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FES Painting & Inspection Guidelines

CQ / FF / 003 dt 23. 01. 2012

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FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


Scope:

REF: CQ / FF / 003 DATE: 23.01.2012

This document is a Guideline covering the usage of recommended paint , painting process for FES, process parameters of FES painting, Quality criteria of painted FES Inspection, repair methodology of the paint defects & quality certification before dispatch to Ashok Leyland. Objective: i. To guide the FES painting Suppliers to ensure the quality of painting in both appearance as well as in corrosion protection performance of the FES supplied to Ashok Leyland. 1.0 Guidelines: FES painting Suppliers of Ashok Leyland shall adhere to the following guidelines in the usage of recommended process, paint, consumables, Inspection of painted vehicle, repair of paint defects, testing of various parameters for measuring the short term & long term properties of paint , monitoring , recording & preservation of the quality records. 1.1 FES & its child parts shall be painted using only the recommended paint & process mentioned in the Annexure A. Supplier shall ensure the surface coating quality of FES child parts to meet Ashok Leyland Surface protection requirements standard ALS 268.03. FES Liquid painting supplier shall maintain adequate records of monitoring the process parameters mentioned in Annexure A.1 1.2 FES shall be classified into the appearance zone mentioned in Annexure B.1. Inspection of the Painted FES shall be carried out based on the zone wise quality criteria mentioned in the Annexure B.2. Inspection of the Paint Defects on FES shall be done based on the frequency given in Annexure B.3. 1.3 Possible issues with paint mixing & its root causes shall be understood by the FES painting supplier based on the guidelines given in the Annexure C & appropriate remedy shall be taken to ensure paint quality.

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FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

REF: CQ / FF / 003 DATE: 23.01.2012

1.4 Possible root causes of the Paint defects shall be understood by the FES painting supplier based on the guidelines mentioned in the Annexure D & appropriate preventive & corrective action shall be taken to avoid recurrence. 1.5 Identified paint defects shall be rectified based on the repair guidelines given in the Annexure D.1. 1.6 PU Touch up of certain paint defects shall be done based on the guidelines given in the Annexure D.2. 1.7 FES painting supplier shall incorporate the best process of PU Touch up by understanding the Dos & Donts of the PU painting process given in Annexure D.3 1.8 FES painting supplier shall use only the recommended Tools & consumable mentioned in the Annexure E for paint mixing, painting , repair & Touch up. 1.9 FES painting supplier shall confirm the receipt paint quality by doing receipt inspection for all the parameters mentioned in Annexure F & own the responsibility of the quality of paint used for FES painting. The supplier shall equip himself with the adequate Lab facility for testing. 2.0 FES Inspection & defect rectification shall be recorded in the FES Painting Inspection card (Refer Annexure G) for every FES dispatched to Ashok Leyland. The Inspection cards shall be retained & preserved for a minimum period of 2 years from the date of dispatch to Ashok Leyland.

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FES Painting & Inspection guidelines FES Painting Process:

REF: CQ / FF / 003 DATE: 23.01.2012

SCOPE of Guideline

Quality Approval

OK

OK

Repair

Not OK
Inspection

FES Painting Sheet Metal Paint raw material Child parts


ALS 268.03

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


Annexure A. Recommended Paint & process:

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Part name
FES Skin

Option 1 Primer Top coat


Liquid Painting: Primer (715633) Liquid Painting: Berger Body Bake Enamel Golden Brown (036432) Liquid Painting: QD Auto Enamel S/G AL Black (B31J26)

Option 2 Primer Top coat

FOP & Side grills

CED: NIPA / APPG / BASF

CED: NIPA / APPG / BASF

PP Powder Coating: Akzo JN195N / JN103N / Marpol - 99-01001 / Jotun - 1027028 / Berger 312J26.

