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THE

Almost Unpublished

LETTERS of J.R.R. TOLKIEN


collected by Natalia Prokhorova

2012

To Rayner Unwin 28 December 1953 Dear R., I hope to reach Museum Street about 10 mins to 12 noon tomorrow, with proofs of Vol. I and map. I [shall?] hope to carry back [those?] of Vol. III. I have to be at Langham Place at 2.00 p.m., but should be able to get away again about 4 p.m. if there is more to do. Yours, JRRT
An example of almost unpublished Tolkiens letter: Very small, but just readable reproduction of a postcard from J.R.R. Tolkien to Rayner Unwin dated 28 December 1953, making arrangements for a visit to Allen & Unwin in Museum Street the following day, appeared in: James H. Gillam. Treasures from the Misty Mountains: A Collectors Guide to Tolkien. Collectors Guide Publishing: Burlington (First Edition, 2001), p. 126. Selected quotes appeared in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: I. Chronology, p. 420. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Rayner_Unwin_28_December_1953

On the title-page: Greeting card from J.R.R. Tolkien to one of his former students Deirdre C. Levinson. Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Deirdre_Levinson_20_December_1956

Contents
Compilers Note LETTERS OF J.R.R. TOLKIEN Appendix. Selected quotations from the letters of J.R.R. Tolkien published in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1 Notes One more item 4 5 68 73 81

Compilers Note
The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (1981), edited by Humphrey Carpenter, with the assistance of Christopher Tolkien, is a large and fascinating collection of Tolkiens letters, but it is by no means exhaustive. Below are some letters that did not appear in that collection. The descriptions (and sometimes images) of the letters were obtained in various published and online sources. 1. Published sources consulted: First and foremost, there are essential books of reference by Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull: The Lord of the Rings: A Readers Companion (2005) together with Addenda and Corrigenda to The Lord of the Rings: A Readers Companion (http://www.hammondandscull.com/addenda/readers.html) The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology (2006) together with Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology (http://www.hammondandscull.com/addenda/chronology.html) The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 2: Readers Guide (2006) together with Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 2: Readers Guide (http://www.hammondandscull.com/addenda/guide.html) Other published sources consulted: The History of Middle-earth (12 Vols., 19831996), edited by Christopher Tolkien The History of The Hobbit (2007), edited by John D. Rateliff Clyde S. Kilby. Tolkien and The Silmarillion (1976) Humphrey Carpenter. J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography (1977) Humphrey Carpenter. The Inklings (1978) T. A. Shippey. The Road to Middle-earth (Second Edition, 2003) Peter Gilliver, Edmund Weiner, Jeremy Marshall. The Ring of Words (2006) Black and White Ogre Country: The Lost Tales of Hilary Tolkien (2009), edited by Angela Gardner Linguistic journals Parma Eldalamberon XVII (2007), Vinyar Tengwar 6 (July 1989) published by the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship 2. Auction catalogues. Tolkien materials regularly appear on auction sales. For example, Auction Archive Pages for Bloomsbury Auctions, Sothebys Auctions and RR Auction can be found on the website Tolkien Collectors Guide. http://www.tolkienguide.com/modules/wiwimod/index.php?page=Articles 3. Online sources consulted: Tolkien Library Rare Tolkien items Tolkien Letters and Cards Tolkien Library Rare Tolkien items Sold items http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/rare-Tolkien_letters.htm http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/raresold.htm Tolkien Gateway Letters not published in The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Letters_not_published_in_%22The_Letters_of_J.R.R._Tolkien%22 Elendilion Tolkiena Listy Niepublikowane (Tolkiens Unpublished Letters) (in Polish) http://www.elendilion.pl/2010/10/28/nasz-projekt-tolkiena-listy-niepublikowane http://elendili.pl/viewtopic.php?t=769&sid=3c56e71493a3936271716adc70684f11 N. Prokhorova

To Kenneth Sisam
[Tolkien and his former English tutor Kenneth Sisam were appointed examiners of the B.Litt. thesis of N. R. Ker of Magdalen College.]

16 March 1933

20 Northmoor Road, Oxford

My dear Sisam, I will come out to Boars Hill1 on Saturday fine or not unless it is quite impassable! By the way, I have actually been presented by a well-wishing old gentleman with a complete N.E.D.,2 to my staggerment, as I had quite given up hope of possessing one. What do I do to qualify for a Supplement? You can tell me this on Saturday. I had Ker rather stiff going! Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

To G. H. Cowling
[George Herbert Cowling, former Leeds colleague of Tolkien, now chair of English at the University of Melbourne, sent Tolkien his edition of the Prologue and three tales from the Canterbury Tales (1934), and other gifts (including a toy koala for Priscilla Tolkien); Tolkien sent him in return a study of Chaucer of his own with hand-corrected small errors (evidently Chaucer as a Philologist: The Reeves Tale (1934)).]

23 December 1934

20 Northmoor Road, Oxford

My dear Cowling, I can only hope that through these years you have realized that it is not defective memory, feeling, or friendship, but my talent for procrastination, and abhorrence of the act of letter-writing (not of the spirit of course or of the sending of word) that has kept me from writing and of course reliance on my wife and yours. Though I am the worst of writers I devour letters, and all news of you across the seas that comes in them, or from occasional students. It takes Christmas to make me face letters to so many people that fate divides me from, though I would they were near. And though of course it will be far into the N.Y. ere you get this, perhaps it will have more of the Christmas spirit for being written on the Eve, and you will forgive past negligence and accept my very good wishes, and sympathies in all your efforts, hopes, struggles, and anxieties. Your family springs up about you even as mine does though I still have what is practically a baby of five. My eldest is nearing flight from school and home, and the question whither? is becoming an urgent shadow. I should long ago have thanked you for your admirable Chaucer marvellously got up too for the price. It was good of you to think of me. You have the faculty of getting things done. I have produced nothing of note in all the years, though I spend myself a good deal in teaching, and in attempting to steer and shape the English School in the hard reluctant and hostile material of this University. I know very little of Chaucer still, but as some sort of return I send to you a study full of defect (and even in spite of some care of misprint) I made of one small corner. It may interest you. We are deep under dark clouds and pouring rain a misty moisty December with all the springs trying to come out heedless of the coming frosts of spring. But you will perhaps feel even the damp gloom more suitable to the season! Yet it is the Season under all skies, and here is to you and yours. Ever yours, JRRT. P.S. Even as I go to post the post comes in with foreign mail, and from Canada and India and from Melbourne all your gifts. This is just to announce their safe arrival. Priscilla is fascinated by the Koala, which is just like her favourite toy Bingo come to miraculous life. JRRT.

To Dr. A. Pompen
[The Reverend Dr. Aurelius Pompen, Professor of English at the Catholic University of Nijmegen, Holland, asked if the Tolkien family would be willing to take a paying guest.]

27 September 1936

20 Northmoor Road, Oxford

Dear Reverend Father, I hope you will pardon the delay in answering your kind letter. I am very grateful for your remembrance. I should welcome some addition to income, especially this year in which I have suffered some disasters: severe accidents, both costly to myself and one of my sons: coinciding with the entrance of my eldest son to the University. But unfortunately my wife has been and is still ill, and I cannot ask her to make any addition to the household. I should really have let you know at once, but your letter came just as I was going away and while my wife was not at home. I wanted to discuss the matter with her, but though she has returned somewhat better in health, I am afraid we cannot manage any guests. We are in fact reduced to the brief appearances of a daily maid, and could hardly offer the table or other comforts that would justify us in entertaining a young lady. If it is not now too late, I will do anything I can to assist you in the matter; but I fear term is now close at hand and I must apologize humbly for not writing before. To save your further trouble I have written a note to Miss Tombrock. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

From a letter to Michael Tolkien


[Tolkiens second son Michael evidently has informed his parents of his attachment to Joan Griffiths, a nurse at the Worcester Royal Infirmary, and Tolkien was anxious to discuss certain differences that might arise between a husband and wife.]

12 March 1941

[20 Northmoor Road, Oxford]

There are many things that a man feels are legitimate even though they cause a fuss. Let him not lie about them to his wife or lover! Cut them out or if worth a fight: just insist. Such matters may arise frequently the glass of beer, the pipe, the non-writing of letters, the other friend, etc., etc. If the other sides claims really are unreasonable (as they are at times between the dearest lovers and most loving married folk) they are much better met by above board refusal and fuss than subterfuge.

From a letter to Przemyslaw Mroczkowski


[Polish scholar Przemyslaw Mroczkowski planned to pursue a course of study in Oxford with the support from the British Council. He mentioned that another possibility for him was a scholarship in the University of Notre Dame in the U.S., and sought Tolkiens advice.]

2 August 1946

20 Northmoor Road, Oxford

My dear Mr. Mroczkowski, I am glad to hear from you again. I heard from Mr. C. S. Lewis that he was going to see you, but have not heard any more. I have been immersed in a most tiresome and difficult affair, not by any means yet concluded, which has engaged my whole attention; so I must, I fear, confess that I have done nothing further for you beyond speaking to Lewis on your behalf. Also, I was not clear that it was my part to do anything, except to support any move made by the British Council to get you accepted by some society here society covers colleges, the association of non-collegiate students, called St. Catharines, and the approved halls of residence (such as the Jesuit Campion Hall). I have been very preoccupied, so please forgive me for being so vague. It would be useful if you would remind me of your proposed studies and research. This month is a bad one. Most people are away. As soon as I got your letter this morning I rang up the office of St. Catharines hoping to discover whether the British Council had approached them on your behalf, and whether in any case the Censor (the official title of the head of that society) had still any vacancies. I could get no reply. Neither can I, at the moment, get on to the British Councils local office I will do so before I close this letter. In the meanwhile, I do not at feel at all certain that Notre Dame might not prove a better place than present-day Oxford. It is not easy to advise you, but I should feel inclined to close with any offer from that direction, unless the British Council have something definite to offer here. As to the cost of living in Oxford. St. Catharines is supposed to be relatively cheap (one of the reasons for its existence). If I could make contact with them, no doubt they would give me a reliable figure. The fees in Oxford are not heavy, and if you are not studying for a degree (and so do not pay, for instance, fees for tuition or supervision) they amount to very little. There are no residential rooms in St. Catharines (nor indeed in the present overcrowded days in most of the colleges), and students live in lodgings in the town, which are becoming more and more difficult to find, and more and more costly; though St. Catharines would presumably give what help they could to their accepted students in finding accommodation. As far as I can judge, from the experience of my own sons, residence in Oxford together with all fees would cost you at least 50 a term (possibly more), and that would still leave the vacations. My best wishes to you. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien
[Later in the day, Tolkien successfully contacted the Censor and the British Council and added a long postscript on the second page of the letter: all British Council scholarships for the coming year (the academic year 19467) were allotted the previous spring, and even if Mroczkowski had one of these, St. Catherines has no vacancies.]

[The British Council had done] nothing further, for they cannot do anything, until the matter of your scholarship is settled. Frankly, I formed the opinion that the prospects did not seem very good. There is nothing, of course, to prevent a scholar as yourself, from staying here and studying, and meeting other persons, such as myself or Mr. Lewis, if he can afford it on his own account. My advice is go for an American scholarship, if you have a chance for one.1

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From a letter to Miss Turnbull


[Miss R. Turnbull, who was living in Whitby, Yorkshire, met Tolkien in the rooms of John Beckwith who read Modern and Medieval History at Exeter College before the Second World War. She sent Tolkien a fan letter, praising The Hobbit.]

11 March 1949

3 Manor Road, Holywell, Oxford

I have another short fairy-story coming out soon (the score being Oxfordshire in some period of long ago).1 But after 12 years of work I have only just completed, and am now having typed the enormous sequel to The Hobbit. Its about three times as long as the first, a v. great deal better (I think), and I wonder if I shall ever see it in print. However, I will send you a copy both of Farmer Giles of Ham, and of the Sequel, The Lord of the Rings, when they appear. I am now going to ask you to do me a favour. I hope it will not seem very odd of me, or bother you very much. I have a very dear old friend, one of the Sisters of Mercy of Hull (who have also a house in Whitby). I have known her since she befriended me in hospital as a lonely soldier in 1917. She is now very old, and is going to celebrate her Diamond Jubilee as a nun (60 years!) on 15 March...
[Tolkien asks Miss Turnbull to arrange for flowers to be sent at his expense to Mother Mary Michael to mark her diamond jubilee as a nun: she is now in a nursing home in Whitby.]

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To Pauline Baynes
[Pauline Baynes had been contracted to illustrate Farmer Giles of Ham.]

