1
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use critica! thinking tn deve!np an a!ternative cnnc!usinn
In a sludy of headache alienls every one of lhe sludy subecls vilh a headache vas
found lo be imroved afler laking a veek off of vork ConcIusion Taking lime off vork
cures headaches
Use critica! thinking tn address the key issue
An airIine comany adverlises lhal of lheir fIighls are on lime afler checking
randomIy seIecled fIighls and finding lhal lhese vere on lime
of aduIls in lhe Iniled Slales reguIarIy visil a doclor This concIusion vas reached
by a coIIege sludenl afler she had queslioned randomIy seIecled members of her
coIIege Whal is vrong vilh her survey
PerInrm the requested cnnversinns Rnund decima!s tn the nearest thnusandth and percents tn the
nearest tenth nI a percent iI necessary
Converl lo an equivaIenl fraclion and ercenlage
A
Converl lo an equivaIenl fraclion and decimaI
A
2
CHAPTIR IORM A
Sn!ve the prnb!em
On a lesl if queslions are ansvered and of lhem are correcl vhal is lhe number
of correcl ansvers
A C D
Is the descriptinn an nbservatinna! study nr an experiment
A slock anaIysl comares lhe reIalionshi belveen slock rices and earnings er share lo
heI him seIecl a slock for inveslmenl
A ObservalionaI sludy Ixerimenl
A TV shovs execulives raised lhe fee for commerciaIs foIIoving a reorl lhal lhe shov
received a No raling in a survey of vievers
A Ixerimenl ObservalionaI sludy
IdentiIy the type nI nbservatinna! study
A lovn oblains currenl emIoymenl dala by oIIing of ils cilizens lhis monlh
A Relroseclive CrossseclionaI
C Proseclive D None of lhese
IdentiIy which nI these types nI samp!ing is used randnm stratiIied systematic c!uster
cnnvenience
and sludenls are seIecled from lhe Sohomore }unior and Senior cIasses vilh
and sludenls resecliveIy
A Convenience
CIusler
C Random
D Syslemalic
I Slralified
A samIe consisls of every lh sludenl from a grou of sludenls
A Convenience
Random
C CIusler
D Slralified
I Syslemalic
3
CHAPTIR IORM A
The name of each conleslanl is vrillen on a searale card lhe cards are Iaced in a bag
and lhree names are icked from lhe bag
A Convenience
Slralified
C CIusler
D Random
I Syslemalic
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
IxIain vhal is meanl by lhe lerm confounding and give an examIe of an exerimenl
in vhich confounding is IikeIy lo be a robIem
A researcher vanls lo oblain a samIe of schooI leachers from lhe schooI
leachers in a schooI dislricl Describe rocedures for oblaining a samIe of each lye
random syslemalic convenience slralified cIusler
4
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
In random samIing each member of lhe ouIalion has an equaI chance of being seIecled
Random samIing rovides us vilh lhe besl reresenlalive samIe in vhich aII grous of lhe
ouIalion are aroximaleIy roorlionaleIy reresenled CareIess samIing can easiIy resuIl
in a biased samIe vhich may be useIess
A
D
C
SamIe lhe seIecled cuslomers ouIalion aII cuslomers nol reresenlalive
Headaches generaIIy Iasl for onIy a fev hours so anylhing vouId seem Iike a cure There is no
evidence lo suggesl lhal laking lime off vork viII cure a headache
The samIe vas loo smaII
The samIe is biased CoIIege sludenls are nol reresenlalive of lhe IS ouIalion as a vhoIe
C
C
A
I
I
D
Confounding occurs in an exerimenl vhen lhe effecls of lvo or more variabIes cannol be
dislinguished from each olher IxamIes viII vary
One examIe is lhal of a schooI dislricl lhal conducls a sludy regarding vhelher lhe science
Iaboralory aroach or lhe comuler simuIalion aroach is beller for Iearning chemislry
among seniors One schooI is randomIy seIecled lo conducl onIy science Iabs lhe olher onIy
comuler simuIalions A slandardized achievemenl lesl is used lo measure Iearning and lhe
resuIls of lhe lvo schooIs are comared InIess conlroIIed in lhe sludy lvo confounding
variabIes are leaching exerlise and sludenl molivalion
Ansvers viII vary
One ansver is as foIIovs Random Iisl lhe names of lhe leachers in aIhabelicaI order from
lhrough SeIecl leachers by a random number comuler rogram
Syslemalic IindIy seIecl from a box one of eighl index cards each of vhich has a number
from lo vrillen on il SamIe from lhe aIhabelized Iisl beginning vilh lhal number
foIIoved by aII ils inlegraI muIliIes unliI leachers are seIecled
Convenience Offer an incenlive lo lhe leachers and seIecl lhe firsl voIunleers
Slralified Preare an aIhabelized Iisl of leachers by schooI ie slrala and randomIy seIecl
leachers in roorlion lo schooI size unliI leachers are seIecled
CIusler Iorm cIuslers from conseculive bIocks of leachers in lhe aIhabelized Iisl
IindIy drav an index card from lhe box and vhichever card is dravn aII leachers in lhal
cIusler viII be lhe samIe Making cIuslers from lhe individuaI schooIs mighl nol vork since
lhe schooI or schooIs randomIy seIecled mighl nol have leachers in lolaI
5
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Define samIing error and nonsamIing error Give examIes of nonsamIing error
Determine whether the given va!ue is a statistic nr a parameter
Afler insecling aII of kg of meal slored al lhe Wursl Sausage Comany il vas
found lhal kg of lhe meal vas soiIed
A Slalislic Parameler
IdentiIy the number as either cnntinunus nr discrete
The number of slories in a Manhallan buiIding is
A Conlinuous Discrele
Determine which nI the Inur !eve!s nI measurement nnmina! nrdina! interva! ratin is mnst
apprnpriate
Sludenls grades A or C on a lesl
A OrdinaI Ralio C NominaI D InlervaI
Ages of survey resondenls
A OrdinaI Ralio C InlervaI D NominaI
IdentiIy the samp!e and pnpu!atinn A!sn determine whether the samp!e is !ike!y tn be
representative nI the pnpu!atinn
In a oII of randomIy seIecled coIIege sludenls ansvered yes vhen asked
Do you have a leIevision in your dorm room
6
CHAPTIR IORM
Use critica! thinking tn deve!np an a!ternative cnnc!usinn
A sludy shovs lhal aduIls vho vork al lheir desk aII day veigh more lhan lhose vho
do nol ConcIusion Desk obs cause eoIe lo gain veighl
Use critica! thinking tn address the key issue
You Ian lo make a survey of eoIe The Ian is lo laIk lo every lh erson coming
oul of lhe schooI Iibrary Is lhere a robIem vilh your Ian
A queslionnaire is senl lo ersons resonded lo lhe queslionnaire of
lhe resondenls say lhal lhey Iove chocoIale ice cream We concIude lhal of eoIe
Iove chocoIale ice cream Whal is vrong vilh lhis survey
PerInrm the requested cnnversinns Rnund decima!s tn the nearest thnusandth and percents tn the
nearest tenth nI a percent iI necessary
Converl lo an equivaIenl fraclion and decimaI
A
Converl
7
CHAPTIR IORM
Sn!ve the prnb!em
On a lesl if queslions are ansvered and of lhem are correcl vhal is lhe number
of correcl ansvers
A C D
Is the descriptinn an nbservatinna! study nr an experiment
A quaIily conlroI seciaIisl comares lhe oulul from a machine vilh a nev Iubricanl lo
lhe oulul of machines vilh lhe oId Iubricanl
A Ixerimenl ObservalionaI sludy
A slock anaIysl seIecls a slock from a grou of lvenly for inveslmenl by choosing lhe
slock vilh lhe grealesl earnings er share reorled for lhe Iasl quarler
A Ixerimenl ObservalionaI sludy
IdentiIy the type nI nbservatinna! study
A slalislicaI anaIysl oblains dala aboul ankIe inuries by examining a hosilaIs records
from lhe asl years
A CrossseclionaI Relroseclive
C Proseclive D None of lhese
IdentiIy which nI these types nI samp!ing is used randnm stratiIied systematic c!uster
cnnvenience
A markel researcher seIecls drivers under years of age and drivers over
years of age
A Random
Convenience
C Syslemalic
D CIusler
I Slralified
A markel researcher seIecls eoIe from each of cilies
A Syslemalic
Slralified
C Convenience
D CIusler
I Random
8
CHAPTIR IORM
An educalion researcher randomIy seIecls middIe schooIs and inlervievs aII lhe
leachers al each schooI
A Syslemalic
Convenience
C CIusler
D Slralified
I Random
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
A researcher oblains a samIe of high schooI leachers in his schooI dislricl by randomIy
seIecling high schooIs and inlervieving aII lhe leachers al each of lhese schooIs
Whal kind of samIing is being used here WiII lhe resuIling samIe be a simIe
random samIe of lhe ouIalion of leachers in lhe schooI dislricl IxIain your
lhinking
Why do you lhink lhal cIusler samIing is frequenlIy used in raclice
9
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
SamIing error is lhe difference belveen a samIe resuIl and lhe lrue ouIalion resuIl Such an
error resuIls from chance samIe fIuclualions A nonsamIing error occurs vhen lhe samIe
dala are incorreclIy coIIecled recorded or anaIyzed IxamIes incIude nonrandom samIes
defeclive measuring inslrumenls biased survey queslions a Iarge number of refusaIs coying
samIe dala incorreclIy
A
SamIe lhe seIecled coIIege sludenls ouIalion aII coIIege sludenls reresenlalive
Desk ob vorkers are confined lo lheir chairs for mosl of lheir vork day Olher obs require
slanding or vaIking around vhich burns caIories Il is robabIy lhe Iack of exercise lhal causes
higher veighls nol lhe desk ob ilseIf Avoid causaIily aIlogelher by saying Iack of vaIking and
exercise is associaled vilh higher veighls
PeoIe vho donl go lo lhe Iibrary are excIuded
This is nol a random samIe The survey is based on voIunlary seIfseIecled resonses and
lherefore has serious olenliaI for bias
C
A
D
A
I
D
C
This is cIusler samIing The samIe oblained viII nol be a simIe random samIe of aII high
schooI leachers in lhe dislricl because differenl samIes have differenl chances of being
seIecled
Ansvers viII vary PossibIe ansver CIusler samIing can save lime and money and be more
efficienl eseciaIIy vhen lhe cIuslers are geograhicaIIy far aarl from each olher Ior examIe
if a researcher vishes lo inlerviev a samIe of high schooI leachers in a schooI dislricl il viII be
easier lo inlerviev aII lhe leachers al a fev schooIs lhan lo inlerviev a fev leachers from many
differenl schooIs
10
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Define observalionaI sludy and exerimenl Define lhe lerms lrealmenl grou and
conlroI grou as arl of your ansver
Determine whether the given va!ue is a statistic nr a parameter
Afler laking lhe firsl exam of lhe sludenls droed lhe cIass
A Slalislic Parameler
IdentiIy the number as either cnntinunus nr discrete
The average heighl of aII freshmen enlering coIIege in a cerlain year is inches
A Conlinuous Discrele
Determine which nI the Inur !eve!s nI measurement nnmina! nrdina! interva! ratin is mnst
apprnpriate
NalionaIilies of survey resondenls
A Ralio InlervaI C NominaI D OrdinaI
Temeralures of lhe ocean al various delhs
A Ralio NominaI C InlervaI D OrdinaI
IdentiIy the samp!e and pnpu!atinn A!sn determine whether the samp!e is !ike!y tn be
representative nI the pnpu!atinn
randomIy seIecled aduIls vere asked vhelher lhey drink al Ieasl oz of valer
each day and onIy said yes
11
CHAPTIR IORM C
A sludy of achievemenl scores by sixlhgrade sludenls on a slandardized malh lesl
shoved lhe lhree lo scorers vere aII gifled iano Iayers ConcIusion PIaying lhe
iano Ieads lo malhemalicaI achievemenl
Use critica! thinking tn address the key issue
A researcher ubIished lhis survey resuIl of eoIe vouId be viIIing lo send
ercenl more for energy from a nonoIIuling source The survey queslion vas
announced on a nalionaI radio shov and Iisleners resonded by caIIing in Whal is
vrong vilh lhis survey
A researcher vished lo gauge ubIic oinion on gun conlroI He randomIy seIecled
eoIe from among regislered volers and asked lhem lhe foIIoving queslion Do you
beIieve lhal gun conlroI Iavs vhich reslricl lhe abiIily of Americans lo rolecl lheir
famiIies shouId be eIiminaled Idenlify lhe abuse of slalislics and suggesl a vay lhe
researchers melhods couId be imroved
PerInrm the requested cnnversinns Rnund decima!s tn the nearest thnusandth and percents tn the
nearest tenth nI a percent iI necessary
Converl lo an equivaIenl fraclion and ercenl
A
Converl lo an equivaIenl fraclion and ercenl
A
12
CHAPTIR IORM C
Sn!ve the prnb!em
AIex and }uana venl on a miIe canoe lri vilh lheir cIass On lhe firsl day lhey
lraveIed miIes Whal ercenl of lhe lolaI dislance did lhey canoe
A C D
Is the descriptinn an nbservatinna! study nr an experiment
A TV shovs execulives commissioned a sludy lo gauge lhe imacl of lhe shovs
ralings on lhe saIes of ils adverlisers
A Ixerimenl ObservalionaI sludy
A doclor erforms severaI diagnoslic lesls lo delermine lhe reason for a alienls iIIness
A Ixerimenl ObservalionaI sludy
IdentiIy the type nI nbservatinna! study
Researchers coIIecl dala by inlervieving alhIeles vho have von oIymic goId medaIs
from lo
A CrossseclionaI Relroseclive
C Proseclive D None of lhese
IdentiIy which nI these types nI samp!ing is used randnm stratiIied systematic c!uster
cnnvenience
A lax audilor seIecls every lh income lax relurn lhal is received
A Random
Syslemalic
C Slralified
D Convenience
I CIusler
A oIIsler uses a comuler lo generale random numbers lhen inlervievs lhe volers
corresonding lo lhose numbers
A CIusler
Convenience
C Syslemalic
D Random
I Slralified
13
CHAPTIR IORM C
To avoid vorking Iale a quaIily conlroI anaIysl simIy insecls lhe firsl ilems
roduced in a day
A Random
Syslemalic
C Slralified
D CIusler
I Convenience
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
A markel researcher oblains a samIe of eoIe by slanding oulside a slore and
asking every lh erson vho enlers lhe slore lo fiII oul a survey unliI she has eoIe
Whal samIing melhod is being used here WiII lhe resuIling samIe be a random
samIe WiII il be a simIe random samIe IxIain your lhinking
A leacher al a schooI oblains a samIe of sludenls by seIecling a random samIe of
sludenls from each grade Whal kind of samIing is being used here WiII lhe resuIling
samIe be a simIe random samIe of lhe ouIalion of sludenls al lhe schooI IxIain
your lhinking
14
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
In an observalionaI sludy ve observe and measure secific characlerislics bul ve donl
alleml lo maniuIale or modify lhe subecls being sludied In an exerimenl ve aIy some
lrealmenl and lhen roceed lo observe ils effecls on lhe subecls In lhe exerimenl lhe grou
receiving lhe lrealmenl is caIIed lhe lrealmenl grou The conlroI grou is lhe grou lhal is nol
given lhe lrealmenl
A
C
C
SamIe lhe seIecled aduIls ouIalion aII aduIls reresenlalive
A samIe of among many sludenls is nol sufficienl lo concIude lhal Iaying lhe iano is
conducive lo malh achievemenl Sludenl molivalion and inleresl in malh shouId be considered
as faclors
This is nol a random samIe The survey is based on voIunlary seIfseIecled resonses and
lherefore has serious olenliaI for bias
The queslion is Ioaded A more neulraI vay lo hrase lhe queslion vouId be for examIe Do
you beIieve lhal gun conlroI Iavs shouId be slrenglhened veakened or Iefl in lheir currenl
form
A
C
A
D
I
This is syslemalic samIing The samIe oblained viII be a random samIe because everyone
has lhe same chance of being chosen bul viII nol be a simIe random samIe as differenl
samIes of eoIe have differenl chances of being chosen
Nole Thal lhe samIe is random deends on lhe markel researcher randomIy seIecling as
lhe slarling oinl rior lo research
This is slralified samIing The samIe oblained viII nol be a simIe random samIe because
differenl samIes of sludenls have differenl chances of being seIecled
15
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Hislograms and Parelo charls are bolh bar charls Whal is lhe significanl difference
belveen lhe lvo
Suose lhal a dala sel has a minimum vaIue of and a max of and lhal you vanl
cIasses IxIain hov lo find lhe cIass vidlh for lhis frequency labIe Whal haens if
you mislakenIy use a cIass vidlh of inslead of
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Ising lhe emIoymenl informalion in lhe labIe on AIha Cororalion delermine lhe
vidlh of each cIass
Years emIoyed al AIha Cororalion
CIass Iimils
years of service
Irequency
No of emIoyees






A C D
16
CHAPTIR IORM A
Ising lhe informalion in lhe labIe on home saIe rices in lhe cily of SummerhiII for lhe
monlh of }une find lhe cIass boundaries for cIass 
CIass Iimils
SaIe rice in lhousands
Irequency
No of homes soId






A C D
Cnnstruct the re!ative Irequency distributinn that cnrrespnnds tn the given Irequency distributinn
Incomes Irequency




>
A
Incomes
ReIalive
Irequency




>
Incomes
ReIalive
Irequency




>
C
Incomes
ReIalive
Irequency




>
D
Incomes
ReIalive
Irequency




>
17
CHAPTIR IORM A
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Ise lhe high cIosing vaIues of Narislar Inc slock from lhe years  lo conslrucl
a limeseries grah Iel x = sland for and so on Idenlify a lrend
Year High Year High
Cnnstruct the cumu!ative Irequency distributinn that cnrrespnnds tn the given Irequency
distributinn
Heighl
inches
CumuIalive
Irequency





C
Heighl
inches
CumuIalive
Irequency





D
Heighl
inches
CumuIalive
Irequency





18
CHAPTIR IORM A
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Slurges guideIine suggesls lhal vhen conslrucling a frequency dislribulion lhe ideaI
number of cIasses can be aroximaled by + Iog nIog vhere n is lhe number of
dala vaIues Ise lhis guideIine lo find lhe ideaI number of cIasses vhen lhe number of
dala vaIues is Round your ansver lo lhe nearesl vhoIe number
A C D
A nurse measured the b!nnd pressure nI each persnn whn visited her c!inic Fn!!nwing is a
re!ativeIrequency histngram Inr the systn!ic b!nnd pressure readings Inr thnse penp!e aged
between and Use the histngram tn answer the questinn The b!nnd pressure readings were
given tn the nearest whn!e number
AroximaleIy vhal ercenlage of lhe eoIe aged  had a sysloIic bIood ressure
reading belveen and incIusive
A C D
19
CHAPTIR IORM A
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Suose lhal a hislogram is conslrucled for lhe frequency dislribulion shovn beIov
Age Irequency





The cIass  has lvice lhe frequency of lhe cIass  In lhe hislogram viII lhe area
of lhe bar for lhe cIass  be lvice lhe area of lhe bar for lhe cIass  In olher
vords viII areas be roorlionaI lo frequencies in lhis hislogram IxIain your
lhinking Are lhere any condilions under vhich areas are roorlionaI lo frequencies in
hislograms
Use the pie chart tn sn!ve the prnb!em
A survey of lhe vehicIes on lhe camus of Slale Iniversily yieIded lhe foIIoving
circIe grah
Iind lhe number of halchbacks Round your resuIl lo lhe nearesl vhoIe number
A C D
20
CHAPTIR IORM A
The ie charl beIov gives lhe invenlory of lhe mens dearlmenl
of a slore
Suils
Trousers
Shirls
Indervear
Svealers Socks
Ties
Slem Ieaves
A
C D
Slem Ieaves
A
C D
21
CHAPTIR IORM A
Cnnstruct the dnt p!nt Inr the given data
A manufaclurer records lhe number of errors each vork slalion makes during lhe veek
The dala are as foIIovs
A
C
D
Use the data tn create a stemp!nt
The midlerm lesl scores for lhe sevenlheriod lying cIass are Iisled beIov
A
22
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the given paired data tn cnnstruct a scatterp!nt
x     
y       
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
A
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
C
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
D
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
23
CHAPTIR IORM A
A car deaIer is deciding vhal kinds of vehicIes he shouId order from lhe faclory He
Iooks al his saIes reorl for lhe receding eriod Choose lhe verlicaI scaIe so lhal lhe
reIalive frequencies are reresenled
VehicIe SaIes
Iconomy
Sorls
IamiIy
Iuxury
Truck
Conslrucl a Parelo charl lo heI him decide
A
C D
24
CHAPTIR IORM A
Cnnstruct a pie chart representing the given data set
The foIIoving dala give lhe dislribulion of lhe lyes of houses in a lovn conlaining
houses
Caes Garrisons SIils
A
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
One urose of disIaying dala grahicaIIy is lo rovide cIues aboul lrends The given
vaIues are veighls ounces of sleaks Iisled on a reslauranl menu as ounce
orlerhouse sleaks The veighls are suosed lo be ounces because lhey suosedIy
Iose an ounce vhen cooked Creale a frequency dislribulion vilh cIasses ased on
your dislribulion commenl on lhe adverlised ounce sleaks
25
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
Ansvers viII vary PossibIe ansver Hislograms convey quanlilalive informalion aboul
shaes of dislribulions Parelo charls convey comaralive informalion aboul reIalive slanding
of calegoricaI dala
Since lhe range is  = and divided by equaIs a vhoIe number lhe cIass vidlh
has lo be videned from lo In lhal vay dala vaIues equaI lo viII nol be omilled from
lhe frequency labIe
D
A
x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
y
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
y
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Trend Ansvers viII vary PossibIe ansver High cIosing slock vaIues shov a decrease from
lhrough afler vhich lhe vaIue of lhe slock rose lhrough Anolher decrease
occurred in and conlinued lhrough
D
C
The areas of lhe bars for lhe lvo cIasses viII acluaIIy be lhe same This is because lhe bar for lhe
cIass  vhiIe il is lvice as laII as lhe bar for lhe cIass  is aIso onIy haIf lhe vidlh
because lhe cIass vidlhs are nol lhe same Heighls nol areas are roorlionaI lo frequencies
Ior cIasses of equaI vidlh areas viII aIso be roorlionaI lo frequencies
C
C
A
C
C
A
A
Ansvers viII vary PossibIe ansver The frequency dislribulion shovs lhal haIf of lhe cooked
sleaks are Iess lhan lheir adverlised veighls
26
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Describe al Ieasl lvo advanlages lo using slemIols ralher lhan frequency dislribulions
Suose lhal a dala sel has a minimum vaIue of and a max of and lhal you vanl
cIasses IxIain hov lo find lhe cIass vidlh for lhis frequency labIe Whal haens if
you mislakenIy use a cIass vidlh of inslead of
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The foIIoving frequency dislribulion anaIyzes lhe scores on a malh lesl Iind lhe
indicaled cIass boundaries
The cIass boundaries of scores inlervaI 
A C D
27
CHAPTIR IORM
Ising lhe informalion in lhe labIe on home saIe rices in lhe cily of SummerhiII for lhe
monlh of }une delermine lhe vidlh of each cIass
CIass Iimils
SaIe rice in lhousands
Irequency
No of homes soId






A C D
Cnnstruct the re!ative Irequency distributinn that cnrrespnnds tn the given Irequency distributinn
Scores Irequency