Bottom grill

Mud guard
Mud guard Stay Under body

CED: NIPA / APPG / BASF

Liquid Painting: Berger Body Bake Enamel Golden Brown (036432)

Liquid Painting: Primer (715633)

Liquid Painting: Berger Body Bake Enamel Golden Brown (036432)


PU paint: BThane L/B UC Golden Brown (475432)

Touch Up

Shade detail: Shade Golden Brown Matt Black Parameter L : 46.889; a: 18.407; b: 27.291; c:32.918; H: 55.979 RAL 9005

Thinner & additive used shall be based on the above Paint supplier recommendations. Pretreatment Chemicals used shall be only from Henkel / NIPA / Chemetall rai / APPG.

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Annexure A.1 - Recommended process parameters FES Liquid painting: Process parameter
Coating weight

Process
Dicationic phosphating Tricationic phosphating Primer Top coat Curing Dew point > 3.5 gsm

Value

Inspection Frequency
Once/ Shift

> 2.5 gsm 30 20 Time above 130c : 30 min + 10 deg C @ 6 bar as per ISO 8573-1 (Class 6) Less than 0.1 microns & 0.1 mg/m3 concentration as per ISO 8573-1 (Class 6) Less than 0.01 mg/m3 as per ISO 8573-1 (Class 1) Once / shift Refer Annexure B.2 Every Month

Layer wise DFT Baking EMT

Compressed dry air spec

Dust content Oil content

Every Month

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


Annexure B Quality criteria of painted FES:

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B.1 Classification of FES into Appearance zones.

Classification
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3

Parts covered
False Panel, Corner Panel, Embellisher, Bottom grill, Side grill (LH/RH), FOP. Foot step, Wing end step (LH / RH). Floor , Rear Facia & Mud guard (LH/ RH) , Under body & all other parts.

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Annexure B.2 - Zone wise acceptance criteria of most common paint defects:

1. DFT: Description
Flat surfaces Within 5 cm from Corners / Edges

Zone - 1 / 2 / 3 13 points
(Refer Annexure G DFT measurement locations)

50 ~ 120 40 ~ 100

2. Gloss: Description
Flat surfaces Within 5 cm from Corners / Edges

Zone - 1 / 2 / 3
Golden Brown - Min 90 @ 60, Black 50 ~ 60@ 60 Not applicable

3. Paint film Under bake: Description


MEK Solvent rub test

Zone - 1 / 2 / 3
No peel off or discoloration

4. Paint Sag / rundown:

Description
Visible at a distance of 2m from surface Visible only on close observation Zero

Zone 1

Zone 2
Zero Max 3mm

Zone 3

Max 5mm

5. Paint crack / Touch mark: Description


Visible

Zone 1 / 2 / 3
Not acceptable

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


6. Paint Overspray: Description
Heavy roughness & Color variation
(Touch feel)

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Zone wise acceptance criteria of paint defects - Continued

Zone 1

Zone 2
Not acceptable

Zone 3

Light roughness but no color variation

Not acceptable

Not acceptable

Acceptable

7. Paint poor hiding:


Description
Primer is visible Slight color difference on close observation

Zone 1

Zone 2
Not acceptable

Zone 3

Not acceptable

Acceptable

8. Paint Crater / Pinhole (For every 100cm x 100 cm surface area): Size of defect
> 1mm 0.5 ~ 1mm < 0.5mm Zero Zero

Zone 1

Zone 2
Zero Max 3 Max 5

Zone 3

Max 5 Max 10

9. Dust / Contamination (For every 100cm x 100cm Surface area):

Size of defect
> 1mm 0.5 ~ 1mm < 0.5mm

Zone 1
Zero Max 2 Max 5

Zone 2
Max 5 Max 10 Max 10

Zone 3
Max 10 Max 15 Max 15

Forms of Dust: Lint; Sanding dust; Booth dust; Oven dust; paint dust; Contamination,etc.

