8 inch above and 1/8 inch below the bust level. Any such increase must also be applied to each piece that is involved in the grade. The inseam measurement on a pair of pants is a classic example of a length grading site. The length grading applications are particularly critical to development of apparel in petite and tall size ranges, while they are being de-emphasized in the new ASTM standard for the misses size range since it reflects one height throughout the range.

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Callie Blake Collection


GRADE RULE SPECIFICATIONS

N EW Y ORK , NY 10012 212-555-7357

Style #: 4682 Season: Fall 2012 Description: Princess Jacket Brand: Callie Blake Tech Designer: M. Garner Status: Prototype

Size Range: 6-18 Sample Size: 8 Date First Sent: 4/22/2011 Date Revised: 6/05/2011 Fabrication: Poly/wool blend Color: Dove Gray

Princess line jacket with notched lapel 5 buttons 2-piece shaped sleeve

FRONT

BACK

DESCRIPTION

SAMPLE CODE DESCRIPTION Across shoulder Bust, 1 below armscye Sleeve length from shoulder Armscye Upper arm Sweep - closed Sleeve opening CB length from CBN CB length from HPS 8 6 8 10

SIZE 12 14 16 18

13 10 36 43 49 94 27 3 3

17 40 23 3/4 21 14 3/4 43 1/2 11 3/4 29 1/4 29 3/4

-3/8 -1 1/2 -1/4 -5/8 -1/2 -1 1/2 -1/4 -1/4 -1/4

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3/8 1 1/2 1/4 5/8 1/2 1 1/2 0 1/4 1/4

3/8 1 1/2 1/4 5/8 1/2 1 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/4

3/8 1 1/2 1/4 5/8 1/2 1 1/2 0 1/4 1/4

1/2 2 1/4 3/4 5/8 2 1/4 1/4 1/4

1/2 2 1/4 3/4 5/8 2 0 1/4 1/4

This form is hypothetical and represents a small portion of up to 50 specific measurements needed for a woven jacket

gure 11.12 Grade Rule Specications.

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Callie Blake Collection


GRADE RULE MEASUREMENTS

N EW Y ORK , NY 10012 212-555-7357

Style #: 4682 Season: Fall 2012 Description: Princess Jacket Brand: Callie Blake Tech Designer: M. Garner Status: Prototype

Size Range: 6-18 Sample Size: 8 Date First Sent: 4/22/2011 Date Revised: 6/05/2011 Fabrication: Poly/wool blend Color: Dove Gray

Princess line jacket with notched lapel 5 buttons 2-piece shaped sleeve

FRONT

BACK

DESCRIPTION

TOL CODE DESCRIPTION Across shoulder Bust, 1 below armscye Sleeve length from shoulder Armscye Upper arm Sweep - closed Sleeve opening CB length from CBN CB length from HPS (+/-) 6 8 10

SIZE 12 14 16 18

13 10 36 43 49 94 27 3 3

1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8

16 5/8 38 1/2 23 1/2 20 3/8 14 1/4 42 11 1/2 29 29 1/2

17 40 23 3/4 21 14 3/4 43 1/2 11 3/4 29 1/4 29 3/4

17 3/8 41 1/2 24 21 5/8 15 1/4 45 11 3/4 29 1/2 30

17 3/4 43 24 1/4 22 1/4 15 3/4 46 1/2 12 29 3/4 30 1/4

18 1/8 44 1/2 24 1/2 22 7/8 16 1/4 48 12 30 30 1/2

18 5/8 46 1/2 24 3/4 23 5/8 16 7/8 50 12 1/4 30 1/4 30 3/4

19 1/8 48 1/2 25 24 3/8 17 1/2 52 12 1/4 30 1/2 31

This form is hypothetical and represents a small portion of up to 50 specific measurements needed for a woven jacket

gure 11.13 Graded Measurements.

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gure 11.14a Pattern blocks may be graded into different sizes utilizing this grading machine. gure 11.14b Automated pattern grading using Lectras Modaris patterngrading software.

Width Grading Width grading refers to the amount of measurement added to a cross-body area, such as from shoulder point to shoulder point. A grade rule table is very helpful for determining these increments because they tend to be quite small in comparison to other measurements. Uneven Grading Uneven grading or nonlinear grading is achieved when it is determined that the target customer is shaped somewhat differently than the standards in sizing charts. In these cases, the waist or hips may increase at a different rate than the bust as the design is graded to different sizes, producing a different shape of the finished garment to fit consumers who may be thicker through the hips and thighs or in the waist. The variations can be almost endless when combined with changes between styles and intended ease allotments.