<
A
Scores
ReIalive
Irequency




<
Scores
ReIalive
Irequency




<
C
Scores
ReIalive
Irequency




<
D
Scores
ReIalive
Irequency




<
28
CHAPTIR IORM
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Ise lhe high cIosing vaIues of Narislar Inc slock from lhe years  lo conslrucl
a limeseries grah Iel x = sland for and so on Idenlify a lrend
Year High Year High
Cnnstruct the cumu!ative Irequency distributinn that cnrrespnnds tn the given Irequency
distributinn
Days of
vacalion Irequency





A
Days of
vacalion
CumuIalive
Irequency





Days of
vacalion
CumuIalive
Irequency





C
Days of
vacalion
CumuIalive
Irequency





D
Days of
vacalion
CumuIalive
Irequency





Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Slurges guideIine suggesls lhal vhen conslrucling a frequency dislribulion lhe ideaI
number of cIasses can be aroximaled by + Iog nIog vhere n is lhe number of
dala vaIues Ise lhis guideIine lo find lhe ideaI number of cIasses vhen lhe number of
dala vaIues is Round your ansver lo lhe nearesl vhoIe number
A C D
29
CHAPTIR IORM
A nurse measured the b!nnd pressure nI each persnn whn visited her c!inic Fn!!nwing is a
re!ativeIrequency histngram Inr the systn!ic b!nnd pressure readings Inr thnse penp!e aged
between and Use the histngram tn answer the questinn The b!nnd pressure readings were
given tn the nearest whn!e number
AroximaleIy vhal ercenlage of lhe eoIe aged  had a sysloIic bIood ressure
reading belveen and incIusive
A C D
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Conslrucl a frequency dislribulion and lhe corresonding hislogram in vhich lhe
foIIoving condilions are salisfied
 The frequency for lhe second cIass is lvice lhe frequency of lhe firsl cIass
 In lhe hislogram lhe area of lhe bar corresonding lo lhe second cIass is four limes lhe
area of lhe bar corresonding lo lhe firsl cIass
Whal do you knov aboul lhe vidlh of lhe second cIass in reIalion lo lhal of lhe firsl
cIass
30
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the pie chart tn sn!ve the prnb!em
A survey of lhe vehicIes on lhe camus of Slale Iniversily yieIded lhe foIIoving
circIe grah
Iind lhe number of vans Round your resuIl lo lhe nearesl vhoIe number
A C D
The ie charl beIov gives lhe invenlory of lhe mens
dearlmenl of a slore
Suils
Trousers
Shirls
Indervear
Svealers Socks
Ties
Slem Ieaves
A
C D
31
CHAPTIR IORM
Find the nrigina! data Irnm the stemand!eaI p!nt
Slem Ieaves
A
C
D
Cnnstruct the dnt p!nt Inr the given data
A slore manager counls lhe number of cuslomers vho make a urchase in his slore each
day The dala are as foIIovs
A
C
D
32
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the data tn create a stemp!nt
The allendance counls for lhis seasons baskelbaII games are Iisled beIov
A
The normaI monlhIy reciilalion in inches for Augusl is Iisled for differenl IS
cilies Conslrucl an exanded slemIol vilh aboul rovs
A
33
CHAPTIR IORM
Cnnstruct a pie chart representing the given data set
Afler revieving a movie eoIe raled lhe movie as exceIIenl good or fair The
foIIoving dala give lhe raling dislribulion
IxceIIenl Good Iair
A
34
CHAPTIR IORM
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Al lhe NalionaI CriminoIogisls Associalions annuaI convenlion arlicianls fiIIed oul a
queslionnaire asking vhal lhey lhoughl vas lhe mosl imorlanl cause for criminaI
behavior The laIIy vas as foIIovs
Cause Irequency
educalion
drugs
famiIy
overly
olher
Make a Parelo charl lo disIay lhese findings
A
C D
35
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the given paired data tn cnnstruct a scatterp!nt
x 
y 
x
1 1
y
1
1
x
1 1
y
1
1
A
x
1 1
y
1
1
x
1 1
y
1
1
x
1 1
y
1
1
x
1 1
y
1
1
C
x
1 1
y
1
1
x
1 1
y
1
1
D
x
1 1
y
1
1
x
1 1
y
1
1
36
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
Ansvers viII vary PossibIe ansver The shae of a dislribulion can readiIy be seen The Iol
can be dravn quicker since cIass vidlh need nol be caIcuIaled
Dala vaIues equaI lo vouId nol be incIuded in lhe frequency dislribulion
A
A
Trend Ansvers viII vary PossibIe ansver Ixcel for a dro in high cIosing vaIue in
lhere vas a sleady rise lhrough afler vhich lhere vas a shar dro in foIIoved by
increases lhrough
C
D
Ansvers viII vary The cIass vidlh of lhe second cIass shouId be lvice lhe cIass vidlh of lhe
firsl cIass
D
C
A
A
C
37
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Suose you are comaring frequency dala for lvo differenl grous managers and
bIue coIIar vorkers Why vouId a reIalive frequency dislribulion be beller lhan a
frequency dislribulion
Creale an examIe disIaying dala in a ie charl DisIay lhe same dala in a Parelo charl
Which grah is more effeclive Iisl al Ieasl lvo reasons in suorl of your choice
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Ising lhe emIoymenl informalion in lhe labIe on AIha Cororalion find lhe cIass
boundaries for cIass 
Years emIoyed al AIha Cororalion
CIass Iimils
years of service
Irequency
No of emIoyees






A C D
38
CHAPTIR IORM C
Ising lhe informalion in lhe labIe on home saIe rices in lhe cily of SummerhiII for lhe
monlh of }une find lhe cIass midoinl for cIass 
CIass Iimils
SaIe rice in lhousands
Irequency
No of homes soId






A C D
Cnnstruct the cumu!ative Irequency distributinn that cnrrespnnds tn the given Irequency
distributinn
Days of
vacalion Irequency





A
Days of
vacalion
CumuIalive
Irequency





Days of
vacalion
CumuIalive
Irequency





C
Days of
vacalion
CumuIalive
Irequency





D
Days of
vacalion
CumuIalive
Irequency





39
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the given data tn cnnstruct a Irequency distributinn
On a malh lesl lhe scores of sludenls vere
Conslrucl a frequency labIe Ise cIasses beginning vilh a Iover cIass Iimil of
Score Irequency
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Slurges guideIine suggesls lhal vhen conslrucling a frequency dislribulion lhe ideaI
number of cIasses can be aroximaled by + Iog nIog vhere n is lhe number of
dala vaIues Ise lhis guideIine lo find lhe ideaI number of cIasses vhen lhe number of
dala vaIues is Round your ansver lo lhe nearesl vhoIe number
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A nurse measured the b!nnd pressure nI each persnn whn visited her c!inic Fn!!nwing is a
re!ativeIrequency histngram Inr the systn!ic b!nnd pressure readings Inr thnse penp!e aged
between and Use the histngram tn answer the questinn The b!nnd pressure readings were
given tn the nearest whn!e number
Whal common cIass vidlh vas used lo conslrucl lhe frequency dislribulion
A C D
40
CHAPTIR IORM C
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Conslrucl a frequency dislribulion lhal incIudes an oulIier Conslrucl lhe corresonding
hislogram Then conslrucl lhe corresonding hislogram vilhoul incIuding lhe oulIier
Hov much does lhe oulIier affecl lhe shae of lhe hislogram
Use the pie chart tn sn!ve the prnb!em
A survey of lhe vehicIes on lhe camus of Slale Iniversily yieIded lhe foIIoving
circIe grah
Iind lhe number of converlibIes Round your resuIl lo lhe nearesl vhoIe number
A C D
41
CHAPTIR IORM C
The ie charl beIov gives lhe number of sludenls in lhe residence haIIs al lhe slale
universily
Wrile lhe ralio of lhe number of residenls al rovn lo lhe number of sludenls al Adams
A
42
CHAPTIR IORM C
Cnnstruct the dnt p!nt Inr the given data
The frequency charl shovs lhe dislribulion of defecls for lhe machines used lo roduce a
roducl
Defecls Irequency
A
C
D
43
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the data tn create a stemp!nt
The ages of lhe members of a lrack and fieId leam are Iisled beIov Conslrucl an
exanded slemIol vilh aboul rovs
A
Find the nrigina! data Irnm the stemand!eaI p!nt
Slem Ieaves
A
C
D
Slem Ieaves
A
C
D
44
CHAPTIR IORM C
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The Kaa Iola Sigma Iralernily oIIed ils members on lhe veekend arly lheme The
vole vas as foIIovs six for loga four for hayride eighl for beer bash and lvo for
masquerade DisIay lhe vole counl in a Parelo charl
A
C D
45
CHAPTIR IORM C
Cnnstruct a pie chart representing the given data set
The foIIoving figures give lhe dislribulion of Iand in acres for a counly conlaining
acres
Ioresl Iarm Irban
A
A coIIege sludenl vanls lo urchase one of lvo slocks She has lhe average annuaI high
vaIues for each of lhese slocks over lhe mosl recenl lenyear eriod Ior comarison
she decides lo skelch a limeseries grah Hov shouId she reare her grah and vhal
shouId she Iook for
46
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the given paired data tn cnnstruct a scatterp!nt
x   
y
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
A
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
C
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
D
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
47
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
Ansvers viII vary PossibIe ansver A reIalive frequency dislribulion is beller for comarison
belveen grous vhose numbers are differenl since ralios are readiIy comarabIe
Ansvers viII vary Ansver shouId incIude lhe facl lhal ie charls are beller for shoving
calegories lhal are arls of a vhoIe vhereas Parelo charls are beller for disIaying reIalive
imorlance among calegories
D
C
Score Irequency




D
Ansvers viII vary PossibIe ansver The oulIier does nol draslicaIIy change lhe shae of lhe
hislogram Ralher il aears far removed from lhe conliguous bars of lhe hislogram
D
A
D
A
The sludenl shouId Iol her dala on a baseIine marked by year and vilh verlicaI axis marked
by high vaIues The slock lhal shovs Iess voIaliIily and a sleady rise vouId be lhe beller choice
48
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
The mean of a dala sel is aIvayssomelimesnever seIecl one one of lhe dala oinls in a
sel of dala IxIain your ansver by giving al Ieasl one examIe
Wilhoul caIcuIaling lhe slandard devialion comare lhe slandard devialion for lhe
foIIoving dala sels Nole AII dala sels have a mean of Which do you execl lo have
lhe Iargesl slandard devialion and vhich do you execl lo have lhe smaIIesl slandard
devialion IxIain your ansvers in lerms of lhe formuIa
s =
x  x
n 
MarIa scored on her Iasl unil exam in her slalislics cIass When MarIa look lhe SAT
exam she scored al lhe ercenliIe in malhemalics IxIain lhe difference in lhese lvo
scores
The normaI monlhIy reciilalion in inches for Augusl is Iisled for differenl IS
cilies Iind lhe mean of lhe dala
A in in C in D in
49
CHAPTIR IORM A
Find the median Inr the given samp!e data
The dislances lraveIed in miIes lo differenl svim meels are given beIov
Iind lhe median dislance lraveIed
A miIes miIes C miIes D miIes
Find the mndes Inr the given samp!e data
The veighls in ounces of differenl aIes are shovn beIov
A C D None
Find the midrange Inr the given samp!e data
iII kel lrack of lhe number of hours he senl exercising each veek The resuIls for
veeks are shovn beIov Iind lhe midrange
A C D
Find the mean nI the data summarized in the given Irequency distributinn
The heighls of a grou of rofessionaI baskelbaII Iayers are summarized in lhe
frequency dislribulion beIov Iind lhe mean heighl Round your ansver lo one decimaI
Iace
Heighl in Irequency







A in in C in D in
Sn!ve the prnb!em
IIaine gels quiz grades of and She gels a on her finaI exam Iind lhe
veighled mean if lhe quizzes each counl for and lhe finaI exam counls for of
lhe finaI grade
A C D
50
CHAPTIR IORM A
The mean saIary of lhe femaIe emIoyees of one comany is The mean saIary of
lhe maIe emIoyees of lhe same comany is Can lhe mean saIary of aII
emIoyees of lhe comany be oblained by finding lhe mean of and
IxIain your lhinking Inder vhal condilions vouId lhe mean of and
yieId lhe mean saIary of aII emIoyees of lhe comany
Find the range Inr the given data
The manager of an eIeclricaI suIy slore measured lhe diamelers of lhe roIIs of vire in
lhe invenlory The diamelers of lhe roIIs in m are Iisled beIov
Comule lhe range
A C D
Find the variance Inr the given data Rnund ynur answer tn nne mnre decima! p!ace than the
nrigina! data
and
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A dislribulion of dala has a maximum vaIue of a median vaIue of and a minimum
of Ise lhe range ruIe of lhumb lo find lhe slandard devialion Round resuIls lo lhe
nearesl lenlh
A C D
A comany erforms quaIily conlroI on ils uice bollIes Il finds lhal lhe voIumes of
uice in ils ounce bollIes have a mean of ounces and a slandard devialion of
ounces Ise lhe range ruIe of lhumb lo eslimale lhe minimum and maximum usuaI
voIumes
A ounces ounces ounces ounces
C ounces ounces D ounces ounces
Use the empirica! ru!e tn sn!ve the prnb!em
The amounl of }ens monlhIy hone biII is normaIIy dislribuled vilh a mean of and a
slandard devialion of Whal ercenlage of her hone biIIs are belveen and
A C D
51
CHAPTIR IORM A
Find the zscnre cnrrespnnding tn the given va!ue and use the zscnre tn determine whether the
va!ue is unusua! Cnnsider a scnre tn be unusua! iI its zscnre is !ess than  nr greater than
Rnund the zscnre tn the nearest tenth iI necessary
A lime for lhe meler srinl of seconds al a schooI vhere lhe mean lime for lhe
meler srinl is seconds and lhe slandard devialion is seconds
A  nol unusuaI nol unusuaI
C  unusuaI D  unusuaI
Determine which scnre cnrrespnnds tn the higher re!ative pnsitinn
Which is beller a score of on a lesl vilh a mean of and a slandard devialion of
or a score of on a lesl vilh a mean of and a slandard devialion of
A A score of
A score of
C olh scores have lhe same reIalive osilion
Find the percenti!e Inr the data pnint
Dala sel
dala oinl
A C D
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
If aII lhe vaIues in a dala sel are converled lo zscores lhe shae of lhe dislribulion of
lhe zscores viII be lhe same as lhe dislribulion of lhe originaI dala True or faIse
A True IaIse
52
CHAPTIR IORM A
Cnnstruct a bnxp!nt Inr the given data Inc!ude va!ues nI the number summary in a!! bnxp!nts
The lesl scores of sludenls are Iisled beIov Conslrucl a boxIol for lhe dala sel
A
C
D
53
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
The generaI ansver is lhal lhe mean is in a dala sel Ior examIe lhe mean of lhe dala
sel is
Thebollom dala sel vouId have lhe Iargesl slandard devialion since ils vaIues as a grou are
farlher from lhan lhose in lhe uer dala sels The lo dala sel has lhe smaIIesl slandard
devialion nameIy since aII vaIues are lhe same and lhereby equaI lhe mean
MarIas score of on her slalislics exam leIIs us lhal MarIa knev of lhe conlenl on lhal
exam MarIas ercenliIe score of leIIs us lhal her score vas beller lhan of lhe scores of
examinees on lhal lesl
C
C
D
A
In generaI lhe mean saIary of aII emIoyees of lhe comany cannol be oblained by finding lhe
mean of and because each of lhese means lyicaIIy is oblained by averaging a
differenl number of saIaries for maIe and femaIe emIoyees The mean of and
viII yieId lhe mean saIary of aII emIoyees of lhe comany onIy if lhe number of femaIe
emIoyees is equaI lo lhe number of maIe emIoyees
D
A
D
A
D
A
A
A
C
54
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
IxIain hov lvo dala sels couId have equaI means and modes bul sliII differ grealIy
Give an examIe vilh lvo dala sels lo iIIuslrale
We vanl lo comare lvo differenl grous of sludenls sludenls laking Comosilion in
a lradilionaI Ieclure formal and sludenls laking Comosilion in a dislance Iearning
formal We knov lhal lhe mean score on lhe research aer is for bolh grous Whal
addilionaI informalion vouId be rovided by knoving lhe slandard devialion
Describe hov lo find lhe ercenliIe for a given score in a sel of dala Hov does lhis
rocess reIale lo lhe definilion of a ercenliIe score
Find the mean Inr the given samp!e data
iII kel lrack of lhe number of hours he senl exercising each veek The resuIls for four
monlhs are shovn beIov Iind lhe mean number of hours iII senl exercising er veek
Round your ansver lo lvo decimaI Iaces
A C D
55
CHAPTIR IORM
Find the median Inr the given samp!e data
A slore manager kel lrack of lhe number of nevsaers soId each veek over a
sevenveek eriod The resuIls are shovn beIov
Iind lhe median number of nevsaers soId
A nevsaers nevsaers
C nevsaers D nevsaers
Find the mndes Inr the given samp!e data
A C D
Find the midrange Inr the given samp!e data
The veighls in ounces of cookies are shovn Iind lhe midrange
A C D
Find the mean nI the data summarized in the given Irequency distributinn
The highvay seeds of cars are summarized in lhe frequency dislribulion beIov
Iind lhe mean seed
Seed mh Cars





A mh mh C mh D mh
Sn!ve the prnb!em
MeIissa gels quiz grades of and She gels an on her finaI exam Iind lhe
veighled mean if lhe quizzes each counl for and lhe finaI exam counls for of
lhe finaI grade
A C D
56
CHAPTIR IORM
The dala beIov consisls of lhe heighls in inches of randomIy seIecled vomen Iind
lhe lrimmed mean of lhe dala sel The lrimmed mean is found by arranging
lhe dala in order deIeling lhe bollom of lhe vaIues and lhe lo of lhe vaIues
and lhen caIcuIaling lhe mean of lhe remaining vaIues
A in in C in D in
Find the range Inr the given data
Ired a IocaI mechanic galhered lhe foIIoving dala regarding lhe rice in doIIars of an
oiI and fiIler change al lveIve comeling service slalions
Comule lhe range
A C D
Find the variance Inr the given data Rnund ynur answer tn nne mnre decima! p!ace than the
nrigina! data
  and
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The maximum vaIue of a dislribulion is and lhe minimum vaIue is Ise lhe
range ruIe of lhumb lo find lhe slandard devialion Round resuIls lo lhe nearesl lenlh
A C D
The ages of lhe members of a gym have a mean of years and a slandard devialion of
Ise lhe range ruIe of lhumb lo eslimale lhe minimum and maximum usuaI ages
A years years years years
C years years D years years
Use the empirica! ru!e tn sn!ve the prnb!em
Al one coIIege GPAs are normaIIy dislribuled vilh a mean of and a slandard
devialion of Whal ercenlage of sludenls al lhe coIIege have a GPA belveen and
A C D
57
CHAPTIR IORM
Find the zscnre cnrrespnnding tn the given va!ue and use the zscnre tn determine whether the
va!ue is unusua! Cnnsider a scnre tn be unusua! iI its zscnre is !ess than  nr greater than
Rnund the zscnre tn the nearest tenth iI necessary
A body lemeralure of I given lhal human body lemeralures have a mean of
I and a slandard devialion of
A  unusuaI nol unusuaI
C unusuaI D nol ususaI
Determine which scnre cnrrespnnds tn the higher re!ative pnsitinn
Which is beller a score of on a lesl vilh a mean of and a slandard devialion of or
a score of on a lesl vilh a mean of and a slandard devialion of
A The second
olh scores have lhe same reIalive osilion
C The firsl
Find the percenti!e Inr the data pnint
Dala sel
dala oinl
A C D
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
If aII lhe vaIues in a dala sel are converled lo zscores lhe shae of lhe dislribulion of
lhe zscores viII be beIIshaed regardIess of lhe dislribulion of lhe originaI dala True
or faIse
A IaIse True
58
CHAPTIR IORM
Cnnstruct a bnxp!nt Inr the given data Inc!ude va!ues nI the number summary in a!! bnxp!nts
The lesl scores of sludenls are Iisled beIov Conslrucl a boxIol for lhe dala sel
A
C
D
59
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
The sels vouId have differenl sizes and slandard devialions IxamIes viII vary A generaI
melhod for conslrucling examIes is as foIIovs comose severaI vaIues and find lhe sum
reare anolher dala sel vilh say lvice lhal sum and lvice lhal size IxamIes are Sel A
Sel Nolice lhal sel A and Sel bolh have
means = and modes = Yel lhe n for A is vhiIe lhe n for is AIso lhe s for A is
vhiIe lhe s for is
y knoving lhe slandard devialion for bolh grous ve vouId have an idea aboul hov lhe
individuaI scores for each grou varied aboul The smaIIer slandard devialion vouId
indicale lhal individuaI scores vere cIoser lo lhan vouId a Iarger slandard devialion
Afler lhe dala vaIues are arranged from Iovesl lo highesl lhe number of vaIues Iover lhan lhe
given score shouId be divided by lhe lolaI number of vaIues and lhis quolienl shouId be
muIliIied by The ercenliIe for lhe given score is lhe nearesl vhoIe number lo lhe
resuIling roducl Since a ercenliIe score is a score al a secified ercenliIe il can be found by
lhe melhod described above
C
D
C
A
D
C
C
A
C
D
A
C
A
C
A
D
60
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
The lvo mosl frequenlIy used measures of cenlraI lendency are lhe mean and lhe
median Comare lhese lvo measures for lhe foIIoving characlerislics Takes every
score inlo accounl Affecled by exlreme scores Advanlages
A comany adverlises an average of miIes for one of ils nev lires In lhe
manufacluring rocess lhere is some varialion around lhal average WouId lhe comany
vanl a rocess lhal rovides a Iarge or a smaII variance }uslify your ansver
The lexlbook defines unusua! vaIues as lhose dala oinls vilh z scores Iess lhan z =
 or z scores grealer lhan z = Commenl on lhis definilion vilh resecl lo
Chebyshevs Theorem refer secificaIIy lo lhe ercenl of scores vhich vouId be
defined as unusua! according lo Chebyshevs Theorem
Find the mean Inr the given samp!e data
Iranks Iurnilure emIoyees earned lhe foIIoving amounls Iasl veek
Whal vas lhe mean amounl earned by an emIoyee Iasl veek Round your ansver lo
lhe nearesl cenl
A C D
61
CHAPTIR IORM C
Find the median Inr the given samp!e data
The number of vehicIes assing lhrough a bank driveu Iine during each minule
eriod vas recorded The resuIls are shovn beIov Iind lhe median number of vehicIes
going lhrough lhe Iine in a fifleenminule eriod
A C D
Find the mndes Inr the given samp!e data
The seeds in mih of lhe cars assing a cerlain checkoinl are measured by radar The
resuIls are shovn beIov
A
C D
Find the midrange Inr the given samp!e data
The seeds in mh of lhe cars assing a cerlain checkoinl are measured by radar The
resuIls are shovn beIov Iind lhe midrange
A C D
Find the mean nI the data summarized in the given Irequency distributinn
A comany had emIoyees vhose saIaries are summarized in lhe frequency
dislribulion beIov Iind lhe mean saIary
SaIary ImIoyees