4 June 1949

Merton College, Oxford

Dear Miss Baynes, I ought to have written to you before to tell you of the great pleasure that your drawings in illustration of Farmer Giles have given me. My friends, very justly, said after seeing them that they had reduced the text to a commentary on the pictures. I have now seen and returned the paste-up; and though I am glad that so many of the illustrations have been preserved, at least in the sense that they are represented, I am distressed. Ignorant as I am of the costs and of production-processes, I had hoped for a larger page and space. I fear it has done small justice to your beautiful line and pattern to reduce the size so drastically. Even so, what little value this rather slender squib has is much enhanced by your work. I am hoping soon to get some larger works published, and in a more ample fashion; and if so, I hope you might be interested, or at least have time to consider them. One, a long romance in sequel to The Hobbit, is finished after some years of work, and is being typed. It is held up at the moment, since I am immersed in examinations and other weary business; but when it's done, I wonder if I could prevail on you to glance at it. I hope that we may perhaps [have the?] opportunity of meeting ere [?] Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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From a postcard to Robert Burchfield


[The Fellowship of the Ring was published 29 July 1954. R. W. Burchfield, Tolkiens former student, now lecturer at Christ Church College, purchased the book and enjoyed it.]

6 November 1954

Merton College, Oxford

Dear Burchfield, I should not have left your card so long unanswered. I feel sure the Board will welcome any lectures that you offer.1 I am v. pleased that the first third of my large story pleases you, as it has not exactly commended itself to many of my other philological colleagues, some of whom regard it as a regrettable waste of time better spent on other stuff... Harting of Amsterdam is the only other philologist who seems to have enjoyed himself, and he has made reasonable progress in analysing the small specimens of Elvish provided...

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From a letter to Derrick Parnum


[The Two Towers was published 11 November 1954. Derrick Parnum apparently got the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings as birthday presents.]

2 March 1955

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Parnum, I have been laid up and still am unwell, or I should have thanked you for your letter earlier. I have now been a professor so long (since 1924 in fact) that it no longer seems at all important. It never has been regarded as important in Oxford, anyway, there until recently it was not used as a title of address, and the more conservatively correct still do not put it on an envelope. I am glad that the book arrived at the correct moment. Having four children and three grandchildren, I know only too well their great interest (especially girls) in birthday dates! I, like many males, cannot convince myself that they are important, and so cannot remember them... Nothing irritates me about my book, not even abusive reviews or patronizing ones. But I have to try not to be absorbed myself by it. In primary intentions it is, of course, meant just to be a good tale in its kind, written first of all for my own satisfaction, there being very little of that kind of literature available, and I need more. But a lot of things have got caught up in it. It is not an allegory, all the same. Though one soon discovers that the more you put into any story the more capable it becomes of being generally or particularly applied to other matters... It was imagined as a plot, and largely written before nuclear physics became political and mixed up with power...

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To Miss Turnbull
[Miss R. Turnbull sent Tolkien a gift (apparently champagne).]

19 May 1955

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Miss Turnbull, Your munificent and magnificent gift arrived safely on May 17th... I am ashamed of not letting you know at once, but I have been meshed with administration during the last few days. Though sending off the last items [marginal comment: and at last] for Vol. III might have seemed a suitable occasion for the withdrawing of at least one cork, I have so far refrained; but when I drink I shall remember with a gratitude at least as warm and deep as Old Rory felt for the bottles of Old Winyards. I can only hope Vol. III will be up to it! Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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From a letter to John Roberts


[Owing to delays in producing appendices and maps, The Return of the King still waited to be published. John Roberts asked Tolkien when The Return of the King would be completed.]

22 August 1955

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

I am very sorry indeed that Vol. III has been so long delayed; but as soon as publication began I became involved in many other tasks, and had often to put the proofs of The Lord of the Rings aside. The story was indeed long in the writing, but it was finished a long while ago. The compression of a selection of matter not included in the main narrative, but apparently desired by readers, was mainly responsible for the hold up. It took a great deal of time and concentration... You will get about 416 pages in Vol. III. Of which about 100 will be occupied with subsidiary matter, and annals. Some of it, I hope you will find interesting. There will be another larger-scale map of Gondor and Mordor. Except for names of districts (countries, or areas) such as Enedwaith there are not supposed to be any names in the maps (other than those of the Shire), which do not appear somewhere. But an index is needed. The attempt to make one took a lot of fruitless effort: it would have been too large and too costly to print, in any form that would be useful. I hope before long to put into order the legends of the First and Second Ages; but these turn West rather than East. I am very pleased that you like the Ents. Smeagol-Gollum is detestable but all the more an object for pure pity, a pity unalloyed (and unaided) by any liking. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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To Mrs. Souch
[Mrs. Souch asked Tolkien why The Return of the King had not been published in the spring.]

8 September 1955

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

Dear Mrs. Souch, I am sorry for the delay in answering your letter. I went for a brief holiday in Gondor (or in modern terms Venice), which only served to reveal my tiredness to the full, and not to relieve it. Since my return I have let the days slip. Not to the detriment of Vol. III! That was out of my hands some time ago. It should, of course, have come out in the Spring. And why not, since it was all written long ago? Well, from the moment publication began, I was beset by obstacles in the shape of ineluctable duties and offices; and the compression of the material into Appendices was a long and difficult task. In the end much has had to be jettisoned, including the facsimiles of the Book of Mazarbul, and the index of names (with translation). Such as it is, another 300 pages of narrative, and about 100 of additional matter, it should appear soon. When I last heard, it was hoped to issue it at the end of this month. I hope it will not be any longer! It was extremely kind of you to write. I will not relieve your anxiety about the fate of various characters; but I hope the ending will not seem unworthy. I have not myself any doubt that things went just so but that does not say that my attempt to record them is successful. The problems of presentiment with so many centres of sympathy and attention were considerable. Before long I must turn to the legends of the First and Second Ages, and put them in order! Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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From a letter to F. L. Perry


[Tolkien apparently had lent a proof of The Return of the King to Miss F. L. Perry, who had earlier written to him about The Hobbit, and commented on The Fellowship of the Ring even before she has finished reading it (hers was the first letter he received about his new book).]

28 September 1955

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

Yes, I received the proof-copy of The Return of the King quite safely and quickly, also your letter... I hope we may have a chance of meeting, after so much contact. But I am rather tied my children have all left home, & my wife and I live now alone in a small villa... there is no room for any companion, help, or foreign girl... I sent [my wife] on a cruise this summer, which she enjoyed (and which did her a lot of good); but Hobbits will have to make a lot of money for that to happen often. And then (as this summer) I have my daughter to consider, as she has taken a rather hard time in the Slums of Birmingham as a social worker. Usually I wait like the Mountain for Mohammed to appear but not out of any strong arrogance. I have no news of Vol. III...

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From a letter to David I. Masson


[The Return of the King was published 20 October 1955. Irritated by the Times Literary Supplement review of 25 November 1955, Mr. Masson, a librarian at the University of Leeds, had written a reply, published in the TLS 9 December 1955. Tolkien remarked that the reviewer should not have made such a fuss over giving quarter to orcs:]

12 December 1955

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

Surely how often quarter is given is off the point in a book that breathes Mercy from start to finish: in which the central hero is at last divested of all arms, except his will? Forgive us our trespasses as we forgive them that trespass against us. Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil, are words that occur to me, and of which the scene in the Sammath Naur was meant to be a fairy-story exemplum...

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15 1955

From a draft of a letter to David I. Masson [76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

I owe you a letter or two. This is just a short note to thank you for your latest, and to say that I am trying to set down in brief the chief points in Elvish historical philology for your amusement. It has taken more time than I expected (or can spare! not that its not just what I like doing), since the stuff is mostly in my head and familiar, and as is common experience, such matter appears much more complex when one tries to set it down. But you shall certainly have it some time, if you wish. The languages have, of course, changed quite as much as the world and its stories to which they belong, and are now almost an Entish record of my own linguistic-sthetic history, hardening at last with age. But you are quite right in your perceptions. Quenya still retains the traces of the impact upon me of Finnish. Sindarin was deliberately composed to resemble (with a difference) Welsh, by working similar sound-changes on the simple basic Eldarin structure to those exhibited by Brythonic, especially Welsh. I append a few notes on your questions... [s!r"-] Quenya is supposed to have elaborated the Eldarin structure by developing enclitics to quasi-inflexions. Most nouns have an instrumental in -nen (a Finnesque ending but not in function): as srinen < s!r"- uninflected sre breeze. They also have 3 adverbs not originally susceptible of number: -nna allative, -llo ablative, sse inessive/adessive. Quenya pluralized these by adding -r (originally derived from verbs): as in falmalinnar. (!PHAL foam, cf. falasse, S falas, surfline, sea-shore: falma a breaker; falmalli-*, many/some breakers.) *Both Quenya & Sindarin have for most nouns two plural formations: the general or group, and the partitive or special. The plural element in nouns [i] as a suffix ["]. Plurals formed with this are in Quenya general, and the partitive is formed with li. In Sindarin the old #-plurals causing affection are partial (as a rule) and the group plurals have -ath: a group suffix, or other endings as -rim... [!EL] The confusion between EL- elf and star is primeval going back to the legend of the waking of the Quendi in the starlight of Cuivinen; and refers also to their love of stars and special reverence for Elbereth/Varda... Elendil, lfwine, Elf-friend is probably < eled-nil. The frequent endings in proper names are derived... from !NIL, -ndil & !DUR. !NIL means to love as a friend or equal, !DUR to show special interest in things such as trees, astronomy, gems, medicine, sea, &c.; but the distinction is not always made (especially not by men such as the Nmenoreans). The earliest name with ndil applied to other than persons is erendil (or shorter e$rnil), of which the purer Elvish would be erendur (e$rnur). But Erendils father was a mortal! Thus according to the Elven-Loremasters more correct are Elendil (if of Elves not stars), Valandil, and Amandil (since the Blessed Land may be held to = Manw, or all the Valar). Permissible also is Erendil, if really referring to the Lord of Waters, one of the chief Valar and unchanging friend of Elves and Men. But Meneldil and Anardil are mannish since menel = the firmament not Heaven, and anar the physical Sun... [!GAL] The bases for ordinary light were GAL/CAL of which the latter is usual Quenya (but GAL- occurs in yale, S uial twilight). The usual Sindarin word for 20

green was calen (galen after a sg. noun), etymologically bright: cf. Q calima, intensive ancalima. The Quenya world was laiqua green, which would give S laeb but does not exist in Sindarin. Legolas is non-Sindarin (Ossiriandish) name in which laiqu$ > l%go. LAS is universal Elvish for a leaf (lass%)... [sinda] The Eldar had many colour words. I would not like to be precise on them. Certainly &ind$ = grey > Q sinda, S thin(n), thind (as in Thingol Grey-cloak, Q Sindacollo). So also is the base MI#-. Usage suggests that MI#- is paler and whiter, a luminous grey... [elye] Galadriels song is in Quenya; Tarquesta, that is the colloquial form of the language, though with some archaisms (dual) and poetic words, and abnormal poetic metric word order. The signs of lateness are & > s: srinen, hsie; w > v (ve, as, like) except after consonants; (s >) z > r, miruvireva, maryo, genitive of *ma-sy$ her voice. The shortening of all vowels in final syllables, and final -ai in plural of adjectives > e, linte, untime, etc. Syntactically the loss of distinction of nominative/accusative: lassi accusative as nominative (for lassin); fanyar, (ilye) tier are nominative for accusative. Also the use of the ablative-genitive as a possessive or adjectival genitive in maryo, Vardo while miruvreva is adjectival where the partitive use of ablative vreo would have been classical. Archaic is the agglutinated possessive in ma-rya; and the dual m-rya-t, her two hands, met she and me (we exclusive of those addressed). Also the ancient mythical word laure which is not gold the metal, but the light of the Golden Tree of Valmar; and the loose compound aire-tri-lrinen, for holy-queen-song (instrumental): prose lrinen mo i aire trva (or trio), by the song of the voice of the holy queen...

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To Terence Tiller
[Terence Rogers Tiller of the BBC Third Programme, who was the adapter and producer of radio version of The Fellowship of the Ring (it was broadcast in six episodes from midNovember to late December 1955) wrote to Tolkien that the BBC wish to adapt for the Third Programme The Two Towers and The Return of the King in six episodes to broadcast from mid-November 1956, but, since the allotted time is so limited, the cuts to these volumes would be far more drastic than for The Fellowship of the Ring. He asked Tolkiens permission to start working on these two adaptations.]

19 September 1956

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Tiller, The Lord of the Rings I do give my permission in principle. Also you have my sympathy and good wishes in the impossible task! I imagine that to make any narrative or dramatic sense out of the six fits, you will have to concentrate on the adventures of Frodo, and virtually cut out Book III. However, the task is yours. I hope that perhaps the series will provide an excuse and opportunity for us to meet again. I shall be away from Monday next Sept. 24 until October 8th; but anything reaching Merton College* up to about October 5th will be forwarded. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien *P.S. I have now made arrangements for forwarding anything sent here to Headington, and they may be prompter than College. JRRT

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From a letter to Mr. Britten


[Mr. Britten sent Tolkien a list of queries mainly concerning The Silmarillion.]