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One of the more pervasive issues with grading has been the perception that bodies grow similarly in all directions, and that as garment sizes got bigger, the consumer was also getting taller. Many producers found this perception untrue, since people may vary in weight throughout their life span, but their height remains about the same. In fact, many mature women actually lose height as they age. Even if these women maintain the same weight, they usually see a larger girth in the torso; hence a larger size, but not a longer garment. For these reasons it is anticipated that, as computerized grading is universally used throughout the industry, we will see significantly more uneven or nonlinear grading appear in garment size and grade rule tables and in commercially available garments. The new voluntary ASTM sizing standard for misses apparel introduced earlier in this chapter reflects a significant step toward the application of uneven or non-linear grading between sizes.

Mass Customization
Mass-produced apparel was not designed to accommodate uneven grades, but the recent advent of body scanning and computerized alteration programs now make mass customization a viable possibility. Mass customization is the application of mass-production techniques to the production of a single customer-configured garment. One way to achieve a customized product in a manufacturing environment is through application of body scanning technology. This method takes measurements of the customer electronically and transfers those measurements directly into a computer database or into pattern-alteration software. The manufacturer then alters one garment in the production run for the individual customer. Brooks Brothers has been using a light scanner in its New York store for almost a decade, measuring individual customers for custom-fitted jackets, suits, slacks, and shirts. Once a customer is scanned and selects the style he prefers from the photos and fabric samples available in the store, the garment is constructed and delivered to the customers door in about two weeks. Brooks Brothers now owns the Southwick plant in Haverhill, Massachusetts, which produces tailored clothing only for them, including their individually measured garments. Another application of scanning technology is the ability to facilitate a consumers selection of specific ready-made garments without having to take armloads of garments into a fitting room. The fitting process is done virtually by comparing the measurements provided by the manufacturer of a specific garment with the scanned measurements of the consumer, thus eliminating the need to try on those garments that are recognized in advance as not fitting that body shape. The ability to use a smart card containing an individuals scanned measurement data has great future potential for use by those who prefer to shop online or by catalog or who simply dont want to select sizes by timeconsuming trial and error.

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SUMMARY
Producers of apparel take considerable care to ascertain the size and fit of products for their intended consumer market, but until recently they had been handicapped by a lack of accurate data on actual body measurements. The sizing charts and body measurement information needed to produce garments for men, women, and children in the United States may be extensive, but they remain a problem. Many companies use a set of sizing measurements they have developed from a combination of the voluntary standard sizing charts published by ASTM International and data they have about their own target customers. The results of this evolution in sizing are numbering systems for apparel that vary widely from company to company and from product to product. A sample garment, usually in a size 6, 8, or 10 for misses products, is made of each style being developed. The sample is carefully fitted, on a form and/or a fit model, to ensure that it will provide a comfortable finished garment. Once fit is established and applied to the pattern, the pattern can be graded to the desired range of sizes based on the grade rule table. Product developers typically select a body measurement table that most closely represents their target customers. Then they develop a grade rule table that reflects the increments between the sizes for the garment styles they are going to produce. Many of the issues consumers have with fit are being gradually resolved through the application of the SizeUSA measurement data. This study utilized computer scanning methods to measure a large sample of American consumers and provided a new database of actual body measurements that is now being used by numerous product development firms to build more realistic grade rule tables and develop better-fitting apparel products.

KEY TERMS
balance bias boys childrens design ease dress forms drop ease fit fit model functional ease girls grade grade rules grade rule tables grading grain infants inseam intimate wear junior line mass customization maternity mens furnishings mens wear misses off-grain on-grain petites rise sample size set size migration sizing talls toddlers tolerances tweens uneven grading vanity sizing womens petites womens plus young mens

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DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. What differences exist between the size categories for body types in womens wear and what might these differences mean to garment styling? 2. What is fit and how is it achieved? 3. How much do you think the body scanner will be used in the apparel industry? 4. Do you think the body scanner will make a difference in sizing in the industry in the next decade? 5. Do you think that nonlinear or uneven grading will be used more in the future?

ACTIVITIES
1. Establish the measurements for a sample garment. This measurement chart may be for the garment used in previous chapters activities or for a garment assigned to the class by the instructor. Remember to add functional ease and design ease where needed. 2. Develop a sizing spec sheet in a range of four sizes for the sample garment in Activity 1. Use the sample specification sheet in this chapter to develop your own garments sizing spec sheet, selecting critical measurements from that chart and adding those you think might be important to the design you are using. (It is suggested that you use a two-inch grade for this first sizing exercise.)