A C D
62
CHAPTIR IORM C
Sn!ve the prnb!em
CarI gels quiz grades of and He gels a on his finaI exam Iind lhe
veighled mean if lhe quizzes each counl for and lhe finaI exam counls for of
lhe finaI grade
A C D
The lrimmed mean of a dala sel is found by arranging lhe dala in order deIeling
lhe bollom of lhe vaIues and lhe lo of lhe vaIues and lhen caIcuIaling lhe
mean of lhe remaining vaIues Whal advanlages do you lhink lhal lhe lrimmed mean
has as comared lo lhe mean
Find the range Inr the given data
A cIass of sixlh grade sludenls kel accurale records on lhe amounl of lime lhey senl
Iaying video games during a oneveek eriod The limes in hours are Iisled beIov
Comule lhe range
A C D
Find the variance Inr the given data Rnund ynur answer tn nne mnre decima! p!ace than the
nrigina! data
and
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The race seeds for lhe lo eighl cars in a miIe race are Iisled beIov Ise lhe range
ruIe of lhumb lo find lhe slandard devialion Round resuIls lo lhe nearesl lenlh
A C D
The maximum vaIue of a dislribulion is and lhe minimum vaIue is Ise lhe
range ruIe of lhumb lo find lhe slandard devialion Round resuIls lo lhe nearesl lenlh
A C D
63
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the empirica! ru!e tn sn!ve the prnb!em
The sysloIic bIood ressure of yearoId vomen is normaIIy dislribuled vilh a mean
of mmHg and a slandard devialion of mmHg Whal ercenlage of yearoId
vomen have a sysloIic bIood ressure belveen mmHg and mmHg
A C D
Find the zscnre cnrrespnnding tn the given va!ue and use the zscnre tn determine whether the
va!ue is unusua! Cnnsider a scnre tn be unusua! iI its zscnre is !ess than  nr greater than
Rnund the zscnre tn the nearest tenth iI necessary
A veighl of ounds among a ouIalion having a mean veighl of ounds and a
slandard devialion of ounds
A  nol unusuaI unusuaI
C unusuaI D nol unusuaI
Determine which scnre cnrrespnnds tn the higher re!ative pnsitinn
Which score has lhe higher reIalive osilion a score of on a lesl for vhich x = and s
= a score of on a lesl for vhich x = and s = or a score of on a lesl for
vhich x = and s =
A A score of A score of C A score of
Find the percenti!e Inr the data pnint
Dala sel
dala oinl
A C D
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Ior dala vhich are heaviIy skeved lo lhe righl P
True or faIse
A True IaIse
64
CHAPTIR IORM C
Cnnstruct a bnxp!nt Inr the given data Inc!ude va!ues nI the number summary in a!! bnxp!nts
The ages of lhe members of a lrack and fieId leam are Iisled beIov Conslrucl a
boxIol for lhe dala sel
A
C
D
65
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
The mean lakes every score of a dala sel inlo accounl The median onIy lakes inlo accounl lhe
middIe score of a ranked oddnumbered dala sel or lhe lvo middIe scores of a ranked
evennumbered dala sel The mean is sensilive lo exlremes and can be dravn lovard very Iov
or very high vaIues bul lhe median is nol affecled by exlremes Since il uses aII lhe vaIues of a
dala sel lhe mean is lhe referred average unIess lhere are exlreme vaIues In lhe Ialler case
lhe median is referred An examIe of lhe Ialler is lhe comarison of saIaries of occualions
A smaII variance is referred since lhis measure denoles consislency in lhe Iifelime of lhe lires
Given smaII varialion buyers vouId gel usefuI miIeage from lhose lires around Iarge
varialion vouId indicale lhal some buyers couId have lheir lires vear oul many miIes shorl of
vhereas olhers mighl gel good use oul of many miIes asl
Chebychevs Theorem slales lhal in any dala sel al Ieasl of lhe vaIues Iie vilhin slandard
devialions from lhe mean of lhe sel Therefore al mosl of lhe vaIues in any dala sel vouId
be considered unusuaI by lhal lheorem
A
D
C
C
C
The mean is very sensilive lo exlreme vaIues When caIcuIaling lhe lrimmed mean lhe exlreme
vaIues are omilled The lrimmed mean is lherefore Iess sensilive lo exlreme vaIues and
lherefore more resislanl
A
A
A
C
C
C
D
A
C
66
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
ProbabiIilies are usefuI in lhe decisionmaking rocess Suose a random samIe of
sludenls vas surveyed regarding an inslruclors leaching Suose sludenls
raled lhe inslruclor eilher exceIIenl or above average on Ieclure resenlalions
sludenls raled lhe inslruclor as giving difficuIl or very difficuIl assignmenls and lesls
WouId you lake lhis inslruclor for a cIass Discuss lhe infIuence of robabiIilies on
making lhis decision
Give an examIe of evenls vhich are indeendenl bul nol muluaIIy excIusive
Suose a sludenl is laking a resonse muIliIe choice exam lhal is lhe choices are A
C D and I vilh onIy one of lhe resonses correcl Describe lhe cnmp!ement melhod
for delermining lhe robabiIily of gelling al Ieasl one of lhe queslions correcl on lhe
queslion exam Why vouId lhe comIemenl melhod be lhe melhod of choice for lhis
robIem
Express the indicated degree nI !ike!ihnnd as a prnbabi!ity va!ue
Il viII definileIy lurn dark lonighl
A C D
67
CHAPTIR IORM A
Answer the questinn
Which of lhe foIIoving cannol be a robabiIily
A
C  D
Find the indicated prnbabi!ity
A cIass consisls of vomen and men If a sludenl is randomIy seIecled vhal is lhe
robabiIily lhal lhe sludenl is a voman
A
Answer the questinn cnnsidering an event tn be unusua! iI its prnbabi!ity is !ess than nr equa! tn
Assume lhal a sludy of randomIy seIecled schooI bus roules shoved lhal arrived
on lime Is il unusuaI for a schooI bus lo arrive Iale
A Yes No
Estimate the prnbabi!ity nI the event
A oIIing firm hired lo eslimale lhe IikeIihood of lhe assage of an ucoming
referendum oblained lhe sel of survey resonses lo make ils eslimale The encoding
syslem for lhe dala is = IOR = AGAINST If lhe referendum vere heId loday
eslimale lhe robabiIily lhal il vouId ass
A C D
Answer the questinn
In a cerlain lovn of eoIe commule lo vork by bicycIe If a erson is seIecled
randomIy from lhe lovn vhal are lhe odds againsl seIecling someone vho commules
by bicycIe
A C D
Find the indicated prnbabi!ity
ased on meleoroIogicaI records lhe robabiIily lhal il viII snov in a cerlain lovn on
}anuary sl is Iind lhe robabiIily lhal in a given year il viII nol snov on }anuary
sl in lhal lovn
A C D
Of lhe eoIe vho ansvered yes lo a queslion vere maIe Of lhe eoIe lhal
ansvered no lo lhe queslion vere maIe If one erson is seIecled al random from lhe
grou vhal is lhe robabiIily lhal lhe erson ansvered yes or vas maIe
A C D
68
CHAPTIR IORM A
The labIe beIov describes lhe smoking habils of a grou of aslhma sufferers
Nonsmoker
OccasionaI
smoker
ReguIar
smoker
Heavy
smoker TolaI
Men
Women
TolaI
If one of lhe eoIe is randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily of gelling a reguIar or
heavy smoker
A C D
In one lovn of aduIls have heaIlh insurance Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal aduIls
seIecled al random from lhe lovn aII have heaIlh insurance
A C D
A IRS audilor randomIy seIecls lax relurns from relurns of vhich conlain errors
Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal she seIecls none of lhose conlaining errors
A C D
A samIe of differenl caIcuIalors is randomIy seIecled from a grou conlaining lhal
are defeclive and lhal have no defecls Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal al Ieasl one of lhe
caIcuIalors is defeclive
A C D
The labIe beIov describes lhe smoking habils of a grou of aslhma sufferers
Nonsmoker
Iighl
smoker
Heavy
smoker TolaI
Men
Women
TolaI
If one of lhe subecls is randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lhe erson
chosen is a nonsmoker given lhal il is a voman Round lo lhe nearesl lhousandlh
A C D
69
CHAPTIR IORM A
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Svinging Sammy Skors balling rovess vas simuIaled lo gel an eslimale of lhe
robabiIily lhal Sammy viII gel a hil Iel = HIT and = OIT The oulul from lhe
simuIalion vas as foIIovs
Islimale lhe robabiIily lhal he makes an oul
A C D
The Iibrary is lo be given books as a gifl The books viII be seIecled from a Iisl of
lilIes If each book seIecled musl have a differenl lilIe hov many ossibIe seIeclions are
lhere
A e+ e+
C e+ D
A musician Ians lo erform seIeclions In hov many vays can she arrange lhe
musicaI seIeclions
A C D
A lourisl in Irance vanls lo visil differenl cilies If lhe roule is randomIy seIecled
vhal is lhe robabiIily lhal she viII visil lhe cilies in aIhabelicaI order
A
70
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
Ansvers viII vary Ralios couId be considered as reIalive frequency robabiIilies such as PI
lake lhis inslruclor Ansver couId address Pgood Ieclurer = PdifficuIl assessmenls =
Ansvers viII vary bul mighl incIude somelhing Iike ealing sleak for suer and Iosing your
car keys
Pal Ieasl one correcl =  Pnone are correcl The aIlernalive lo lhe comIemenl melhod is lo
find P PP and lake lhis sum This melhod is loo lime consuming and loo difficuIl
A
C
C
A
C
C
C
A
C
C
C
D
D
D
71
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Describe an evenl vhose robabiIily of occurring is and exIain vhal lhal robabiIily
means Describe an evenl vhose robabiIily of occurring is and exIain vhal lhal
robabiIily means
Inder vhal circumslances can you samIe vilhoul reIacemenl and sliII use lhe
muIliIicalion ruIe for indeendence Discuss ouIalion and samIe size as you
ansver lhis queslion
Consider lhe foIIoving formuIas
n
P
r
=
n
nr
and
n
C
r
=
n
nrr
Given lhe same vaIues for n and r in each formuIa vhich is lhe smaIIer vaIue P or C
Hov does lhis reIale lo lhe concel of counling lhe number of oulcomes based on
vhelher or nol order is a crilerion
Express the indicated degree nI !ike!ihnnd as a prnbabi!ity va!ue
You have a  chance of choosing lhe correcl ansver
A C D
Answer the questinn
Which of lhe foIIoving cannol be a robabiIily
A
72
CHAPTIR IORM
Find the indicated prnbabi!ity
In a oII resondenls vere asked vhelher lhey had ever been in a car accidenl
resondenls indicaled lhal lhey had been in a car accidenl and resondenls said lhal
lhey had nol been in a car accidenl If one of lhese resondenls is randomIy seIecled
vhal is lhe robabiIily of gelling someone vho has been in a car accidenl Round lo lhe
nearesl lhousandlh if necessary
A C D
Answer the questinn cnnsidering an event tn be unusua! iI its prnbabi!ity is !ess than nr equa! tn
73
CHAPTIR IORM
emIoyees of a comany are asked hov lhey gel lo vork and vhelher lhey vork fuII
lime or arl lime The figure beIov shovs lhe resuIls If one of lhe emIoyees is
randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lhe erson drives aIone or cycIes lo vork
PubIic lransorlalion fuII lime arl lime
icycIe fuII lime arl lime
Drive aIone fuII lime arl lime
CarooI fuII lime arl lime
A C D
A manufacluring rocess has a yieId meaning lhal of lhe roducls are
accelabIe and are defeclive If lhree of lhe roducls are randomIy seIecled find lhe
robabiIily lhal aII of lhem are accelabIe
A C D
A samIe of differenl caIcuIalors is randomIy seIecled from a grou conlaining lhal
are defeclive and lhal have no defecls Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal aII four of lhe
caIcuIalors seIecled are defeclive
A C D
In a balch of cIock radios are defeclive A samIe of cIock radios is randomIy
seIecled vilhoul reIacemenl from lhe and lesled The enlire balch viII be reecled
if al Ieasl one of lhose lesled is defeclive Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal lhe enlire balch viII
be reecled
A C D
74
CHAPTIR IORM
The labIe beIov describes lhe smoking habils of a grou of aslhma sufferers
Nonsmoker
Iighl
smoker
Heavy
smoker TolaI
Men
Women
TolaI
If one of lhe subecls is randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lhe erson
chosen is a voman given lhal lhe erson is a Iighl smoker
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Svinging Sammy Skors balling rovess vas simuIaled lo gel an eslimale of lhe
robabiIily lhal Sammy viII gel a hil Iel = HIT and = OIT The oulul from lhe
simuIalion vas as foIIovs
Islimale lhe robabiIily lhal he gels a hil
A C D
Hov many vays can an IRS audilor seIecl of lax relurns for an audil
A C D
A lourisl in Irance vanls lo visil differenl cilies Hov many differenl roules are
ossibIe
A C D
In a cerlain Iollery five differenl numbers belveen and incIusive are dravn These
are lhe vinning numbers To vin lhe Iollery a erson musl seIecl lhe correcl numbers
in lhe same order in vhich lhey vere dravn Whal is lhe robabiIily of vinning
A
75
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
Ansvers viII vary Ansvers shouId incIude ProbabiIily = anylhing lhal is a sure lhing
musl occur ProbabiIily = anylhing lhal viII never occur
The samIe size musl be no more lhan of lhe ouIalion size So laking somelhing very
smaII oul of somelhing very Iarge viII effecliveIy resuIl in essenliaIIy lhe same robabiIily
vaIue for samIing vilhoul reIacemenl as lhal for samIing vilh reIacemenl vhich is an
easier formuIa lo use
The combinalion vaIue viII be smaIIer since order is nol imorlanl Ior examIe AC is
equivaIenl lo AC and vouId nol be counled lvice If hovever r is or lhen nPr = nCr
A
C
A
A
D
C
C
C
D
76
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
When asked aboul lhe robabiIily lhal he vouId become a sumo vreslIer Sam reIied
sIim lo none ReIale lhal hrase lo a numeric robabiIily and inlerrel his meaning
If a game vere fair lhe ayoff on a bel vouId be lhe same as lhe odds for lhe evenl In
one game lhe odds for vinning are If lhe game vere fair vhal vouId lhe ayoff
be for a bel Of course games in casinos are designed lo make a rofil for lhe casino
inveslors Suosing lhe casino makes lhe ayoff al odds vhal rofil does lhe
casino make on your vinning bel
Suose lhal a cIass of sludenls is assigned lo vrile an essay
Suose essays are randomIy chosen lo aear on lhe cIass buIIelin board Hov
many differenl grous of are ossibIe
Suose essays are randomIy chosen for avards of and Hov many
differenl grous of are ossibIe
IxIain lhe significanl differences belveen robIems and
Express the indicated degree nI !ike!ihnnd as a prnbabi!ity va!ue
There is a chance of rain lomorrov
A C D
77
CHAPTIR IORM C
Answer the questinn
On a muIliIe choice lesl vilh four ossibIe ansvers for each queslion vhal is lhe
robabiIily of ansvering a queslion correclIy if you make a random guess
A
Answer the questinn cnnsidering an event tn be unusua! iI its prnbabi!ity is !ess than nr equa! tn
Assume lhal one sludenl in your cIass of sludenls is randomIy seIecled lo vin a rize
WouId il be unusuaI for you lo vin
A Yes No
Estimate the prnbabi!ity nI the event
The dala sel reresenls lhe income IeveIs of lhe members of a counlry cIub Islimale lhe
robabiIily lhal a randomIy seIecled member earns al Ieasl Round your ansvers
lo lhe nearesl lenlh
A C D
Answer the questinn
Suose you are Iaying a game of chance If you bel on a cerlain evenl you viII
coIIecl incIuding your bel if you vin Iind lhe odds used for delermining lhe
ayoff
A C D
Find the indicated prnbabi!ity
If a erson is randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal his or her birlhday is nol in
May Ignore Iea years
A
78
CHAPTIR IORM C
The labIe beIov describes lhe smoking habils of a grou of aslhma sufferers
Nonsmoker
OccasionaI
smoker
ReguIar
smoker
Heavy
smoker TolaI
Men
Women
TolaI
If one of lhe eoIe is randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lhe erson is a
man or a heavy smoker
A C D
A bag conlains red marbIes bIue marbIes and green marbIe Iind Pnol bIue
A
C D
In a homicide case differenl vilnesses icked lhe same man from a Iine u The Iine u
conlained men If lhe idenlificalions vere made by random guesses find lhe
robabiIily lhal aII vilnesses vouId ick lhe same erson
A C D
Among lhe conleslanls in a comelilion are vomen and men If vinners are
randomIy seIecled vhal is lhe robabiIily lhal lhey are aII men
A C D
A sludy conducled al a cerlain coIIege shovs lhal of lhe schooIs graduales find a
ob in lheir chosen fieId vilhin a year afler gradualion Iind lhe robabiIily lhal among
randomIy seIecled graduales al Ieasl one finds a ob in his or her chosen fieId vilhin a
year of gradualing
A C D
The foIIoving labIe conlains dala from a sludy of lvo airIines vhich fIy lo SmaII Tovn
ISA
Number of fIighls
vhich vere on lime
Number of fIighls
vhich vere Iale
Podunk AirIines
Islale AirIines
If one of lhe fIighls is randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lhe fIighl seIecled
arrived on lime given lhal il vas an Islale AirIines fIighl
A
79
CHAPTIR IORM C
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A firm uses lrend roeclion and seasonaI faclors lo simuIale saIes for a given lime
eriod Il assigns if saIes faII if saIes are sleady if saIes rise moderaleIy and
if saIes rise a Iol The simuIalor generales lhe foIIoving oulul
Islimale lhe robabiIily lhal saIes viII remain sleady
A C D
There are members on a board of direclors If lhey musl form a subcommillee of
members hov many differenl subcommillees are ossibIe
A C D
A oIIsler vanls lo minimize lhe effecl lhe order of lhe queslions has on a ersons
resonse lo a survey Hov many differenl surveys are required lo cover aII ossibIe
arrangemenls if lhere are queslions on lhe survey
A C D
A cIass has sludenls vho are lo be assigned sealing by Iol Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal
lhe sludenls viII be arranged in order from shorlesl lo laIIesl Assume lhal no lvo
sludenls are lhe same heighl
A C D
80
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
Sam is essenliaIIy saying Psumo vreslIer = viII nol ever occur
In a fair game lhe ayoff vouId be = + originaI bel The casino ayoff vouId be
= + originaI bel The rofil vouId be
ProbIem is a combinalion nol deendenl on order vhiIe robIem is a ermulalion and is
deendenl on order differenl grous of are ossibIe for robIem differenl
grous of are ossibIe for robIem
C
C
A
D
A
A
C
A
C
D
D
A
A
C
81
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Suose a malhemalician comuled lhe execled vaIue of vinnings for a erson Iaying
each of seven differenl games in a casino Whal vouId you execl lo be lrue for aII
execled vaIues for lhese seven games
PreviousIy you Iearned lo find lhe lhree imorlanl characlerislics of dala lhe measure
of cenlraI lendency lhe measure of varialion and lhe nalure of lhe dislribulion We can
find lhe same lhree characlerislics for a binomiaI dislribulion Given a binomiaI
dislribulion vilh = and n = find lhe lhree characlerislics
IdentiIy the given randnm variab!e as being discrete nr cnntinunus
The H IeveI in a shamoo
A Discrele Conlinuous
The number of fieId goaIs kicked in a foolbaII game
A Discrele Conlinuous
82
CHAPTIR IORM A
Determine whether the In!!nwing is a prnbabi!ity distributinn II nnt identiIy the requirement that
is nnt satisIied
x Px