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


10. Orange Peel: Description
Visible at a distance of 2m from surface Visible only on close observation Not acceptable

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Zone wise acceptance criteria of paint defects - Continued

Zone 1

Zone 2
Not acceptable Acceptable

Zone 3

11. Color Mismatch: Description


Visible at a distance of 2m from surface Visible only on close observation Instrumental Color difference to std panel Instrumental Color difference to adjacent parts

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3
Acceptable
Acceptable

Not acceptable
Not acceptable

Delta E < 3.0

Delta E < 4.0

Delta E < 1.0

12. Cross Hatch Adhesion: Description


In a 10 x 10 square lattice of 2mm. Exfoliation along straight line & square broken more than 50%.

Zone 1 / 2 / 3
Not acceptable

13. Sanding Mark: Description


Substrate Sanding mark Polishing sanding mark

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3
Acceptable Not applicable

Not acceptable Not acceptable

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


14. Paint Wrinkling: Description
Visible at a distance of 2m from surface Visible only on close observation

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Zone wise acceptance criteria of paint defects - Continued

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Not acceptable

15. Paint Blistering: Description


Visible at a distance of 2m from surface Visible only on close observation

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3
Acceptable Acceptable

Not acceptable Not acceptable

16. White patches: Description


Visible at a distance of 2m from surface Visible only on close observation

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Not acceptable

Other paint defects like Acid attack, Bird droppings, Bits, Bleaching, Bleeding, Blooming , Blowing, Blushing, chalking, Fading, Fish eye, Water marks, etc. are also not acceptable in any of the Zones & shall be rectified based on the paint supplier recommendations.

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


Annexure B.3 - Painted FES - Inspection Frequency : S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13.1 14 15 DFT Gloss Paint Film under bake Solvent rub Paint Sag / Rundown Paint Crack / Touch mark Paint Overspray Paint poor hiding Paint Crater / Pinhole Dust / Contamination Orange Peel Color Mismatch Cross Hatch adhesion Sanding Mark Polishing Mark Wrinkling Blistering Check points

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Inspection Frequency by FES supplier Every 4th FES. Once / hr. Once / hr.

Every FES

Once / Shift

Every FES

16

White patches

Other Paint defects

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Annexure C - Most common paint mixing issues, possible root cause & remedy:

Defect

Possible root cause


Improper stirring Long storage

Remedy

1. Paint settling

High atmospheric temperature


Non compatible thinner, etc. Contaminated mixing tools

Paint shall be discarded

2. Gelling

Non compatible thinner Usage of Touch up paint more than Pot Life, etc. Usage of Touch up paint more than Pot Life Paint shall be discarded

3. Paint dissolution

Non compatible thinner Usage of expired paint, etc.

4. Skin formation
5. Paint Air bubble 6. Paint dust / contamination

Air entry into paint / hardener / thinner container


High atmospheric temperature, etc. Improper paint mixing Non compatible thinner Mixing of Compressed air direct in paint, etc. Improper filtration Improper agitation, etc.

Reject paint Ensure agitation Modify thinner Stop practice Re-filter & use

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Annexure D : Most common Paint Defects & possible root causes:

Defect
Low viscosity Booth air imbalance

Possible root causes

1. Low DFT

Inadequate lighting, insufficient or cramped working space, inaccessibility of surfaces Poor spraying technique, spray gun too far from surface, incorrect compressed air pressure, incorrect nozzle adjustment Poor application Technique, etc. High roughness of substrate Inadequate or excessive dilution Non- compatible thinner Thin coating film Slow evaporation of the solvent

2. Loss of Gloss - Haziness

Drying at High humidity (Above 90% RH) Improper mixing

Solvent fumes or exhaust gases attacking the surface


Use of strong detergents or cleaners on a newly painted surface Insufficient air circulation in booth, etc. Improper Paint touch up without merging thinner 2.1. Touch up Gloss variation

Localized polishing
Non compatible thinner, etc. Improper mixing of paint

3. Paint under bake

Non compatible thinner Low EMT, etc.

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines Defect Possible root causes


Incorrect viscosity of the paint Air or surface temperature too low Use of poor quality or incorrect thinner 4. Running / Sagging

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Most common paint defects & Possible root causes: Continued

Excess thickness of application, air pressure too low, fan width too narrow, spray gun too close to the surface or moving too slowly Excessive dilution of the paint causing low viscosity Painting over Smooth surface, etc.