5 November 1956

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

It is plainly suggested that Elves do sleep, but not in our mode, having a different relation to what we call dreaming. Nothing very definite is said about it (a) because except at a length destructive of narrative it would be difficult to describe a different mode of consciousness, and (b) for reasons that you so rightly observe: something must be left not fully explained, and only suggested.

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From a letter to Michael George Tolkien


[Michael George, Tolkiens grandson (the eldest son of Tolkiens second son Michael), then 14 years old, was reading The Lord of the Rings with absorption.]

24 April 1957

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

Daddy may be interested to hear that I have been elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature (on the strength of The Lord of the Rings I suppose): a pleasant compliment and pat of approval, and one which few if any philologists or language men have received. The Dutch edition and translation are going well. I have had to swot at Dutch; but it is not a really nice language. Actually, I am at present immersed in Hebrew. If you want a beautiful but idiotic alphabet, and a language so difficult that it makes Latin (or even Greek) seem footling but also glimpses into a past that makes Homer seem recent that is the stuff! (I am hoping when I retire to get included in a new Bibletranslation team that is brewing. I have passed the test: with a version of the Book of Jonah. Not from Hebrew direct! Incidentally, if you ever look at the Old Testament, and look at Jonah youll find that the whale its not really said to be a whale, but a big fish is quite unimportant. The real point is that God is much more merciful than prophets, is easily moved by penitence, and wont be dictated to even by high ecclesiastics whom he has himself appointed.) However, there are too many absorbing things in the world. One has to choose and stick to a few, with which blessing and counsel (like preachers) I end and with my love and good wishes. Grandfather

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From a letter to Mrs. L. M. Cutts 76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

26 October 1958

[The Lord of the Rings] cost a v. great deal to produce (about 4,000 pounds), and the publisher deserves to make some profit on what was, for him, a very risky adventure, the success of which has, I think, surprised him as much as anyone (except, perhaps, me myself)... I did no study or research for my tale. It is an invention from beginning to end... If it is English (not British, please) that is because I am English... no one of us can really invent or create in a void, we can only reconstruct and perhaps impress a personal pattern on ancestral material. The origin of the names and fragments of languages in the books could, of course, be discovered by anyone of similar linguistic experience as my own; but that would not reveal much. I invented the word hobbit, and can say no more about it than it seemed to me to fit the creatures that I had already in mind.* Elves is an English word, but the nature and history of the peoples so-called in my books has little or nothing to do with the European traditions about Elves or Fairies. Ent is also an ancient English word (for a giant); but the Ents of my world are I suppose an entirely original creatures so far as that can be said of any human work. If you like, they are a mythological form taken by my lifelong love of trees, with perhaps some remote influence from George MacDonalds Phantastes (a work I do not actually much like), and certainly a strong [twist?] given by my deep disappointment with Shakespeares Macbeth... If I may say so, with humility, the Christian religion (which I profess) is far the most powerful ultimate source. On a lower plane: my linguistic interest is the most powerful force... *Or rather it generated them: they grew to fit it.

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20

To H. Cotton Minchin
[In the Observer 6 August 1961 Philip Toynbee attacked The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings as dull, ill-written, whimsical and childish. He marvelled that Tolkiens Hobbit fantasies were taken very seriously indeed by a great many distinguished literary figures, but felt relieved that today those books have passed into a merciful oblivion. Captain H. Cotton Minchin protested against this judgment.]

14 November 1962

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Minchin, It was nice to hear from you again and I was most interested in your letter. What you say about America is very illuminating. I am afraid you may be disappointed in the new book, which is only a collection of verses with illustrations. I have still I hand the further matter of the Lord of the Rings world, but I have been perforce engaged on other things for some time. Do not worry too much about Philip Toynbee. Few good reviews can have done me so much commercial benefit. So many people rose up to slay him that the noise was nearly as good as a new book. I am very puzzled by your reference to an organization similar to the Reprint Society which had taken on The Lord of the Rings. It is news to me; there is no need of any such thing. The original edition continues to sell as well as it ever did. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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21

From a letter to Mrs. Munby


[Mrs. Munby asked several questions about The Lord of the Rings on behalf of her son Stephen.]

21 October 1963

Hotel Miramar, East Overcliff, Bournemouth 76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mrs. Munby, I have not been able to answer before, as I have been under the combined pressure of overwork and ill health, including neuritis which has made writing and even typing often impossible. I am away from home now on a rest.* I cannot answer your sons questions at any length, I am afraid. Satisfactory answers would take pages, and would I think not be really intelligible to him yet, intelligent though he evidently is. I think the best general answer is that The Lord of the Rings is purely imaginary in scene and time (though not in the behaviour of the characters in the situations that they find themselves in). It is not possible to represent an imaginary world, and have answers for all the questions that may be asked about it...
[Noting that Stephen Munbys questions are mainly concerned with ancient history, Tolkien remarks that his points will all be made clearer when (if ever) I have time to complete and publish the legends of the earlier ages.]

The references (such as Morgoth etc.) do refer to stories actually written, but in this tale they only appear in order to give the tale a place in an imaginary history. Perhaps this could be understood by a comparison with real history. Supposing a story was written in which the climax was the tragedy of the Battle of Hastings. It would be about the behaviour of the chief characters such as Harold and William, but there might be references to older history (at more than one remove) say to the death of Arthur, or the coming of the English when they were the invaders, and even far away to the legendary North from which they came, and to their struggle with the Danes (from whom William was descended) or to their old pagan gods. But it would be impossible to provide answers for such references except by writing more books!
[Tolkien then confesses he does not enjoy stories of an imaginary world that have not got any imaginary history. Returning to The Lord of the Rings, he notes that the story is really about Death and pity and Self-sacrifice and comments on the apparent absence of God in the book. Then follow eight numbered replies to original questions that concern actual history, the ultimate history of Men, high-elves, use of Old English for the language of the Rohirrim, Satan (Sauron was one of the lesser spirits who had at one time served him...), the invention of the name orc (in The Hobbit goblin is used... but goblin is a fairly modern word, and very vague in its application to any sort of bogey in the dark...), etc. The answer about orcwomen reads:]

There must have been orc-women. But in stories that seldom if ever see the Orcs except as soldiers of armies in the service of the evil lords we naturally would not learn much about their lives. Not much was known. *I have in fact now just returned and [send?] this from Oxford 23.10. 63.

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To Justin Arundale
[Justin Arundale, then a resident of Uganda, found his way into Great Britain in 1962 at the age of eight. Two years later, tantalised by mentions of Tolkiens unpublished sourcebook, he wrote to him, asking if he can ask his grandmother in Cambridge to buy The Silmarillion.]

18 January 1964

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Justin, Thank you for your letter. I am afraid the Silmarillion is not yet published and will not be for some time. I have a great deal of other work to do, and not much time. I am afraid I must leave you to tell your grandmother this sad fact (though I expect the Cambridge booksellers would do so): for one thing you did not tell me her name. It might be Arundale, but then, as is said in Brer Rabbit: [then?] again it wouldnt. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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23

From a letter to Przemyslaw Mroczkowski


[A reply to a sympathetic letter of Professor Przemyslaw Mroczkowski in Krakw.]

2026 January 1964

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

My dear Mroczkowski, Wonderfully kind and comforting of you to write to me, amidst your own troubles. You say v. little of yourself, but naturally I hope that you are fully recovered from the operation and that you have nothing gravely afflicted. You have not been forgotten by me you are remembered indeed daily; but I deeply regret, especially after receiving your letter, that I did not manage to write for Christmas. Your letter (of Dec. 1417) took a long time to reach me, and I have taken some time to respond. But 1963 was for me a dreadful year of loss and frustration, and 1964 has began as evilly. The loss reached for me its climax on Nov. 22nd, not for me the day Kennedy was murdered, but the day C.S. Lewis died. I attended what was supposed to be his death-bed in June,1 but he recovered, and the relapse and end come suddenly and (I think even to his doctor and dear friend of us both) unexpectedly. My wife and I were taken ill not long after: no [annexion?], but a marauding enteritis virus; so that Christmas drew near and found us unable to cope with its many demands. I did not even manage to put up even a spray of holly this year, and for the first time since we had a home we dined out. A shadow, only guessed by us, has been falling on my son Christopher and his wife for some time, and soon after Christmas disaster came on them and us. His wife walked out, and left him. I do not understand the matter fully, and anyway, you would not wish me to discuss it. There are on neither side any of the all too common reasons... I fear they have left their allegiance to our Mother...2
[The letter continues with a detailed discussion of The Lord of the Rings.]

[T]he simultaneity of different planes of reality touching one another... [is] part of the deeply felt idea that I had... Beyond that too I feel that no construction of the human mind, whether in imagination or the highest philosophy, can contain within its own englobement all that there is... There is always something left over that demands a different or longer construction to explain it... This is like a play, in which... there are noises that do not belong, chinks in the scenery...
[Tolkien notes in particular the status of Tom Bombadil. The letter concludes with apologies if all this seems too earnest, and references to Edith Tolkiens ill-health.]

Yours sincerely, Ronald Tolkien

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24

To Jane T. Sibley
[Miss Jane T. Sibley, a college student in Haddam, Connecticut, asked Tolkien why the runes used in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings were not of the same set.]

30 May 1964

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Miss Sibley, Thank you for your letter, and for the close scrutiny of my books, which I recognize in your questions about the runes I use. The mystery is easily solved. The runes I used for The Hobbit were genuine and historical; those in The Lord of the Rings I myself invented. The resultant discrepancy must be answered by saying that both kinds were in use in Middle Earth. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien There is a book about the historical English and related Runes (which incidentally quotes from the L.R. on its page 33): RUNES, by R.W.V. Elliott, Manchester University Press, 1959 (30/-).

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From a letter to W. R. Matthews [76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

1315 June 1964

The Black Speech was not intentionally modelled on any style, but was meant to be self-consistent, very different from Elvish, yet organized and expressive, as would be expected of a device of Sauron before his complete corruption. It was evidently an agglutinative language, and the verbal system must have included pronominal suffixes expressing the object, as well as those indicating the subject: -ul is a pl. objective, translated them, and -k an element meaning the whole, all (thrakatalk I 267 is a misprint for -ulk, as correctly written in the flame letters). The stem burz dark is also found in the later Lugbrz = Barad-dr; in the archaic ring-inscription burzumishi is evidently made up of this stem + a particularizing suffix or article um, and an enclitic preposition ishi in, inside. The debased form of the B. S., which survived in the Third Age only in the Dark Tower, is seen in a few names (as Uruk-hai Orc-folk) and the fragment of vituperation uttered by one of Grishnakhs companions, emissaries from Sauron. I have tried to play fair linguistically, and it is meant to have a meaning and not to be a mere casual group of nasty noises, though an accurate translation would even nowadays only be printable in the higher and artistically more advanced forms of literature. According to my taste such things are best left to Orcs, ancient and modern.

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26

To Carole Ward
[Miss Carole Ward, a freelance writer, suggested a serialization of The Lord of the Rings for BBC 2.]

10 August 1964

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Miss Ward, My secretary1 has just discovered your letter of March 23rd. I am sorry that you have been treated with such discourtesy. I was away from March 12 to April 2, but the letter was not forwarded as it should have been. I was taken ill while away, and was out of action during April, and also without a secretary. My correspondence got into great confusion. I am delighted to hear of your great enjoyment of my book. As for Television, however, I am personally averse to dramatizations of my work, especially of The Lord of the Rings, which is too long for reproduction without severe cutting and editing: in my view destructive, or at best severely damaging to a complicated but closely-woven story. But in such matters the interests of my publishers must be considered. They are in any case primarily concerned in all questions of reproduction by any process (vide the copyright notice). I think they would be willing to consider proposals for television especially when the plan had proceeded at least as far as an outline of the proposed treatment. If your enthusiasm has not been chilled by my silence, or this reply, and you still think of going further with your ides, I think you should approach Messrs Allen and Unwin in the first instance. At the moment I am trying to complete work for an overdue contract,2 and since I am nevertheless obliged to go away till the end of this month, I shall have no time to spare for some weeks. Of course if there is a prospect of a television plan being agreed, I should desire very much to see you and consult you later. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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27

From a letter to L. Sprague de Camp


[Lyon Sprague de Camp, an American author of science fiction and fantasy books, sent Tolkien a copy of Swords and Sorcery, an anthology of heroic fantasy he has edited, with stories by Paul Anderson, H. P. Lovecraft, Robert Howard, Henry Kuttner, Lord Dunsany, Clark Ashton Smith, C. L. Moore, and Fritz Leiber.]