Determine whether the In!!nwing is a prnbabi!ity distributinn II nnt identiIy the requirement that
is nnt satisIied
If a erson is randomIy seIecled from a cerlain lovn lhe robabiIily dislribulion for lhe
number x of sibIings is as described in lhe accomanying labIe
x Px
Find the mean nI the given prnbabi!ity distributinn
The number of goIf baIIs ordered by cuslomers of a ro sho has lhe foIIoving
robabiIily dislribulion
x
x
A C D
83
CHAPTIR IORM A
Sn!ve the prnb!em
In a cerlain lovn of aduIls have a coIIege degree The accomanying labIe describes
lhe robabiIily dislribulion for lhe number of aduIls among randomIy seIecled aduIls
vho have a coIIege degree Iind lhe variance for lhe robabiIily dislribulion
x Px
A C D
The rizes lhal can be von in a sveeslakes are Iisled beIov logelher vilh lhe chances
of vinning each one
chance in chance in chance in
chance in
Iind lhe execled vaIue of lhe amounl von for one enlry if lhe cosl of enlering is
cenls
A C D
Assume that a researcher randnm!y se!ects newbnrn babies and cnunts the number nI gir!s
se!ected x The prnbabi!ities cnrrespnnding tn the pnssib!e va!ues nI x are summarized in the
given tab!e Answer the questinn using the tab!e
Prnbabi!ities nI Cir!s
xgir!s Px xgir!s Px xgir!s Px
Iind lhe robabiIily of seIecling or more girIs
A C D
84
CHAPTIR IORM A
Answer the questinn
Iocus grous of eoIe are randomIy seIecled lo discuss roducls of lhe Yummy
Comany Il is delermined lhal lhe mean number er grou vho recognize lhe
Yummy brand name is and lhe slandard devialion is WouId il be unusuaI lo
randomIy seIecl eoIe and find lhal fever lhan recognize lhe Yummy brand name
A Yes No
Determine whether the given prncedure resu!ts in a binnmia! distributinn II nnt state the reasnn
why
RoIIing a singIe die limes keeing lrack of lhe numbers lhal are roIIed
A Nol binomiaI lhe lriaIs are nol indeendenl
Nol binomiaI lhere are loo many lriaIs
C Procedure resuIls in a binomiaI dislribulion
D Nol binomiaI lhere are more lhan lvo oulcomes for each lriaI
Assume that a prncedure yie!ds a binnmia! distributinn with a tria! repeated n times Use the
binnmia! prnbabi!ity Inrmu!a tn Iind the prnbabi!ity nI x successes given the prnbabi!ity p nI
success nn a sing!e tria!
n = x = =
A C D
Find the indicated prnbabi!ity
A machine has idenlicaI comonenls vhich funclion indeendenlIy The robabiIily
lhal a comonenl viII faiI is The machine viII slo vorking if more lhan lhree
comonenls faiI Iind lhe robabiIily lhal lhe machine viII be vorking
A C D
Find the standard deviatinn Inr the binnmia! distributinn which has the stated va!ues nI n and
p Rnund ynur answer tn the nearest hundredth
n = =
A = = C = D = 
85
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the given va!ues nI n and p tn Iind the minimum usua! va!ue  and the maximum usua!
va!ue +
n = =
A Minimum maximum
Minimum maximum
C Minimum maximum
D Minimum maximum
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The robabiIily lhal a erson has immunily lo a arlicuIar disease is Iind lhe mean
number vho have immunily in samIes of size
A C D
The robabiIily of vinning a cerlain Iollery is Ior eoIe vho Iay limes
find lhe slandard devialion for lhe number of vins
A C D
Iank nole
Determine iI the nutcnme is unusua! Cnnsider as unusua! any resu!t that diIIers Irnm the mean by
mnre than standard deviatinns That is unusua! va!ues are either !ess than  nr greater than
+
According lo AccuDala Media Research of leIevisions vilhin lhe Chicago cily
Iimils are luned lo Iyevilness Nevs al m on Sunday nighls Al m on a
given Sunday such leIevisions are randomIy seIecled and checked lo delermine
vhal is being valched WouId il be unusuaI lo find lhal of lhe leIevisions are
luned lo Iyevilness Nevs
A No Yes
Use the Pnissnn Distributinn tn Iind the indicated prnbabi!ity
A comuler saIesman averages saIes er veek Ise lhe Poisson dislribulion lo find
lhe robabiIily lhal in a randomIy seIecled veek lhe number of comulers soId is
A C D
86
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
The execled vaIues vouId be negalive for lhe erson Iaying as lhe casinos are designed lo
make money
Measure of cenlraI lendency mean = lhal is
Measure of varialion SD = lhal is
Nalure of lhe Dislribulion
A
Nol a robabiIily dislribulion One of lhe Pxs is negalive
Nol a robabiIily dislribulion The sum of lhe Pxs is nol since
A
A
D
A
D
A
D
D
A
C
87
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
A game is said lo be fair if lhe execled vaIue for vinnings is lhal is in lhe Iong run
lhe Iayer can execl lo vin Consider lhe foIIoving game The game cosls lo Iay
and lhe vinnings are for red for bIue for yeIIov and nolhing for vhile The
foIIoving robabiIilies aIy Whal are your execled vinnings Does lhe game favor
lhe Iayer or lhe ovner
Oulcome ProbabiIily
Red
Iue
YeIIov
While
Describe lhe Poisson dislribulion and give an examIe of a random variabIe vilh a
Poisson dislribulion
IdentiIy the given randnm variab!e as being discrete nr cnntinunus
The cosl of a randomIy seIecled orange
A Conlinuous Discrele
The heighl of a randomIy seIecled sludenl
A Conlinuous Discrele
88
CHAPTIR IORM
Determine whether the In!!nwing is a prnbabi!ity distributinn II nnt identiIy the requirement that
is nnt satisIied
x Px
A oIice dearlmenl reorls lhal lhe robabiIilies lhal and car lhefls viII be
reorled in a given day are and resecliveIy
Find the mean nI the given prnbabi!ity distributinn
The accomanying labIe shovs lhe robabiIily dislribulion for x lhe number lhal shovs
u vhen a Ioaded die is roIIed
x Px
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The random variabIe x is lhe number of houses soId by a reaIlor in a singIe monlh al lhe
Sendsoms ReaI Islale Office Ils robabiIily dislribulion is as foIIovs Iind lhe slandard
devialion for lhe robabiIily dislribulion
Houses SoId x ProbabiIily Px
A C D
89
CHAPTIR IORM
A conlraclor is considering a saIe lhal romises a rofil of vilh a robabiIily of
or a Ioss due lo bad vealher slrikes and such of vilh a robabiIily of
Whal is lhe execled rofil
A C D
Assume that a researcher randnm!y se!ects newbnrn babies and cnunts the number nI gir!s
se!ected x The prnbabi!ities cnrrespnnding tn the pnssib!e va!ues nI x are summarized in the
given tab!e Answer the questinn using the tab!e
Prnbabi!ities nI Cir!s
xgir!s Px xgir!s Px xgir!s Px
Iind lhe robabiIily of seIecling or more girIs
A C D
Answer the questinn
Iocus grous of eoIe are randomIy seIecled lo discuss roducls of lhe Iamous
Comany Il is delermined lhal lhe mean number er grou vho recognize lhe
Iamous brand name is and lhe slandard devialion is WouId il be unusuaI lo
randomIy seIecl eoIe and find lhal grealer lhan recognize lhe Iamous brand
name
A Yes No
Determine whether the given prncedure resu!ts in a binnmia! distributinn II nnt state the reasnn
why
RoIIing a singIe Ioaded die limes keeing lrack of lhe numbers lhal are roIIed
A Procedure resuIls in a binomiaI dislribulion
Nol binomiaI lhe lriaIs are nol indeendenl
C Nol binomiaI lhere are more lhan lvo oulcomes for each lriaI
D Nol binomiaI lhere are loo many lriaIs
90
CHAPTIR IORM
Assume that a prncedure yie!ds a binnmia! distributinn with a tria! repeated n times Use the
binnmia! prnbabi!ity Inrmu!a tn Iind the prnbabi!ity nI x successes given the prnbabi!ity p nI
success nn a sing!e tria!
n = x = =
A C D
Find the indicated prnbabi!ity
A comany urchases shimenls of machine comonenls and uses lhis accelance
samIing Ian RandomIy seIecl and lesl comonenls and accel lhe vhoIe balch if
lhere are fever lhan defeclives If a arlicuIar shimenl of lhousands of comonenls
acluaIIy has a rale of defecls vhal is lhe robabiIily lhal lhis vhoIe shimenl viII be
acceled
A C D
Find the standard deviatinn Inr the binnmia! distributinn which has the stated va!ues nI n and
p Rnund ynur answer tn the nearest hundredth
n = =
A = = C = D =
Use the given va!ues nI n and p tn Iind the minimum usua! va!ue  and the maximum usua!
va!ue +
n = =
A Minimum maximum
Minimum maximum
C Minimum maximum
D Minimum maximum
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The robabiIily of vinning a cerlain Iollery is Ior eoIe vho Iay limes
find lhe mean number of vins
A C D
On a muIliIe choice lesl vilh queslions each queslion has four ossibIe ansvers one
of vhich is correcl Ior sludenls vho guess al aII ansvers find lhe slandard devialion
for lhe number of correcl ansvers
A C D
91
CHAPTIR IORM
Determine iI the nutcnme is unusua! Cnnsider as unusua! any resu!t that diIIers Irnm the mean by
mnre than standard deviatinns That is unusua! va!ues are either !ess than  nr greater than
+
The Acme Candy Comany cIaims lhal of lhe avbreakers il roduces veigh more
lhan ounces Suose lhal avbreakers are seIecled al random from lhe
roduclion Iines WouId il be unusuaI for lhis samIe of lo conlain avbreakers
lhal veigh more lhan ounces
A Yes No
Use the Pnissnn Distributinn tn Iind the indicated prnbabi!ity
The CoIumbia Pover Comany exeriences over faiIures vilh a mean of = er
day Iind lhe robabiIily lhal lhere are exaclIy lvo over faiIures in a arlicuIar day
A C D
92
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
The execled vinnings are  lhe game is nol fair and il favors lhe ovner of lhe game
The Poisson dislribulion is a discrele robabiIily dislribulion lhal aIies lo occurrences of
some evenl over a secified inlervaI IxamIes viII vary
A
ProbabiIily dislribulion
Nol a robabiIily dislribulion The sum of lhe Pxs is nol since
A
A
A
D
A
C
A
C
C
D
D
93
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Comare lhe robabiIily hislogram for lhe execled sum vilh lhe acluaI resuIls Whal
do you concIude aboul lhe dice resuIls disIayed in lhe AcluaI Sum of Tvo Dice
hislogram
Describe lhe differences in lhe Poisson and lhe binomiaI dislribulion
IdentiIy the given randnm variab!e as being discrete nr cnntinunus
The number of oiI siIIs occurring off lhe AIaskan coasl
A Discrele Conlinuous
94
CHAPTIR IORM C
The braking lime of a car
A Discrele Conlinuous
Determine whether the In!!nwing is a prnbabi!ity distributinn II nnt identiIy the requirement that
is nnt satisIied
x Px
In a cerlain lovn of aduIls have a coIIege degree The accomanying labIe describes
lhe robabiIily dislribulion for lhe number of aduIls among randomIy seIecled aduIls
vho have a coIIege degree
x Px
Find the mean nI the given prnbabi!ity distributinn
In a cerlain lovn of aduIls have a coIIege degree The accomanying labIe describes
lhe robabiIily dislribulion for lhe number of aduIls among randomIy seIecled aduIls
vho have a coIIege degree
x Px
A C D
95
CHAPTIR IORM C
Sn!ve the prnb!em
In a cerlain lovn of aduIls have a coIIege degree The accomanying labIe describes
lhe robabiIily dislribulion for lhe number of aduIls among randomIy seIecled aduIls
vho have a coIIege degree Iind lhe slandard devialion for lhe robabiIily dislribulion
x Px
A C D
The rizes lhal can be von in a sveeslakes are Iisled beIov logelher vilh lhe chances
of vinning each one
chance in chance in chance in
chance in
Iind lhe execled vaIue of lhe amounl von for one enlry if lhe cosl lo enler is cenls
A C D
Assume that a researcher randnm!y se!ects newbnrn babies and cnunts the number nI gir!s
se!ected x The prnbabi!ities cnrrespnnding tn the pnssib!e va!ues nI x are summarized in the
given tab!e Answer the questinn using the tab!e
Prnbabi!ities nI Cir!s
xgir!s Px xgir!s Px xgir!s Px
Iind lhe robabiIily of seIecling or more girIs
A C D
96
CHAPTIR IORM C
Answer the questinn
Suose lhal veighl of adoIescenls is being sludied by a heaIlh organizalion and lhal
lhe accomanying labIes describes lhe robabiIily dislribulion for lhree randomIy
seIecled adoIescenls vhere x is lhe number vho are considered morbidIy obese Is il
unusuaI lo have no obese subecls among lhree randomIy seIecled adoIescenls
x P x
A No Yes
Determine whether the given prncedure resu!ts in a binnmia! distributinn II nnt state the reasnn
why
RoIIing a singIe Ioaded die limes keeing lrack of lhe fives roIIed
A Nol binomiaI lhe lriaIs are nol indeendenl
Nol binomiaI lhere are more lhan lvo oulcomes for each lriaI
C Nol binomiaI lhere are loo many lriaIs
D Procedure resuIls in a binomiaI dislribulion
Assume that a prncedure yie!ds a binnmia! distributinn with a tria! repeated n times Use the
binnmia! prnbabi!ity Inrmu!a tn Iind the prnbabi!ity nI x successes given the prnbabi!ity p nI
success nn a sing!e tria!
n = x = =
A C D
Find the indicated prnbabi!ity
An airIine eslimales lhal of eoIe booked on lheir fIighls acluaIIy shov u If lhe
airIine books eoIe on a fIighl for vhich lhe maximum number is vhal is lhe
robabiIily lhal lhe number of eoIe vho shov u viII exceed lhe caacily of lhe
Iane
A C D
Find the standard deviatinn Inr the binnmia! distributinn which has the stated va!ues nI n and
p Rnund ynur answer tn the nearest hundredth
n = =
A = = C = D =
97
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the given va!ues nI n and p tn Iind the minimum usua! va!ue  and the maximum usua!
va!ue +
n = =
A Minimum maximum
Minimum maximum
C Minimum maximum
D Minimum maximum
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The robabiIily is lhal a erson shoing al a cerlain slore viII send Iess lhan
Ior grous of size find lhe mean number vho send Iess lhan
A C D
According lo a coIIege survey of aII sludenls vork fuII lime Iind lhe slandard
devialion for lhe number of sludenls vho vork fuII lime in samIes of size
A C D
Determine iI the nutcnme is unusua! Cnnsider as unusua! any resu!t that diIIers Irnm the mean by
mnre than standard deviatinns That is unusua! va!ues are either !ess than  nr greater than
+
A survey for brand recognilion is done and il is delermined lhal of consumers have
heard of DuII Comuler Comany A survey of randomIy seIecled consumers is lo
be conducled Ior such grous of vouId il be unusuaI gel consumers vho
recognize lhe DuII Comuler Comany name
A Yes No
Use the Pnissnn Distributinn tn Iind the indicated prnbabi!ity
Ior a cerlain lye of fabric lhe average number of defecls in each square fool of fabric is
Iind lhe robabiIily lhal a randomIy seIecled square fool of lhe fabric viII conlain
more lhan one defecl
A C D
98
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
ased on lhe execled and acluaI resuIls al Ieasl one of lhe lvo dice musl nol be fair
The Poisson comules robabiIilies for occurrences of evenls over some inlervaI
The Poisson dislribulion is affecled onIy by lhe mean vhereas lhe binomiaI is affecled by
samIe size n and robabiIily
The Poisson dislribulion has discrele vaIues from vilh no uer Iimil A binomiaI
dislribulion has discrele vaIues from lo n lhal is lhe uer Iimil of vaIues is n
A
Nol a robabiIily dislribulion The sum of lhe Pxs is nol since
ProbabiIily dislribulion
C
A
C
C
A
D
A
A
D
99
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
The lyicaI comuler randomnumber generalor yieIds numbers in a uniform
dislribulion belveen and vilh a mean of and a slandard devialion of a
Suose a samIe of size is randomIy generaled Iind lhe robabiIily lhal lhe mean is
beIov b Suose a samIe size of is randomIy generaled Iind lhe robabiIily
lhal lhe mean is beIov These lvo robIems aear lo be very simiIar OnIy one
can be soIved by lhe CenlraI Iimil lheorem Which one and vhy
Using the In!!nwing uniInrm density curve answer the questinn
Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal lhe random variabIe has a vaIue belveen and
A C D
Assume that the weight !nss Inr the Iirst mnnth nI a diet prngram varies between pnunds and
pnunds and is spread even!y nver the range nI pnssibi!ities sn that there is a uniInrm distributinn
Find the prnbabi!ity nI the given range nI pnunds !nst
More lhan ounds
A
100
CHAPTIR IORM A
The Precisinn ScientiIic Instrument Cnmpany manuIactures thermnmeters that are suppnsed tn
give readings nI C at the Ireezing pnint nI water Tests nn a !arge samp!e nI these thermnmeters
revea! that at the Ireezing pnint nI water snme give readings be!nw C dennted by negative
numbers and snme give readings abnve C dennted by pnsitive numbers Assume that the mean
reading is C and the standard deviatinn nI the readings is C A!sn assume that the Irequency
distributinn nI errnrs c!nse!y resemb!es the nnrma! distributinn A thermnmeter is randnm!y
se!ected and tested Find the temperature reading cnrrespnnding tn the given inInrmatinn
If of lhe lhermomelers are reecled because lhey have readings lhal are loo Iov bul
aII olher lhermomelers are accelabIe find lhe lemeralure lhal searales lhe reecled
lhermomelers from lhe olhers
A   C  D 
A quaIily conlroI anaIysl vanls lo examine lhermomelers lhal give readings in lhe
bollom Iind lhe reading lhal searales lhe bollom from lhe olhers
A   C  D 
Assume that X has a nnrma! distributinn and Iind the indicated prnbabi!ity
The mean is = and lhe slandard devialion is =
Iind lhe robabiIily lhal X is Iess lhan
A C D
The mean is = and lhe slandard devialion is =
Iind lhe robabiIily lhal X is belveen and
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Assume lhal vomen have heighls lhal are normaIIy dislribuled vilh a mean of
inches and a slandard devialion of inches Iind lhe vaIue of lhe quarliIe Q
101
CHAPTIR IORM A
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A banks Ioan officer rales aIicanls for credil The ralings are normaIIy dislribuled
vilh a mean of and a slandard devialion of If differenl aIicanls are
randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lheir mean is above
A C D
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
A oII of randomIy seIecled sludenls in grades lhrough vas conducled and
found lhal enoy Iaying sorls WouId confidence in lhe resuIls increase if lhe
samIe size vere inslead of Why or vhy nol
List the diIIerent pnssib!e samp!es and Iind the mean nI each nI them
PersonaI hone caIIs received in lhe Iasl lhree days by a nev emIoyee vere and
Assume lhal samIes of size are randomIy seIecled vilh reIacemenl from lhis
ouIalion of lhree vaIues
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A sludy of lhe amounl of lime il lakes a mechanic lo rebuiId lhe lransmission for a
ChevroIel CavaIier shovs lhal lhe mean is hours and lhe slandard devialion is
hours If mechanics are randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lheir mean
rebuiId lime exceeds hours
A C D
Use the cnntinuity cnrrectinn and describe the reginn nI the nnrma! curve that cnrrespnnds tn the
indicated binnmia! prnbabi!ity
The robabiIily of no more lhan defeclive CDs
A The area lo lhe Iefl of The area lo lhe Iefl of
C The area lo lhe righl of D The area lo lhe Iefl of
102
CHAPTIR IORM A
Fnr the binnmia! distributinn with the given va!ues Inr n and p state whether nr nnt it is suitab!e
tn use the nnrma! distributinn as an apprnximatinn
n = and =
A NormaI aroximalion is suilabIe
NormaI aroximalion is nol suilabIe
Estimate the indicated prnbabi!ity by using the nnrma! distributinn as an apprnximatinn tn the
binnmia! distributinn
Tvo ercenl of hair dryers roduced in a cerlain Ianl are defeclive Islimale lhe
robabiIily lhal of randomIy seIecled hair dryers al Ieasl are defeclive
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A normaI robabiIily Iol is given beIov for a samIe of scores on an alilude lesl Ise
lhe Iol lo assess lhe normaIily of scores on lhis lesl IxIain your reasoning
103
CHAPTIR IORM A
Examine the given data set and determine whether the requirement nI a nnrma! distributinn is
satisIied Assume that the requirement Inr a nnrma! distributinn is !nnse in the sense that the
pnpu!atinn distributinn need nnt be exact!y nnrma! but it must have a distributinn which is
basica!!y symmetric with nn!y nne mnde Exp!ain why ynu dn nr dn nnt think that the requirement
is satisIied
The dala beIov reresenls lhe amounl of leIevision valched er veek in hours for
randomIy seIecled leenagers
104
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
The firsl a may be soIved by lhe CenlraI Iimil lheorem because lhe samIe size is Iarge The
robabiIily is The second b has a samIe size lhal is loo smaII and lhe CenlraI Iimil
lheorem does nol aIy
C
D
C
A
A
A
C
Yes As lhe samIe size increases lhe samIe slalislics lend lo vary Iess and lhey lend lo be
cIoser lo lhe ouIalion arameler
PossibIe samIes         
Means
D
D
Since lhe normaI robabiIily Iol is roughIy Iinear il aears lhal scores on lhis lesl are
aroximaleIy normaIIy dislribuled
The requiremenl for normaIily is nol salisfied since a hislogram of lhe dala is nol beII shaed
il is essenliaIIy bimodaI
105
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
ComIele lhe foIIoving labIe for a dislribulion in vhich = Il mighl be heIfuI lo
make a diagram lo heI you delermine lhe conlinuily faclor for each enlry
Iind lhe robabiIily lhal The conlinuily correclion faclor is
x is al Ieasl
x is al mosl
x is more lhan
x is Iess lhan
Using the In!!nwing uniInrm density curve answer the questinn
Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal lhe random variabIe has a vaIue belveen and
A C D
Assume that the weight !nss Inr the Iirst mnnth nI a diet prngram varies between pnunds and
pnunds and is spread even!y nver the range nI pnssibi!ities sn that there is a uniInrm distributinn
Find the prnbabi!ity nI the given range nI pnunds !nst
Iess lhan ounds
A
106
CHAPTIR IORM
The Precisinn ScientiIic Instrument Cnmpany manuIactures thermnmeters that are suppnsed tn
give readings nI C at the Ireezing pnint nI water Tests nn a !arge samp!e nI these thermnmeters
revea! that at the Ireezing pnint nI water snme give readings be!nw C dennted by negative
numbers and snme give readings abnve C dennted by pnsitive numbers Assume that the mean
reading is C and the standard deviatinn nI the readings is C A!sn assume that the Irequency
distributinn nI errnrs c!nse!y resemb!es the nnrma! distributinn A thermnmeter is randnm!y
se!ected and tested Find the temperature reading cnrrespnnding tn the given inInrmatinn
If of lhe lhermomelers are reecled because lhey have readings lhal are loo high bul
aII olher lhermomelers are accelabIe find lhe lemeralure lhal searales lhe reecled
lhermomelers from lhe olhers
A C D
If of lhe lhermomelers are reecled because lhey have readings lhal are loo high
and anolher are reecled because lhey have readings lhal are loo Iov find lhe lvo
readings lhal are culoff vaIues searaling lhe reecled lhermomelers from lhe olhers
A   C  D 
Assume that X has a nnrma! distributinn and Iind the indicated prnbabi!ity
The mean is = and lhe slandard devialion is =
Iind lhe robabiIily lhal X is grealer lhan
A C D
The mean is = and lhe slandard devialion is =
Iind lhe robabiIily lhal X is belveen and
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Suose lhal reIacemenl limes for vashing machines are normaIIy dislribuled vilh a
mean of years and a slandard devialion of years Iind lhe reIacemenl lime lhal
searales lhe lo from lhe bollom
A years years C years D years
Find the indicated prnbabi!ity
The voIumes of soda in quarl soda bollIes are normaIIy dislribuled vilh a mean of
oz and a slandard devialion of oz Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal lhe voIume of soda in
a randomIy seIecled bollIe viII be Iess lhan oz
A C D
107
CHAPTIR IORM
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
A recenl survey based on a random samIe of n = volers redicled lhal lhe
Indeendenl candidale for lhe mayoraI eIeclion viII gel of lhe vole bul he acluaIIy
gels Can il be concIuded lhal lhe survey vas done incorreclIy
List the diIIerent pnssib!e samp!es and Iind the mean nI each nI them
The number of books soId over lhe course of lhe fourday book fair vere
and Assume lhal samIes of size are randomIy seIecled vilh reIacemenl from lhis
ouIalion of four vaIues
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The veighls of lhe fish in a cerlain Iake are normaIIy dislribuled vilh a mean of Ib
and a slandard devialion of If fish are randomIy seIecled vhal is lhe robabiIily lhal
lhe mean veighl viII be belveen and Ib
A C D
A sludy of lhe amounl of lime il lakes a mechanic lo rebuiId lhe lransmission for a
ChevroIel CavaIier shovs lhal lhe mean is hours and lhe slandard devialion is
hours If mechanics are randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lheir mean
rebuiId lime exceeds hours
A C D
Use the cnntinuity cnrrectinn and describe the reginn nI the nnrma! curve that cnrrespnnds tn the
indicated binnmia! prnbabi!ity
The robabiIily of fever lhan democrals
A The area lo lhe Iefl of The area lo lhe Iefl of
C The area lo lhe righl of D The area lo lhe Iefl of
108
CHAPTIR IORM
Fnr the binnmia! distributinn with the given va!ues Inr n and p state whether nr nnt it is suitab!e
tn use the nnrma! distributinn as an apprnximatinn
n = and =
A NormaI aroximalion is nol suilabIe
NormaI aroximalion is suilabIe
Estimate the indicated prnbabi!ity by using the nnrma! distributinn as an apprnximatinn tn the
binnmia! distributinn
A muIliIe choice lesl consisls of queslions Iach queslion has ossibIe ansvers of
vhich one is correcl If aII ansvers are random guesses eslimale lhe robabiIily of
gelling al Ieasl correcl
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A normaI robabiIily Iol is given beIov for lhe Iifelimes in hours of a samIe of
balleries of a arlicuIar brand Ise lhe Iol lo assess lhe normaIily of lhe Iifelimes of
lhese balleries IxIain your reasoning
109
CHAPTIR IORM
Examine the given data set and determine whether the requirement nI a nnrma! distributinn is
satisIied Assume that the requirement Inr a nnrma! distributinn is !nnse in the sense that the
pnpu!atinn distributinn need nnt be exact!y nnrma! but it must have a distributinn which is
basica!!y symmetric with nn!y nne mnde Exp!ain why ynu dn nr dn nnt think that the requirement
is satisIied
The hearl rales in beals er minule of randomIy seIecled sludenls are given beIov
110
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
111
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
According lo dala from lhe American MedicaI Associalion of us are Ieflhanded
Suose grous of eoIe are randomIy seIecled Iind lhe robabiIily lhal al Ieasl
are Ieflhanded Describe lhe characlerislics of lhis robIem vhich heI you lo recognize
lhal lhe robIem is aboul a binomiaI dislribulion vhich you are lo soIve by eslimaling
vilh lhe normaI dislribulion Assume lhal you vouId nol use a comuler a labIe or lhe
binomiaI robabiIily formuIa
Using the In!!nwing uniInrm density curve answer the questinn
Whal is lhe robabiIily lhal lhe random variabIe has a vaIue grealer lhan
A C D
Assume that the weight !nss Inr the Iirst mnnth nI a diet prngram varies between pnunds and
pnunds and is spread even!y nver the range nI pnssibi!ities sn that there is a uniInrm distributinn
Find the prnbabi!ity nI the given range nI pnunds !nst
elveen ounds and ounds
A
112
CHAPTIR IORM C
The Precisinn ScientiIic Instrument Cnmpany manuIactures thermnmeters that are suppnsed tn
give readings nI C at the Ireezing pnint nI water Tests nn a !arge samp!e nI these thermnmeters
revea! that at the Ireezing pnint nI water snme give readings be!nw C dennted by negative
numbers and snme give readings abnve C dennted by pnsitive numbers Assume that the mean
reading is C and the standard deviatinn nI the readings is C A!sn assume that the Irequency
distributinn nI errnrs c!nse!y resemb!es the nnrma! distributinn A thermnmeter is randnm!y
se!ected and tested Find the temperature reading cnrrespnnding tn the given inInrmatinn
If of lhe lhermomelers are reecled because lhey have readings lhal are loo Iov bul
aII olher lhermomelers are accelabIe find lhe lemeralure lhal searales lhe reecled
lhermomelers from lhe olhers
A   C  D 
A quaIily conlroI anaIysl vanls lo examine lhermomelers lhal give readings in lhe
bollom Iind lhe reading lhal searales lhe bollom from lhe olhers
A   C  D 
Assume that X has a nnrma! distributinn and Iind the indicated prnbabi!ity
The mean is = and lhe slandard devialion is =
Iind lhe robabiIily lhal X is grealer lhan
A C D
The mean is = and lhe slandard devialion is =
Iind lhe robabiIily lhal X is belveen and
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The serum choIesleroI IeveIs for men in one age grou are normaIIy dislribuled vilh a
mean of and a slandard devialion of AII unils are in mg mI Iind lhe lvo
IeveIs lhal searale lhe lo and lhe bollom
A mgmI and mgmI
mgmI and mgmI
C mgmI and mgmI
D mgmI and mgmI
Find the indicated prnbabi!ity
The incomes of lrainees al a IocaI miII are normaIIy dislribuled vilh a mean of and
a slandard devialion Whal ercenlage of lrainees earn Iess lhan a monlh
A C D
113
CHAPTIR IORM C
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
A oII of randomIy seIecled sludenls in grades lhrough vas conducled and
found lhal enoy Iaying sorls Is lhe resuIl a slalislic or a arameler IxIain
List the diIIerent pnssib!e samp!es and Iind the mean nI each nI them
IIood insurance oIicies soId in lhe Iasl lhree days by a nev agenl vere and
Assume lhal samIes of size are randomIy seIecled vilh reIacemenl from lhis
ouIalion of lhree vaIues
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Ior vomen aged  sysloIic bIood ressures in mm Hg are normaIIy dislribuled
vilh a mean of and a slandard devialion of If vomen aged  are
randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lheir mean sysloIic bIood ressure is
belveen and
A C D
A sludy of lhe amounl of lime il lakes a mechanic lo rebuiId lhe lransmission for a
ChevroIel CavaIier shovs lhal lhe mean is hours and lhe slandard devialion is
hours If mechanics are randomIy seIecled find lhe robabiIily lhal lheir mean
rebuiId lime exceeds hours
A C D
Use the cnntinuity cnrrectinn and describe the reginn nI the nnrma! curve that cnrrespnnds tn the
indicated binnmia! prnbabi!ity
The robabiIily of al Ieasl boys
A The area lo lhe Iefl of The area lo lhe righl of
C The area lo lhe righl of D The area lo lhe righl of
114
CHAPTIR IORM C
Fnr the binnmia! distributinn with the given va!ues Inr n and p state whether nr nnt it is suitab!e
tn use the nnrma! distributinn as an apprnximatinn
n = and =
A NormaI aroximalion is suilabIe
NormaI aroximalion is nol suilabIe
Estimate the indicated prnbabi!ity by using the nnrma! distributinn as an apprnximatinn tn the
binnmia! distributinn
The robabiIily lhal a radish seed viII germinale is Islimale lhe robabiIily lhal of
randomIy seIecled seeds exaclIy viII germinale
A C D
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A normaI robabiIily Iol is given beIov for a samIe of scores on an alilude lesl Ise
lhe Iol lo assess lhe normaIily of scores on lhis lesl IxIain your reasoning
115
CHAPTIR IORM C
Examine the given data set and determine whether the requirement nI a nnrma! distributinn is
satisIied Assume that the requirement Inr a nnrma! distributinn is !nnse in the sense that the
pnpu!atinn distributinn need nnt be exact!y nnrma! but it must have a distributinn which is
basica!!y symmetric with nn!y nne mnde Exp!ain why ynu dn nr dn nnt think that the requirement
is satisIied
The numbers oblained on roIIs of a die
116
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
The robIem slalemenl has a slaled ercenl vhich corresonds lo lhe vaIue and a fixed
number of lriaIs vhich corresonds lo n No mean or slandard devialion is given and
lhey are lo be comuled using lhe formuIas = n and = n q AIso lhe normaI
aroximalion lo lhe binomiaI dislribulion is aroriale since bolh n and nq are grealer lhan
P=
D
C
D
C
D
D
A
Slalislic because il is caIcuIaled from a samIe nol a ouIalion
PossibIe samIes         
Means
A
A
C
A
Since lhe normaI robabiIily Iol is roughIy Iinear il aears lhal scores on lhis lesl are
aroximaleIy normaIIy dislribuled
The requiremenl for normaIily is nol salisfied since a hislogram of lhe dala is nol roughIy beII
shaed vilh a singIe mode The dala are roughIy uniformIy dislribuled
117
CHAPTER 7 FORM A
Name:_____________________________ Course Number:__________ Section Number:_____
Directions: Circle the correct choice for multiplechoice items.
Solve the problem.
1) Find the value of z
/2
that corresponds to a level of confidence of 94.76 percent.
A) 0.0262 B) 1.62 C) 1.94 D) 1.94
2) The following confidence interval is obtained for a population proportion, p:
0.620 < p < 0.658
Use these confidence interval limits to find the margin of error, E.
A) 0.020 B) 0.019 C) 0.639 D) 0.038
Find the margin of error for the 95% confidence interval used to estimate the population
proportion.
3) In a survey of 7100 T.V. viewers, 40% said they watch network news programs.
A) 0.0150 B) 0.0131 C) 0.00855 D) 0.0114
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to construct a confidence interval for the
population proportion p.
4) n = 87, x = 48; 98 percent
A) 0.448 < p < 0.656 B) 0.428 < p < 0.676
C) 0.427 < p < 0.677 D) 0.447 < p < 0.657
Find the minimum sample size you should use to assure that your estimate of p
^
will be within the
required margin of error around the population p.
5) Margin of error: 0.006; confidence level: 95%; p
^
and q
^
are unknown
A) 38,416 B) 16,112 C) 26,678 D) 38,415
6) Margin of error: 0.04; confidence level: 90%; from a prior study, p
^
is estimated by 0.28.
A) 14 B) 341 C) 1023 D) 303
Solve the problem.
7) 50 people are selected randomly from a certain population and it is found that 14 people
in the sample are over 6 feet tall. What is the point estimate of the true proportion of
people in the population who are over 6 feet tall?
A) 0.50 B) 0.28 C) 0.72 D) 0.20
118
CHAPTER 7 FORM A
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to construct a confidence interval for the
population proportion p.
8) A survey of 865 voters in one state reveals that 408 favor approval of an issue before the
legislature. Construct the 95% confidence interval for the true proportion of all voters in
the state who favor approval.
A) 0.444 < p < 0.500 B) 0.435 < p < 0.508
C) 0.438 < p < 0.505 D) 0.471 < p < 0.472
Solve the problem.
9) Suppose that n trials of a binomial experiment result in no successes. According to the
"Rule of Three", we have 95% confidence that the true population proportion has an
upper bound of 3/n. If a manufacturer randomly selects 25 computers for quality control
and finds no defective computers, what statement can you make by using the rule of
three, about the proportion p, of all its computers which are defective?
A) We are 95% confident that p does not exceed
3
25
.
B) We are 95% confident that p lies between
1
25
and
3
25
.
C) We are 95% confident that p is greater than
3
25
.
D) The value of p cannot be greater than
3
25
.
Determine whether the given conditions justify using the margin of error E = z
/2
/ n when
finding a confidence interval estimate of the population mean .
10) The sample size is n = 7, = 12.2, and the original population is normally distributed.
A) Yes B) No
Use the confidence level and sample data to find the margin of error E.
11) Weights of eggs: 95% confidence; n = 46, x = 1.68 oz, = 0.46 oz
A) 0.11 oz B) 0.02 oz C) 0.13 oz D) 6.78 oz
Use the confidence level and sample data to find a confidence interval for estimating the
population .
12) A random sample of 94 light bulbs had a mean life of x = 587 hours with a standard
deviation of = 36 hours. Construct a 90 percent confidence interval for the mean life, ,
of all light bulbs of this type.
A) 578 < < 596 B) 581 < < 593 C) 577 < < 597 D) 580 < < 594
119
CHAPTER 7 FORM A
Use the margin of error, confidence level, and standard deviation to find the minimum sample
size required to estimate an unknown population mean .
13) Margin of error: $133, confidence level: 95%, = $530
A) 20 B) 62 C) 54 D) 50
Do one of the following, as appropriate: (a) Find the critical value z
/2
, (b) find the critical value
t
/2
, (c) state that neither the normal nor the t distribution applies.
14) 95%; n = 11; is known; population appears to be very skewed.
A) Neither the normal nor the t distribution applies.
B) z
/2
= 1.96
C) z
/2
= 1.812
D) t
/2
= 2.228
Find the margin of error.
15) 95% confidence interval; n = 91 ;
_
x = 28, s = 14.1
A) 1.85 B) 4.25 C) 2.05 D) 2.93
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to construct a confidence interval for the
population mean . Assume that the population has a normal distribution.
16) The principal randomly selected six students to take an aptitude test. Their scores were:
83.0 84.1 83.5 83.7 84.1 73.5
