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Chapter 6: Analyzing Consumer Markets

GENERAL CONCEPT Multiple Choi$e


1. %%%%%%%% is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants. a. Target marketing b. Psychographic segmentation c. Psychology d. Consumer behavior e. Product differentiation nswer! d Page! 1"# $ifficulty! %asy C&'! nalytic &kills (. The fundamental determinant of a person)s wants and behavior is the person)s ********. a. psyche b. national origin c. culture d. peer group e. family tree nswer! c Page! 1"# $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills ,. child growing up in the -nited &tates is exposed to all of the following values %.C%PT ********. a. achievement and success b. activity c. efficiency and practicality d. the importance of the group in daily life e. freedom nswer! d Page! 1"# $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking

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0. 1hich of the following would be the best illustration of a subculture2 a. religion b. group of close friends c. 3our university d. fraternity or sorority e. 3our occupation nswer! a Page! 1"# $ifficulty! 4ard

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". 'ased on information provided in the text, which of the following trends has lead to increased household consumption2 a. 8rowing female economic power b. 4igher growth in low9income households c. 1idening wealth disparity d. :alling male college enrollment e. The fall of the mass affluent nswer! a Page! 1"( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking ;. ******** is defined as being relatively homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society, which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behavior. a. Culture b. &ubculture c. &ocial class d. The family e. group nswer! c Page! 1"( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills <. &ocial classes show distinct product and brand preferences in all the following areas %.C%PT ********. a. clothing b. home furnishings c. leisure activities d. automobiles e. fast food nswer! e Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! +edium =. person)s ******** consist>s? of all the groups that have a direct >face9to9face? or indirect influence on his@her attitudes or behavior. a. culture b. subculture c. psychographics d. reference groups e. demographics nswer! d Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills >n? ******** group is one whose values or behavior an individual reAects. a. aspirational b. disassociative c. membership d. primary e. procreational nswer! b Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! %asy

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1#. >n? ******** is the person who offers informal advice or information about a specific product or product category, such as which of several brands is best or how a particular product may be used. a. reference group b. opinion leader c. family of procreation d. social factor e. anchoring heuristic nswer! b Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 11. 7f a direct9mail marketer wished to direct promotional efforts toward the family of ********, efforts need to be directed toward parents and siblings of the family members. a. orientation b. procreation c. immediacy d. intimacy e. reference nswer! a Page! 1"" $ifficulty! +edium 1(. maAor shift in buying patterns is an increase in the amount of dollars spent and the direct and indirect influence wielded by ********. a. the wife b. the husband c. the parent d. the child e. Aoint decision making nswer! d Page! 1"" $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

1,. People choose products that reflect and communicate their role and actual or desired ******** in society. a. group b. status c. attitudes d. beliefs e. feelings nswer! b Page! 1"; $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 10. Consumption may be shaped by ******** >such as marriage, childbirth, or divorce?. a. the psychological life cycle b. the product life cycle c. the life@death life cycle d. postpuberty cycles e. critical life events or transitions nswer! e Page! 1"< $ifficulty! +edium

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1". Product choice is greatly affected by economic circumstances. ll of the following would be among those circumstances %.C%PT ********. a. spendable income b. savings and assets c. debts d. occupation e. borrowing power nswer! d Page! 1"< $ifficulty! %asy C&'! /eflective Thinking 1;. ******** is a set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to environmental stimuli. a. 7mage b. Personality c. 'eliefs d. 4eredity e. Culture nswer! b Pages! 1"<B1"= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 1<. 1hen the +arlboro +an was depicted in advertising as a rugged outdoor, tough cowboy type, this was done to establish what is called a ********. a. trademark b. brand name c. brand personality d. psychological approach to advertising e. brand reference nswer! c Page! 1"= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking 1=. Consumers often choose and use brands that have a brand personality consistent with how they see themselves, also known as the ********. a. actual self9concept b. ideal self9concept c. others) self9concept d. prohibitive self9concept e. suggestive self9concept nswer! a Page! 1"= $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills 16. ******** portrays the Cwhole personD interacting with his or her environment. a. ttitude b. /eference group c. Eifestyle d. Culture e. &ubculture nswer! c Page! 1"6 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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(#. Consumers today are experiencing a time famine because of their busy lifestyles. Fne way to avoid the difficulties of time famine, which is of particular interest to marketers, is ********. a. to set fewer goals b. to multitask c. to give in to personal burdens d. to report frustration to management e. to develop a callous attitude toward marketers nswer! b Page! 1;# $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking (1. 1ith respect to understanding consumer behavior, there are four key psychological processes. ll of the following would be among those processes %.C%PT ********. a. motivation b. perception c. learning d. self9reliance e. memory nswer! d Page! 1;1 $ifficulty! %asy C&'! nalytic &kills ((. ******** assumed that the psychological forces shaping people)s behavior are largely unconscious, and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own motivations. a. braham +aslow b. :rederick 4erzberg c. &igmund :reud d. Gohn Cacioppo e. Harl +arx nswer! c Page! 1;( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills (,. :rederick 4erzberg developed a ******** that distinguishes dissatisfiers and satisfiers. a. trait9role theory b. psychological constraint theory c. probability scale d. leadership model e. two9factor theory nswer! e Page! 1;, $ifficulty! +edium (0. t the top of +aslow)s hierarchy of needs >shown as a pyramid in the text? are ******** needs. a. esteem b. self9actualization c. social d. safety e. physiological nswer! b Page! 1;, $ifficulty! +edium