30 August 1964

Hotel Miramar, East Overcliff, Bournemouth

[After saying that he was interested in practically everything save literary criticism, Tolkien said of contemporary fantasy that I will not pretend that it gave me much pleasure and noted about de Camps book:]

Though I might say, I suppose, as a purely personal aside, that all the items seem poor in the subsidiary (but to me not unimportant) matters of nomenclature. Best when inventive, least good when literary or archaic. (For instance Thangobrind and Alaric, both singularly inapt for their purpose.)... Also I do wonder why you chose that particular tale of Dunsanys. It seems to me to illustrate all his faults. And the ghastly final paragraph!1

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To Ingeborg Korff
[Miss Ingeborg Korff, a primary schoolteacher in Germany, wrote to Tolkien on behalf of her pupils.]

31 December 1964

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Children, Thank you very much indeed for writing to me to say that you have enjoyed reading my books. It is always pleasant for an author to learn that his work has given pleasure. I was particularly interested to know that you have not only read The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings in your own language, but that they are helping you to learn English as well. And Miss Korff tells me that you have painted water-colours of many scenes from these stories. I hope that the books will continue to give you pleasure, and I wish you all much success in your studies. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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From a letter to Joan O. Falconer [76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

24 January 1965

I would say that the impression of greater age in Sam as compared with Frodo that you feel is due to the representation in these two persons of two quite different characters, each with a quite different background and education. Sam in part of his more complex character retains the sententiousness, and indeed cocksureness, of the rustic of limited outlook and knowledge. He was the youngest son of a stupid and conceited old peasant. Together with his loyal master-servant attitude, and his personal love for Frodo, he retains a touch of the contempt of his kind (moderated to tolerant pity) for motives above their reach. From this in some degree comes his slightly paternal, not to say patronizing attitude to his master; but of course it is mainly derived from the fact that after the encounter by Weathertop Frodo was a sufferer, a person injured and in pain, and also after Rivendell grievously burdened. Sams protective and almost elderly manner was largely forced on him by circumstance...

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30

From a letter to Michael George Tolkien


[Tolkiens grandson was studying English at St Andrews University.]

16 September 1965

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

I am, of course, deeply interested in all that you tell me of your work and tastes. I might (it may be thought) have given you more help and advice especially in parts of your work where I have any special knowledge. But I have been under much pressure while you have been at St Andrews... If you lived nearby, in an hour I could do what would take days to do less satisfactorily in writing. But in any case I have a strong feeling that you should not be influenced in growth of taste and discovery of aptitudes by opinions possibly weighted by family loyalty and affection; while in the end you will get more credit for your own industry and talents if you do not show much evidence of being under my shadow...

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31

From a letter to Michael George Tolkien


[Tolkiens grandson sent Tolkien a copy of a test he had in Middle English at St Andrews University.]

30 October 1965

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

[Tolkien thinks his grandson is] flea-bitten by pernickety dons: they sound more like the feminine dons of a womens college with their little tests and increasing harrying of students. I looked at the enclosed paper but all this business of examining afflicts me now like a sickness. I had 40 years of it. I am sticking to my decision not to confuse the issue by sending you any of my notes on Beowulf, Gawayne and Pearl before your finals...

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32

From a letter to Roger Shaw


[Roger Shaw had suggested that the landscape of The Lord of the Rings was inspired by the landscape of Iceland.]

7 January 1966

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

I have never been to Iceland. Something has always interfered with my plans to go there. So my acquaintance with its landscape is derived entirely from photographs... One point of influence at any rate is certain, namely, the Midgewater Marshes, the name of which is of course merely a translation of M$vatn...

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33

To Roger Verhulst
[Roger Verhulst was working on a Charles Williams project at Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. Eerdmans have obtained rights for an American paperback edition of Essays Presented to Charles Williams, and W. H. Auden has agreed to write J.R.R. Tolkien in Christian Perspective for their series Contemporary Writers in Christian Perspective. The first volume in the series should be Charles Williams in Christian Perspective by Mary Shideler. Verhulst hoped that Tolkien could write a blurb for Shidelers book.]

9 March 1966

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Verhulst, Till I returned home yesterday I knew nothing about your projects with regard to Charles Williams. I hasten to enquire from whom and for what consideration you obtained rights for reprinting the collection of Essays Presented to Charles Williams. The property in those essays resides in the authors. My essay has been revised and reprinted and published in America by Houghton Mifflin in the book Tree and Leaf. Mr. A. O. Barfields essay has also, I believe, been reprinted and published elsewhere. Mr. Auden did, in fact, inform me that he agreed to contribute to your series a book called J.R.R. Tolkien in Christian Perspective. For various reasons I did not reply immediately to him; but though I regret that my view may not please you, and I am of course grateful for the honour of your attention, it is necessary I think to quote to you now what I said to him. I regret very much to hear that you have contracted to write a book about me. It does meet with my strong disapproval. I regard such things as premature impertinences; and unless undertaken by an intimate friend, or with consultation of the subject (for which I have at present no time), I cannot believe that they have a usefulness to justify the distaste and irritation given to the victim. I wish at any rate that any book could wait until I produce the Silmarillion. I am constantly interrupted in this but nothing interferes more than the present pother about me and my history. I owe Mr. Auden a debt of gratitude for the generosity with which he has supported and encouraged me since the first appearance of The Lord of the Rings. At the same I feel obliged to comment that he does not know me.* It is possibly unfair to judge him by the press reports (possibly garbled) about me and my views at a meeting of the so-called Tolkien Society. They at any rate, as reported, showed him to be entirely mistaken about my views on the topics he touched on. Thank you for sending me the uncorrected proof copy of the pamphlet by Mary McDermott Shideler. I was neither repelled by nor much interested in Charles Williams work. He was a friend of C. S. Lewis, but since, between the outbreak of war and his death, he spent large parts of his time in Oxford, I saw a great deal of him. I enjoyed his company: he was gay and amusing. Neither of us talked about the others work. I did, however, hear some of his work read aloud, in various stages, the novel ultimately called All Hallows Eve, large parts of the Arthurian matter and The Figure of Beatrice. I also read some other things he had written before we acquainted. I am therefore not a very useful critic, but as far as my opinion is worth anything, I think the pamphlet you have sent me seems to be interesting and well done. * We have, of course, met, perhaps half a dozen times in 40 years, but we have not had any [private?] on personal exchange of views, in talk on [?].

39

It is of not much importance to Charles Williams, since he was, one might say, a comet that appeared out of the blue, passed through the little provincial Oxford solar system, and went out again into the unknown. He was not an original Inkling, but since Lewis was the centre of that group and he became devotedly attached to Williams, Williams naturally, during the time of his presence in Oxford, become one. The informality of the group makes it difficult to say whether any one person was or was not a member. Many different people, attracted by the central magnet of Lewis, paid occasional visits, and sometimes even read things they had written: E. R. Edison, for instance, and Roy Campbell. But that did not constitute membership. I never met Dorothy L. Sayers and do not think she can be included, although an essay of hers (as a friend of Charles Williams) was printed in the above-mentioned Essays. Several of the most regular and oldest members of the group are not mentioned in the list on the second page of the pamphlet. But that, I think, does not really matter, since Charles Williams connection with the Inklings was in fact an astronomical accident that had no effect on his work, and probably no effect on any of the other members except Lewis. Certainly none on me. I hope you will appreciate my feeling. There is a wide distinction between a pamphlet of this kind written about a dead author, the bulk of whose work was devoted to exhibiting under one form or another views relative to Christian thought, and living author whose much more limited work is of quite a different sort, and who is struggling to complete his work, while time is steadily running short, without the distraction of comment or analysis which cannot in the nature of the case be well-informed. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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To Roger Verhulst
[The letter was dictated by Tolkien and signed by Phyllis M. Jenkinson (Tolkiens Oxford secretary from the end of 1965).]

8 April 1966

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Verhulst, Thank you for your letter of April 5th received this morning. I placed the matter of my essay in the hands of my publishers, George Allen & Unwin Ltd. I think the behaviour of the C.U.P. is incomprehensible, but since I am assured that the small royalty advance that Eerdmans are paying for the right to reprint the whole volume is to go to Charles Williams widow, I do not intend to make any further protest. With regard to the pamphlet of my work, I must remain firm in my objection to having an article by any hand written about me at this stage. Judging by Mr. Audens remarks as reported in the New Yorker, The Elvish Mode, I do not think his discussion would have been either valuable or understanding,1 unless he had been willing to consult me personally: a distraction for which, as I have said, I have no time to spare at present. Thank you very much for your kind words about my work. The Silmarillion was indeed the book referred to by C. S. Lewis, one of the few people who has read parts of it in manuscript. The chief obstacle to its publication is at present the mass of my correspondence. Yours sincerely, pp. J.R.R. Tolkien P[hyllis] M. J[enkinson] (dictated but not signed)

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From a letter to Max Rouslin


[Max Rouslin in the United States asked if it is possible to obtain an edition of The Lord of the Rings that will stand up to hard use.]

29 July 1966

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

I do receive many letters, but I was particularly pleased by yours. If you wish for a decent edition that will stand up to reasonably hard wear I recommend buying the hardback edition in England or America. The minor corrections and alterations made in the Ballantine edition could then be put into it by hand. There will be a new edition of The Lord of the Rings in England coming out this autumn, which has been more carefully revised and will contain a revised index. These hardback editions are, of course, expensive, but nothing like so expensive, I think as first editions would be (if they can be found). I dont think that it is possible to find a first edition of The Hobbit or [its?] second impression, which had the coloured pictures. The stocks went up in flames in the Battle of Britain. The first edition of The Lord of the Rings could possibly be obtained...

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To Gene Wolfe
[Gene Wolfe, an American author of science fiction and fantasy books (then at the very beginning of his career), was interested in the usage of a variant form of his own name in Tolkiens writings.]

7 November 1966

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Wolfe, Thank you very much for your letter. The etymology of words and names in my story has two sides: (1) their etymology within the story; and (2) the sources from which I, as an author, derive them. I expect you mean the latter. Orc I derived from Anglo-Saxon, a word meaning demon, usually supposed to be derived from the Latin Orcus Hell. But I doubt this, though the matter is too involved to set out here. Warg is simple. It is an old word for wolf, which also had the sense of an outlaw or hunted criminal. This is its usual sense in surviving texts.* I adopted the word, which had a good sound for the meaning, as a name for this particular brand of demonic wolf in the story. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien *O.E. wearg O. High German warg-O. Norse varg-r (also = wolf, espec. of legendary kind)

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To C. N. Manlove
[Colin N. Manlove from Pembroke College presumably had read Tree and Leaf (published in 1964), a collection of works by J.R.R. Tolkien, that contained reprints (with some alterations) of the essay On Fairy-stories and the short story Leaf by Niggle.]

8 February 1967

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Manlove, I think if you look again at my essay On Fairy Stories [sic] you will see that quite clearly both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings would be considered by me examples of this literary kind. The Hobbit was in fact written before I had thought the matter out. The Lord of the Rings was a deliberate attempt to write a large-scale adult fairy story. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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To Humphrey Carpenter
[Humphrey Carpenter asked permission for himself and Paul Drayton to use The Hobbit as a basis for a childrens musical play.]

21 March 1967

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Carpenter, You may certainly have my permission to use my book The Hobbit as a basis for a childrens play. My publishers are, of course, also concerned in all forms of reproduction, but normally no objection is raised when only a limited non-commercial performance is in view. With regard to the setting of verses as songs, I am not sure what the position is. If this is intended to lead to publication, both my publishers and the Performing Rights Society (of which I am now a member) would have to be consulted. It is a long time since we met and I should be delighted to see you again. Unfortunately I am very busy at the present and am going away on April 1st, so that I am afraid I shant be able to arrange a meeting until the end of that month. Perhaps you could get in touch with me then and see what could be done. Please thank you[r] mother for her good wishes and kind regards, which we heartily return. With best wishes to yourself, Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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From a letter to J. D. Gilbert


[Reply to letter of appreciation.]

17 April 1967

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Gilbert, Thank you very much for your charming letter which pleased me very much. I think one of the reasons why books read in childhood lose their charm later is that many of them are actually very ill-written, and this fault is not (consciously) noted by the uncritical and unexperienced reader. With regard to my published work, there is one item that might interest you and which you may not actually have, and that is The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth. It was originally in Essays and Studies of the English Association (New Series), published by John Murray, I think in 1951.1 It has been reprinted in The Tolkien Reader, published only in America by Houghton Mifflin, Boston. I am in fact under contract to publish the legends and stories of the eras before the Third Age, especially those briefly summered in Appendix A, [...] already written but not revised. Time goes too quickly. The notice of my anniversa[r]y (which you observed in The Times) warns me that that event*, which seems like [...?] With best wishes, Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien *My golden wedding.2

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From a letter to Oscar Morland


[Oscar Morland, the former British Ambassador in Indonesia and Japan, sent Tolkien copies of indexes of The Lord of the Rings he has compiled privately.]