5. Crack

Poor paint mixing, Incompatible thinner, contaminated substrate, over baking, Expired paint life, etc. Booth air Imbalance Non masking of the adjacent surface during Touch up

6. Overspray

Compressed air pressure too high Inadequate extraction or ventilation Non removal of the Touch up overspray with thinner after baking, etc. Thin Top coat film

7. Poor hiding

Inadequate lighting, insufficient or cramped working space, inaccessibility of surfaces Poor Spraying Technique Top coat not stirred before use, etc. Fast evaporating solvent Poor flash off before drying

8. Pin Hole

High baking temperature

Air Bubbles in the paint mixing


Immediate exposure to high temperature, etc.

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Most common paint defects & Possible root causes: Continued

Defect

Possible root causes


Contamination (Oil/grease/ water,etc) of the substrate not removed before painting Contaminated mixing tools or equipment

8.1. Crater
Silicone in the environment or on the surface of the substrate Moisture / Oil / dust in the compressed dry air or booth air supply, etc. Poor cleaning of the substrate 9. Dust / Contamination Cloth, booth & Oven Contamination Improper / No filtration of the paint Poor agitation of the paint, etc. Paint incorrectly mixed, wrong viscosity, poor quality or incorrect thinner Poor spraying technique, spray gun too far from surface, incorrect compressed air pressure, incorrect nozzle adjustment 10. Orange peel Poor atomization of the paint Low or High paint film thickness Incorrect ambient or surface temperature Long or very short flash off time between coats, etc. Improper mixing of the Top coat Low DFT of the Top coat 11. Color Mismatch Poor PU Touch up Usage of NC based paint, yellowing epoxy & alkyd based paints for Touch up - Yellowing Usage of unapproved paints, Over baking of paint, etc.

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Most common paint defects & Possible root causes: Continued

Defect

Possible root causes


Contamination (Oil/grease/ water, etc.) of the substrate not removed before painting Poor phosphating of the CR sheet (Improper substrate preparation)

12. Adhesion failure

Non compatibility between primer & Top coat Non compatible thinner Paint film under bake or over bake Painting over smooth surface without sanding, etc.

Deep / Coarse sanding of the substrate


13. Sanding Mark Wrong sanding disc & method Low coating thickness, etc. Polishing over Uncured paint surface Excessive pressure applied in polishing 13.1 Polishing Mark Coarse polishing paste Polishing immediately on the hot surface from oven

Worn out Polishing head, etc.


Painting over unset primer before flash off No compatibility between primer & top coat 14. Wrinkling Excessive film thickness Non compatible thinner Prolonged drying time Immediate exposure to high temperature, etc.

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Most common paint defects & Possible root causes: Continued

Defect

Possible root causes


Painting on a hot surface

Paining on contaminated surface


15. Blistering Non compatible thinner Exposure to rain or moisture before paint curing Moisture migration thru paint surface, etc Moisture entrapment before painting Exposure to moisture or contamination before paint curing 16. White patches Non compatible thinner Water contamination of paint , etc

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Annexure D.1 : Guideline for rectification of most common Paint defects.

Repair Methodology
Dry PU Touch up Merging Thinner Hot air blow/ IR heat Cleaning Air Blow Wet Sanding
Orbit al Scuff

1.Low DFT

Full Body Part Full Body haziness

Batch change

Defect

Condition

2.Gloss

Under curing
Touch up Paint Poor Touch up

3. Paint Under bake 4.1 Sag 4.2 Run down 5. Crack / Touch Mark 6. Over spray Body paint Touch up

7. Poor Hiding

Rebaking

sandi ng

Polishing

Repainting

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Guideline for rectification of most common Paint defects - Continued