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(". ******** is the process by which we select, organize, and interpret information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. a. Consumption b. Perception c. Personality d. $iscrimination e. Cognitive dissonance nswer! b Page! 1;, $ifficulty! %asy C&'! nalytic &kills (;. 7t has been estimated that the average person is exposed to over ******** ads or brand communications a day. a. 1,"## b. 1,,## c. 1,### d. =## e. "## nswer! a Page! 1;0 $ifficulty! 4ard (<. ******** is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our preconceptions. a. &elective retention b. Cognitive dissonance c. &elective distortion d. &ubliminal perception e. $iscrimination nswer! c Page! 1;0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills (=. ******** is a strong internal stimulus impelling action. a. cue b. need c. want d. drive e. belief nswer! d Page! 1;0 $ifficulty! %asy

(6. ******** teaches marketers that they can build demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement a. $emand theory b. Eearning theory c. %conomic theory d. Psychological theory e. $emographic theory nswer! b Page! 1;" $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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,#. nne prefers 3oplait strawberry yogurt over other brands. 1hen she decides to try a different flavor, she picks another 3oplait yogurt because she believes that, if the strawberry flavor is good, other 3oplait flavors must be good as well. This behavior is best described as ********. a. discrimination b. associative networking c. generalization d. heuristic thinking e. self9actualization nswer! c Pages! 1;0B1;" $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills ,1. The ******** says people have a general tendency to attribute success to themselves and failure to external causes. a. availability heuristic b. trait9role theory c. awareness set d. anchoring heuristic e. hedonic bias nswer! e Page! 1;" $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills ,(. s /ita scans the yellow pages section of her phone book looking for a florist, she sees several other products and services advertised. Though interesting on first glance, she Iuickly returns to her primary task of finding a florist. The items that distracted her from her search were most likely stored in which of the following types of memory2 a. &hort9term memory b. Eong9term memory c. +iddle memory d. &ubconscious memory e. &ubliminal memory nswer! a Page! 1;" $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills ,,. 'rand associations consist of all the brand9related thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand ********. a. stimulus b. link c. connection d. personality e. node nswer! e Page! 1;" $ifficulty! 4ard

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,0. 7n general, the more attention placed on the meaning of information during ********, the stronger the resulting associations in memory will be. a. encoding b. decoding c. classification d. retrieval e. memorization nswer! a Page! 1;; $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills ,". /epeated exposures to information provide greater opportunity for processing and thus the potential for ********. a. more profits b. more sales c. stronger associations d. increased brand personality e. more one9to9one relationships nswer! c Page! 1;; $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking ,;. Cognitive psychologists believe that memory is ********, so that once information becomes stored in memory, its strength of association decays very slowly. a. very limited b. somewhat limited c. fluid d. often reflective e. extremely durable nswer! e Page! 1;< $ifficulty! +edium ,<. The five9stage model of the consumer buying process includes all of the following stages %.C%PT ********. a. problem recognition b. information search c. social interaction d. purchase decision e. postpurchase behavior nswer! c Page! 1;= $ifficulty! %asy C&'! nalytic &kills ,=. The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a>n? *********. a. product b. advertisement for the product c. salesperson from a previous visit d. problem or need e. internal cue nswer! d Page! 1;= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking

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,6. 1hich of the following is considered to be a more advanced form of information search wherein the person might phone friends or go online to secure information about a product or service2 a. 4eightened attention b. &hort9term memory processing c. &ubliminal processing of information d. Eong9term memory processing e. ctive information search nswer! e Page! 1;= $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking 0#. Ff key interest to marketers are the maAor informational sources to which the consumer will turn and the relative importance of each. 1hich of the following would be considered to be an experiential information source2 a. Consumer9rating organizations b. The mass media c. cIuaintances d. 1eb sites e. -sing the product itself nswer! e Page! 1;= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 01. 'rands that meet consumers) initial buying criteria are called the ********. a. total set b. awareness set c. consideration set d. choice set e. decision set nswer! c Page! 1;= $ifficulty! %asy C&'! nalytic &kills 0(. 1ith respect to consumer decision making, the ******** is the set of strong contenders from which one will be chosen as a supplier of a good or service. a. total set b. awareness set c. consideration set d. choice set e. decision set nswer! d Page! 1;= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 0,. >n? ******** is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. a. attitude b. belief c. desire d. feeling e. emotion nswer! b Page! 1<# $ifficulty! +edium

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00. >n? ******** puts people into a frame of mind! liking or disliking an obAect, moving toward or away from it. a. attitude b. belief c. feeling d. position e. stance nswer! a Page! 1<# $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 0". The expectancy9value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate products and services by combining their ********. a. needs b. wants c. desires d. brand beliefs e. consuming attitudes nswer! d Page! 1<1 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 0;. ll of the following would be considered to be strategies for approaching consumers who had reAected your company)s model of a product for another competitive brand %.C%PT ********. a. redesign your company)s product b. alter beliefs about your company)s brand c. covertly alter the Iualitative data about your product d. alter beliefs about competitors) brands e. call attention to neglected attributes nswer! c Pages! 1<1B1<( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking 0<. 1ith respect to consumer purchase intention, all of the following would be among the subdecisions made by consumers %.C%PT ********. a. emotional value b. brand c. dealer d. timing e. payment method nswer! a Page! 1<( $ifficulty! +edium 0=. 1ith the ******** heuristic, the consumer sets a minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute and chooses the first alternative that meets the minimum standard for all attributes. a. conAunctive b. lexicographic c. elimination9by9aspects d. primary e. secondary nswer! a Page! 1<( $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills

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06. ******** are rules of thumb or mental shortcuts in the decision process. a. ttitudes b. 'eliefs c. 4euristics d. $iscriminations e. 'iases nswer! c Page! 1<( $ifficulty! %asy C&'! nalytic &kills "#. %ven if consumers form brand evaluations, two general factors can intervene between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. Fne of these is unanticipated situational factors. 1hat is the other factor2 a. mount of purchasing power b. ttitudes of others c. &hort9term memory capabilities d. bility to return merchandise e. The self9concept nswer! b Pages! 1<(B1<, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking "1. ******** risk occurs if the product fails to perform up to expectations. a. Physical b. :inancial c. &ocial d. Psychological e. :unctional nswer! e Page! 1<, $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills "(. &teve has only (# minutes to get lunch. lthough he really likes +c$onald)s, the line is very long and he is concerned that he will not have a chance to get through the line and eat his lunch before he is due back at work. &teve perceives ******** in going to +c$onald)s today. a. time risk b. functional risk c. physical risk d. psychological risk e. social risk nswer! a Page! 1<, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills ",. key driver of sales freIuency is the ******** rate. a. product consumption b. disposal c. refusal d. utility e. option nswer! a Page! 1<0 $ifficulty! %asy

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"0. The level of engagement and active processing undertaken by the consumer in responding to a marketing stimulus is called ********. a. elaboration likelihood b. consumer disengagement c. consumer involvement d. variety seeking e. low involvement nswer! c Page! 1<0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills "". 7f a consumer is persuaded to buy a product by a message that reIuires little thought and is based on an association with a brand)s positive consumption experiences from the past, the consumer used a ******** to arrive at this purchase decision. a. central route b. peripheral route c. behavioral route d. subAective route e. obAective route nswer! b Pages! 1<0B1<" $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking ";. +arketers use all of the following techniIues to convert a low9involvement product into one of high involvement %.C%PT ********. a. linking the product to some involving personal situation b. linking the product to some involving issue c. designing advertising to trigger strong emotions related to personal values or ego defense d. adding an important feature e. raising the price nswer! e Page! 1<" $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills "<. 1ith the ********, predictions of usage are based on Iuickness and ease of use. a. availability heuristic b. representative heuristic c. anchoring heuristic d. adAustment heuristic e. semantic heuristic nswer! a Page! 1<" $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills "=. 'en always reaches for the bright blue and yellow box of /itz crackers when he visits the snack food aisle in the grocery store. 4e rarely even reads the box or checks the price. 1hich of the following heuristics is most likely being used by 'en2 a. vailability b. /epresentative c. nchoring d. dAustment e. &emantic nswer! b Page! 1<; $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking

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"6. ******** refers to the manner by which consumers code, categorize, and evaluate financial outcomes of choices. a. Cost accounting b. :inancial accounting c. 'ehavioral accounting d. +ental accounting e. :actual accounting nswer! d Page! 1<< $ifficulty! +edium ;#. 1hen marketers profile the customer buying9decision process by thinking about how they themselves would act, these marketers are employing the ********. a. retrospective method b. introspective method c. consumption system method d. prospective method e. prescriptive method nswer! b Page! 1<= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

True&'alse
;1. &ocial class is the fundamental determinant of a person)s wants and behavior. nswer! :alse Page! 1"# $ifficulty! %asy C&'! /eflective Thinking ;(. n example of a subculture would be a person)s geographic region. nswer! True Page! 1"# $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking ;,. 'ecause mass9market advertising is target nonspecific, all ethnic and demographic niches respond to it in the same way. nswer! :alse Page! 1"( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking ;0. Fne of the characteristics of social classes is that those within each class tend to behave more alike than persons from two different social classes. nswer! True Pages! 1"(B1"0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills ;". &econdary groups reIuire continuous interaction to be effective and meaningful. nswer! :alse Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking ;;. 1hen +ark went to college he had a burning desire to Aoin a social fraternityJ for +ark, this would be an example of an aspirational group. nswer! True Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! %asy C&'! /eflective Thinking ;<. The family of procreation includes one)s parents and siblings. nswer! :alse Page! 1"" $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills ;=. role consists of the activities a person is expected to perform. nswer! True Page! 1"; $ifficulty! %asy

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;6. The behavior people exhibit as they pass through certain life9cycle stages, such as becoming a parent, is largely fixed and does not change over time. nswer! :alse Page! 1"; $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking <#. $ivorce is an example of a critical life event that impacts a consumer)s behavior. nswer! True Page! 1"< $ifficulty! %asy C&'! /eflective Thinking <1. 1hereas economic circumstances can have a profound effect on consumption, occupation does not impact how people spend their money and what they buy. nswer! :alse Page! 1"< $ifficulty! %asy <(. Fne of the five traits of a product)s brand personality is thought to be its shape. nswer! :alse Page! 1"= $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills <,. brand personality is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand. nswer! True Page! 1"= $ifficulty! +edium

<0. The five brand personality traits identified by Gennifer aker are consistently observed regardless of nationality or culture. nswer! :alse Page! 1"= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! +ulticultural@$iversity <". person)s personality portrays the Cwhole personD interacting with his or her environment. nswer! :alse Page! 1"= $ifficulty! +edium

<;. Consumers who feel time constrained are always interested in products that are convenient and reIuire low involvement in order to maximize their effectiveness and efficiency. nswer! :alse Page! 1;# $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking <<. Psychogenic needs arise from physiological states of tension such as hunger or discomfort. nswer! :alse Pages! 1;1B1;( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills <=. braham +aslow assumed that the psychological forces shaping people)s behavior are largely unconscious, and that people cannot fully understand their motivations. nswer! :alse Page! 1;( $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking <6. ccording to +aslow)s hierarchy of needs model, recognition, self9esteem, and status would be among a person)s social needs. nswer! :alse Page! 1;, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills =#. ccording to 4erzberg)s two9factor theory, satisfiers will make the maAor difference as to which brand the customer buys. nswer! True Page! 1;, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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=1. Perception depends only on the physical stimuli experienced by the person. nswer! :alse Page! 1;, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills =(. People are more likely to notice stimuli whose deviations are large in relation to the normal size of the stimuli. nswer! True Page! 1;0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills =,. &elective attention is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our preconceptions. nswer! :alse Page! 1;0 $ifficulty! 4ard =0. &elective retention works to the advantage of strong brands. nswer! True Page! 1;0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking =". 'ecause of selective retention, we are likely to forget about the good points of competing products. nswer! True Page! 1;0 $ifficulty! %asy =;. Consistent with the elaboration memory model, consumer brand knowledge in memory can be conceptualized as consisting of a brand node in memory with a variety of linked associations. nswer! :alse Page! 1;" $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills =<. /epeated exposures to information provide greater opportunity for processing and thus the potential for stronger associations. nswer! True Page! 1;; $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills ==. +emory can often be reconstructive, meaning that consumers may remember an experience differently after the fact due to intervening factors or other events. nswer! True Page! 1;< $ifficulty! 4ard =6. The buying process starts when the buyer decides to or actually enters a store or service provider)s facility. nswer! :alse Page! 1;< $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking 6#. ll consumers pass through all five of the stages of buying process when in a buying situation. nswer! :alse Page! 1;= $ifficulty! %asy C&'! /eflective Thinking 61. belief is a person)s enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluation, emotional feeling, and action tendencies toward some obAect or idea. nswer! :alse Page! 1<# $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