9 May 1967

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

Thank you very much for the typed copies of your indexes. I think it is a very generous gift. It will probably be of considerable use to me when I have time to turn to the correction and improvement of the index provided in the revised edition of The Lord of the Rings published last year. It is the only index material I have received that takes in the Appendices, and these references will save me a lot of time. Thank you also for telling me of the pleasure you and your family have found in my works....

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From a letter to Mr. S.E.O. Joukes


[Mr. Joukes wanted to name his daughter Ioreth.]

28 August 1967

[76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford]

[Ioreth] was invented just to fit the character of the old nurse in the hospital, and its Elvish meaning is old woman... Quenya yarn old, Sindarin iaur in composition ior-; eth is a feminine ending... [Arwen] means in Elvish noble maiden, but... it is also a word in Welsh meaning greatly blessed.

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To Elsie Honeybourne
[Reply to letter of appreciation.]

18 September 1967

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

If I daresay so, a very hobbit-like kindness to send a present on your own birthday! Dear Miss Honeybourne, Thank you very much indeed for your generous and delightful letter, one of the most warming and comforting that I have received. As I said in the Foreword to the American paperback edition (Ballantine Books), I wrote The Lord of the Rings because I wished to try my hand at a really long story that would hold the attention of readers, amuse them, delight them, and at times maybe excite them or deeply move them. As a guide I had only my own feelings for what is appealing or moving; and it has been a great pleasure (and a surprise) to find that so many other people have similar feelings. But no one has written me a letter more warm, and few have come near it. I am specially grateful for your pleasure in the names: I took a great deal of trouble with them. Your own name is a delightful one and brings to me a suggestion of kinship. It must be derived (as so very many English surnames) from a village name; but the only ones of that name that I know of are the adjacent villages of Church H. (Worc[estershire]) and Cow H. (Glo[ucestershire]).* These are not far from Blackminster where my brother has a small fruit-farm, in lands where my maternal ancestors (Suffield) can be traced far back. Its such a good name that I must, in any future, more complete map of the Shire (often asked for), find a place for it. It is one of the comparatively rare place-names that means what it says: a stream, of sweet water and/or flowing through flowerymeads. Yours sincerely and gratefully, J.R.R. Tolkien *Incidentally: Cow seems to be a corruption of older Callow bare prob. because the land was free from bushes.

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43

To Roger Verhulst
[Roger Verhulst sent Tolkien two copies of C. S. Lewiss Letters to an American Lady.]

4 December 1967

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

Dear Mr. Verhulst, Thank you very much for your letter and also for the fulfilment of your promise of two copies of Letters to an American Lady, which I gratefully received a few days ago. I have now for the first time had an opportunity of reading these letters continuously and with full attention. I found them deeply interesting and very moving, and on certain points also to me enlightening. I was ill for about eight weeks which was damaging, but I am now recovering. With best wishes and thanks for your kindness, Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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44

To Elsie Honeybourne
[See Letter 42.]

21 December 1967

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

[Pencil note:] Despatch of this was delayed until today, Jan. 26. Your last letter had no address, and in the absence [?] of my secretary I [confuse with it?] your first letter. Dear Miss Honeybourne, Thank you so much for writing such kind and appreciative letters, brevity is not necessarily a virtue. I am interested in what you say of your name. I think it still probable that your fathers name nonetheless comes from near Evesham. It must be derived from a place-name; and though -Bourne (stream) is widespread in England, and occurs in Kentish names, Honeybourne is found only in Cow H. and Church H. near Evesham. There was a considerable movement and interchange between Kent and Worcestershire, largely because of the industries of fruit-growing. I shall certainly put Honeybourne on the Shire Map as soon as an opportunity of revision (much needed) occurs. I was deeply interested in your choice of passages, and quite agree about Pippins ride. An easing of tension was needed at the end of the Book (but of course provided instinctively and not by planning). To ride with Gandalf must have been like being borne by a Guardian Angel, with stern gentleness a most comforting combination to children (as we all are). I am sending you a copy of my recently published story.1 Not addressed to children (reached by age). An old mans tale, mainly concerned with retirement and bereavement. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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45

To Ken Jackson
[Ken Jackson, the technical director of Humphrey Carpenters adaptation of The Hobbit, staged by New College Choir School, asked permission to name his house Bag End.]

29 January 1968

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford

My dear Jackson, Thank you for your kind letter. It may interest you to know that (however unfair it may seem) it is impossible to patent mere names, so that you have no obligation to ask my permission, though I appreciate your courtesy. In the case of Bag-End, I did not invent it, it was in fact the local name of a house an aunt of mine lived in in Worcestershire: an old tumbledown manor house at the end of an untidy lane that led nowhere else. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

52

46

To Ingrid Pridgeon
[On 17 June, while preparing to move from Oxford to Poole on the south coast, Tolkien fell downstairs and injured his leg. He was still in hospital when the actual move (early in July) took place. Miss Ingrid Pridgeon in Spire Hollin, Glossop, Derbyshire, wrote him letter of appreciation.]

August 1968

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford crossed out, c/o Messrs Geo. Allen and Unwin, 40 Museum Street London W.C.1 typed in.

Dear Ingrid, Thank you very much for your letter. I am sorry that I cannot answer it more fully; I am having rather a bad time. I have left Oxford, and in the middle of a move I fell downstairs and damaged my right leg so badly that it is in plaster from toe to hip, and I am on crutches. That makes everything very difficult. Crutches also make ones hands v. tired, and writing is laborious (and wobbly). I notice Spire Hollin: very Shire-like. Hollin is northern, form of holly: and in Book I of The L.R. I lived for a while in Leeds in a Hollin Lane. I am v. glad to know that you liked and enjoyed my books. I hope soon, when the mess of moving (my books and papers are still piled in boxes) is past, and I am recovered to get on with more books. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien The address (to my publishers) will always find me. I have a secretary there.

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47

To Niall Hoskin
[Niall Hoskin, then 14 years old, was interested in languages.]

16 October 1968

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford crossed out, c/o Messrs Allen and Unwin, 40 Museum Street London W.C.1 written in.

Dear Mr. Hoskin, Your letter dated 4/VII/68, and postmarked 26 September (26 IX 68), reached me a few days ago. It was very kind of you to write and tell me of the pleasure my books have given to you and to your friends. I am afraid that I have no time to provide further linguistic information. Setting out and arranging detailed information concerning the Elvish language would be a task needing much labour and time. I should myself much enjoy it, but I cannot undertake it for individual enquirers. Such a book, if it ever appears, must wait until I have published, if I am allowed, the legends of the earlier ages a task which is greatly delayed by the weight of my correspondence and related business. I have left Oxford and am in retreatment as far as possible, from all such interruptions. My chief address for correspondence is now as given above. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien P.S. I am puzzled by your reference to the practical Westron. I have not given any information concerning the Westron as Common Speech sufficient for an [estimation?] of its style or qualities. As stated on the Appendices the C. S. has been throughout translated into English terms, even in nomenclature. And a glimpse of a few words is given here and there: e.g. in the notes on hobbit-names on the last pages of the Appendices.

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48

From an unpublished draft letter (in private collection)

late 1968 Iarwain = old-young, presumably because as far as anybody remembered he had always looked much the same: old but very vigorous... I do not know his [Tom Bombadils] origin though I might make guesses. He is best left as he is, a mystery. There are many mysteries in any closed/organized system of history/mythology... Eldest was the courtesy title of Treebeard as the oldest surviving Ent. The Ents claimed to be the oldest speaking people after the Elves [illegible] until taught the art of speech by the Elves... They were therefore placed after the Dwarves in the Old List... since Dwarves had the power of speech from their awaking...

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49

From a letter to Michael Blashka


[Michael Blashka in East Northport, Long Island, New York, wrote to Tolkien in a formal, pseudo-diplomatic style in the guise of an interpreter to King Ephedolos, enquiring when The Silmarillion will be published and asking what happens to Frodo when he crosses the sea. Blashkas letter included a map of the new kingdom of Eruidor and the Kings message in a runic alphabet, with a supplied translation into English. Tolkien drafted a reply in the third person and sent it to Joy Hill, presumably for her to type and send on.]

?1969 or later Dear Sir, Professor Tolkien has requested me, his chief scribe and assistant, to reply to your letter and enclosure. He desires you to present to King Ephedolos his thanks for his majestys condescension in writing to him and expressing approval of the historical books so far issued. With regard to the questions that his majesty has deigned to ask: Firstly. The professor is unable to name a date for the issue of the Silmarillion. The collection of the material has been delayed with burden of duties and misfortunes, and most recently with need to depart from his home and seek refuge in another part of the realm... Secondly. The professor has no clear knowledge of the fate of Frodo or others permitted to cross the sea...
[In the accompanying note to Joy Hill Tolkien wrote:]

Blashka. A cracked letter! No need of course, to reply. Though (I am afraid) this kind of thing amuses me, since I may be considered rather cracked myself in similar ways. The writer is simple-minded but intelligent; and at any rate has tackled the difficult Angerthas with tolerable success. Playing the game with readers of this sort (if not too time-wasting) is perhaps worthwhile, if only as a means of keeping interest in the L.R. alive among the less fantasised (or drugged) young folk...1

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50

To Amy Ronald
[Tolkien carried on a long-term correspondence with Amy Ronald (the first letter to Amy Ronald mentioned in The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, was dated July of 1956). This time she sent Tolkien a gift (some bottles of alcoholic beverages).]

15 March 1969

76 Sandfield Road, Headington, Oxford crossed out

My dear Amy, Thank you and thank you again! I should have thought one bottle generous beyond my deserts, but five! This, of course, as impossible to dissuade me from expressing thanks (and delight) as to restrain you from lavishing gifts on an unworthy object! I am nibbing along, but not getting much done. Things are rather against me: the weather, the correspondence (now falling off, or drained off), and health. My own, which is not v.g. and the energy rather damped down; and Ediths which is precarious and poor although she is very gallant. I was distressed to find that your own health is not good, and denies you so much. I remember you in prayer. I hope we shall have a chance of meeting again before v. long: when, if it is ever going to, the weather opens up down here in our sheltered nook which since the end of October, has become a damp and overshadowed nook walking is out, not hardly a greenbud on trees, while up on the windy east cliff the Miramar garden is alight with tulips daffodils and crocuses! I wondered if you would care to have a copy of the new French version and edition of The Hobbit? It has a ludicrous jacket; but good, paper and type. If so I will get A&U, who have received some from Paris to send you one. Edith is ill just at present. (My secretary is here for the week-end organizing me.) But we both send love & all good wishes, Yours sincerely, Ronald

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51

From a letter to Amy Ronald


[Amy Ronald (replying to the previous letter) wrote that she had ordered six bottles to be delivered.]

20 March 1969
[Tolkien notes that he gave the wrong number of bottles previously, possibly because ]

I had appropriated the Courvoisier to my sole usage... I shall be interested to hear how the French version of Le Hobbit strikes you. Personally I think one of the most unfortunate results of the French invasion of England was the adulteration of our own language. With the consequence that we have a large Franco-Latin ingredient, largely floating about like oil, and specially used when we are being adult, stuffy or professional. So that French (to those who don't know it well) sounds often priggish in colloquial dialogue. JRRT

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52

From a letter to Anthony D. Howlett


[Anthony D. Howlett asked a permission to use Rivendell for the name for a house.]

28 May 1969

c/o George Allen and Unwin Ltd 40 Museum Street London W.C.1

Dear Mr. Howlett, Thank you for your letter. Rivendell seems to have become a popular name for houses, thought only a few have been so kind as to tell me of their choice or ask leave which is not necessary, since products of the art of name-coining cannot be patented except as attached to articles for sale. The choice is in any case a compliment, and a confirmation of my feeling that Rivendell is a pleasant and natural-sounding name. It is not an exact translation of Imladrist, which would be more closely rendered: Corfedale or even Corfebottom, as meaning Flat-floored valley of the Cleft. Imladrist would have been written in the antique S. mode shown on the gates of Moria

In the general use (applicable to both S. and Q.) of the period of the tale not the specialized Q. classical use seen in the letter-nouns it would be

Rivendell in this mode would be

or

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53

To Mr. Burrows
[Mr. Burrows sent Tolkien a Hobbit dust-jacket to sign.]

1 August 1969

c/o Messrs George Allen and Unwin Ltd 40 Museum Street London W.C.1

Dear Mr. Burrows, Thank you for kind & appreciative letter. I return your Hobbit cover signed. You have not discovered my address: I left Oxford a year ago. I now live in retirement in an endeavour to preserve some time free from interruptions. All letters will be forwarded from the below address. I have been unwell during July and this added to the forwarding G.B. P.Office must be my excuse for delay. Best wishes, Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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54

To Mr. Wood
[Mr. Wood requested three cards with Tolkiens signature.]