Determine a 90 percent confidence interval for the mean score for all students.
A) 85.52 < < 78.45 B) 85.42 < < 78.55
C) 78.55 < < 85.42 D) 78.45 < < 85.52
Solve the problem.
17) Find the chisquare value
2
L
corresponding to a sample size of 20 and a confidence
level of 99 percent.
A) 6.844 B) 7.633 C) 36.191 D) 38.582
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to find a confidence interval for the
population standard deviation . Assume that the population has a normal distribution.
18) A sociologist develops a test to measure attitudes about public transportation, and 27
randomly selected subjects are given the test. Their mean score is 76.2 and their standard
deviation is 21.4. Construct the 95% confidence interval for the standard deviation, , of
the scores of all subjects.
A) 16.6 < < 28.6 B) 17.2 < < 27.2
C) 16.9 < < 29.3 D) 17.5 < < 27.8
120
CHAPTER 7 FORM A
Find the appropriate minimum sample size.
19) You want to be 99% confident that the sample standard deviation s is within 5% of the
population standard deviation.
A) 1,335 B) 923 C) 2,638 D) 2,434
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to find a confidence interval for the
population standard deviation . Assume that the population has a normal distribution.
20) The daily intakes of milk (in ounces) for ten randomly selected people were:
22.3 12.9 23.1 26.3 10.8
26.8 27.4 29.7 19.0 19.9
Find a 99 percent confidence interval for the population standard deviation .
A) (3.74, 12.81) B) (0.89, 3.40) C) (3.87, 12.81) D) (3.87, 14.26)
121
Answer Key
Testname: CHAPTER 7 FORM A
1) C
2) B
3) D
4) B
5) C
6) B
7) B
8) C
9) A
10) A
11) C
12) B
13) B
14) A
15) D
16) C
17) A
18) C
19) A
20) D
122
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Iind lhe crilicaI vaIue z
123
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the given degree nI cnnIidence and samp!e data tn cnnstruct a cnnIidence interva! Inr the
pnpu!atinn prnpnrtinn p
A survey of union members in Nev York Slale reveaIs lhal favor lhe ReubIican
candidale for governor Conslrucl lhe confidence inlervaI for lhe lrue ouIalion
roorlion of aII Nev York Slale union members vho favor lhe ReubIican candidale
A < < < <
C < < D < <
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A onesided confidence inlervaI for can be vrillen as <
^
+ I or >
^
 I vhere lhe
margin of error I is modified by reIacing z
vilh z
n when
Iinding a cnnIidence interva! estimate nI the pnpu!atinn mean
The samIe size is n = and is nol knovn
A No Yes
Use the cnnIidence !eve! and samp!e data tn Iind the margin nI errnr E
CoIIege sludenls annuaI earnings confidence n = x = =
A C D
Use the cnnIidence !eve! and samp!e data tn Iind a cnnIidence interva! Inr estimating the
pnpu!atinn
A random samIe of fuIIgrovn Iobslers had a mean veighl of ounces and a
slandard devialion of ounces Conslrucl a ercenl confidence inlervaI for lhe
ouIalion mean
A < < < < C < < D < <
Use the margin nI errnr cnnIidence !eve! and standard deviatinn tn Iind the minimum samp!e
size required tn estimate an unknnwn pnpu!atinn mean
Margin of error confidence IeveI =
A C D
124
CHAPTIR IORM
Dn nne nI the In!!nwing as apprnpriate a Find the critica! va!ue z
=
C z
=
D z
=
Find the margin nI errnr
confidence inlervaI n =
x = s =
A C D
Use the given degree nI cnnIidence and samp!e data tn cnnstruct a cnnIidence interva! Inr the
pnpu!atinn mean Assume that the pnpu!atinn has a nnrma! distributinn
The amounls in ounces of uice in eighl randomIy seIecled uice bollIes are
Conslrucl a ercenl confidence inlervaI for lhe mean amounl of uice in aII such
bollIes
A < < < <
C < < D < <
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Iind lhe crilicaI vaIue
I
corresonding lo a samIe size of and a confidence IeveI of
ercenl
A C D
Use the given degree nI cnnIidence and samp!e data tn Iind a cnnIidence interva! Inr the
pnpu!atinn standard deviatinn Assume that the pnpu!atinn has a nnrma! distributinn
Weighls of men confidence n = x = Ib s = Ib
A Ib < < Ib Ib < < Ib
C Ib < < Ib D Ib < < Ib
Find the apprnpriate minimum samp!e size
To be abIe lo say vilh confidence IeveI lhal lhe slandard devialion of a dala sel is
vilhin of lhe ouIalions slandard devialion lhe number of observalions vilhin
lhe dala sel musl be grealer lhan or equaI lo vhal quanlily
A C D
125
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the given degree nI cnnIidence and samp!e data tn Iind a cnnIidence interva! Inr the
pnpu!atinn standard deviatinn Assume that the pnpu!atinn has a nnrma! distributinn
The amounls in ounces of uice in eighl randomIy seIecled uice bollIes are
Iind a ercenl confidence inlervaI for lhe ouIalion slandard devialion
A C D
126
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
127
CHAPTER 7 FORM C
Name:____________________________ Course Number:__________ Section Number:_____
Directions: Circle the correct choice for multiplechoice items.
Solve the problem.
1) Find the critical value z
/2
that corresponds to a degree of confidence of 91%.
A) 1.70 B) 1.34 C) 1.645 D) 1.75
2) The following confidence interval is obtained for a population proportion, p:
0.817 < p < 0.855
Use these confidence interval limits to find the point estimate, p
^
.
A) 0.839 B) 0.836 C) 0.817 D) 0.833
Find the margin of error for the 95% confidence interval used to estimate the population
proportion.
3) n = 186, x = 103
A) 0.0643 B) 0.125 C) 0.00260 D) 0.0714
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to construct a confidence interval for the
population proportion p.
4) n = 158, x = 108; 95 percent
A) 0.625 < p < 0.743 B) 0.626 < p < 0.742
C) 0.611 < p < 0.756 D) 0.610 < p < 0.758
Find the minimum sample size you should use to assure that your estimate of p
^
will be within the
required margin of error around the population p.
5) Margin of error: 0.002; confidence level: 93%; p
^
and q
^
unknown
A) 204,757 B) 410 C) 204,750 D) 405
6) Margin of error: 0.07; confidence level: 95%; from a prior study, p
^
is estimated by the
decimal equivalent of 92%.
A) 58 B) 174 C) 51 D) 4
Solve the problem.
7) 61 randomly selected light bulbs were tested in a laboratory, 50 lasted more than 500
hours. Find a point estimate of the true proportion of all light bulbs that last more than
500 hours.
A) 0.803 B) 0.450 C) 0.820 D) 0.180
128
CHAPTER 7 FORM C
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to construct a confidence interval for the
population proportion p.
8) When 343 college students are randomly selected and surveyed, it is found that 110 own
a car. Find a 99% confidence interval for the true proportion of all college students who
own a car.
A) 0.256 < p < 0.386 B) 0.279 < p < 0.362
C) 0.271 < p < 0.370 D) 0.262 < p < 0.379
Solve the problem.
9) A researcher is interested in estimating the proportion of voters who favor a tax on
ecommerce. Based on a sample of 250 people, she obtains the following 99% confidence
interval for the population proportion p:
0.113 < p < 0.171
Which of the statements below is a valid interpretation of this confidence interval?
A: There is a 99% chance that the true value of p lies between 0.113 and 0.171.
B: If many different samples of size 250 were selected and, based on each sample, a
confidence interval were constructed, 99% of the time the true value of p would lie
between 0.113 and 0.171.
C: If many different samples of size 250 were selected and, based on each sample, a
confidence interval were constructed, in the long run 99% of the confidence intervals
would contain the true value of p.
D: If 100 different samples of size 250 were selected and, based on each sample, a
confidence interval were constructed, exactly 99 of these confidence intervals would
contain the true value of p.
A) C B) B C) D D) A
Determine whether the given conditions justify using the margin of error E = z
/2
/ n when
finding a confidence interval estimate of the population mean .
10) The sample size is n = 9, is not known, and the original population is normally
distributed.
A) Yes B) No
Use the confidence level and sample data to find the margin of error E.
11) Systolic blood pressures for women aged 1824: 94% confidence; n = 92,
x = 114.9 mm Hg, = 13.2 mm Hg
A) 47.6 mm Hg B) 2.3 mm Hg C) 2.6 mm Hg D) 9.6 mm Hg
129
CHAPTER 7 FORM C
Use the confidence level and sample data to find a confidence interval for estimating the
population .
12) A group of 52 randomly selected students have a mean score of 20.2 with a standard
deviation of 4.6 on a placement test. What is the 90 percent confidence interval for the
mean score, , of all students taking the test?
A) 19.1 < < 21.3 B) 18.7 < < 21.7
C) 19.0 < < 21.5 D) 18.6 < < 21.8
Use the margin of error, confidence level, and standard deviation to find the minimum sample
size required to estimate an unknown population mean .
13) Margin of error: $100, confidence level: 95%, = $403
A) 91 B) 63 C) 108 D) 44
Do one of the following, as appropriate: (a) Find the critical value z
/2
, (b) find the critical value
t
/2
, (c) state that neither the normal nor the t distribution applies.
14) 99%; n = 17; is unknown; population appears to be normally distributed.
A) t
/2
= 2.921 B) z
/2
= 2.583 C) t
/2
= 2.898 D) z
/2
= 2.567
Find the margin of error.
15) 99% confidence interval; n = 201;
_
x = 175; s = 21
A) 6.0 B) 4.6 C) 8.2 D) 3.9
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to construct a confidence interval for the
population mean . Assume that the population has a normal distribution.
16) The football coach randomly selected ten players and timed how long each player took
to perform a certain drill. The times (in minutes) were:
7.6 10.4 9.7 8.4 11.8
7.0 6.5 11.1 10.4 12.4
Determine a 95 percent confidence interval for the mean time for all players.
A) 8.03 < < 11.03 B) 8.00 < < 10.98
C) 8.06 < < 11.00 D) 8.13 < < 10.93
Solve the problem.
17) Find the critical value
2
R
corresponding to a sample size of 15 and a confidence level of
90 percent.
A) 31.319 B) 23.685 C) 29.141 D) 21.064
130
CHAPTER 7 FORM C
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to find a confidence interval for the
population standard deviation . Assume that the population has a normal distribution.
18) College students' annual earnings: 98% confidence; n = 9, x = $3605, s = $800
A) $486 < < $1566 B) $540 < < $1533
C) $629 < < $1044 D) $505 < < $1764
Find the appropriate minimum sample size.
19) You want to be 95% confident that the sample variance is within 40% of the population
variance.
A) 224 B) 14 C) 56 D) 11
Use the given degree of confidence and sample data to find a confidence interval for the
population standard deviation . Assume that the population has a normal distribution.
20) The football coach randomly selected ten players and timed how long each player took
to perform a certain drill. The times (in minutes) were:
7 12 10 14 10
14 9 11 7 14
Find a 95 percent confidence interval for the population standard deviation .
A) (1.9, 4.9) B) (0.7, 2.2) C) (1.8, 4.5) D) (1.9, 4.5)
131
Answer Key
Testname: CHAPTER 7 FORM C
1) A
2) B
3) D
4) C
5) A
6) A
7) C
8) A
9) A
10) B
11) C
12) A
13) B
14) A
15) D
16) C
17) B
18) D
19) C
20) A
132
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Define Tye I and Tye II errors Give an examIe of a Tye I error vhich vouId have
serious consequences Give an examIe of a Tye II error vhich vouId have serious
consequences Whal shouId be done lo minimize lhe consequences of a serious Tye I
error
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Wrile lhe cIaim lhal is suggesled by lhe given slalemenl lhen vrile a concIusion aboul
lhe cIaim Do nol use symboIic exressions or formaI rocedures use common sense
A malh leacher lries a nev melhod for leaching her inlroduclory slalislics cIass Iasl
year lhe mean score on lhe finaI lesl vas This year lhe mean on lhe same finaI vas
>
H
<
H
C H
=
H
>
D H
=
H
<
133
CHAPTIR IORM A
Assume that the data has a nnrma! distributinn and the number nI nbservatinns is greater than
IiIty Find the critica! z va!ue used tn test a nu!! hypnthesis
= H
is
A C D
Find the va!ue nI the test statistic z using z =
p
^
 p
pq
n
A cIaim is made lhal lhe roorlion of chiIdren vho Iay sorls is Iess lhan and lhe
samIe slalislics incIude n = subecls vilh saying lhal lhey Iay a sorl
A C  D 
Use the given inInrmatinn tn Iind the Pva!ue
The lesl slalislic in a IefllaiIed lesl is z = 
A C D
Fnrmu!ate the indicated cnnc!usinn in nnntechnica! terms Be sure tn address the nrigina! c!aim
Carler Molor Comany cIaims lhal ils nev sedan lhe Iibra viII average beller lhan
miIes er gaIIon in lhe cily Assuming lhal a hyolhesis lesl of lhe cIaim has been
conducled and lhal lhe concIusion is lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis slale lhe concIusion in
nonlechnicaI lerms
A There is sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean is Iess lhan miIes
er gaIIon
There is sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean is grealer lhan
miIes er gaIIon
C There is nol sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean is grealer lhan
miIes er gaIIon
D There is nol sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean is Iess lhan
miIes er gaIIon
Assume that a hypnthesis test nI the given c!aim wi!! be cnnducted IdentiIy the type I nr type II
errnr Inr the test
The rinciaI of a middIe schooI cIaims lhal lesl scores of lhe sevenlhgraders al his
schooI vary Iess lhan lhe lesl scores of sevenlhgraders al a neighboring schooI vhich
have varialion described by = Idenlify lhe lye I error for lhe lesl
A The error of faiIing lo reecl lhe cIaim lhal lhe slandard devialion is Iess lhan
vhen il acluaIIy is
The error of reecling lhe cIaim lhal lhe slandard devialion is Iess lhan vhen il
acluaIIy is
C The error of reecling lhe cIaim lhal lhe slandard devialion is Iess lhan vhen il
acluaIIy is Iess lhan
134
CHAPTIR IORM A
Sn!ve the prnb!em
True or IaIse In a hyolhesis lesl an increase in viII cause a decrease in lhe over of
lhe lesl rovided lhe samIe size is kel fixed
A IaIse True
IdentiIy the nu!! hypnthesis a!ternative hypnthesis test statistic Pva!ue cnnc!usinn abnut the
nu!! hypnthesis and Iina! cnnc!usinn that addresses the nrigina! c!aim
A suIier of disks cIaims lhal no more lhan of lhe disks are defeclive In a
random samIe of disks il is found lhal are defeclive bul lhe suIier cIaims
lhal lhis is onIy a samIe fIuclualion Al lhe IeveI of significance lesl lhe suIiers
cIaim lhal no more lhan are defeclive
Find the Pva!ue Inr the indicated hypnthesis test
A random samIe of forlyyearoId men conlains smokers Iind lhe PvaIue
for a lesl of lhe cIaim lhal lhe ercenlage of forlyyearoId men lhal smoke is
A C D
Determine whether the given cnnditinns ustiIy testing a c!aim abnut a pnpu!atinn mean
The samIe size is n = = and lhe originaI ouIalion is normaIIy dislribuled
A Yes No
IdentiIy the nu!! hypnthesis a!ternative hypnthesis test statistic Pva!ue cnnc!usinn abnut the
nu!! hypnthesis and Iina! cnnc!usinn that addresses the nrigina! c!aim
A random samIe of umkins is oblained and lhe mean circumference is found lo
be cm Assuming lhal lhe ouIalion slandard devialion is knovn lo be cm use
a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean circumference of aII umkins is
equaI lo cm
135
CHAPTIR IORM A
Determine whether the hypnthesis test invn!ves a samp!ing distributinn nI means that is a nnrma!
distributinn Student t distributinn nr neither
CIaim = SamIe dala n = x = s = The samIe dala aear lo come
from a normaIIy dislribuled ouIalion vilh unknovn and
A Sludenl l Neilher C NormaI
Assume that a simp!e randnm samp!e has been se!ected Irnm a nnrma!!y distributed pnpu!atinn
Find the test statistic Pva!ue critica! va!ues and state the Iina! cnnc!usinn
Tesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean Iifelime of car engines of a arlicuIar lye is grealer lhan
miIes SamIe dala are summarized as n = x = miIes and
s = miIes Ise a significance IeveI of =
Test the given c!aim using the traditinna! methnd nI hypnthesis testing Assume that the samp!e
has been randnm!y se!ected Irnm a pnpu!atinn with a nnrma! distributinn
A Iarge soflvare comany gives ob aIicanls a lesl of rogramming abiIily and lhe
mean for lhal lesl has been in lhe asl Tvenlyfive ob aIicanls are randomIy
seIecled from one Iarge universily and lhey roduce a mean score and slandard
devialion of and resecliveIy Ise a IeveI of significance lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal
lhis samIe comes from a ouIalion vilh a mean score grealer lhan
In lesls of a comuler comonenl il is found lhal lhe mean lime belveen faiIures is
hours A modificalion is made vhich is suosed lo increase lhe lime belveen faiIures
Tesls on a random samIe of modified comonenls resuIled in lhe foIIoving limes in
hours belveen faiIures
Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal for lhe modified comonenls lhe mean
lime belveen faiIures is grealer lhan hours
136
CHAPTIR IORM A
Find the critica! va!ue nr va!ues nI x
n =
=
A 
C D 
Use the traditinna! methnd tn test the given hypnthesis Assume that the pnpu!atinn is nnrma!!y
distributed and that the samp!e has been randnm!y se!ected
The slandard devialion of malh lesl scores al one high schooI is A leacher cIaims
lhal lhe slandard devialion of lhe girIs lesl scores is smaIIer lhan A random samIe
of girIs resuIls in scores vilh a slandard devialion of Ise a significance IeveI of
lo lesl lhe leachers cIaim
Heighls of men aged lo have a slandard devialion of Ise a significance
IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe heighls of vomen aged lo have a differenl slandard
devialion The heighls in inches of randomIy seIecled vomen aged lo are Iisled
beIov
137
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
Tye I The mislake of reecling lhe nuII hyolhesis vhen il is lrue Tye II The mislake of
faiIing lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis vhen il is faIse Ansvers for examIes viII vary To
minimize a Tye I error vilh serious consequences make smaIIer AIso make lhe samIe size
Iarger lo minimize bolh and
PossibIe examIe for Tye I PharmaceulicaI Comany A roduces a nev drug beIieved lo be
suerior lo lhe one il viII reIace If a hyolhesis lesl suggesls lhis imroved drug is beller lhe
comany viII send miIIions of doIIars rearing and markeling ils nev drug vhen in reaIily
lhe former one vas beller PossibIe examIe for Tye II PharmaceulicaI Comany A roduces
a nev drug This lime a hyolhesis lesl suorls lhe nuII hyolhesis vilh lhe resuIl lhal
Comany A abandons roduclion of lhis imroved drug In reaIily lhe imroved drug is
beller and A Ioses miIIions of doIIars nol onIy because of lhe cosl of roduclion of lhe
imroved drug bul aIso because ils exisling drug is nol comelilive
The cIaim is lhal lhe nev leaching melhod is more effeclive lhan lhe oId melhod and lhal on
average sludenls viII score higher vhen she uses lhe nev leaching melhod lhan vhen she uses
lhe oId leaching melhod The smaII difference in lhe lvo means is nol slrong evidence lhal lhe
nev melhod is more effeclive Iven if bolh melhods vere equaIIy effeclive such a difference
couId easiIy occur by chance
D
D
D
A
A
H
= H
= H
138
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
Tesl slalislic X
= CrilicaI vaIue X
= IaiI lo reecl H
Tesl slalislic X
= CrilicaI vaIues X
= IaiI lo reecl H
There is nol
sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal heighls of vomen aged lo have a slandard
devialion differenl from in
139
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
IxIain hov lo delermine if a hyolhesis lesl is onelaiIed or lvolaiIed and exIain
hov you knov vhere lo shade lhe crilicaI region Give an examIe for each vhich
incIudes lhe cIaim lhe hyolheses and lhe diagram vilh lhe crilicaI region shaded
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Wrile lhe cIaim lhal is suggesled by lhe given slalemenl lhen vrile a concIusion aboul
lhe cIaim Do nol use symboIic exressions or formaI rocedures use common sense
Iasl year an aIiance manufaclurer received many comIainls aboul lhe high rale of
defecls among ils vashing machines AroximaleIy of lhe machines vere defeclive
in some vay This year lhe comany lighlened u ils quaIily conlroI rocedures The
Ialesl shimenl of vashing machines conlained defeclives
Express the nu!! hypnthesis H
=
H
<
C H
=
H
D H
<
H
Assume that the data has a nnrma! distributinn and the number nI nbservatinns is greater than
IiIty Find the critica! z va!ue used tn test a nu!! hypnthesis
= for a righllaiIed lesl
A + C + D
140
CHAPTIR IORM
Find the va!ue nI the test statistic z using z =
p
^
 p
pq
n
The cIaim is lhal lhe roorlion of drovning dealhs of chiIdren allribulabIe lo beaches is
more lhan and lhe samIe slalislics incIude n = drovning dealhs of chiIdren
vilh of lhem allribulabIe lo beaches
A  C  D
Use the given inInrmatinn tn Iind the Pva!ue
The lesl slalislic in a righllaiIed lesl is z =
A C D
Fnrmu!ate the indicated cnnc!usinn in nnntechnica! terms Be sure tn address the nrigina! c!aim
A sychoIogisl cIaims lhal more lhan ercenl of lhe ouIalion suffers from
rofessionaI robIems due lo exlreme shyness Assuming lhal a hyolhesis lesl of lhe
cIaim has been conducled and lhal lhe concIusion is faiIure lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis
slale lhe concIusion in nonlechnicaI lerms
A There is sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lrue roorlion is grealer
lhan ercenl
There is sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lrue roorlion is Iess
lhan ercenl
C There is nol sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lrue roorlion is Iess
lhan ercenl
D There is nol sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lrue roorlion is
grealer lhan ercenl
Assume that a hypnthesis test nI the given c!aim wi!! be cnnducted IdentiIy the type I nr type II
errnr Inr the test
The manufaclurer of a refrigeralor syslem for beer kegs roduces refrigeralors lhal are
suosed lo mainlain a lrue mean lemeralure of I ideaI for a cerlain lye of
German iIsner The ovner of lhe brevery does nol agree vilh lhe refrigeralor
manufaclurer and cIaims he can rove lhal lhe lrue mean lemeralure is incorrecl
Idenlify lhe lye I error for lhe lesl
A The error of reecling lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean lemeralure equaIs I vhen il
reaIIy does equaI I
The error of reecling lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean lemeralure equaIs I vhen il is
reaIIy differenl from I
C The error of faiIing lo reecl lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean lemeralure equaIs I vhen
il is reaIIy differenl from I
141
CHAPTIR IORM
Sn!ve the prnb!em
True or IaIse In a hyolhesis lesl regarding a ouIalion mean lhe robabiIily of a lye
II error deends on lhe lrue vaIue of lhe ouIalion mean
A True IaIse
IdentiIy the nu!! hypnthesis a!ternative hypnthesis test statistic Pva!ue cnnc!usinn abnut the
nu!! hypnthesis and Iina! cnnc!usinn that addresses the nrigina! c!aim
A nalionvide sludy of American homeovners reveaIed lhal have one or more Iavn
movers A Iavn equimenl manufaclurer Iocaled in Omaha feeIs lhe eslimale is loo
Iov for househoIds in Omaha Can lhe vaIue be reecled if a survey of homes in
Omaha yieIds vilh one or more Iavn movers Ise =
Find the Pva!ue Inr the indicated hypnthesis test
Iind lhe PvaIue for a lesl of lhe cIaim lhal more lhan of lhe eoIe foIIoving a
arlicuIar diel viII exerience increased energy Of randomIy seIecled subecls vho
foIIoved lhe diel noliced an increase in lheir energy IeveI
A C D
Determine whether the given cnnditinns ustiIy testing a c!aim abnut a pnpu!atinn mean
The samIe size is n = is nol knovn and lhe originaI ouIalion is normaIIy
dislribuled
A Yes No
IdentiIy the nu!! hypnthesis a!ternative hypnthesis test statistic Pva!ue cnnc!usinn abnut the
nu!! hypnthesis and Iina! cnnc!usinn that addresses the nrigina! c!aim
Various lemeralure measuremenls are recorded al differenl limes for a arlicuIar cily
The mean of C is oblained for lemeralures on differenl days Assuming lhal
= C lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe ouIalion mean is C Ise a significance IeveI
142
CHAPTIR IORM
Determine whether the hypnthesis test invn!ves a samp!ing distributinn nI means that is a nnrma!
distributinn Student t distributinn nr neither
CIaim = SamIe dala n = x = s = The samIe dala aear lo come
from a ouIalion vilh a dislribulion lhal is very far from normaI and is unknovn
A Sludenl l Neilher C NormaI
Assume that a simp!e randnm samp!e has been se!ected Irnm a nnrma!!y distributed pnpu!atinn
Find the test statistic Pva!ue critica! va!ues and state the Iina! cnnc!usinn
Tesl lhe cIaim lhal for lhe ouIalion of hislory exams lhe mean score is SamIe
dala are summarized as n = x = and s = Ise a significance IeveI of =
Test the given c!aim using the traditinna! methnd nI hypnthesis testing Assume that the samp!e
has been randnm!y se!ected Irnm a pnpu!atinn with a nnrma! distributinn
A manufaclurer makes baII bearings lhal are suosed lo have a mean veighl of g A
relaiIer susecls lhal lhe mean veighl is acluaIIy Iess lhan g The mean veighl for a
random samIe of baII bearings is g vilh a slandard devialion of g Al lhe
significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean is Iess lhan g
A cereaI comany cIaims lhal lhe mean veighl of lhe cereaI in ils ackels is oz The
veighls in ounces of lhe cereaI in a random samIe of of ils cereaI ackels are Iisled
beIov
Tesl lhe cIaim al lhe significance IeveI
143
CHAPTIR IORM
Find the critica! va!ue nr va!ues nI x
>
n =
=
A C D
Use the traditinna! methnd tn test the given hypnthesis Assume that the pnpu!atinn is nnrma!!y
distributed and that the samp!e has been randnm!y se!ected
In one lovn monlhIy incomes for men vilh coIIege degrees are found lo have a
slandard devialion of Ise a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal for men
vilhoul coIIege degrees in lhal lovn incomes have a higher slandard devialion A
random samIe of men vilhoul coIIege degrees resuIled in incomes vilh a slandard
devialion of
Ior randomIy seIecled aduIls IQ scores are normaIIy dislribuled vilh a slandard
devialion of The scores of randomIy seIecled coIIege sludenls are Iisled beIov Ise
a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe slandard devialion of IQ scores of
coIIege sludenls is Iess lhan
144
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
IxamIes viII vary ReIalionaI oeralors in lhe aIlernalive hyolheses indicale vhelher lhe
lesl is onelaiIed or lvolaiIed Slricl inequaIilies delermine onelaiIed lesls vhereas nol
equaI lo and differenl from delermine lvolaiIed lesls The crilicaI region begins al lhe CV
for onelaiIed lesls and al bolh CVs for lvolaiIed lesls Shading begins al lhe CVCVs and
exlends lo lhe laiIs of lhe dislribulion
The cIaim is lhal lhe defecl rale has decreased and is nov Iess lhan If lhe overaII defecl rale
vere sliII il vouId be exlremeIy unIikeIy lhal a shimenl of vashing machines vouId
conlain as fev as defeclives Therefore lhe cIaim lhal lhe defecl rale has decreased is robabIy
correcl
C
A
D
D
A
A
H
= H
= H
Tesl slalislic z = 
PvaIue = TabIe A = STATDISK = ITI PIus ecause
lhe PvaIue is Iess lhan lhe significance IeveI of = ve reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis There is
sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal lhe ouIalion mean lemeralure is
degrees C
=
Tesl slalislic l =
PvaIue = STATDISK TI PIus < PvaIue < TabIe A CrilicaI
vaIue l =
ecause lhe TS l < ve do nol reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis There is nol sufficienl evidence lo
varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean score is
Tesl slalislic l =  CrilicaI vaIue l =  IaiI lo reecl H
= CrilicaI vaIue X
= Reecl H
= CrilicaI vaIue X
145
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Inder vhal condilions do you reecl H
=
H
>
H
<
H
>
C H
=
H
<
D H
>
H
Assume that the data has a nnrma! distributinn and the number nI nbservatinns is greater than
IiIty Find the critica! z va!ue used tn test a nu!! hypnthesis
= for a lvolaiIed lesl
A C D
146
CHAPTIR IORM C
Find the va!ue nI the test statistic z using z =
p
^
 p
pq
n
The cIaim is lhal lhe roorlion of accidenlaI dealhs of lhe eIderIy allribulabIe lo
residenliaI faIIs is more lhan and lhe samIe slalislics incIude n = dealhs of lhe
eIderIy vilh of lhem allribulabIe lo residenliaI faIIs
A C  D 
Use the given inInrmatinn tn Iind the Pva!ue
The lesl slalislic in a lvolaiIed lesl is z =
A C D
Fnrmu!ate the indicated cnnc!usinn in nnntechnica! terms Be sure tn address the nrigina! c!aim
A cereaI comany cIaims lhal lhe mean veighl of lhe cereaI in ils ackels is al Ieasl
oz Assuming lhal a hyolhesis lesl of lhe cIaim has been conducled and lhal lhe
concIusion is lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis slale lhe concIusion in nonlechnicaI lerms
A There is nol sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean
veighl is Iess lhan oz
There is nol sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean
veighl is al Ieasl oz
C There is sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean veighl
is Iess lhan oz
D There is sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean veighl
is al Ieasl oz
Assume that a hypnthesis test nI the given c!aim wi!! be cnnducted IdentiIy the type I nr type II
errnr Inr the test
A researcher cIaims lhal lhe amounls of acelaminohen in a cerlain brand of coId labIels
have a slandard devialion differenl from lhe = mg cIaimed by lhe manufaclurer
Idenlify lhe lye II error for lhe lesl
A The error of faiIing lo reecl lhe cIaim lhal lhe slandard devialion is mg vhen il
is acluaIIy differenl from mg
The error of reecling lhe cIaim lhal lhe slandard devialion is more lhan mg
vhen il reaIIy is more lhan mg
C The error of reecling lhe cIaim lhal lhe slandard devialion is mg vhen il reaIIy
is mg
147
CHAPTIR IORM C
Sn!ve the prnb!em
In a hyolhesis lesl vhich of lhe foIIoving viII cause a decrease in lhe robabiIily of
making a lye II error
A Increasing vhiIe keeing lhe samIe size n fixed
Increasing lhe samIe size n vhiIe keeing fixed
C Decreasing vhiIe keeing lhe samIe size n fixed
D Decreasing lhe samIe size n vhiIe keeing fixed
A A and D C and D C A and D and C
IdentiIy the nu!! hypnthesis a!ternative hypnthesis test statistic Pva!ue cnnc!usinn abnut the
nu!! hypnthesis and Iina! cnnc!usinn that addresses the nrigina! c!aim
In a cIinicaI sludy of an aIIergy drug of lhe subecls reorled exeriencing
significanl reIief from lheir symloms Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal
more lhan haIf of aII lhose using lhe drug exerience reIief
Find the Pva!ue Inr the indicated hypnthesis test
An airIine cIaims lhal lhe noshov rale for assengers booked on ils fIighls is Iess lhan
Of randomIy seIecled reservalions vere noshovs Iind lhe PvaIue for a
lesl of lhe airIines cIaim
A C D
Determine whether the given cnnditinns ustiIy testing a c!aim abnut a pnpu!atinn mean
The samIe size is n = = and lhe originaI ouIalion is nol normaIIy
dislribuled
A No Yes
IdentiIy the nu!! hypnthesis a!ternative hypnthesis test statistic Pva!ue cnnc!usinn abnut the
nu!! hypnthesis and Iina! cnnc!usinn that addresses the nrigina! c!aim
The heaIlh of emIoyees is monilored by eriodicaIIy veighing lhem in A samIe of
emIoyees has a mean veighl of Ib Assuming lhal is knovn lo be Ib use a
significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe ouIalion mean of aII such emIoyees
veighls is Iess lhan Ib
148
CHAPTIR IORM C
Determine whether the hypnthesis test invn!ves a samp!ing distributinn nI means that is a nnrma!
distributinn Student t distributinn nr neither
CIaim = SamIe dala n = x = s = The samIe dala aear lo come from
a normaIIy dislribuled ouIalion vilh =
A Neilher Sludenl l C NormaI
Assume that a simp!e randnm samp!e has been se!ected Irnm a nnrma!!y distributed pnpu!atinn
Find the test statistic Pva!ue critica! va!ues and state the Iina! cnnc!usinn
Tesl lhe cIaim lhal for lhe aduIl ouIalion of one lovn lhe mean annuaI saIary is given
by = SamIe dala are summarized as n = x = and s = Ise
a significance IeveI of =
Test the given c!aim using the traditinna! methnd nI hypnthesis testing Assume that the samp!e
has been randnm!y se!ected Irnm a pnpu!atinn with a nnrma! distributinn
A ubIic bus comany officiaI cIaims lhal lhe mean vailing lime for bus number
during eak hours is Iess lhan minules Karen look bus number during eak hours
on differenl occasions Her mean vailing lime vas minules vilh a slandard
devialion of minules Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean is Iess
lhan minules
A IighlbuIb manufaclurer adverlises lhal lhe average Iife for ils Iighl buIbs hours A
random samIe of of ils Iighl buIbs resuIled in lhe foIIoving Iives in hours
Al lhe significance IeveI do lhe dala rovide evidence lhal lhe mean Iife for lhe
comanys Iighl buIbs differs from lhe adverlised mean
149
CHAPTIR IORM C
Find the critica! va!ue nr va!ues nI x
<
n =
=
A  C D
Use the traditinna! methnd tn test the given hypnthesis Assume that the pnpu!atinn is nnrma!!y
distributed and that the samp!e has been randnm!y se!ected
A manufaclurer uses a nev roduclion melhod lo roduce sleeI rods A random samIe
of sleeI rods resuIled in Ienglhs vilh a slandard devialion of cm Al lhe
significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe nev roduclion melhod has Ienglhs vilh a
slandard devialion differenl from cm vhich vas lhe slandard devialion for lhe oId
melhod
Wilh individuaI Iines al lhe checkouls a slore manager finds lhal lhe slandard devialion
for lhe vailing limes on Monday mornings is minules Afler svilching lo a singIe
vailing Iine he finds lhal for a random samIe of cuslomers lhe vailing limes have a
slandard devialion of minules Ise a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal
vilh a singIe Iine vailing limes vary Iess lhan vilh individuaI Iines
150
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
Ior lhe lradilionaI melhod lhe leslslalislic is lhe crilicaI region Ior lhe PvaIue melhod lhe
PvaIue is Iess lhan or equaI lo lhe significance IeveI and lhe lesl slalislic is on lhe aroriale
side in a onelaiIed lesl
The cIaim is lhal lhe erson is using his exlra sensory overs lo delermine lhe suil of lhe card
and lhal he correclIy delermines lhe suil more oflen lhan he vouId if he vere guessing
randomIy Iven if he vere usl guessing randomIy he vouId have a reasonabIe chance of
being correcl limes oul of a hundred lhis is nol imrobabIe since lhere are four suils
Therefore idenlifying lhe suil correclIy limes oul of does nol conslilule slrong evidence
in favor of his cIaim
C
D
D
A
C
H
= H
= H
= CrilicaI vaIues X
= Reecl H
There is sufficienl
evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe slandard devialion is differenl from
Tesl slalislic X
= CrilicaI vaIue X
= IaiI lo reecl H
151
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Whal is lhe effecl on lhe PvaIue vhen a lesl is changed from a lvolaiIed hyolhesis
vilh = and lo a onelaiIed hyolhesis such as and <
Find the number nI successes x suggested by the given statement
Among randomIy seIecled car drivers in one cily said lhal lhey had been
invoIved in an accidenl during lhe asl year
A C D
Frnm the samp!e statistics Iind the va!ue nI p used tn test the hypnthesis that the pnpu!atinn
prnpnrtinns are equa!
n
= n
=
x
= x
=
A C D
Cnmpute the test statistic used tn test the nu!! hypnthesis that p
= p
A reorl on lhe nighlIy nevs broadcasl slaled lhal oul of househoIds vilh el
dogs vere burgIarized and oul of vilhoul el dogs vere burgIarized
A   C D 
Find the apprnpriate pva!ue tn test the nu!! hypnthesis H
= p
= n
=
x
= x
=
A C D
152
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the traditinna! methnd tn test the given hypnthesis Assume that the samp!es are independent
and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
Ise lhe given samIe dala lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal
>
= n
=
x
= x
=
A researcher finds lhal of eoIe vho said lhal lhey allend a reIigious service al
Ieasl once a veek sloed lo heI a erson vilh car lroubIe Of eoIe
inlervieved vho had nol allended a reIigious service al Ieasl once a monlh sloed
lo heI a erson vilh car lroubIe Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lvo
roorlions are equaI
Cnnstruct the indicated cnnIidence interva! Inr the diIIerence between pnpu!atinn prnpnrtinns p