REFERENCES
ASTM. 2005. D5585-95R01, Standard Table of Body Measurements for Female Misses Figure Type, Sizes 220. ASTM Book of Standards 07, no. 02. ASTM International. 2006a. ASTM D7197-06 Standard Table of Body Measurements for Misses Maternity Sizes Two to Twenty-Two (2-22). http://www.astm.org/Standards/D7197.htm (accessed April 9, 2011). ASTM International. 2006b. ASTM D6240 - 98(2006) Standard Tables of Body Measurements for Men Sizes Thirty-Four to Sixty (34 to 60) Regular. http://www.astm.org/Standards/D6240.htm (accessed October 23, 2011). ASTM International. 2008a. ASTM D4910 - 08 Standard Tables of Body Measurements for Children, Infant SizesPreemie to 24 Months. ASTM International. 2008b. ASTM D6829 - 02(2008) Standard Tables of Body Measurements for Juniors, Sizes 0 to 19. http://www.astm.org/Standards/D6829.htm (accessed October 20, 2011). ASTM International. 2011. ASTM D5585 - 11 Standard Tables of Body Measurements for Adult Female Misses Figure Type, Size Range 0020. http://www.astm.org/Standards/D5585.htm (accessed October 19, 2011). Body Scanner. 2011. Unique Solutions, LTD. http://www.uniqueltd.com/technology (accessed October 24, 2011). Davis, K. 2009. SizeUSA User Group MeetingAugust 18. http://www.techexchange.com/library/ SizeUSA%20User%20Group%20Meeting%20-%202009.pdf (accessed October 21, 2011). Erwin, M., L. Kinchen, and K. Peters. 1979. Clothing for moderns. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

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Fasanella, K. 1998. The myth of consumer apathy. Bobbin, August. ISO. 2001. 61.020: Clothes. International Standards for Business, Government and Society. http://www. iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/catalogue_ics_browse.htm?ICS1=61&ICS2=020 (accessed April 22, 2011). Just-style.com. 2007. Outsize is in, but will apparel retailers latch on? Just-style, July 20. http://www.juststyle.com/analysis/outsize-is-in-but-will-apparel-retailers-latch-on_id97977.aspx (accessed April 21, 2011). Lee, J., and C. Steen. 2010. Technical Sourcebook for Designers. New York: Fairchild. Publications. Levi Strauss. 2010. Levis brand introduces revolutionary fit system that focuses on shape, not size. Press release, August 9. http://www.levistrauss.com/news/press-releases/levi-s-brand-introducesrevolutionary-fit-system-focuses-shape-not-size (accessed April 30, 2011). Miller, K. 2010. Sizing a headache for globalising apparel industry. Just-style, July 27. http://www.juststyle.com/management-briefing/sizing-a-headache-for-globalising-apparel-industry_id108359.aspx (accessed April 15, 2011). Modern Uniforms. 2004. Research firm tackles tough apparel sizing issues. Modern Uniforms, October 1. Myers-McDevitt, P. 2009. Complete guide to size specification technical design. 2d ed. New York: Fairchild Publications. Myers-McDevitt, P. 2011. Apparel production management and the technical package. New York: Fairchild Publications. Palmieri, Jean E. 2011. J.C. Penney launches big and tall concept. Womens Wear Daily, April 28. http://www.wwd.com/menswear-news/retail-business/the-foundry-bt-chain-makes-its-debuttoday-3594168 (accessed December 2, 2011). Reda, S. 2006. Sizing up sizing. Stores, January. www.stores.org/archives/cover.asp (accessed January 11, 2006). Shape GB. 2011. Shape GBMeasuring the nation. http://www.shapegb.org/home (accessed April 30, 2011). SizeUSA. 2008. SizeUSA User Group Meeting[TC]2. http://www.techexchange.com/thelibrary/ sizeug08.html (accessed April 20, 2011). Speer, J. K. 2006. Times up for the hourglass. Apparel, January. www.apparelmag.com (accessed February 15, 2006). Textile and Clothing Technology Corporation. 2001. [TC]2s body scanner. [TC]2 Bi-Weekly Technology Communicator. Weathers, N.R. 2006. Bringing the right fit to the masses. Just-style, Feb. 27. http://www.just-style.com/ analysis/bringing-the-right-fit-to-the-masses_id92581.aspx (accessed April 20, 2011). Weathers, N.R. 2007. Sizing up garment fit issues. Just-style, August 9. http://www.just-style.com/pap .aspx?id=98055 (accessed October 21, 2011). Unique Solutions. 2009. Unique Solutions acquires Intellifit revolutionizing the apparel industry with 3D body measurement technology for customized fit. Press release, March 24. http://www.prweb .com/releases/2009/03/prweb2258364.htm (accessed April 19, 2011).