?Late summer or autumn 1970

c/o Messrs Allen and Unwin Ltd 40 Museum Street London W.C.1

Dear Mr. Wood, Thank you for your very kind letter, which gave me great pleasure. I enclose the three cards that you sent, signed, hoping that you will retain one for yourself. I moved from Oxford two years ago into retirement; not from writing but from publicity, though an accident in 1968 incapacitated me for six months. The above address will find me with little delay: I have a secretary there who sees that letters are not neglected. With best wishes and [thanks?], Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien The new cover of the India paper edition is a simplified version of the design I made years ago for Vol. III. The erupting mountain and the long arm of Sauron, terrible but impotent; in the top background could not be accommodated to stamping. Also the silver inscription between the wings and the throne, containing the words of Elendil (at the bottom of III 245) was too delicate for the purpose. Incidentally, since many purchasers have enquired about it, [strange characters?] is Elendils name without vowel-signs L-ND-L.

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55

From a letter to W.A.R. Hadley


[Wilfred Arthur R. Roy Hadley, Tolkiens first cousin, immigrated to Canada in 1913. Over the years Roy and his wife Leslie maintained periodic correspondence with Ronald and Edith Tolkien.]

14 December 1970

19 Lakeside Rd, Branksome Park, Poole, Dorset

My dear Roy, How I wish I could see you! But here I am, imprisoned. I have only been away one night since I came here in 1968 after my accident! I should be well and active but for frustration. But we live in world fast slipping into self-destructive lunacy. I have read with great distress about the troubles in Canada. But if I was a free man I should love to visit it and see you. And next to [that?] to see S. Africa again. In some ways the most memorable event this year was a visit from Ding.1 She came and stayed for some days in the summer, at a small hotel which we know. An amazing person... Yours with love, Ronald

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56

From a letter to Hilary Tolkien


[J.R.R. Tolkiens brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel, run a small fruit-farm near Evesham, West Midlands.]

?Autumn 1971 As for Bonfire Night that was a great Festival with us when the children were young. But I hit on the excuse for making it a continuous birthday jamboree for the boys (Oct 22, Nov 16, 21),1 and also a carrying on of the ancient Incoming of Winter Festival, so that no shadow of the abominable business of 1605 was allowed to fall on it. Certainly one of the wickedest, cleverest, and most successful pieces of Government propaganda in history!.. When I lived in Yorkshire the 5th was not remembered; but the old Mischief Night with larks and [rowdyism?] went on. All the same I should be sorry if the new propagandists against fireworks were successful! I would rather have my Catherine Wheels and backarappers, and squibs and all that domestically than all the municipal displays in parks. But I know such domestic fun needs a stern and competent manager! We used to hoard large quantities of horse-chestnuts, and fill our small bonfire with them: they provided quite a lot of unexpected pops and bangs...

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57

To Robert Burchfield
[Tolkien had borrowed from Burchfield the volume of Kentish Place-names by J. K. Wallenberg (1931). The book was inadvertently packed for moving to Poole in 1968 while Tolkien was in hospital, and was discovered only in 1972, when Tolkien returned to Oxford after the death of his wife. (After writing this note, Tolkien neglected to send either it or the book. Christopher Tolkien sent them to Burchfield in June 1974.)]

11 June 1972

Merton College, Oxford

My dear Burchfield, In unpacking my books from [?shore] I discovered this book which belongs to you. You lent it me a long while ago but as I was in hospital at the time of my removal from Oxford, I was not guilty of removing it to Poole, though guilty (with more excuse) for not returning it later. Forgive me. Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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58

To Patrick Hunt
[John Patrick Hunt, who had written to Tolkien, was at that time in prison. Tolkien sent him encouraging letter together with his original signed photograph (taken probably in 1972).]

25 January 1973

Merton College, Oxford

Dear Mr. Hunt, Thank you very much for your kind letter: it is most encouraging (to an author) to learn that his books have given pleasure and encouragement. I have had v. dark days of my own in my time, and I do hope that yours will soon now be over. With v. best wishes, Yours sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien

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59

To Philip Brown
[Philip Brown of Merton College asked if Tolkien would sign his set of The Lord of the Rings.]

30 May 1973

Merton College, Oxford

My dear Brown, Your qualification is more than ample. I should like very much to see you, if a date can be arranged. The time of day that suits me best is about tea-time though I dont take tea and cannot offer you that drink. There are others. If you will bring your copy of i Trin i Cormaron (in the C. S. The Lord of the Rings)1 I will sign it. At present Wed. June 6, Thu. June 7 are available for me; I go down on June 25. With best wishes, Yours, J.R.R. Tolkien Excuse my saying, please keep this appointment private. I have to refuse so many other requests with little or no qualifications that I am obliged to try [and have?] it be [leaves?] that am unapproachable!

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To James A. H. Murray
[James A. H. Murray, a great-great grandson of the founding editor of the Oxford English Dictionary Sir James A. H. Murray (18371915), requested some Tolkiens signatures.]

5 June 1973 Private and confidential

Merton College, Oxford

Dear James, I enclose 2 signatures; the upper one for your use as you wish. If you would like any more, I will certainly send some. Or if you would like to visit me in my guarded rooms in 21 Merton Street and bring any books for signature, I should love to see you. I could show you some pictures & a tapestry associated with The Lord of the Rings and some other things which might interest you. I expect school presses rather hard at this time of the year and I am also much harried and shall not be really free until July 23. In any case I shall be away most of the time after the end of the University Full Term until then. But if you are not going away for all the Vacation, I am sure we could fix up a date if you wish for one. With best wishes, Yours very sincerely, J.R.R. Tolkien My rooms in 21 M. S. are guarded because it was arranged that my living there was not to be known, but since it became known, I have been assailed by hosts of people, and, worse, have been invaded by criminals; so that I live behind locked doors, and under the eye of the local C.I.D.,1 which all sounds romantic, but is in fact an infernal nuisance. But I should of course arrange for you to pass the barrier built by the college to protect me!

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Appendix
Selected quotations from the letters of J.R.R. Tolkien published in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology (2006)
5 July 1955 Tolkien writes to W.N. Beard [of the George Allen & Unwin production staff]. The proofs did not arrive until 2 July.1 It is putting on pressure to ask him to check 103 pages of closely printed matter and many references quickly. Fortunately the work has been done well, and there is as far as I can see at first reading little needing correction. However, they have left p. 402 blank except for the numerals, and I do not feel inclined to pass that carte blanche [...] I think the best I can do is to send the marked proofs to you tomorrow, Wed[nesday], at whatever cost of sleep. (I unfortunately lost 3 days of leisure and am not now so free!) The blanks on p. 402 I will fill in by hand. But I shall want a revise of that. And I do want a final revised set of the pages of the narrative of Vol. III. I do not anticipate that any of the references to it will be wrong, or at least no more so than can be dealt with by a letter. But I want to see it in its final state. [authors italics]
P. 459. [Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins, London.]

28 March 1956 Tolkien writes to Patricia Kirke. He is harassed not only by ill health and professional duties, but also by the endless concerns of the additional role of author, involved with Income Tax, agreements, translation rights, and the clamour for more. He will put aside such concerns for a few days to celebrate Easter, but while he approves in the abstract of the reform of the liturgy... one feels a little dislocated and even a little sad at my age to know that the ceremonies and modes so long familiar and deeply associated with the season will never be heard again!
P. 487. [Gerard A.J. Stodolski, Catalogue 299, [June 1999], item 29.]

5 August 1957 Tolkien writes two letters to Jerome W. Archer at Marquette University. The first is a formal acceptance of, and gratitude for, the invitation to visit Marquette in spring 1958 and the proposed financial arrangements. [...] In the second letter he explains that his real doubt as to whether he will be able to visit is personal: Continuous over-work since 1951 has begun to tell on me; and I am feeling rather exhausted. I have recently been ill; and I am obliged to cancel plans for travel this vacation... Leave of absence will, however, I hope, enable me to clear off before next spring some of the things that are now harassing me; and I am now making preliminary plans for the use of the time, and am trying to fix some dates.
P. 509. [Special Collections and University Archives, John P. Raynor, S.J., Library, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.]

20 March 1958 Tolkien writes to Rayner Unwin. [...] A friend has sent him a copy [...] of a long review [of The Lord of the Rings] in Dutch, which Tolkien describes as rather an extreme example of its kind, and I thought rather naf in its almost explicit avowal that the critic has waded through all three volumes of [The Lord of the Rings] in the vain 68

hope of finding descriptions of excretion or copulation; and being cheated decided this was not high-class literature!
P. 522. [Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, Harper-Collins, London.]

?n Aprilc. 21 April and c. 28 April5 May 1958 Tolkien [...] begins a letter to Forrest J. Ackerman.2 [...] He regrets that the storyline is not on the same level as the conceptual art he was shown. He has no clear idea of how long the film is expected to be, but some idea of the length aimed at, and the reasons for reduction of the original (whether artistic, practical, or financial), is really necessary for a general criticism. The Lord of the Rings is arranged in 6 sections or books. Each section consists of a series of chapters or scenes; and the placing in sequence of these, as also of the sections themselves, is the result of purpose and thought. In the authors opinion this arrangement cannot be altered without serious damage... The interleaving of the events in the two main threads, Frodo-Sam and the War, which was deliberately avoided in the original with good reason, produces a jumble, that would be bewildering to any viewers not well acquainted with the book. The latter would not recognize the story as the one that I have told at all: the events, the characters, and the moral significance have all been altered and distorted... I pass over the major matter: that the most important part of the whole work, the journey through Mordor and the martyrdom of Frodo, has been cut in preference for battles; though it is the chief point of the Lord of the Rings that the battles were of subordinate significance... [authors italics]
Pp. 5245. [Special Collections and University Archives, John P. Raynor, S.J., Library, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.]

30 August 1960 Tolkien writes a two-page letter from Stoke-on-Trent to George Lewis Hersch. He comments, concerning invented languages, that much is only in my head, but even such parts as are in writing are complex, long and technical treatises on the historical connexion between Quenya and Sindarin, and their derivation from a common origin. Tolkien thinks that Hersh, a zoologist, might be interested in a description of the flora and fauna of Nmenor, limited of course to my own simple-mindedness and ignorance, and also by the necessary suppositions that are derived from documents of a merely descriptive and unscientific kind, and finally by the mythological ingredient. But he discovered, when he turned his mind on Nmenor, that its shadow cast on The Lord of the Rings was thus dispelled and must again have its background of the halfknown and unknown. That is his great difficulty: in The Lord of the Rings, the matter of The Silmarillion was used as history and background; but in The Silmarillion Thangorodrim visited will lose all that effect.
P. 562. [Michael Silverman, Catalogue No. 2 (1998), item 43.]

?15 July 1964 (postmark) Tolkien finds an unfinished letter to Miss J. L. Curry begun in April but then neglected. He now completes it, apologizing for the delay.3 He expresses his dislike of Disneys films: Though in most of the pictures proceeding from his studios there are admirable or charming passages, the effect of all of them is to me disgusting. Some have given me nausea. He criticizes Disneys business practices, and would not have given a film proposal from Disney any consideration at all.
P. 619. [Quoted in Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature, History, Childrens & Illustrated Books & Drawings, London, 10 July 2001, p. 123.]

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24 August 1965 Tolkien writes to Rayner Unwin, sending the revised and corrected Hobbit text. I have (I hope) resisted the inclination to improve The Hobbit except for removing the author-to-reader asides, in some places: very irritating to intelligent children (as some have said). There are some corrections due to the actual errors and discrepancies in the tale itself; some that try to make things clearer. But since in order to spot these things including printers errors that still survive! one has to read the whole with line-to-line care, it seemed to me a pity not to get rid of a few happygo-lucky passages that are quite out of joint. The Hobbit is taken as a prologue to The [Lord of the Rings] and though no one expects consistency between the two to be exact, it is a pity that some passages in The [Hobbit] should be completely impossible in The [Lord of the Rings]. I hope you will agree, for instance, that the alterations in Ch. II provide that the journey as far as the first troll-adventure though suitably rapid and understated now could be a quick glance at the same country that is described in the long work.
P. 640. [Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins, London.]

11 October 1966 Tolkien writes to Clyde Kilby, thanking him for his help during the summer.4 It was among the many evil effects of Ace Books5 that the Gawain business was not concluded, so that I was not able to give an undivided mind to the Silmarillion. But I became so involved in it again, and so re-energized and enheartened by you, that it made tinkering with Gawain and Pearl as unappetizing, not to say revolting, as eating a cold dinner already rejected... In fact I am now still at it as I failed to send in the stuff before sailing...6
P. 676. [Marion E. Wade Center, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.]