PU Touch up

Repainting

Cleaning

Merging Thinner Hot air blow/ IR heat

Air Blow

Wet Sanding

8. Crater / pinhole 9. Dust 9.1 Contamination 10. Orange Peel Body Paint Body paint 11. Color Mismatch
Under curing

Orbital

Scuff

Batch change

Defect

Paint Touch up
Under curing

Substrate / Poor PT 12. Adhesion Failure

Etch prim er

Under baking
Over baking
Etch prim er

Re baking

Polishing

Possible general root Cause

Repair Methodology
Sanding

Dry

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Guideline for rectification of most common Paint defects - Continued

Batch change

Hot air blow/ IR heat

Wet Sanding

PU Touch up

Repainting

Cleaning

Air Blow

Orbital

Scuff

13. Sanding Mark

Substrate Polishing Local Full body

Merging Thinner

Defect

14. Wrinkling


Option

15. Blisters 16. White patches

Refer Annexure D.2 for Guideline on PU Touch up.

Re baking

Polishing

Possible general root Cause

Repair Methodology
Sanding

Dry

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


Annexure D.2 - Guideline for PU Paint Touch Up: C.1 Paint Touch up Process :

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Step
1

Process
Substrate cleaning

Purpose
Clean the dust, contamination, water, grease / oil or any other contamination Clean dry cloth To remove the contamination & prepare the substrate for paint adhesion. Remove the dust generated by sanding operation To remove the sticky dust particles using Tack rag.

Photo

Sanding

Air Blow

Cleaning

Paint Touch up
Merging thinner application (Optional) Drying

Defect rectification
To merge the wet PU film with the Body paint Cure the paint film with Dryer To prepare the paint film smooth for polishing To level out the gloss of the Touched up surface similar to non painted surface

Wet Sanding

Polishing

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


Annexure D.3: PU Paint Touch Up Dos & Donts:

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Description
Painting Location

Dos
Inside paint Touch up booth

Donts
In open yard or under shed without exhaust Without cleaning & paint over water contamination Without cleaning & paint over dust/ contamination Without cleaning & paint over grease /oil

Clean the surface with air blow, Dry cloth, Water contamination followed by IPA & dry cloth. Clean the surface with Dust/ contamination air blow, dry cloth & paint Grease / Oil Clean with a separate contamination dry clear cloth Sanding for better adhesion Cleaning cloth

Surface preparation

Usage of appropriate Usage of inappropriate sand paper as per defect sand paper Usage of dry, clean & white cloth Separate cloths for Dry wipe, water & grease Thru Solvent dispenser Usage of waste cloth

Usage of same cloth for all types of cleaning IPA dispensing Direct from container Painting over the Logo / Emblem & other plastic components Masking & no overspray surface Air Compressor line, reservoir & filter Drain the water No draining of the element collected every shift collected water In ventilated storage Open yard or nonPaint storage room ventilated room Inside booth or paint Location In open yard or shed kitchen Paint Mixing Paint Mixing Paint, As per paint supplier As per operator decision Hardener & Thinner recommendation Paint Mixing Closed Container Open container container

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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PU Paint Touch Up Dos & Donts : Continued

Description
Paint storage container Paint filtration Paint viscosity measurement Paint storage after mixing Paint mixing record

Dos
With agitator Thru Filter material Check with Ford Cup B4

Donts
No agitator Thru cloth No checking

Paint Mixing

Maximum 4 hours

More than 4 hours

Maintain time log for No monitoring of paint every lot of paint mix up mixing time

Spray gun Condition of Spray gun Spray gun air pressure Paint application Spray gun distance from surface Paint overspray Painted vehicle exposure to open atmosphere De masking Safety of workers

Conventional gun with 0.8mm/ 0.9mm Nozzle


No paint leakage from gun 4 ~ 5 bar

Conventional gun with 1.2 mm Nozzle


Paint Leakage from gun

More than 5 bar Spray from long or short distance No cleaning After painting without baking No removal of mask & send to dispatch Not wearing PPE