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
Ashdown, S. 1998. An investigation of the structure of sizing systems. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology 10, no. 5. Brown, P., and J. Rice. 2001. Ready-to-wear apparel analysis. 3d ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bryant, M. W., and D. DeMers. 2006. The spec manual. 2d ed. New York: Fairchild Publications. Devarajan, P., and C. L. Istook. 2004. Validation of female figure identification technique (FFIT) for Apparel software. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management 4, no. 1 (Summer). www.tx.ncsu.edu/jtatm (accessed August 25, 2006). Glock, R. E., and G. I. Kunz. 2005. Apparel manufacturing: Sewn product analysis. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

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Goldsberry, E., S. Shim, and N. Reich. 1996. Women 55 years and older: Part I. Current body measurements as contrasted to the PS42-70 data. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 14, no. 2. Loker, S., S. Ashdown, and K. Shoenfelder. 2005. Size-specific analysis of body scan data to improve apparel fit. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management 4, no. 3 (Spring). www.tx.ncsu .edu/jtatm (accessed August 25, 2006). Moore, C.L., K.K. Mullet, and M.B. Prevatt Young. 2009. Concepts of pattern grading: Techniques for manual and computer grading. 2d ed. New York: Fairchild Publications. OBrien, R., and W. C. Shelton. 1941. Womens measurements for garment and pattern construction. U.S. Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication No. 454. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Palmer, P., and M. Alto. 1998. Fit for real people. Portland, OR: Palmer/Pletsch. Simmons, K., C. L. Istook, and P. Devarajan. 2004. Female figure identification technique (FFIT) for apparel; Part 1: Describing female shapes. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management 4, no. 1 (Summer). www.tx.ncsu.edu/jtatm (accessed August 25, 2006).

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Appendix 11.1 Basic Garment Measurement Points


This list of basic measurement points for misses apparel is intended as a standard for use in notation on Callie Blake Collection garment style spec pack sheets. It is to be used in conjunction with instructions provided in company standard titled Quality Assurance Standards: How to Measure Apparel.

1. Front Length (garments with a front opening)high point shoulder (HPS) at neck to bottom of garment 2. Center Front Length (garments with plain front; no front opening or closed)center of neck joining seam straight down to bottom of garment at CF 3. Center Back LengthCB at neck to bottom (unless specied as back HPS to bottom) 4. Side Lengtharmscye seam to bottom of garment 5. Front Bodice Length (garments with a front opening)HPS to bottom 6. Center Front Bodice Length (garments with a plain front; no front opening) 7. Center Back Bodice LengthCB at neck to waistline 8. Side Seam Bodice Lengtharmscye to waist seam 9. Chest Width (knit)side seam to side seam 1 below armhole 10. Chest Width Circumference (woven)side seam to side seam 1 below armhole, then double 11. Chest Width (raglan sleeve, knit)side to side straight across at point ____ below HPS [note point measurement on spec sheet] 12. Chest Width Circumference (raglan sleeve, woven)side to side straight across at point ____ below HPS, then double [note point measurement on spec sheet] 13. Across Shoulderstraight across front from armhole seam at shoulder seam across to other shoulder seam 14. Shoulder Widthneck seam at HPS across to armhole seam at shoulder 15. Across Chestnd point 2 1/2 down from CF neck, measure shoulder from armscye to armscye 16. Across Backnd point 4 down from CB neckline, measure back from armscye to armscye 17. Across Chest/Center Armhole1/2 depth of armhole across chest to 1/2 depth of armhole 18. Across Back/Center Armhole1/2 depth of armhole across back to 1/2 depth of armhole