p
Assume that the samp!es are independent and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
x
= n
= and x
= n
A  <
<  <
<
C <
< D <
<
Determine whether the samp!es are independent nr cnnsist nI matched pairs
The accuracy of verbaI resonses is lesled in an exerimenl in vhich individuaIs reorl
lheir heighls and lhen are measured The dala consisl of lhe reorled heighl and
measured heighl for each individuaI
A Malched airs Indeendenl samIes
153
CHAPTIR IORM A
Test the indicated c!aim abnut the means nI twn pnpu!atinns Assume that the twn samp!es are
independent and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
Tvo lyes of fIares are lesled for lheir burning limes in minules and samIe resuIls are
given beIov
rand X rand Y
n = n =
x = x =
s = s =
Refer lo lhe samIe dala lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lvo ouIalions have equaI means
Ise a significance IeveI
Cnnstruct the indicated cnnIidence interva! Inr the diIIerence between the twn pnpu!atinn means
Assume that the twn samp!es are independent and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
A researcher vishes lo delermine vhelher eoIe vilh high bIood ressure can reduce
lheir bIood ressure by foIIoving a arlicuIar diel Ise lhe samIe dala beIov lo
conslrucl a confidence inlervaI for u
 u
vhere u
and u
= n
=
x
= x
=
s
= s
=
A  <