25 ~ 35cm Clean with Solvent

After baking & polishing

Removal of the masks after painting Wear PPE

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Annexure E - Recommended Tools & Consumables for painting & repair of paint defects: Operation Paint Mixing Dry Scuff Sanding Ford Cup B4 Measuring jar & scale P 600 grit sandpaper Cut / round Round Sanding pad P 400 grit sandpaper - round Orbital sander Air gun Tack rag White, Clean & Lint free cloth P 2000 grit sandpaper Sanding block White, Clean & Lint free cloth Conventional / HVLP / Electrostatic gun with 1.2mm Nozzle Conventional / HVLP gun with 0.8 mm/ 0.9mm Nozzle Hot air Blower / Infra Red Lamp 2500 rpm Polishing Tool Polishing Polishing pad with 3 / 5 / 12 wool Paste Glaze (3M)
* Required facility for FES painting, repair & Touch up process shall be captured in the process & facility audit of Ashok Leyland CQ Team.

Tools & Consumable

Dry Orbital Sanding


Air Blow Dry sanding Wiping Wet Sanding Wet sanding - Wiping Paint Spray gun Booth Touch up

Touch up paint Drying

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines

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Annexure F Inspection parameters for every Paint batch (Primer / Topcoat):


Parameter Solvent rub test (30% Toluene & 70% Iso Octane) Pencil hardness Cross cut adhesion Scratch hardness Impact resistance (ball dia , Weight 500g Height 50 cm) Visual color difference Gloss @ 60 Acid resistance (0.1n H2So4 soln.) 202c / 8h Alkali resistance (0.1n NaOH soln.) 202c / 8h Erichsen cupping Criteria No discoloration & surface alterations 20 Double rubs min HB In a 10 x 10 square lattice of 2mm. No exfoliation along a straight line. No square broken up to 50% of the area. Min 3000g No film crack & exfoliation. Remarks

Self Inspection by FES Painting supplier

Same as reference panel


Refer Annexure B.2 Gloss o meter or Paint Test certificate

No surface defect on the film after washing with DM water No surface defect on the film after washing with DM water No cracks up to 5mm indentation. Chalking & film cracking not Resistance to UV light allowed. alternating with humidity (200 Gloss variation 15% hrs.) - Irradiance: 0.47 w/m2/nm No color variations are allowed. Resistance to humidity No film removal and blistering are (500hrs @ 402c 95% ~ allowed. Min 80% of adhesion should be 100% RH) retained Water resistance No surface defect on the film. shall pass (40c / 240hrs) adhesion at 2mm square Edge masked and damage free Corrosion resistance component, the following are not (300 hrs. for CR Panel / allowed: components) As per ASTM Corrosion focuses on weld B117 Min 500 hrs. for CED junctions and surfaces in general coated components Blistering. Under pellicular corrosion 2mm
Please refer Surface protection requirements standard ALS 268.03 for testing Methods.

Paint manufacturer Test certificate

Submit samples on Line condition & get it tested from Paint manufacturer

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


Annexure F.1 - DFT Inspection Template:

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1 5

4
6

8
13
12
11

10

FES Painting & Inspection guidelines


Annexure G - FES Inspection Card:

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1, Sardar Patel Road, Guindy, Chennai 600 032.

QUALITY POLICY Ashok Leyland is committed to achieve customer satisfaction, by anticipating and delivering superior value to the customers in relation to their own business, through the products and services offered by the Company and comply with statutory requirements. Towards this, the Quality Policy of Ashok Leyland is to make continual improvements in the processes that constitute the quality management system, to make them more robust and to enhance their effectiveness and efficiency in achieving stated objectives, leading to: Superior products manufactured as also services offered by the Company. Maximum use of employee potential to contribute to quality and environment, by progressive up gradation of their knowledge and skills as appropriate to their functions. Seamless involvement from vendors and dealers in the mission of the Company to address customers changing needs and protection of the environment. Managing Director January, 2007

VISION To be among Global Top 10 in Trucks & Top 5 in buses.

1, Sardar Patel Road, Guindy, Chennai 600 032.