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19. Waist Width (knit)narrowest point from side to side 20. Waist Width Circumference (woven)narrowest point from side to side, then double 21. Bottom Band Width (knit top)side to side in center of band 22. Bottom Band Circumference (woven top)side to side, then double 23. Bottom Band Width, Stretched (knit top)across side to side in fully extended position 24. Bottom Band Width Circumference Stretched (woven top)across side to side, fully extended, then double 25. Bottom Band/Ribbing Height (knit or woven top) 26. Bottom Opening/Sweep (knit top)side to side straight across bottom of garment 27. Bottom Opening/Sweep Width Circumference (woven top)side to side straight across bottom, then double 28. Vented Bottom Opening/Sweep Width (knit top)straight across at top of vents 29. Vented Bottom Opening/Sweep Width Circumference (woven top)straight across at top of vents, then double 30. Circular Bottom Opening/Sweep Width (knit top)side seam to side following contour of garment 31. Circular Bottom Opening/Sweep Width Circumference (woven top)side to side following contour, then double 32. Yoke Width Frontarmhole to armhole across front [if yoke is asymmetrical, note on spec sheet] 33. Yoke Width Backarmhole to armhole straight across back [if yoke is asymmetrical, note on spec sheet] 34. Yoke Depth FrontHPS at neck straight down to bottom of yoke seam 35. Yoke Back DepthCB neck seam to bottom of yoke seam 36. Sleeve Length Top Armholetop of sleeve/fold, following contour of sleeve to bottom of sleeve, including cuff 37. Sleeve Length Top Necktop of sleeve/fold, following contour from neck seam/edge to edge of sleeve, including cuff 38. Sleeve Length Center BackCB neck along top of sleeve/fold, following contour of sleeve to edge, including cuff 39. Sleeve Length Underarmstraight from bottom of armhole along sleeve to edge, including cuff

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40. Straight Armhole Width (knit)top of shoulder seam/edge straight to bottom of armhole 41. Straight Armhole Width Circumference (woven)top of shoulder seam/edge straight to bottom of armhole, then double 42. Curved Armhole Width (knit)top of shoulder seam/edge to bottom of armhole, following contour of armhole 43. Curved Armhole Width Circumference (woven)top of shoulder seam/edge to bottom of armhole, following contour, then double 44. Armhole Front (raglan)front from top of shoulder at neckline seam/edge to bottom of armhole, following contour 45. Armhole Back (raglan)back of garment from top of shoulder at neckline seam/edge to bottom of armhole, following contour 46. Armhole Width Straight (dolman) (knit)top of shoulder at point (insert # of inches) below neckline seam/edge straight down to bottom edge of armhole 47. Armhole Width Circumference Straight (dolman) (woven)top of shoulder at point (insert # of inches) below neckline seam/edge straight down to bottom edge of armhole, then double 48. Muscle Width (knit)inner sleeve edge at point 1 below armhole to outer sleeve edge, parallel to opening 49. Muscle Width Circumference (woven)inner sleeve edge at point 1 below armhole of outer sleeve edge, parallel to opening, then double 50. Elbow Width (knit)straight across from inner sleeve edge to outer sleeve edge at point 1/2 length of underarm sleeve length and parallel to opening at wrist [if 3/4sleeve note point of measure on spec sheet] 51. Elbow Width Circumference (woven)straight across from inner sleeve edge to outer sleeve edge at point 1/2 of underarm sleeve length and parallel to opening at wrist, then double [if 3/4sleeve note point of measure on spec sheet] 52. Sleeve Opening Width (knit)inner sleeve edge to outer sleeve edge straight across bottom of opening 53. Sleeve Opening Width Circumference (woven)inner sleeve edge to outer sleeve edge straight across bottom of opening, then double 54. Sleeve Opening Width, Stretched (knit)measure fully extended 55. Sleeve Opening Width Circumference, Stretched (woven)measure fully extended, then double 56. Cuff Length Sleeveoutside end of buttonhole to center of button straight along center of cuff while cuff as at as possible [if cuff is contoured, measure along center-most point]

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57. Cuff/Ribbing Height Sleevecuff or ribbing seam straight down to bottom edge of opening 58. Neck Depth FrontCB neck joining seam/edge straight down to CF neck joining seam/ edge. 59. Neck Depth Center Front (garment with CF opening)CB neck joining seam/edge straight down to center of rst button at CF 60. Neck Drop Frontmeasure from imaginary line connecting neckline edges straight down to CF neck opening edge 61. Neck Drop Backmeasure from an imaginary line connecting neckline edges straight down to CB neck opening edge 62. Neck Width, No Collarinside neck edge/seam straight across to inside neck edge/seam [measured on front of garment face-up] 63. Neck Width, Collarstraight across back neck from neck-shoulder joining seam or natural shoulder if no seam [measured on back with garment back face-up] 64. Neck Edge Width (knit)neck edge to neck edge along top opening edge, following contour [garment positioned with one shoulder on top of other] 65. Neck Edge Width Circumference (woven)neck edge to neck edge along top opening edge, following contour, then double [garment positioned with one shoulder on top of other] 66. Neck Edge Width, Stretched (knit)neck edge to neck edge along top opening edge, fully extended [garment positioned with one shoulder on top of other] 67. Neck Edge Width Circumference, Stretched (woven)neck edge to neck edge along top opening edge while fully extended, then double [garment positioned with one shoulder on top of other] 68. Neck Base (knit)neck edge/seam to neck edge/seam along joining seam or neck edge, following natural contour [garment should be buttoned or zipped, if applicable, with one shoulder on top of other] 69. Neck Base Circumference (woven)neck edge/seam to neck edge/seam along joining seam or neck edge, following natural contour, then double [garment should be buttoned or zipped, if applicable, with one shoulder on top of other] 70. Neckband Lengthoutside end of buttonhole to center of buttonhole across neckband, following contour 71. Collar Lengthone end of collar to other end of collar along neck joining seam 72. Collar Heightcollar/rib joining seam at CB neck straight up to outer edge of collar/rib 73. Collar Band Heightcollar joining seam at CB straight up to neckband joining seam at CB