<  <

< 
C  <

< D  <

< 
Find s
d
A
A C D
154
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the cnmputer disp!ay tn sn!ve the prnb!em
When lesling for a difference belveen lhe means of a lrealmenl grou and a Iacebo
grou lhe comuler disIay beIov is oblained Ising a significance IeveI is lhere
sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lrealmenl grou variabIe comes from
a ouIalion vilh a mean lhal is differenl from lhe mean for lhe Iacebo ouIalion
IxIain
Assume that ynu want tn test the c!aim that the paired samp!e data cnme Irnm a pnpu!atinn Inr
which the mean diIIerence is
d
= Cnmpute the va!ue nI the t test statistic
x
y
A l = l =  C l =  D l = 
155
CHAPTIR IORM A
Determine the decisinn criterinn Inr reecting the nu!! hypnthesis in the given hypnthesis test ie
describe the va!ues nI the test statistic that wnu!d resu!t in reectinn nI the nu!! hypnthesis
A farmer has decided lo use a nev addilive lo grov his cros He divided his farm inlo
Iols and kel records of lhe corn yieId in busheIs before and afler using lhe
addilive The resuIls are shovn beIov
PIol
efore
Afler
You vish lhe lesl lhe foIIoving hyolhesis al lhe ercenl IeveI of significance
H
D
= againsl H
D
>
Whal decision ruIe vouId you use
A Reecl H
A <
d
<  <
d
<
C <
d
< D  <
d
<
156
CHAPTIR IORM A
Test the indicated c!aim abnut the variances nr standard deviatinns nI twn pnpu!atinns Assume
that the pnpu!atinns are nnrma!!y distributed Assume that the twn samp!es are independent and
that they have been randnm!y se!ected
Tvo lyes of fIares are lesled for lheir burning limes in minules and samIe resuIls are
given beIov Ise a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lvo brands have equaI
variances
rand X rand Y
n = n =
x = x =
s = s =
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A lesl for homogeneily of variance is conducled al lhe IeveI of significance SamIe
sizes are n
= and n
157
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
The PvaIue is cul in haIf
C
C
C
H
>
>
158
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
The lesl slalislic for lesling hyolhesis aboul lvo variances is =
s
vhere s
> s
Describe lhe numeric ossibiIilies for lhis lesl slalislic IxIain lhe circumslances under
vhich lhe concIusion vouId be eilher lhal lhe variances are equaI or lhal lhe variances
are nol equaI
Find the number nI successes x suggested by the given statement
Among eoIe seIecled randomIy from among lhe eIigibIe volers in one cily
vere homeovners
A C D
Frnm the samp!e statistics Iind the va!ue nI p used tn test the hypnthesis that the pnpu!atinn
prnpnrtinns are equa!
n
= n
=
x
= x
=
A C D
Cnmpute the test statistic used tn test the nu!! hypnthesis that p
= p
Informalion aboul movie lickel saIes vas rinled in a movie magazine Oul of fifly
PGraled movies had lickel saIes in excess of Oul of lhirlyfive Rraled
movies grossed over
A C D
159
CHAPTIR IORM
Find the apprnpriate pva!ue tn test the nu!! hypnthesis H
= p
= n
=
x
= x
=
A C D
Use the traditinna! methnd tn test the given hypnthesis Assume that the samp!es are independent
and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
Ise lhe given samIe dala lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal
<
=
x
=
SamIe
n
=
x
=
In a random samIe of vomen favored slricler gun conlroI Iavs In a random
samIe of men favored slricler gun conlroI Iavs Tesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe
roorlion of vomen favoring slricler gun conlroI is higher lhan lhe roorlion of men
favoring slricler gun conlroI Ise a significance IeveI of
Cnnstruct the indicated cnnIidence interva! Inr the diIIerence between pnpu!atinn prnpnrtinns p

p
Assume that the samp!es are independent and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
x
= n
= and x
= n
A <
<  <
<
C <
< D  <
<
160
CHAPTIR IORM
Determine whether the samp!es are independent nr cnnsist nI matched pairs
The effecl of caffeine as an ingredienl is lesled vilh a samIe of reguIar soda and anolher
samIe vilh decaffeinaled soda
A Indeendenl samIes Malched airs
Test the indicated c!aim abnut the means nI twn pnpu!atinns Assume that the twn samp!es are
independent and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
A researcher vishes lo delermine vhelher eoIe vilh high bIood ressure can reduce
lheir bIood ressure by foIIoving a arlicuIar diel Ise lhe samIe dala beIov lo lesl lhe
cIaim lhal lhe lrealmenl ouIalion mean
= n
=
x
=
x
=
s
= s
=
Cnnstruct the indicated cnnIidence interva! Inr the diIIerence between the twn pnpu!atinn means
Assume that the twn samp!es are independent and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
Indeendenl samIes from lvo differenl ouIalions yieId lhe foIIoving dala
x
=
x
= s
= s
A  <
<   <
< 
C  <
<  D  <
< 
161
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the cnmputer disp!ay tn sn!ve the prnb!em
When lesling for a difference belveen lhe means of a lrealmenl grou and a Iacebo
grou lhe comuler disIay beIov is oblained Ising a significance IeveI is lhere
sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lrealmenl grou variabIe comes from
a ouIalion vilh a mean lhal is grealer lhan lhe mean for lhe Iacebo ouIalion
IxIain
The twn data sets are dependent Find d tn the nearest tenth
X
Y
A C D
Find s
d
The differences belveen lvo sels of deendenl dala are      Round lo lhe
nearesl lenlh
A C D
Assume that ynu want tn test the c!aim that the paired samp!e data cnme Irnm a pnpu!atinn Inr
which the mean diIIerence is
d
= Cnmpute the va!ue nI the t test statistic
x
y
A l = l = C l = D l =
162
CHAPTIR IORM
Determine the decisinn criterinn Inr reecting the nu!! hypnthesis in the given hypnthesis test ie
describe the va!ues nI the test statistic that wnu!d resu!t in reectinn nI the nu!! hypnthesis
A farmer has decided lo use a nev addilive lo grov his cros He divided his farm inlo
Iols and kel records of lhe corn yieId in busheIs before and afler using lhe
addilive The resuIls are shovn beIov
PIol
efore
Afler
You vish lo lesl lhe foIIoving hyolhesis al lhe ercenl IeveI of significance
H
D
= againsl H
D
Whal decision ruIe vouId you use
A Reecl H
163
CHAPTIR IORM
Test the indicated c!aim abnut the variances nr standard deviatinns nI twn pnpu!atinns Assume
that the pnpu!atinns are nnrma!!y distributed Assume that the twn samp!es are independent and
that they have been randnm!y se!ected
Tesl lhe cIaim lhal ouIalions A and have differenl variances Ise a significance IeveI
of
SamIe A SamIe
n = n =
x
= x
=
s = s =
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A lesl of homogeneily of variance is conducled al lhe IeveI of significance SamIe
sizes are n
= and n
164
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
The vaIue for lhe lesl slalislic I viII be or grealer If lhe vaIue is reasonabIy cIose lo lhe
concIusion is lhal lhe lvo variances are equaI If lhe vaIue is significanlIy grealer lhan lhe
concIusion is lhal lhe lvo variances are nol equaI
C
D
D
H
<
<
>
<
d
= There is nol sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lechnique
is effeclive in raising lhe gymnasls scores
C
H
165
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Comare lhe lechnique for decision making aboul ouIalions using lhe hyolhesis lesl
melhod and lhe confidence inlervaI melhod
Find the number nI successes x suggested by the given statement
Among aduIls seIecled randomIy from among lhe residenls of one lovn said
lhal lhey favor slronger gunconlroI Iavs
A C D
Frnm the samp!e statistics Iind the va!ue nI p used tn test the hypnthesis that the pnpu!atinn
prnpnrtinns are equa!
n
= n
=
x
= x
=
A C D
Cnmpute the test statistic used tn test the nu!! hypnthesis that p
= p
In a vole on lhe CIean Waler biII of lhe Democrals voled for lhe biII vhiIe
of lhe ReubIicans voled for il
A   C  D 
Find the apprnpriate pva!ue tn test the nu!! hypnthesis H
= p
= n
=
x
= x
=
A C D
166
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the traditinna! methnd tn test the given hypnthesis Assume that the samp!es are independent
and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
A markeling survey invoIves roducl recognilion in Nev York and CaIifornia Of
Nev Yorkers surveyed knev lhe roducl vhiIe oul of CaIifornians knev
lhe roducl Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe recognilion rales are lhe
same in bolh slales
of eoIe vaccinaled againsl a cerlain disease Ialer deveIoed lhe disease of
eoIe vaccinaled vilh a Iacebo Ialer deveIoed lhe disease Tesl lhe cIaim lhal
lhe vaccine is effeclive in Iovering lhe incidence of lhe disease Ise a significance IeveI
of
Cnnstruct the indicated cnnIidence interva! Inr the diIIerence between pnpu!atinn prnpnrtinns p

p
Assume that the samp!es are independent and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
x
= n
= and x
= n
A <
< <
<
C  <
< D  <
<
Determine whether the samp!es are independent nr cnnsist nI matched pairs
The effecliveness of a nev headache medicine is lesled by measuring lhe amounl of lime
before lhe headache is cured for alienls vho use lhe medicine and anolher grou of
alienls vho use a Iacebo drug
A Indeendenl samIes Malched airs
167
CHAPTIR IORM C
Test the indicated c!aim abnut the means nI twn pnpu!atinns Assume that the twn samp!es are
independent and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
A researcher vishes lo delermine vhelher eoIe vilh high bIood ressure can reduce
lheir bIood ressure by foIIoving a arlicuIar diel Ise lhe samIe dala beIov lo lesl lhe
cIaim lhal lhe lrealmenl ouIalion mean
= n
=
x
=
x
=
s
= s
=
Cnnstruct the indicated cnnIidence interva! Inr the diIIerence between the twn pnpu!atinn means
Assume that the twn samp!es are independent and that they have been randnm!y se!ected
Tvo lyes of fIares are lesled for lheir burning limes in minules and samIe resuIls are
given beIov
rand X rand Y
n = n =
x = x =
s = s =
Conslrucl a confidence inlervaI for lhe differences
X

Y
based on lhe samIe
dala
A <
X

Y
< <
X

Y
<
C <
X

Y
< D <
X

Y
<
168
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the cnmputer disp!ay tn sn!ve the prnb!em
When lesling for a difference belveen lhe means of a lrealmenl grou and a Iacebo
grou lhe comuler disIay beIov is oblained Ising a significance IeveI is lhere
sufficienl evidence lo suorl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lrealmenl grou variabIe comes from
a ouIalion vilh a mean lhal is differenl from lhe mean for lhe Iacebo ouIalion
IxIain
The twn data sets are dependent Find d tn the nearest tenth
X
Y
A   C  D 
Find s
d
The differences belveen lvo sels of deendenl dala are   Round lo lhe
nearesl lenlh
A C D
169
CHAPTIR IORM C
Assume that ynu want tn test the c!aim that the paired samp!e data cnme Irnm a pnpu!atinn Inr
which the mean diIIerence is
d
= Cnmpute the va!ue nI the t test statistic
x
y
A l = l = C l = D l =
Determine the decisinn criterinn Inr reecting the nu!! hypnthesis in the given hypnthesis test ie
describe the va!ues nI the test statistic that wnu!d resu!t in reectinn nI the nu!! hypnthesis
Suose you vish lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal
d
lhe mean vaIue of lhe differences d for a
ouIalion of aired dala is grealer lhan Given a samIe of n = and a significance
IeveI of = vhal crilerion vouId be used for reecling lhe nuII hyolhesis
A Reecl nuII hyolhesis if lesl slalislic > or < 
Reecl nuII hyolhesis if lesl slalislic >
C Reecl nuII hyolhesis if lesl slalislic <
D Reecl nuII hyolhesis if lesl slalislic >
Use the traditinna! methnd nI hypnthesis testing tn test the given c!aim abnut the means nI twn
pnpu!atinns Assume that twn dependent samp!es have been randnm!y se!ected Irnm nnrma!!y
distributed pnpu!atinns
Ten differenl famiIies are lesled for lhe number of gaIIons of valer a day lhey use before
and afler vieving a conservalion video Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal
lhe mean is lhe same before and afler lhe vieving
efore
Afler
Cnnstruct a cnnIidence interva! Inr
d
the mean nI the diIIerences d Inr the pnpu!atinn nI paired
data Assume that the pnpu!atinn nI paired diIIerences is nnrma!!y distributed
A lesl of vriling abiIily is given lo a random samIe of sludenls before and afler lhey
comIeled a formaI vriling course The resuIls are given beIov Conslrucl a
confidence inlervaI for lhe mean difference belveen lhe before and afler scores
efore
Afler
A <
d
<  <
d
<
C  <
d
< D  <
d
<
170
CHAPTIR IORM C
Test the indicated c!aim abnut the variances nr standard deviatinns nI twn pnpu!atinns Assume
that the pnpu!atinns are nnrma!!y distributed Assume that the twn samp!es are independent and
that they have been randnm!y se!ected
A random samIe of vomen resuIled in bIood ressure IeveIs vilh a slandard
devialion of mm Hg A random samIe of men resuIled in bIood ressure IeveIs
vilh a slandard devialion of mm Hg Ise a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim
lhal bIood ressure IeveIs for vomen have a Iarger variance lhan lhose for men
A lesl for homogeneily of variance is conducled al lhe IeveI of significance SamIes
sizes are n
= and n
171
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
In lhe hyolhesis lesl melhod lhe comarison is made belveen a lesl slalislic from lhe samIe
dala and lhe crilicaI vaIue from lhe labIe The concIusion is eilher lo reecl or faiI lo reecl lhe
nuII hyolhesis based on vhelher or nol lhe lesl slalislic is in lhe reecl region Wilh lhe
confidence inlervaI melhod lhe confidence inlervaI is conslrucled and lhe ouIalion mean is
comared againsl lhe inlervaI The concIusion is made based on vhelher or nol lhe ouIalion
mean is vilhin lhe confidence inlervaI
A
D
C
H
<
<
d
= There is sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal lhe mean is
lhe same before and afler vieving
D
H
>
172
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Describe lhe slandard error of eslimale s
e
Hov do smaIIer vaIues of s
e
reIale lo lhe
disersion of dala oinls aboul lhe Iine delermined by lhe Iinear regression equalion
Whal does il mean vhen s
e
is
Civen the !inear cnrre!atinn cneIIicient r and the samp!e size n determine the critica! va!ues nI r
and use ynur Iinding tn state whether nr nnt the given r represents a signiIicant !inear cnrre!atinn
Use a signiIicance !eve! nI
r = n =
A CrilicaI vaIues r = no significanl Iinear correIalion
CrilicaI vaIue r = no significanl Iinear correIalion
C CrilicaI vaIues r = significanl Iinear correIalion
D CrilicaI vaIue r =  no significanl Iinear correIalion
Describe the errnr in the stated cnnc!usinn
Given Iach schooI in a slale reorls lhe average SAT score of ils sludenls There is a
significanl Iinear correIalion belveen lhe average SAT score of a schooI and lhe average
annuaI income in lhe dislricl in vhich lhe schooI is Iocaled
ConcIusion There is a significanl Iinear correIalion belveen individuaI SAT scores and
famiIy income
173
CHAPTIR IORM A
Determine which p!nt shnws the strnngest !inear cnrre!atinn
A
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
C
x
y
x
y
174
CHAPTIR IORM A
Find the va!ue nI the !inear cnrre!atinn cneIIicient r
A sludy vas conducled lo comare lhe average lime senl in lhe Iab each veek versus
course grade for comuler sludenls The resuIls are recorded in lhe labIe beIov
Number of hours senl in Iab Grade ercenl
A C  D 
Find the best predicted va!ue nI y cnrrespnnding tn the given va!ue nI x
ased on lhe dala from six sludenls lhe regression equalion reIaling number of hours of
rearalion x and lesl score y is y
^
= + x The same dala yieId r = and
y = Whal is lhe besl redicled lesl score for a sludenl vho senl hours rearing
for lhe lesl
A C D
Use the given data tn Iind the equatinn nI the regressinn !ine Rnund the Iina! va!ues tn three
signiIicant digits iI necessary
x
y
A y
^
=  + x y
^
=  + x
C y
^
=  + x D y
^
=  + x
Is the data pnint P an nut!ier an inI!uentia! pnint bnth nr neither
x
10 20
y
50
40
30
20
10
P
x
10 20
y
50
40
30
20
10
P
A olh OulIier
C InfIuenliaI oinl D Neilher
175
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the given inInrmatinn tn Iind the cneIIicient nI determinatinn
The lesl scores of randomIy icked sludenls and lhe numbers of hours lhey reared
are as foIIovs
Hours
Score
The equalion of lhe regression Iine is y
^
= x + Iind lhe coefficienl of
delerminalion
A C D 
Use the cnmputer disp!ay tn answer the questinn
A coIIeclion of aired dala consisls of lhe number of years lhal sludenls have sludied
Sanish and lheir scores on a Sanish Ianguage roficiency lesl A comuler rogram
vas used lo oblain lhe Ieasl squares Iinear regression Iine and lhe comuler oulul is
shovn beIov AIong vilh lhe aired samIe dala lhe rogram vas aIso given an x
vaIue of years of sludy lo be used for redicling lesl score
The regression equalion is
Score = + Years
Prediclor Coef SlDev T P
Conslanl
Years
S = RSq = RSq Ad =
Predicled vaIues
Iil SlDev Iil CI PI
Ise lhe informalion in lhe disIay lo find lhe vaIue of lhe Iinear correIalion coefficienl r
Delermine vhelher lhere is significanl Iinear correIalion belveen years of sludy and lesl
scores Ise a significance IeveI of There are airs of dala
A r = There is significanl Iinear correIalion
r = There is significanl Iinear correIalion
C r = There is no significanl Iinear correIalion
D r = There is no significanl Iinear correIalion
176
CHAPTIR IORM A
Find the exp!ained variatinn Inr the paired data
The aired dala beIov consisls of lesl scores and hours of rearalion for randomIy
seIecled sludenls The equalion of lhe regression Iine is y
^
= + x Iind lhe
exIained varialion
x Hours of rearalion
y Tesl of score
A C D
Find the standard errnr nI estimate Inr the given paired data
The equalion of lhe regression Iine for lhe aired dala beIov is y
^
= + x
Iind lhe slandard error of eslimale
x
y
A C D
Cnnstruct the indicated predictinn interva! Inr an individua! y
The equalion of lhe regression Iine for lhe aired dala beIov is y
^
= + x and
lhe slandard error of eslimale is s
e
=
Iind lhe rediclion inlervaI of y for x =
x
y
A < y < < y <
C < y < D < y <
177
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use cnmputer snItware tn Iind the regressinn equatinn Can the equatinn be used Inr predictinn
A viIdIife anaIysl galhered lhe dala in lhe labIe lo deveIo an equalion lo redicl lhe
veighls of bears He used WIIGHT as lhe deendenl variabIe and CHIST IINGTH
and SIX as lhe indeendenl variabIes Ior SIX he used maIe= and femaIe=
WIIGHT CHIST IINGTH SIX
is high
WIIGHT =  + CHIST + IINGTH  SIX
Yes because lhe PvaIue is high
C WIIGHT =  + CHIST + IINGTH  SIX
Yes because lhe adusled R
is high
D WIIGHT = + CHIST + IINGTH  SIX
Yes because lhe PvaIue is Iov
Cnnstruct a scatterp!nt and identiIy the mathematica! mnde! that best Iits the data Assume that
the mnde! is tn be used nn!y Inr the scnpe nI the given data and cnnsider nn!y !inear quadratic
!ngarithmic expnnentia! and pnwer mnde!s Use a ca!cu!atnr nr cnmputer tn nbtain the regressinn
equatinn nI the mnde! that best Iits the data Ynu may need tn Iit severa! mnde!s and cnmpare the
va!ues nI R
The labIe beIov shovs lhe ouIalion of a cily in miIIions in each year during lhe
eriod  Ising lhe number of years since as lhe indeendenl variabIe
find lhe regression equalion of lhe besl modeI
x
y
A y = e
x
y = + x
C y = x
+ x + D y = x
178
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use cnmputer snItware tn nbtain the regressinn and identiIy R
adusted R
A
C D
Use cnmputer snItware tn nbtain the regressinn equatinn Use the estimated equatinn tn Iind the
predicted va!ue
A heaIlh seciaIisl galhered lhe dala in lhe labIe lo see if uIse rales can be exIained by
exercise and smoking Ior exercise he assigns for yes for no Ior smoking he assigns
for yes for no He lhen used his resuIls lo redicl lhe uIse rale of a erson vhose
exercise vaIue vas and vhose smoking vaIue vas
PIISI IXIRCISI SMOKI
179
CHAPTIR IORM A
Find the indicated mu!tip!e regressinn equatinn
eIov are lhe roduclivily dexlerily and ob salisfaclion ralings of len randomIy
seIecled emIoyees
Produclivily
Dexlerily
}ob salisfaclion
Iind lhe muIliIe regression equalion lhal exresses lhe ob salisfaclion scores in lerms
of lhe roduclivily and dexlerily scores
A S
^
= + P + D S
^
= + P + D
C S
^
= + P + D D S
^
= + P + D
Use cnmputer snItware tn Iind the best regressinn equatinn tn exp!ain the variatinn in the
dependent variab!e Y in terms nI the independent variab!es X
Y X
CORRIIATION COIIIICIINTS
Y X
=
Y X
=
Y X
= 
COIIIICIINTS OI DITIRMINATION
Y X
=
Y X
=
Y X
=
A Y
^
=  + X
+ X
Y
^
=  + X
+ X
 X
C Y
^
=  + X
+ X
D Y
^
=  + X
180
CHAPTIR IORM A
Cnnstruct a scatter diagram Inr the given data
x
y
    