14 May 1968 Tolkien writes [from the Hotel Miramar, Bournemouth] to Rayner Unwin. [...] I have not had, and did not expect to have, a restful stay here. Edith was very bad when I felt obliged to leave home again (with Gawain text etc. which I have hardly had a moment to attend to). Since part of the malady is immobility... I have been ramping round this large (but in part very beautiful) conurbation. The red light is on. I shall get nothing effectively done in the wretched condition of Sandfield Road. The shift must be now or never. I have discovered a very admirable and commodious bungalow in the borough of Poole... It is quite possible that I shall have bought it before I return next week. Edith is recovering as she always does here and under better and more up to date treatment is already improving in mobility, as I myself feel very energetic (as usual here).
P. 725. [George Allen & Unwin archive, University of Reading.]

4 June 1968 Tolkien writes to Clyde S. Kilby. [...] William Ready [the former Director of Libraries at Marquette University] had the impertinence to send him an inscribed copy of his book, The Tolkien Relation. He refutes Readys claim that he spent hours interviewing Tolkien. He made only a short visit, and talked mainly about himself. I can now see his difficulty. If he had brought out a notebook and informed me of his object, I should have shown him out. He therefore had to rely on his own memory of the few remarks I made about my personal history. These he appears to have embroidered with wholly illegitimate deductions of his own and the additions of 70

baseless fictions. I have now made up my mind not to see anybody from your country whom I do not already know, nor anybody from any Press in any country.
P. 726. [Marion E. Wade Center, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois. A part of this letter was published in The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (Letter 304).]

3 August 1968 Tolkien writes a long letter to Joy Hill. He is still at the Hotel Miramar [after the injure of his leg], feeling much better, but pretty completely frustrated. (I am ceasing to notice the great weight of plaster, but a straight unbendable leg makes all things difficult; dressing is a problem, and [I] cannot ride in a car, except laid out on the back seat.) Even with great effort I cannot do anything useful to reorder the complete confusion of my books files and papers mostly still quite inaccessible. Also a natural result this and the shock of the accident I still find concentration even on simple letters very difficult. And crutches give me stiff tired hands. With the help of my eldest son, who is occupying my bedroom in Lakeside Road, the house is now domestically almost in order and quite habitable. But my own room, and the prospective library remain in piled disorder; and after nearly 3 weeks of negotiations I have still not managed to get anything done about it. B[ournemou]th is at the height of its season, and also engaged in a frenzy of building, public and private, so that architects, carpenters, and furniture-heavers are hard to discover.
P. 730. [Collection of Ren van Rossenberg.]

12 August 1968 Tolkien writes to Joy Hill. Most of my time and such energy as I have is still occupied in the endlessly frustrated task of getting any one to do anything. At last, after almost one month, men are actually beginning to erect my bookshelves. I am physically very tired, since the ordinary things of daily life are exhausting. Dressing and undressing are the equivalent to an hours hard work; and 100 yds on crutches equals... a four mile walk for the uninjured. Both my hands are permanently weary. My doctor diagnoses me as still suffering from shock, and recommends a period of quiet about as useful as advising a poor pensioner to go on a sea-cruise.
P. 731. [Collection of Ren van Rossenberg.]

2 December 1968 Tolkien writes to Rayner Unwin. [...] He comments on the appalling year, 1968, which began in January with the breakdown of Ediths failing health, after the strains of nursing me at the end of the previous year, and the collapse of my son John who took refuge with us on the very near verge of a nervous breakdown and proceeded to the present chaos. I seem to have spent most of my time in the Miramar Hotel, where work of any real kind, and the control of correspondence, was impossible. He comments of the list of his unpublished works, made by Joy Hill in her efforts to arouse me from a lethargy of despair, and of bodily weariness since I was still under thrice-weekly painful treatment.[...] Nothing fills him with greater longing than the thought of being able to spend some uninterrupted hours at a desk in an ordered library again but the bedevilment of my books has been appalling, and I am still unable to find most of those that I most need!
P. 737. [Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins, London.]

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7 January 1969 Tolkien writes to his grandson Michael George. He is much better. Just after Christmas my surgeon paid me a farewell visit, released me from treatment exercises and all that; and even my walking-stick has gone back to its proper place: the hall-stand. But my right leg remains entish (not very bendable). The surgeon says that I shall gain a few, perhaps 20 degrees, more flexion in time which will enable [me] to surmount the chief remaining obstacles: walking down steps in normal fashion, and kneeling. He worked hard to reduce the chaos of my books and papers to order before 1968 passed. The basic chaos created by removers had been made far worse by helpers, and in the end every single book, file and [manuscript] had to be moved and replaced. I have not yet in fact completed the task, but my study-office is at least useable and habitable.
Pp. 73940. [British Library, London. MS Add. 71657.]

2 February 1972 Tolkien writes to Dorothy Wood about his forthcoming visit to Buckingham Palace to receive the CBE [Commander of the Order of the British Empire]. He is disappointed that the Queen Mother, whom he has seen several times, may be making the presentations rather than Queen Elizabeth,7 whom he has seen only once, at a distance. I am one of her devoted subjects and greatly admire her, though her voice is not one of her graces.
P. 759. [Quoted in Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature, History, Childrens Books, Illustrations and Photographs, 8 July 2004, p. 232.]

17 August 1973 Tolkien replies to a letter about The Lord of the Rings. His view of his books is rather different from that of the letter-writer. It is enough for me that people enjoy Lord of the Rings as a story without forming detailed comparisons between Middleearth and the world today.
P. 774. [Tolkien-George Allen & Unwin archive, HarperCollins, London.]

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Notes
[1] Publication: Peter Gilliver, Edmund Weiner, Jeremy Marshall. The Ring of Words (2006), p. 194. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 168; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Kenneth_Sisam_16_March_1933 1. A hill hamlet 3 miles southwest of Oxford, where was Sisams house. 2. New English Dictionary, as the Oxford English Dictionary was called at its initiation. [2] Publication: online listing The Art & Book Sale, Bay East Auctions, Sydney, 27 November 2011 (Lot 390); and on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0167.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/G.H._Cowling_23_December_1934 [3] Publication: on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0088.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Aurelius_Pompen_27_September_1936 [4] Publication: excerpt appeared in Humphrey Carpenter. J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography (1977), pp. 156 7; Humphrey Carpenter. The Inklings (1978), p. 168; Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull. The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 2: Readers Guide (2006), p. 1115. [5] Publication: a description of the letter and photograph of the first page appeared in Christies auction catalogue Fine Printed Books and Manuscripts, 1 June 2009 (Lot 77). The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Przemyslaw_Mroczkowski_2_August_1946 1. Eventually Mroczkowski spent the 19467 academic year as a Research Fellow at the University of Notre Dame in the U.S. Afterwards he spent the 19578 academic year in Oxford as a visiting scholar, thanks to Graham Greene, who had visited Poland shortly before. In Oxford he became friends with J.R.R. Tolkien, who acquainted him with the other members of the Inklings. [6] Publication: a description of the letter and photograph of one page appeared in Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature and History, 18 July 1991. Two and a half of the 4 pages of the letter appeared in 1995 in Catalogue 3 of Gerard A.J. Stodolski, Manchester, New Hampshire. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 346; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Miss_Turnbull_11_March_1949 1. Farmer Giles of Ham. [7] Publication: a description of the letter and photograph of the first page appeared in Sothebys auction catalogue Valuable Printed Books and Manuscripts, 13 December 2001, pp. 2623 (Lot 552); photograph of the second page appeared in Christies auction catalogue The Albin Schram Collection of Autograph Letters, p. 115 (Lot 187). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 350; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Pauline_Baynes_4_June_1949 [8] Publication: a description of the letter and photograph of the first page appeared in Christies auction catalogue Valuable Manuscripts and Printed Books, London, 7 June 2006, p. 236 (Lot 216). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, pp. 4434; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Robert_Burchfield_6_November_1954 1. Burchfield offered to lecture in the Oxford English School.

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[9] Publication: excerpts from this 4-page letter and photograph of the first page appeared in Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature, History, Private Press, Childrens Books and Illustrations, 13 December 2007, p. 230. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Derrick_Parnum_2_March_1955 [10] Publication: Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature and History, 18 July 1991. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 456; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Miss_Turnbull_19_May_1955 [11] Publication: excerpts from this 2-page letter and photograph of the final page appeared in Bonhams auction catalogue Printed Books, Maps, Manuscripts and Photographs, London, 4 November 2008 (Lot 430). The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/John_Roberts_22_August_1955 [12] Publication: Leski Auctions: Sport & General Memorabilia, 10th February 2005 (Lot 72). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 475; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Mr(s%3F)_Souch_September_1955 [13] Publication: a description of the letter appeared in Thomas A. Goldwasser Rare Books Catalogue 23: Autographs-Manuscripts-Documents, pp. 9091 (Lot 146). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 476. http://www.goldwasserbooks.com/goldwasser/images/pdfs/Catalogue_23.pdf [14] Publication: excerpt appeared in T. Shippey. The Road to Middle-earth (2nd Ed., 2003), p. 132. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 482. [15] Publication: excerpts from this 8-page draft letter appeared in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (2007): J.R.R. Tolkien. Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings, edited by Christopher Gilson, pp. (respectively) 40; 62; 152; 153; 72; 76. Other excerpts appeared on pp. 40, 43, 44, 72, 82, 101, 110, 1512, 187. [16] Publication: on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 494; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0126.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Terence_Tiller_19_September_1956 [17] Publication: excerpt from this 8-page letter appeared in Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull. The Lord of the Rings: A Readers Companion (2005), pp. 3734. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 496. [18] Publication: excerpt appeared in Michael George Tolkiens transcript of his lecture delivered to the University of St Andrews Science Fiction and Fantasy Society on 2nd May, 1989 (section 15). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 504; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.michaeltolkien.com/page74.html http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Michael_George_Tolkien_24_April_1957 [19] Publication: excerpts from this 3-page letter and photograph of one page appeared in Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature, History, Fine Bindings, Private Press Books, Children's Books, Illustrated Books and Drawing, 10 July 2003, p. 297 (Lot 474). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 535; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/L.M._Cutts_26_October_1958

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[20] Publication: Christies auction catalogue Valuable Printed Books and Manuscripts, London, 26 November 1997 (Lot 315). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 600; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/H._Cotton_Minchin_14_November_1962 [21] Publication: excerpts from this 6-page letter and photograph of the first page appeared in Sothebys auction catalogue Literature and Illustration, 11-12 July 2002, p. 372 (Lot 786). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 610; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Mrs._Munby_21_October_1963 http://greenbooks.theonering.net/guest/files/041305.html [22] Publication: Mallorn 17 (1981): Michael Lightowlers. A letter from J.R.R.T., pp. 3132. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 615; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Justin_Arundale_18_January_1964 [23] Publication: excerpts from this 3%-page letter and photograph of the first page appeared in Christies auction catalogue Fine Printed Books and Manuscripts, 1 June 2009 (Lot 76). The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Przemyslaw_Mroczkowski_2026_January_1964 1. In July. See The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 607. 2. The Church. [24] Publication: Niekas 38 (1989), pp. 13, 67; Vinyar Tengwar 6 (July 1989), photograph of the letter is featured on the back, and transcription (by J. T. Sibley) is given on pp. 78. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 618; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Jane_T._Sibley_30_May_1964 [25] Publication: excerpt appeared in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (2007): J.R.R. Tolkien. Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings, edited by Christopher Gilson, pp. 1112. [26] Publication: a description of the letter appeared in Christies auction catalogue 20th-Century Books and Manuscripts, 6 December 2002, p. 21. Photograph of the letter appeared on the Elendilion website (citing eBay sale). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 621; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.elendilion.pl/2008/05/31/tolkien-o-ekranizacji-jego-powieci http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Carole_Ward_10_August_1964 1. Possibly Rayner Unwins secretary Joy Hill, early in the 1960s responsible at Allen & Unwin for handling subsidiary rights and permissions concerning Tolkien. 2. Most likely, the proofs of Tree and Leaf. [27] Publication: the letter was quoted in letter by L. Sprague de Camp, Mythlore 13, no. 4, whole no. 50 (Summer 1987), p. 41. Photograph of the letter appeared on the website Tolkien Library with a note a wonderful example of [Tolkiens] cryptic handwriting. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 622; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/000333.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/L._Sprague_de_Camp_30_August_1964 1. Thangobrind is from Dunsanys Distressing Tale of Thangobrind the Jeweler; Alaric from Moores Hellsgard. The paragraph in question reads: And the only daughter of the Merchant Prince felt so little gratitude for this great deliverance that she took to respectability of a militant kind, and became aggressively dull, and called her home the English Riviera, and had platitudes worked in worsted upon her tea-cosy, and in the end never dies, but passed away at her residence.