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74. Collar Point Lengthcollar joining seam to outer edge of collar along collar point edge [if rounded, measure at a point parallel to CB and note change on spec sheet] 75. Collar Point Spread (pointed collars only)with collar band buttoned and collar in place, measure from collar point straight across to other collar point 76. Lapel Width a. Notchedlower lapel notch straight across to lapel fold at point perpendicular to garment CF b. Without Notcheslapel edge straight across widest point of lapel to lapel fold at point ____ down from CB collar joining seam and perpendicular to CF of garment 77. Center Front Extensionmeasure from an imaginary line at CF of garment horizontally to nished outer edge of front piece 78. Placket Lengthtop edge straight down to bottom of opening at center of placket 79. Placket Widthjoining seam straight across to placket edge at fold 80. Keyhole Lengthouter edge of neckline straight down to bottom of opening 81. Waistband Depthtop of waistband edge straight down to waist seam 82. Waistband Width (knit)side of bottom band to side of bottom band along center 83. Waistband Width Circumference (woven)side of bottom band to side of bottom band along center, then double 84. Waistband Width, Stretched (knit)side of bottom band straight across to side of bottom band while fully extended 85. Waistband Width Circumference, Stretched (woven)side of bottom band straight across to side of bottom band while fully extended, then double 86. High Hip Width (knit)edge of garment/side seam to edge of garment/side seam at point 4 below bottom edge of waistband/seam following contour of seam 87. High Hip Width Circumference (woven)edge of garment/side seam to edge of garment/ seam at point 4 below bottom edge of waistband/seam, following contour of waist, then double 88. Low Hip Width from Waist (knit)edge to edge of garment at point 7 below bottom edge of waistband, following contour of waist 89. Low Hip Width Circumference from Waist (woven)edge to edge of garment/side seam at point 7 below bottom edge of waistband, following contour of waist, then double 90. Hip Width from HPS (knit)edge to edge of garment/side seam straight across at point ____ below HPS

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91. Hip Width Circumference from HPS (woven)side to side straight across at point ____ below HPS, then double 92. Hip Seat Width (knit pant)side to side at point ____ up from crotch seam, following contour of waist [useful when waistband sits below natural waistline] 93. Hip Seat Width Circumference (woven pant)side to side at point ____ up from crotch seam, following contour of waist, then double [useful when waistband sits below natural waistline] 94. Bottom Opening/Sweep Width (knit skirt)side to side straight across garment at bottom opening [if sweep has pleats, measure with pleats closed] 95. Bottom Opening/Sweep Width Circumference (woven skirt)side to side straight across garment at bottom opening, then double [if sweep has pleats, measure with pleats closed] 96. Vented Bottom Opening/Sweep Width (knit skirt)side to side straight across at top of side vents [note on spec sheet if only one vent or if vent hits at point other than sweep, e.g., thigh opening] 97. Vented Bottom Opening/Sweep Width Circumference (woven skirt)side to side straight across at top of side vents, then double [note on spec sheet if there is only one vent or if vent hits at point other than sweep, e.g., thigh opening] 98. Circular Bottom Opening/Sweep Width (knit skirt)edge/side seam to side/edge, following natural contour at bottom opening 99. Circular Bottom Opening/Sweep Width Circumference (woven skirt)edge/side seam to side/edge, following natural contour at bottom opening, then double 100. Center Front Skirt Lengthbottom of waistband/seam (top edge if not banded or stitching is self-elastic/drawstring casing) straight down to bottom of garment at CF 101. Center Back Skirt Lengthbottom of waistband/seam (top edge if not banded or stitching is self-elastic/drawstring casing) straight down to bottom of garment at CF 102. Side Skirt Lengthbottom edge of waistband/seam (top edge if not banded or stitching is self-elastic/drawstring casing) to bottom of garment following side seam contour 103. Skirt/Pant Yoke Depth Frontbottom of waistband/seam (top edge if not banded or stitching is self-elastic/drawstring casing) straight down to bottom of yoke joining seam at CF 104. Skirt/Pant Yoke Depth Backbottom of waistband/seam (top edge if not banded or stitching is self-elastic/drawstring casing) straight down to bottom of yoke joining seam at CB 105. Inseamcrotch joining seam to bottom of leg opening 106. Outseambottom edge of waistband/seam (top edge if not banded or stitching if selfelastic/drawstring casing) to bottom of leg opening, following contour of garment