6(. The expectancy9value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate products and services by combining their brand beliefs according to importance. nswer! True Page! 1<1 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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6,. 7f a company finds that a consumer has chosen a competitive product over their company)s offering, one way to get the consumer back could be by developing a strategy wherein the company Cshifts the buyer)s idealsD on one or more levels. nswer! True Page! 1<( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking 60. 1ith noncompensatory models of consumer choice, positive and negative attribute considerations usually net out. nswer! :alse Page! 1<( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 6". Kolvo has the reputation for being one of the most CsafeD cars on the road. :or those that value safety, Kolvo would be the logical choice. This is an example of the lexicographic heuristic of consumer choice. nswer! True Page! 1<( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking 6;. 1hen consumers evaluate the risks associated with a purchase, only real risks with a high likelihood of occurrence are important. nswer! :alse Page! 1<, $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills 6<. 7f a product poses a threat to the physical well9being of a consumer, this is called psychological risk. nswer! :alse Page! 1<, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 6=. 1ith respect to a consumer buying situation that involves variety9seeking behavior, the market leader can encourage variety seeking by offering lower prices or deals. nswer! :alse Page! 1<" $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking 66. 7n the anchoring heuristic, the consumer bases his or her predictions on the Iuickness and ease with which a particular example of an outcome comes to mind. nswer! :alse Page! 1<; $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills 1##. Prospect theory maintains that consumers frame decision alternatives in terms of gains and losses according to a value function. nswer! True Page! 1<= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

Essay
1#1. %xplain the differences between culture, subculture, and social class. "uggeste( Ans)er: Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person)s wants and behavior. Subcultures provide more specific identification and socialization of their members. &ubcultures include nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographic regions. Social class is a relatively homogeneous and enduring division in a society, that are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. Pages! 1"#B1"0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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1hat is a reference group2 $escribe three different types of reference groups that can have an impact on a consumer)s purchasing behavior. "uggeste( Ans)er: Reference groups consist of all the groups that have a direct >face9to9face? or indirect influence on attitudes or behavior. Types of reference groups that can impact a consumer)s purchasing behavior include membership groups, primary groups, secondary groups, aspirational groups, and disassociative groups. Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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1hat is brand personality and what five traits have been linked to it2 "uggeste( Ans)er: 'rand personality is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand. Traits that have been associated with brand personality are sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness. Page! 1"= $ifficulty! +edium

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'riefly explain :reud)s theory on human motivation and how this might be related to marketing. "uggeste( Ans)er: &igmund :reud assumed that the psychological forces shaping people)s behavior are largely unconscious, and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own stated capabilities. 1hen a person examines specific brands, he or she will react not only to their stated capabilities, but also to other, less conscious cues. Page! 1;( $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking

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Eist and briefly characterize +aslow)s 4ierarchy of Leeds. "uggeste( Ans)er: 'eginning with the most basic needs to the most advanced, the need structure is as follows! >1? physiological needsMfood, water, shelterJ >(? safety needsMsecurity, protectionJ >,? social needsMsense of belonging, loveJ >0? esteem needsMself9esteem, recognition, statusJ and >"? self9actualization needsM self9development and realization. Pages! 1;(B1;, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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People can emerge with different perceptions of the same obAect because of three perceptual processes. Eist and briefly characterize those processes. "uggeste( Ans)er: The three processes are selective attention, selective distortion, and selective retention. Selective attention occurs because a person cannot possibly attend to all the stimuli that he or she is exposed to during an average day. &ome will be screened out. Selective distortion is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our perceptions. Selective retention occurs because people will fail to register much information to which they are exposed in memory, but will tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs. Pages! 1;,B1;0 $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking

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1hat are the five stages of the consumer buying process2 "uggeste( Ans)er: The five stages are problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and postpurchase behavior. Page! 1;= $ifficulty! +edium

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4ow is the expectancy9value model used in the evaluation of alternatives as a consumer engages in a buying process2 "uggeste( Ans)er: The expectancy9value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate products and services by combining their brand beliefsM the positives and negativesMaccording to importance. The model assists consumers in making choices. Page! 1<1 $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills

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8ordon Gones is considering purchasing a computer from 'est 'uy. 4e has created a scale whereby he has rated eight different computers on three different characteristics. 8ordon has decided that for a computer to make his short9list, it must score at least a seven on his scale on all three characteristics. $escribe the type of choice heuristic that +r. Gones is using as he selects a computer. "uggeste( Ans)er: +r. Gones is using what is called a conjunctive heuristic. This heuristic sets a minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute and chooses the first alternative that meets the minimum standard for all attributes. Page! 1<( $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking

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4euristics can come into play when consumers forecast the likelihood of future outcomes or events. 1hen would a consumer use an anchoring and adAustment heuristic2 "uggeste( Ans)er: Consumers will use this heuristic when the consumer arrives at an initial Audgment and then makes adAustments of that first impression based on additional information. Pages! 1<"B1<; $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking

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ccording to information presented in the text, the ******** cultural market segment is the most fashion conscious of all the racial groups and tends to be motivated by Iuality and selection. a. frican merican b. 4ispanic merican c. sian merican d. %uropean merican e. 7ndian merican nswer! a Page! 1", $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! +ulticultural@$iversity Gason writes a weekly column in his school)s newspaper about movies he has seen, books he has read, and concerts he has attended. 4is column provides information and opinions. :eedback from his fellow students is positive, and they are appreciative of the advice that is given. 1hich of the following would be the most apt description of the role played by Gason2 a. &ilent maAority b. Protestor c. Protector d. +uckraker e. Fpinion leader nswer! e Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking &ocial classes differ in media preferences, with upper9class consumers often preferring ******** and books and lower9class consumers often preferring television. a. movies b. radio c. video or computer games d. magazines e. music downloads nswer! d Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills

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ccording to recent research, which of the following market segments is characterized as valuing connections and relationships with family and friends with respect to marketing messages received2 a. +en b. 1omen c. &eniors d. 3oung adults e. &ingle parents nswer! b Page! 1"" $ifficulty! %asy C&'! nalytic &kills The brand personality of a new product is characterized as having the trait of ******** if promotional messages consistently portray the product as being reliable, intelligent, and successful. a. sincerity b. excitement c. competence d. sophistication e. ruggedness nswer! c Page! 1"= $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills

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11;. Consumers often choose and use brands that have a brand personality that is matched to the consumer)s ******** >how one would like to view oneself?. a. actual self9concept b. others) self9concept c. ideal self9concept d. dual self9concept e. perceptual self9concept nswer! c Page! 1"= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 11<. Consumers who worry about the environment and want products to be produced in a sustainable way have been named ********. a. C8reenD b. CTree 4uggersD c. CEF4 &D d. C&ocialistsD e. C+amasD nswer! c Page! 1"6 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills +arketers who target consumers on the basis of their ******** believe that, with appeals to people)s inner selves, they can influence purchase behavior. a. time famine b. sophistication c. opinions d. social class e. core values nswer! e Page! 1;# $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking

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7H% has achieved widely recognized success by offering consumers leading9 edge &candinavian furniture design at bargain prices. 7H% delivers value to consumers who are ********. a. money constrained b. time constrained c. brand constrained d. value constrained e. self9concept constrained nswer! a Page! 1;1 $ifficulty! %asy 7n marketing, ******** are more important than reality because they affect consumers) actual behavior. a. ideals b. values c. social classes d. perceptions e. heuristics nswer! d Page! 1;, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking ******** can work to the advantage of marketers with strong brands when consumers make neutral or ambiguous brand information more positive. a. &elective attention b. &elective distortion c. &elective retention d. &elective choice e. &elective embellishment nswer! b Page! 1;0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking Games finds store9brand canned goods to be of good Iuality and value, but believes that store9brand dairy products are of lesser Iuality than competing brands. Games) behavior is best described as ********. a. generalization b. hedonic bias c. discrimination d. selective attention e. psychological repositioning nswer! c Page! 1;" $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking +any consumer products brands advertise their products inside supermarkets and retail stores to promote the process of ******** and stimulate purchase. a. memory encoding b. memory retrieval c. memory decoding d. memory formation e. memory augmentation nswer! b Page! 1;< $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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+aria sees her best friend driving around in her new car and decides that she needs a new car also. 1hich of the following forms of stimulus has activated +aria)s problem recognition process2 a. %xternal stimuli b. 7nternal stimuli c. Peer stimuli d. &econdary stimuli e. +arketing induced stimuli nswer! a Page! 1;= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 7f a consumer uses 8oogle to find comparative reports on new automobiles, the consumer is using which of the following information sources for assistance2 a. Personal b. Public c. %xperiential d. Commercial e. -nder9the9radar nswer! d Page! 1;= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 1hen a consumer makes the final decision on which brand to buy, he or she selects a brand from the ******** set. a. total b. awareness c. consideration d. choice e. belief nswer! d Page! 1;= $ifficulty! +edium :ord believes its cars to be of higher Iuality than 8+)s but thinks that consumers wrongly believe the opposite. :ord might employ a>n? ******** strategy to change buyers) perceptions of its competition. a. real repositioning b. competitive depositioning c. psychological repositioning d. biased repositioning e. attribute repositioning nswer! b Page! 1<1 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills 1hen a marketer tries to alter a consumer)s beliefs about a company)s brand to get the consumer to rethink a purchase decision, the marketer is using ********. a. psychological repositioning b. competitive depositioning c. positioning d. repositioning e. biased positioning nswer! a Page! 1<1 $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills

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consumer tells another consumer, C%very time 7 eat at 'ig 'ill)s &teakhouse, 7 get poor service.D 1hether this is true or not, it is the consumer)s perception. This is an example of consumers basing future predictions on the Iuickness and ease with which a particular example of an outcome comes to mind. This scenario would be an illustration of the ******** heuristic. a. discrimination b. differentiation c. availability d. screening e. representativeness nswer! c Page! 1<" $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking 1hen marketers interview a small number of recent purchasers, asking them to recall the events leading to their purchase, the marketers are using the ******** method to learn more about the consumer buying process. a. introspective b. retrospective c. prospective d. prescriptive e. descriptive nswer! b Page! 1<= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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1,1. Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person)s wants and behavior. The growing child acIuires a set of values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors through his or her family and other key institutions. 1hat values are the typical merican young children exposed to2 "uggeste( Ans)er: ccording to the text, a child growing up in the -nited &tates is exposed to the following values! achievement and success, activity, efficiency and practicality, progress, material comfort, individualism, freedom, external comfort, humanitarianism, and youthfulness. Page! 1"1 $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking 1,(. %xplain the concept of multicultural marketing. "uggeste( Ans)er: Multicultural marketing grew out of careful marketing research that revealed that different ethnic and demographic niches did not always respond favorably to mass9market advertising. Companies have capitalized on well9thought9out multicultural marketing strategies in recent years. Page! 1"( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! +ulticultural@$iversity

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n opinion leader is the person in informal, product9related communications who offers advice or information about a specific product or product category, such as which of several brands is best or how a particular product may be used. ccording to the text, how do marketers try to reach opinion leaders2 "uggeste( Ans)er: +arketers try to reach opinion leaders by identifying demographic and psychographic characteristics associated with opinion leadership, identifying the media read by opinion leaders, and directing messages at opinion leaders. Page! 1"0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking

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The family is the most important consumer buying organization in society, and family members constitute the most influential primary reference group. 1e can distinguish between two family categorization in the buyer)s life. Lame the two families and their impact on buying behavior. "uggeste( Ans)er: The family of orientation consists of parents and siblings. :rom parents a person acIuires an orientation toward religion, politics, and economics and a sense of personal ambition, self9worth, and love. %ven if the buyer no longer interacts very much with his or her parents, their influence on behavior can be significant. more direct influence on everyday buying behavior is the family of procreationMnamely, one)s spouse and children. Page! 1"" $ifficulty! +edium

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%xplain the differences between a role and status. "uggeste( Ans)er: role consists of the activities a person is expected to perform. %ach role carries a status. :or example, a senior vice9president has more status than a sales manager. Page! 1"; $ifficulty! %asy C&'! nalytic &kills

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%ach person has personality characteristics that influence his or her buying behavior. 1hat does personality mean in terms of buying traits2 "uggeste( Ans)er: Personality is often described in terms of such buying traits as self9confidence, dominance, autonomy, deference, sociability, defensiveness, and adaptability. Personality can be a useful variable in analyzing consumer brand choices. The idea is that brands also have personalities, and consumers are likely to choose brands whose personalities match their own. Pages! 1"<B1"= $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking

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People from the same subculture, social class, and occupation may lead Iuite different lifestyles. lifestyle is a person)s pattern of living in the world as expressed in activities, interests, and opinions. Eifestyle portrays the Cwhole personD interacting with his or her environment. 8iven this information, describe the EF4 & >an acronym? lifestyle described in the text and its usefulness in marketing. "uggeste( Ans)er: Consumers who worry about the environment, want products to be produced in a sustainable way, and spend money to advance their personal development and potential have been named CEF4 &.D The name is an acronym standing for lifestyles of health and sustainability. The market for EF4 & products encompasses things such as organic foods, energy9efficient appliances, and solar panels as well as alternative medicine, yoga tapes, and ecotourism. Page! 1"6 $ifficulty! 4ard