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[28] Publication: photograph of the letter appeared in 2010 on the website Tolkien Collectors Guide, with Christopher Tolkiens confirmation of the authenticity of the letter. The letter is mentioned on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienguide.com/modules/newbb/viewtopic.php?topic_id=1210&viewmode=flat&order= ASC&type=&mode=0&start=0 http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Ingeborg_Korff_31_December_1964 [29] Publication: excerpt appeared in Mythprint, Vol. 8, No. 3 (September 1973), p. 3. Also in: Clyde S. Kilby. Tolkien and The Silmarillion (1976), p. 31. Kilby wrongly attributes the published excerpt to a letter from Tolkien to Vera Chapman and gives a wrong date; John D. Rateliff cleared up the date of the letter in the Marquette University collection of Tolkiens letters. The letter is mentioned on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://sacnoths.blogspot.com/2009/06/frozen-custard-tolkien-manuscripts-and.html http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Joan_O._Falconer_196%3F [30] Publication: excerpt appeared in Michael George Tolkiens transcript of his lecture delivered to the University of St Andrews Science Fiction and Fantasy Society on 2nd May, 1989 (section 14). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 644; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.michaeltolkien.com/page74.html http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Michael_George_Tolkien_16_September_1965 [31] Publication: part of this letter was originally published in The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (Letter 279). A few additional lines (provided here) appeared in Michael George Tolkiens transcript of his lecture delivered to the University of St Andrews Science Fiction and Fantasy Society on 2nd May, 1989 (section 14). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 645; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.michaeltolkien.com/page74.html http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Michael_George_Tolkien_30_October_1965 [32] Publication: a description of the letter appeared in Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature, History, Private Press and Childrens Books, 12 December 2002. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 652; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Roger_Shaw_7_January_1966 [33] Publication: Christies auction catalogue Fine Printed Books and Manuscripts, 28 November 2011 (Lot 257); and on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 658; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0125.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Roger_Verhulst_9_March_1966 [34] Publication: Christies auction catalogue Fine Printed Books and Manuscripts, 28 November 2011 (Lot 258); and on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 662; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0125.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Roger_Verhulst_8_April_1966 1. See Letter 284 in The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. [35] Publication: a description of the letter appeared at RR Auction, Catalog 351, November 2009 (Item 553 - J.R.R. Tolkien). The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://rrauction.com/past_auction_item.cfm?ID=3200964 http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Max_Rouslin_29_July_1966

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[36] Publication: the transcription of the letter appeared in Gene Wolfes essay The Best Introduction to the Mountains, the Interzone magazine, issue 174 (December 2001). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 680; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Gene_Wolfe_7_November_1966 [37] Publication: on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 689; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0095.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/C.N._Manlove_8_February_1967 [38] Publication: in eBay listing (listed for sale by George Houle Autographs). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, pp. 6878; with the corrected date in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Humphrey_Carpenter_29_January_1968 [39] Publication: in eBay listing (listed for sale by George Houle Autographs). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 696. http://www.ebay.com/itm/JRR-TOLKIEN-LETTER-HOMECOMING-BEORHTNOTH/390314469848?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item5ae08e29d8#ht_2837wt_1398 1. Actually, in 1953. 2. The fiftieth anniversary of Ronald and Edith Tolkiens wedding, 22 March 1966. [40] Publication: a description of the letter appeared at RR Auction, Catalog 373, July 2011 (Item 719 J. R. R. Tolkien). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 698. http://rrauction.com/past_auction_item.cfm?ID=3238801 [41] Publication: excerpts appeared in Ren van Rossenberg. Hobbits in Holland: Leven en Werk van J.R.R. Tolkien (1992), p. 68; excerpts provided here were published in: Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull. The Lord of the Rings: A Readers Companion (2005), pp. (respectively) 579; 205. The letter is mentioned on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Mr_Joukes_28_August_1967 [42] Publication: Bloomsbury auction catalogue Modern First Editions, Manuscripts and Autograph Letters, English and Continental Literature and History, 24 May 2007 (Lot 493); at RR Auction, Catalog 324, August 2007 (Item 555 - J. R. R. Tolkien); and on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/press/Tolkien_Letter_for_sale.php http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Elsie_Honeybourne_18_September_1967 [43] Publication: Christies auction catalogue Fine Printed Books and Manuscripts, 28 November 2011 (Lot 258); and on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0125.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Roger_Verhulst_4_December_1967 [44] Publication: Bloomsbury auction catalogue Modern First Editions, Manuscripts and Autograph Letters, English and Continental Literature and History, 24 May 2007 (Lot 494); at RR Auction, Catalog 326, October 2007 (Item 519 - J. R. R. Tolkien); and on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/press/Tolkien_Letter_for_sale_2.php http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Elsie_Honeybourne_21_December_1967 1. Smith of Wootton Major. [45] Publication: Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature and History, 12 July 2005 (Lot 429).

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The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 716; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.sothebys.com/en/catalogues/ecatalogue.html/2005/english-literature-historyl05407#/r=/en/ecat.fhtml.L05407.html+r.m=/en/ecat.lot.L05407.html/429/ http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Ken_Jackson_29_January_1968 [46] Publication: Bloomsbury auction catalogue Modern First Editions, English and Continental Literature and History, Emblem Books, Economics and Law, 13 March 2008 (Lot 156); and on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology (entry for March 1921); and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/000511.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Ingrid_Pridgeon_August_1968 [47] Publication: on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/pcollier/DSC00005.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Niall_Hoskin_16_October_1968 [48] Publication: excerpts appeared in Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull. The Lord of the Rings: A Readers Companion (2005), pp. (respectively) 128; 134; 382.] [49] Publication: a description of the letter and photograph of the first page appeared in Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature, History, Private Press, and Illustrated Books and Related Drawings, 1415 December 1992, p. 75. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 739; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Michael_Blashka_late_1960s 1. Joy Hill gave a glimpse into the world of Tolkien fandom in an article Daily Life in Middle-earth in the programme booklet of the event An Afternoon in Middle-earth, held on 30 November 1969 at the Studio Theatre, Midlands Art Centre, Cannon Hill (Birmingham). She wrote: [fan-letters] come from all over the world; they come in English, French, German and Elvish... The English are cautious in their approach and often begin I have hesitated to write and thank you whereas writers from across the Atlantic are very much bolder. Dear darling Professor wrote one hippy from San Francisco, I have been on a trip to Middle-earth and it is indeed a beautiful place. I must see you. From Norfolk, Virginia, one letter ended: One day I shall corner you on a remote little star and we shall talk... (http://www.lotrplaza.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=222668) [50] Publication: on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 741. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/000550.htm [51] Publication: a description of this 2-page letter and photograph of the final page appeared in Bloomsbury auction catalogue Literature, Manuscripts and Modern First Editions, 6 December 2007 (Lot 395). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 741; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Amy_Ronald_20_March_1969 [52] Publication: a description of this 2-page letter and photograph of the first page appeared in Sothebys auction catalogue Valuable Printed Books and Manuscripts, 13 December 2001, p. 266 (Lot 557). The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 742; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Anthony_D._Howlett_28_May_1969 [53] Publication: Bloomsbury auction catalogue Modern First Editions, Manuscripts and Autograph Letters, English and Continental Literature and History, 24 May 2007 (Lot 495).

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The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Mr_Burrows_1_August_1969 [54] Publication: a description of this 2-page letter and photograph of the first page appeared in Kenneth W. Rendells Collection of Historical Autographs and Documents for Sale. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 750; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.historical-autographs.com/full-description.aspx?ItemID=20403165 http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Mr._Wood_1970 [55] Publication: on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0166.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/W.A.R._Hadley_14_December_1970 1. Dorothy Grace Wood (ne Mountain), called Ding by close relatives, a cousin of J.R.R. Tolkien. [56] Publication: excerpts appeared in Black and White Ogre Country: The Lost Tales of Hilary Tolkien (2009), edited by Angela Gardner, pp. 7071. The letter is mentioned on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Hilary_Tolkien_1971 1. Birthdays of Tolkiens sons Michael, John, Christopher. [57] Publication: Manhattan Rare Book Company online catalogue; and on the Elendilion website. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology. http://www.manhattanrarebooks-literature.com/tolkien_burchfield.htm http://www.elendilion.pl/2010/01/03/list-rybaka [58] Publication: on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0159.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Patrick_Hunt_25_January_1973 [59] Publication: on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in Addenda and Corrigenda to The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/dmiller/CLP0111.htm 1. i Trin i Cormaron (in the C[ommon]. S[peech]. The Lord of the Rings) is the latest version of the works title in Quenya. The previous version Heru i million appeared in the Catalogue of an Exhibit of the Manuscripts of JRRT, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Marquette University, 1984. (http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/mdtci.html#DTS54) [60] Publication: Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature, History, Private Press and Childrens Books, 12 December 2002, p. 239; and on the website Tolkien Library. The letter is mentioned in The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide, Vol. 1: Chronology, p. 772; and on the website Tolkien Gateway. http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/pcollier/DSC00002.htm http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/James_A.H._Murray_5_June_1973 1. Criminal Investigation Department. Tolkien has been greatly distressed by the theft of his CBE medal and some of Ediths jewellery from his rooms in Merton Street in 1972. [Appendix] 1. The proofs of the Appendices of The Lord of the Rings were sent by the printers on 29 June but delayed in the post. The printers have promised to complete production of The Return of the King in time for publication in the last days of September, if they have the Appendix proofs returned by 8 July. 2. Forrest J. Ackerman acted for a company interested in making an animated film of The Lord of the Rings; the script was written by M. G. Zimmerman. 3. Photograph of the final page of the letter appeared in Sothebys auction catalogue English Literature, History, Childrens & Illustrated Books & Drawings, London, 10 July 2001, p. 123 (Lot 224). It reads:

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The above was actually written some time in April. But I was then ill after various infections, plus some grave troubles and for two months or so I have not been able to work or attend to affairs and also have at the same time been deprived of the help of a secretary. I am much better as [I walk?] again. I found this unfinished letter in a pile of neglects. 4. Clyde S. Kilby, the founder of the Marion E. Wade Center at Wheaton College, Illinois, spent the summer of 1966 in Tolkiens company, trying to help him to put into publishable form the scattered manuscripts treating the early history of Middle-earth and to prepare for publication Tolkiens translations of Middle English texts Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Pearl. (In the end, the publishing of Middle-earths early history would await the labours of Christopher Tolkien; but Kilby gained rare insights into Tolkiens writings and character, which he gathered in his book Tolkien and the Silmarillion (1976). 5. In 1965, Ace Books discovered a copyright loophole in the American edition of The Lord of the Rings and published unauthorized paperback edition of Tolkiens work. After considerable controversy and the release of a competitive, authorized (and revised by Tolkien) edition by Ballantine Books, Ace agreed to pay royalties to Tolkien and let its still-popular edition go out of print. 6. The letter was sent after Mr. and Mrs. Tolkiens Mediterranean cruise. 7. In the event, Queen Elizabeth will make the presentation.

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One more item. Not a letter, but who cares...

Tengwar inscriptions written by Tolkien for the BBC2 documentary Tolkien in Oxford (shot from 59 February 1968, and broadcast on 30 March 1968). On the paper-sheet: Three sentences, interspersed with analyses and explanations. The first sentence (A) is a transcription of the program title in English. The second and third (B) are translations of the title into Quenya. [Blue ink above B]: in Elvish language [? script] [Red ink below B]: Arcastar Mondsaresse At the bottom of the sheet is an explanation of the use of tehtar for vowels. [Green ink]: Here are some specimens. A is a transliteration of English. But this happens not to be very decorative [?since lacking] the [? = a]. B is a translation into Elvish (Quenya). [Black ink below]: NB the vowel signs i, e, a, o, u are placed above the consonant which they follow in speech. On the book-page: The familiar Elvish greeting Elen sla lmenna omentielvo, A star shines upon the hour of our meeting. The text contains several errors; most notably, lmenna is written above the rest and marked for insertion between sla and omentielvo, and elen is mistakenly written elme. The photograph is taken from the Elendilion website (citing Christies Valuable Printed Books and Manuscripts, Sale 7275, lot 152): http://elendili.pl/viewtopic.php?p=59401#59401 The description of both pages is given on the Tolkiensllskapet Forodrim website, The Mellonath Daeron Index of Tengwa Specimina (DTS): DTS 26 Televised Tengwar: http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/mdtci.html#DTS26 DTS 70 Tolkien in Oxford Tengwar http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/mdtci.html#DTS70 The proposed etymology of Tolkiens name Arcastar can be found on the website Tolkien Gateway: http://www.tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Arcastar

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