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107. Front Risebottom edge of waistband/seam (top edge if not banded or stitching if self-elastic/drawstring casing) to crotch joining seam, following curve of front rise seam 108. Back Risebottom edge of waistband/seam (top edge if not banded or stitching if selfelastic/drawstring casing) to crotch joining seam, following curve of back rise seam 109. Thigh Width (knit)pant leg edge/seam across to edge/seam at point 1 below crotch and parallel to leg opening 110. Thigh Width Circumference (woven)pant leg edge/seam across to edge/seam at point 1 below crotch and parallel to leg opening, then double 111. Knee Width (knit)pant leg edge/seam to pant leg edge/seam at point 1/2 of inseam and parallel to leg opening [if pant leg is 3/4 length, indicate point of measure on spec sheet] 112. Knee Width Circumference (woven)pant leg edge/seam to pant leg edge/seam at point 1/2 of inseam and parallel to leg opening, then double [if pant leg is 3/4 length, indicate point of measure on spec sheet] 113. Leg Opening Width (knit)side edge to side edge across bottom of leg opening 114. Leg Opening Circumference (woven)side edge to side edge across bottom of leg opening, then double 115. Vented Leg Opening Width (knit)pant leg edge to edge straight across pant leg at top of vent 116. Vented Leg Opening Circumference (woven)pant leg edge to edge straight across pant leg at top of vent, then double 117. Leg Opening Width, Stretched (knit)pant leg edge to edge across bottom of leg opening when fully extended 118. Leg Opening Width Circumference, Stretched (woven)pant leg edge to edge across bottom of leg opening when fully extended, then double 119. Cuff Height Pantstop of cuff edge straight down to bottom of cuff fold and leg opening 120. Bottom Band/Ribbing Height Pantscuff joining seam or top or ribbing straight down to bottom of leg opening [if including cuff length, see #56 for Cuff Length Sleeve and note on spec sheet] 121. Fly/Zipper a. Lengthtop of y/zipper opening straight down to bottom of y/zipper opening at zipper stop or bar tack b. Widthtop of y/zipper at joining seam from edge/fold straight across to y/zipper placket stitching

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122. Vent/Slit a. Heighttop of vent/slit straight down to bottom of vent/slit along edge b. Widthtop of vent/slit from edge straight across to placket stitching at point parallel to garment hemline 123. Pleat Depthouter edge of pleat at fold/crease to inter fold of pleat [Note on spec sheet if pleat is box, inverted, knife, kick, kilt, or envelope; if pleats not symmetrical, indicate special instructions on spec sheet] 124. Distance Between Pleatsstart of pleat to start of next pleat, excluding pleat depth at point directly below pleat joining seam 125. Applied Pocket Heighttop edge to bottom edge along center of pocket 126. Applied Pocket Widthside to side of pocket along top edge 127. Pocket Opening Within a Seamtop of pocket to bottom of pocket along edge of opening 128. Belt Length a. Totalend of belt at buckle along center of belt to opposite end of belt, following contour b. Circumferenceend of belt at buckle along center of belt to middle hole at opposite end 129. Belt Widthedge of belt straight across to edge of belt 130. Belt Loop Lengthtop of belt loop straight down/vertically to bottom along center of belt loop 131. Belt Loop Widthedge of belt loop straight across/horizontally to edge 132. Tie Lengthend of tie/joining seam straight down to tie end along center of tie 133. Tie Width a. Straightedge of tie straight across to edge of tie b. Contourededge of tie straight across to edge of tie at widest point 134. Flounce/Rufe Widthounce/rufe joining seam straight across to outer edge of ounce/rufe [if contoured, measure along narrowest and widest points and indicate on spec sheet] 135. Strap Lengthstrap joining seam along center of strap to end 136. Strap Widthedge of strap straight across to edge of strap 137. Front Hood Lengthtop of hood to bottom of hood at center front joining seam along opening 138. Back Hood Lengthtop of hood at center front to bottom of hood at CB joining seam along outside curve of hood fold/seam