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ccording to :reudian theory, how can the techniIue called laddering be used2 "uggeste( Ans)er: &hape, size, weight, material, color, and brand name can all trigger certain associations and emotions. techniIue called laddering can be used to trace a person)s motivations from the stated instrumental ones to the more terminal ones. Then the marketer can decide at what level to develop the message and appeal. Page! 1;( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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braham +aslow sought to explain why people are driven by particular needs at particular times. $escribe +aslow)s hierarchy of needs. 4ow does +aslow)s theory help marketers2 "uggeste( Ans)er: 7n order of importance, they are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self9actualization needs. +aslow)s theory helps marketers understand how various products fit into the plans, goals, and lives of consumers. Pages! 1;(B1;, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking

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:rederick 4erzberg developed a two9factor theory that distinguishes dissatisfiers and satisfiers. 4ow does 4erzberg)s theory affect sellers) marketing strategy2 "uggeste( Ans)er: 4erzberg)s theory has two implications. :irst, sellers should do their best to avoid dissatisfiers >for example, a poor training manual or a poor service policy?. lthough these things will not sell a product, they might easily unsell it. &econd, the seller should identify the maAor satisfiers or motivators of purchase in the market and then supply them. These satisfiers will make the maAor difference as to which brand the customer buys. Page! 1;, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking

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Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. :or a marketer, what is the key point of perception2 "uggeste( Ans)er: The key point is that perceptions can vary widely among individuals exposed to the same reality. 7n marketing, perceptions are more important than the reality, as it is perceptions that will affect consumers) actual behavior. Page! 1;, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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%xplain the concept of selective retention and its association with marketing. "uggeste( Ans)er: &elective retention says that consumers are likely to remember good points about a product we like and forget good points about competing products. &elective retention works to the advantage of strong brands. 7t also means that marketers need to use repetition in sending messages to their target markets to make sure their message is not overlooked. Page! 1;0 $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking

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1hat does the learning theory teach marketers about demand for products2 "uggeste( Ans)er: The learning theory teaches marketers that they can build demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement. Page! 1;" $ifficulty! 4ard

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$escribe how the problem recognition process works in the five9stage model of the consumer buying process. "uggeste( Ans)er: The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need. 1ith an internal stimulus, one of the person)s normal needsM hunger, thirst, sexMrises to a threshold level and becomes a driveJ or a need can be aroused by an external stimuli such as an advertisement. Page! 1;= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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Through gathering information, the consumer learns about competing brands and their features. The consumer will then advance through four sets with respect to brands before a decision is reached. 1hat are those four sets2 "uggeste( Ans)er: The four sets are! >1? the total set, >(? the awareness set, >,? the consideration set, and >0? the choice set. Page! 1;= $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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%xplain the differences between a belief and an attitude. "uggeste( Ans)er: belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. n attitude is a person)s enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluation, emotional feeling, and action tendencies toward some obAect or idea. Page! 1<# $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking

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$escribe the lexicographic heuristic used to make consumer choices. "uggeste( Ans)er: The lexicographic heuristic is in use when the consumer chooses the best brand on the basis of its perceived most important attribute. Page! 1<( $ifficulty! +edium C&'! nalytic &kills

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7dentify three types of risk consumers might perceive in the context of purchasing a car. "uggeste( Ans)er: Consumers might perceive physical risk >an unsafe car poses a safety risk to the physical well9being of the driver and passengers?, a financial risk >the car might be overpriced or may decline in value so rapidly that it will have minimal resale value when the consumer tries to resell it?, and a functional risk >the car may not perform to the expectations of the consumer?. &tudents may identify other risks, including social, psychological, and time risks. Page! 1<, $ifficulty! +edium C&'! /eflective Thinking

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1hat four strategies can marketers of low9involvement products employ in an effort to convert their products into ones of higher involvement2 "uggeste( Ans)er: The four strategies are! >1? linking the product to some involving issueJ >(? linking the product to some involving personal situationJ >,? designing advertising to trigger strong emotions related to personal values or ego defenseJ and >0? adding important features to the product. Page! 1<" $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! /eflective Thinking

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4ow can marketers learn about the stages in the buying process for their product2 Eist and briefly characterize four methods. "uggeste( Ans)er: The four methods are! >1? introspectiveMthey can think about how they themselves would actJ >(? retrospectiveMthey can interview a small number of recent purchasers, asking them to recall the events leading to their purchaseJ >,? prospectiveMthey can locate consumers who plan to buy the product and ask them to think out loud about going through the buying processJ and, >0? prescriptiveMthey can ask consumers to describe the ideal way to buy the product. %ach method yields a picture of the steps in the process. Page! 1<= $ifficulty! 4ard C&'! nalytic &kills

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