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139. Hood Widthfront opening edge of hood straight across to back of hood along widest point 140. Flange DepthCB neck joining seam straight down to bottom of ange at CB 141. Shoulder Pad Lengthedge of pad straight across to edge of pad along center or natural shoulder line of pad 142. Shoulder Pad Widthside of pad straight across to side of pad along edge if straight or at widest point if pad is curved 143. Straight Edge Shoulder Pad Heighttop of pad straight down depth of pad to bottom along center of pad 144. Curved Edge Shoulder Pad Heightstick a 1 straight pin into thickest part of shoulder pad and push it through until head of pin rests on top of pad; measure portion of pin sticking out and subtract from 1 to get shoulder pad height 145. Shoulder Pad Placementmeasure from neck edge or joining seam straight across shoulder seam or natural shoulder line to start point of shoulder pad 146. Pleats Placement a. Front Pleat Topdistance from CF of garment straight across to start of rst pleat at point parallel to garment hem [use armhole or side seam as starting point if no center from seam or placket] b. Back Pleat Topdistance from armhole seam/side seam (depending on placement) to rst pleat at point parallel to garment hem c. Front Pleat Skirt/Pantdistance from CF of garment waistband to joining seam/ edge straight across to start of rst pleat 147. Button Placementrefer to measurement point #59, Neck Depth Center Front, for placement of rst button; then measure from rst button to second button, being sure that button at bust point is lined up to apex of bust [adjust all buttons accordingly and re-space as needed] 148. Pocket Placement a. Top Pocket Verticalshoulder-neck joining seam straight down to top edge of pocket b. Top Pocket HorizontalCF straight across to side of pocket at top edge c. Front Bottom Pocket Verticalwaistband/joining seam/edge straight down to top edge of pocket d. Front Bottom Pocket HorizontalCF straight across to side of pocket at top edge e. Back Bottom Pocket Verticalwaistband/joining seam/edge straight down to top edge of pocket f. Back Bottom Pocket HorizontalCB straight across to side of pocket at top edge g. Pocket from Side Seamside seam straight across to top of pocket [If contoured, a top and bottom pocket size and placement must be measured and added to spec sheet]

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149. Belt Loop Placement a. FrontCF of garment horizontally across to center of rst front belt loop b. BackCB of garment horizontally across to center of rst back belt loop c. Side Seam to Frontcenter of side seam belt loop to center of front belt loop d. Side Seam to Backcenter of side seam belt loop to center of beck belt loop 150. Dart Placement a. HPS Bust Dartshoulder-neck joining seam straight down, parallel to center, to top of dart [if dart is too short to measure from HPS, measure at a point ____ from shoulder-neck seam and note on spec sheet] b. Center Front Bust DartCF of garment straight across to top of dart c. Side Seam Bust Dartunderarm/side seam joining point down contour of side seam to dart d. HPS Princess Dartshoulder-neck joining seam straight down to top of dart e. Center Front Princess DartCF of garment straight across to top of dart f. Center Front Skirt/Pant DartCF of garment at waistband joining seam/edge straight across to top of dart g. Center Back Skirt/Pant DartCB of garment at waistband joining seam/edge straight across to top of dart 151. Front Torso Length (Jumpsuits and One-Piece Garments) a. Garments with a Front Opening, RelaxedHPS at neck straight down to crotch joining seam with garment in relaxed position b. Garments with a Front Opening, ExtendedHPS at neck straight down to crotch joining seam with garment fully extended c. Garments with a Plain Front, No Front Opening, RelaxedCF neck opening straight down to crotch joining seam in relaxed position d. Garments with a Plain Front, No Front Opening, ExtendedCF neck joining seam straight down to crotch joining seam with garment fully extended 152. Back Torso Length (Jumpsuits and One-Piece Garments) a. RelaxedCB neck joining seam straight down to crotch joining seam with garment in relaxed position b. ExtendedCB neck joining seam with garment in fully extended position 153. High Point Shoulder Length (Jumpsuits and One-Piece Garments)HPS straight down to bottom/hem of garment 154. Center Back Garment Length (Jumpsuits and One-Piece Garments)CB neckline seam/ edge straight down to point perpendicular to bottom hem of garment [this point will intersect at an imaginary line formed by hemlines of pant legs and center of garment] 155. Crotch Widthmeasure straight across crotch from side to side along seam/bottom edge/fold
Source: Based on Myers-McDevitt 2009, 2766

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