      
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
A
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
C
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
D
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
181
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
The slandard error of eslimale s
e
is a measure of lhe dislances belveen lhe observed samIe y
vaIues and lhe redicled vaIues y
^
SmaIIer vaIues of s
e
indicale lhal lhe acluaI vaIues of y viII
be cIoser lo lhe regression Iine vhereas Iarger vaIues of s
e
indicale a grealer disersion of lhe y
vaIues from lhe regression Iine When lhe slandard error of eslimale is lhe y vaIues Iie on lhe
regression Iine
C
Averages suress individuaI varialion and lend lo infIale lhe correIalion coefficienl The facl
lhal lhere is significanl Iinear correIalion belveen average SAT scores and average incomes in
lhe dislricl does nol necessariIy imIy lhal lhere is significanl Iinear correIalion belveen
individuaI SAT scores and famiIy incomes
C
D
C
D
C
C
A
C
A
D
D
D
182
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Suose lhere is significanl correIalion belveen lvo variabIes Describe lvo cases under
vhich il mighl be inaroriale lo use lhe Iinear regression equalion for rediclion Give
examIes lo suorl lhese cases
Civen the !inear cnrre!atinn cneIIicient r and the samp!e size n determine the critica! va!ues nI r
and use ynur Iinding tn state whether nr nnt the given r represents a signiIicant !inear cnrre!atinn
Use a signiIicance !eve! nI
r =  n =
A CrilicaI vaIue r = no significanl Iinear correIalion
CrilicaI vaIues r = no significanl Iinear correIalion
C CrilicaI vaIues r = significanl Iinear correIalion
D CrilicaI vaIues r = no significanl Iinear correIalion
Describe the errnr in the stated cnnc!usinn
Given There is no significanl Iinear correIalion belveen scores on a malh lesl and scores
on a verbaI lesl
ConcIusion There is no reIalionshi belveen scores on lhe malh lesl and scores on lhe
verbaI lesl
183
CHAPTIR IORM
Determine which p!nt shnws the strnngest !inear cnrre!atinn
C
Find the va!ue nI the !inear cnrre!atinn cneIIicient r
Managers rale emIoyees according lo ob erformance and allilude The resuIls for
severaI randomIy seIecled emIoyees are given beIov
Performance
Allilude
A C D
Find the best predicted va!ue nI y cnrrespnnding tn the given va!ue nI x
The regression equalion reIaling allilude raling x and ob erformance raling y for lhe
emIoyees of a comany is y
^
= + x Ten airs of dala vere used lo oblain lhe
equalion The same dala yieId r = and y = Whal is lhe besl redicled ob
erformance raling for a erson vhose allilude raling is
A C D
Use the given data tn Iind the equatinn nI the regressinn !ine Rnund the Iina! va!ues tn three
signiIicant digits iI necessary
x
y
A y
^
= + x y
^
= + x
C y
^
= + x D y
^
= + x
184
CHAPTIR IORM
Is the data pnint P an nut!ier an inI!uentia! pnint bnth nr neither
x
6 12
y
12
6
P
x
6 12
y
12
6
P
A Neilher OulIier
C InfIuenliaI oinl D olh
Use the given inInrmatinn tn Iind the cneIIicient nI determinatinn
The foIIoving are cosls of adverlising in lhousands of doIIars and lhe numbers of
roducls soId in lhousands
Cosl
Number
The equalion of lhe regression Iine is y
^
= x + Iind lhe coefficienl of
delerminalion
A C  D
Cnnstruct the indicated predictinn interva! Inr an individua! y
The aired dala beIov consisls of heighls and veighls of randomIy seIecled aduIls
The equalion of lhe regression Iine is y
^
=  + x and lhe slandard error of
eslimale is s
e
=
Iind lhe rediclion inlervaI for lhe veighl of a erson vhose
heighl is m
x Heighl melers
y Weighl kg
A < y < < y <
C < y < D < y <
185
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the cnmputer disp!ay tn answer the questinn
A coIIeclion of aired dala consisls of lhe number of years lhal sludenls have sludied
Sanish and lheir scores on a Sanish Ianguage roficiency lesl A comuler rogram
vas used lo oblain lhe Ieasl squares Iinear regression Iine and lhe comuler oulul is
shovn beIov AIong vilh lhe aired samIe dala lhe rogram vas aIso given an x
vaIue of years of sludy lo be used for redicling lesl score
The regression equalion is
Score = + Years
Prediclor Coef SlDev T P
Conslanl
Years
S = RSq = RSq Ad =
Predicled vaIues
Iil SlDev Iil CI PI
Ior a erson vho sludies for years oblain lhe rediclion inlervaI and vrile a
slalemenl inlerreling lhe inlervaI
A We can be confidenl lhal lhe mean lesl score of aII individuaIs
vho sludy years viII Iie in lhe inlervaI
We can be confidenl lhal lhe lesl score of an individuaI vho
sludies years viII Iie in lhe inlervaI
C We can be confidenl lhal lhe lesl score of an individuaI vho
sludies years viII Iie in lhe inlervaI
D We can be confidenl lhal lhe mean lesl score of aII individuaIs
vho sludy years viII Iie in lhe inlervaI
Find the unexp!ained variatinn Inr the paired data
The aired dala beIov consisls of heighls and veighls of randomIy seIecled aduIls
The equalion of lhe regression Iine is y
^
=  + x Iind lhe unexIained
varialion
x Heighl melers
y Weighl kg
A C D
186
CHAPTIR IORM
Use cnmputer snItware tn Iind the regressinn equatinn Can the equatinn be used Inr predictinn
IPIA lhe Iarm Produclion Inhancemenl Agency regressed corn oulul againsl
acreage rainfaII and a lrend Iine The lrend Iine is roxy for lechnoIogicaI advancemenl
in farming from imroved esl conlroI ferliIizalion Iand managemenl and farming
imIemenls
CORNPROD ACRIS RAINIAII TRIND
is high
CORNPROD =  + ACRIS + RAINIAII + TRIND
No because lhe PvaIue is Iov
C CORNPROD =  + ACRIS + RAINIAII + TRIND
Yes because lhe R
is high
D CORNPROD =  + ACRIS + RAINIAII + TRIND
Yes because lhe adusled R
is high
187
CHAPTIR IORM
Use cnmputer snItware tn nbtain the regressinn and identiIy R
adusted R
A 
C D 
188
CHAPTIR IORM
Use cnmputer snItware tn nbtain the regressinn equatinn Use the estimated equatinn tn Iind the
predicted va!ue
A viIdIife anaIysl galhered lhe dala in lhe labIe lo deveIo an equalion lo redicl lhe
veighls of bears He used WIIGHT in ounds as lhe deendenl variabIe and CHIST
IINGTH and SIX as lhe indeendenl variabIes Ior SIX he used maIe = and
femaIe = He look his equalion lo lhe foresl and found a maIe bear vhose chesl
measured inches and vho vas inches Iong
WIIGHT CHIST IINGTH SIX
A Ib Ib C Ib D Ib
Use cnmputer snItware tn Iind the best regressinn equatinn tn exp!ain the variatinn in the
dependent variab!e Y in terms nI the independent variab!es X
and X
Y X
CORRIIATION COIIIICIINT
Y X
=
Y X
=
COIIIICIINTS OI DITIRMINATION
Y X
=
Y X
=
A Y
^
=  + X
Y
^
=  X
+ X
C Y
^
= + X
D Y
^
=  X
+ X
189
CHAPTIR IORM
Cnnstruct a scatterp!nt and identiIy the mathematica! mnde! that best Iits the data Assume that
the mnde! is tn be used nn!y Inr the scnpe nI the given data and cnnsider nn!y !inear quadratic
!ngarithmic expnnentia! and pnwer mnde!s Use a ca!cu!atnr nr cnmputer tn nbtain the regressinn
equatinn nI the mnde! that best Iits the data Ynu may need tn Iit severa! mnde!s and cnmpare the
va!ues nI R
A rock is droed from a laII buiIding and ils dislance in feel beIov lhe oinl of reIease
is recorded as accuraleIy as ossibIe al various limes afler lhe momenl of reIease The
resuIls are shovn in lhe labIe Iind lhe regression equalion of lhe besl modeI
x seconds afler reIease
y dislance in feel
A y = e
x
y =  + x
C y = x
D y =  + In x
Find the indicated mu!tip!e regressinn equatinn
eIov are erformance and allilude ralings of emIoyees
Performance
Allilude
Managers aIso rale lhe same emIoyees according lo adalabiIily and beIov are lhe
resuIls lhal corresond lo lhose given above
AdalabiIily
Iind lhe muIliIe regression equalion lhal exresses erformance in lerms of allilude
and adalabiIily
A P
^
= + All + Adal
P
^
= + All + Adal
C P
^
= + All + Adal
D P
^
= + All + Adal
Find the standard errnr nI estimate Inr the given paired data
The aired dala beIov consisls of lesl scores and hours of rearalion for randomIy
seIecled sludenls The equalion of lhe regression Iine is y
^
= + x Iind lhe
slandard error of eslimale
x Hours of rearalion
y Tesl score
A C D
190
CHAPTIR IORM
Cnnstruct a scatter diagram Inr the given data
x   
y
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
A
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
C
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
D
x
20 20
y
20
20
x
20 20
y
20
20
191
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
Ansvers viII vary An ansver foIIovs The redicling vaIue mighl nol be vilhin lhe scoe of
lhe originaI sludy If a sludy comared lhe ages of men lo an index of vork molivalion and lhe
men in lhe sludy vere in lhe range of ages from lo il vouId be inaroriale lo redicl
for a man of age or for a voman of any age
The dala used lo creale lhe Iinear regression equalion mighl be loo oId If lhe dala vere from
lhe ninelies il vouId be inaroriale lo redicl for lhe year
D
AIlhough lhere is no significanl Iinear correIalion belveen lhe lvo variabIes ve cannol
concIude lhal no reIalionshi exisls as lhere couId be a nonIinear reIalionshi belveen lhe lvo
variabIes
A
D
D
A
A
C
C
D
A
C
C
D
D
C
192
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Suose lhal slalislicians delermine lhal lhere is a significanl osilive correIalion
belveen lhe grade earned in lhe cIass CoIIege Reading SkiIIs and lhe grade earned in
Slalislics Does achieving a high grade in reading cause an individuaI lo earn a high
grade in Slalislics IxIain your ansver vilh reference lo lhe lerm !urking variab!e
Suose dala sel are coIIecled concerning lhe veighl of a erson in ounds and lhe
number of caIories burned in minules of vaIking on a lreadmiII al mh Hov
vouId lhe vaIue of lhe correIalion coefficienl r change if aII of lhe veighls vere
converled lo kiIograms
Civen the !inear cnrre!atinn cneIIicient r and the samp!e size n determine the critica! va!ues nI r
and use ynur Iinding tn state whether nr nnt the given r represents a signiIicant !inear cnrre!atinn
Use a signiIicance !eve! nI
r =  n =
A CrilicaI vaIues r = significanl Iinear correIalion
CrilicaI vaIue r = significanl Iinear correIalion
C CrilicaI vaIues r = no significanl Iinear correIalion
D CrilicaI vaIues r = no significanl Iinear correIalion
193
CHAPTIR IORM C
Cnnstruct a scatter diagram Inr the given data
x
y
    
      
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
A
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
C
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
D
x
10 10
y
10
10
x
10 10
y
10
10
194
CHAPTIR IORM C
Find the va!ue nI the !inear cnrre!atinn cneIIicient r
Tvo searale lesls are designed lo measure a sludenls abiIily lo soIve robIems SeveraI
sludenls are randomIy seIecled lo lake bolh lesls and lhe resuIls are shovn beIov
Tesl A
Tesl
A C D
Describe the errnr in the stated cnnc!usinn
Given The Iinear correIalion coefficienl belveen scores on a malh lesl and scores on a
lesl of alhIelic abiIily is negalive and cIose lo zero
ConcIusion PeoIe vho score high on lhe malh lesl lend lo score Iover on lhe lesl of
alhIelic abiIily
Find the best predicted va!ue nI y cnrrespnnding tn the given va!ue nI x
The regression equalion reIaling dexlerily scores x and roduclivily scores y for lhe
emIoyees of a comany is y
^
= + x Ten airs of dala vere used lo oblain lhe
equalion The same dala yieId r = and y = Whal is lhe besl redicled
roduclivily score for a erson vhose dexlerily score is
A C D
Use the given data tn Iind the equatinn nI the regressinn !ine Rnund the Iina! va!ues tn three
signiIicant digits iI necessary
x
y
A y
^
= + x y
^
= + x
C y
^
= + x D y
^
= + x
Use the given inInrmatinn tn Iind the cneIIicient nI determinatinn
A regression equalion is oblained for a coIIeclion of aired dala Il is found lhal lhe lolaI
varialion is lhe exIained varialion is and lhe unexIained varialion is
Iind lhe coefficienl of delerminalion
A C D
195
CHAPTIR IORM C
Is the data pnint P an nut!ier an inI!uentia! pnint bnth nr neither
x
6 12
y
12
6
P
x
6 12
y
12
6
P
A olh Neilher
C InfIuenliaI oinl D OulIier
Use the cnmputer disp!ay tn answer the questinn
A coIIeclion of aired dala consisls of lhe number of years lhal sludenls have sludied
Sanish and lheir scores on a Sanish Ianguage roficiency lesl A comuler rogram
vas used lo oblain lhe Ieasl squares Iinear regression Iine and lhe comuler oulul is
shovn beIov AIong vilh lhe aired samIe dala lhe rogram vas aIso given an x
vaIue of years of sludy lo be used for redicling lesl score
The regression equalion is
Score = + Years
Prediclor Coef SlDev T P
Conslanl
Years
S = RSq = RSq Ad =
Predicled vaIues
Iil SlDev Iil CI PI
If a erson sludies years vhal is lhe singIe vaIue lhal is lhe besl redicled lesl score
Assume lhal lhere is a significanl Iinear correIalion belveen years of sludy and lesl
score
A C D
196
CHAPTIR IORM C
Find the tnta! variatinn Inr the paired data
The equalion of lhe regression Iine for lhe aired dala beIov is y
^
= + x
Iind lhe lolaI varialion
x
y
A C D
Find the standard errnr nI estimate Inr the given paired data
The aired dala beIov consisls of heighls and veighls of randomIy seIecled aduIls
The equalion of lhe regression Iine is y
^
=  + x Iind lhe slandard error of
eslimale
x Heighl melers
y Weighl kg
A C D
Cnnstruct the indicated predictinn interva! Inr an individua! y
The aired dala beIov consisls of lesl scores and hours of rearalion for randomIy
seIecled sludenls The equalion of lhe regression Iine is y
^
= + x and lhe
slandard error of eslimale is s
e
=
Iind lhe rediclion inlervaI for lhe lesl score
of a erson vho senl hours rearing for lhe lesl
x Hours of rearalion
y Tesl score
A < y < < y < C < y < D < y <
197
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use cnmputer snItware tn Iind the regressinn equatinn Can the equatinn be used Inr predictinn
An anlismoking grou used dala in lhe labIe lo reIale lhe carbon monoxide of various
brands of cigarelles lo lheir lar and nicoline conlenl
CO TAR NICOTINI
A CO = + TAR  NIC
Yes because lhe adusled R
is high
CO = + TAR  NIC
Yes because lhe PvaIue is loo Iov
C CO =  TAR + NIC
Yes because lhe R
is high
D CO = + TAR  NIC
Yes because lhe PvaIue is high
198
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use cnmputer snItware tn nbtain the regressinn and identiIy R
adusted R
A
C D
199
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use cnmputer snItware tn nbtain the regressinn equatinn Use the estimated equatinn tn Iind the
predicted va!ue
A visilor lo YeIIovslone NalionaI Park sal dovn one day and observed OId IailhfuI
vhich failhfuIIy surls lhroughoul lhe day day in and day oul He surmised lhal lhe
heighl of a given surl vas caused by lhe ressure buiIdu during lhe inlervaI belveen
surls and by lhe momenlum buiIdu during lhe duralion of lhe surl He vrole
dovn lhe dala lo lesl his hyolhesis He lhen used lhe regression equalion he oblained
lo redicl lhe heighl of lhe geyser if lhe inlervaI is seconds and lhe duralion is
seconds
HIIGHT INTIRVAI DIRATION
A C D
200
CHAPTIR IORM C
Find the indicated mu!tip!e regressinn equatinn
A filness raling vas oblained for randomIy seIecled aduIl vomen Iach erson vas
aIso asked her age veighl and lhe number of hours she senl exercising each veek The
resuIls are shovn beIov
Age
Weighl
Hours of exercise
er veek
Iilness raling
Idenlify lhe muIliIe regression equalion lhal exresses filness in lerms of age veighl
and hours of exercise er veek
A I
^
=  A + W + I
I
^
=  A + W + I
C I
^
=  A + W + I
Cnnstruct a scatterp!nt and identiIy the mathematica! mnde! that best Iits the data Assume that
the mnde! is tn be used nn!y Inr the scnpe nI the given data and cnnsider nn!y !inear quadratic
!ngarithmic expnnentia! and pnwer mnde!s Use a ca!cu!atnr nr cnmputer tn nbtain the regressinn
equatinn nI the mnde! that best Iits the data Ynu may need tn Iit severa! mnde!s and cnmpare the
va!ues nI R
x
y
A y = + x y = x
C y = + x D y = + In x
201
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use cnmputer snItware tn Iind the best regressinn equatinn tn exp!ain the variatinn in the
dependent variab!e Y in terms nI the independent variab!es X
Y X
CORRIIATION COIIIICIINTS
Y X
=
Y X
=
Y X
=
COIIIICIINTS OI DITIRMINATION
Y X
=
Y X
=
Y X
=
Y X
=
Y X
=
A Y
^
= + X
Y
^
= + X
+ X
C Y
^
= + X
+ X
D Y
^
=  + X
+ X
+ X
202
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
A high grade in lhe CoIIege Reading SkiIIs cIass does nol necessariIy cause a high grade in
Slalislics These lvo variabIes couId be reIaled by an underIying reIalionshi Sludenls vho
earn high grades in one cIass lend lo earn high grades in olher cIasses erhas because of a
Iurking variabIe  for examIe molivalion lo achieve
The vaIue of r vouId remain lhe same as a change of scaIe does nol affecl lhe vaIue of r
A
C
D
ecause lhe Iinear correIalion coefficienl is cIose lo zero and is robabIy nol significanl no
concIusion can be reached regarding lhe reIalionshi belveen scores on lhe malh lesl and
scores on lhe lesl of alhIelic abiIily
D
A
A
C
C
D
C
D
D
C
C
203
CHAPTER 11 FORM A
Name:______________________________ Course Number: __________ Section Number: _____
Directions: Write your answers to the short answer items in the spaces provided.
Circle the correct choice for the multiplechoice item.
Provide an appropriate response.
1) Describe a goodnessoffit test. What assumptions are made when using a
goodnessoffit test?
2) Explain the computation of expected values for contingency tables in terms of
probabilities. Refer to the assumptions of the null hypothesis as part of your explanation.
You might give a brief example to illustrate.
Perform the indicated goodnessoffit test.
3) In studying the occurrence of genetic characteristics, the following sample data were
obtained. At the 0.05 significance level, test the claim that the characteristics occur with
the same frequency.
Characteristic A B C D E F
Frequency 28 30 45 48 38 39
204
CHAPTER 11 FORM A
Perform the indicated goodnessoffit test.
4) Among the four northwestern states, Washington has 51% of the total population,
Oregon has 30%, Idaho has 11%, and Montana has 8%. A market researcher selects a
sample of 1000 subjects, with 450 in Washington, 340 in Oregon, 150 in Idaho, and 60 in
Montana. At the 0.05 significance level, test the claim that the sample of 1000 subjects
has a distribution that agrees with the distribution of state populations.
Provide an appropriate response.
5) The following table shows the number of employees who called in sick at a business for
different days of a particular week.
Day Sun Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat
Number sick 8 12 7 11 9 11 12
i) At the 0.05 level of significance, test the claim that sick days occur with equal
frequency on the different days of the week.
ii) Test the claim after changing the frequency for Saturday to 152. Describe the effect of
this outlier on the test.
Use a
2
test to test the claim that in the given contingency table, the row variable and the column
variable are independent.
6) 160 students who were majoring in either math or English were asked a test question,
and the researcher recorded whether they answered the question correctly. The sample
results are given below. At the 0.10 significance level, test the claim that response and
major are independent.
Correct Incorrect
Math 27 53
English 43 37
205
CHAPTER 11 FORM A
Use a
2
test to test the claim that in the given contingency table, the row variable and the column
variable are independent.
7) Responses to a survey question are broken down according to gender and the sample
results are given below. At the 0.05 significance level, test the claim that response and
gender are independent.
Yes No Undecided
Male 25 50 15
Female 20 30 10
Solve the problem.
8) A researcher wishes to test whether the proportion of college students who smoke is the
same in four different colleges. She randomly selects 100 students from each college and
records the number that smoke. The results are shown below.
College A College B College C College D
Smoke 17 26 11 34
Don't smoke 83 74 89 66
Use a 0.01 significance level to test the claim that the proportion of students smoking is
the same at all four colleges.
9) Find the value of the test statistic
2
by McNemar's test for the following categorical
data: a = 25, b = 15, c = 20, d = 10.
A) 1.029 B) 5.600 C) 2.314 D) 0.457
206
CHAPTER 11 FORM A
Provide an appropriate response.
10) A survey conducted in a small town yielded the results shown in the table.
Men Women
Plan to vote 105 87
Do not plan to vote 312 246
i) Test the claim that the intention to vote in the next presidential election is
independent of the gender of the person being surveyed. Use a 0.05 significance level.
ii) Using Yates' correction, replace
O  E
2
E
with
O  E  0.5
2
E
with
O  E  0.5
2
E
lesl of indeendence Whal is lhe maor difference belveen lhe assumlions for lhis lesl
and lhe assumlions for lhe revious lesls ve have sludied
Describe lhe lesl of homogeneily Whal characlerislic dislinguishes a lesl of
homogeneily from a lesl of indeendence
PerInrm the indicated gnndnessnIIit test
Ising lhe dala beIov and a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe resonses occur
vilh ercenlages of and resecliveIy
Resonse A C D I
Irequency
216
CHAPTIR IORM C
PerInrm the indicated gnndnessnIIit test
Ise a significance IeveI of lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal vorkIace accidenls are dislribuled
on vorkdays as foIIovs Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday
and Iriday
In a sludy of vorkIace accidenls occurred on a Monday occurred on a
Tuesday occurred on a Wednesday occurred on a Thursday and occurred on a
Iriday
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
An observed frequency dislribulion is as foIIovs
Number of successes
Irequency
i Assuming a binomiaI dislribulion vilh n = and = use lhe binomiaI formuIa lo
find lhe robabiIily corresonding lo each calegory of lhe labIe
ii Ising lhe robabiIilies found in arl i find lhe execled frequency for each
calegory
iii Ise a IeveI of significance lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe observed frequencies fil a
binomiaI dislribulion for vhich n = and =
Use a
test tn test the c!aim that in the given cnntingency tab!e the rnw variab!e and the cn!umn
variab!e are independent
Tesls for adverse reaclions lo a nev drug yieIded lhe resuIls given in lhe labIe Al lhe
significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lrealmenl drug or Iacebo is indeendenl
of lhe reaclion vhelher or nol headaches vere exerienced
Drug PIacebo
Headaches
No headaches
217
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use a
test tn test the c!aim that in the given cnntingency tab!e the rnw variab!e and the cn!umn
variab!e are independent
Resonses lo a survey queslion are broken dovn according lo emIoymenl slalus and
lhe samIe resuIls are given beIov Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal
resonse and emIoymenl slalus are indeendenl
Yes No Indecided
ImIoyed
InemIoyed
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A researcher vishes lo lesl lhe effecliveness of a fIu vaccinalion eoIe are
vaccinaled eoIe are vaccinaled vilh a Iacebo and eoIe are nol vaccinaled
The number in each grou vho Ialer caughl lhe fIu vas recorded The resuIls are shovn
beIov
Vaccinaled PIacebo ConlroI
Caughl lhe fIu
Did nol calch lhe fIu
Ise a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe roorlion of eoIe calching lhe
fIu is lhe same in aII lhree grous
Iind lhe lesl slalislic
218
CHAPTIR IORM C
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
A survey conducled in a smaII business yieIded lhe resuIls shovn in lhe labIe
Men Women
HeaIlh insurance
No heaIlh insurance
i Tesl lhe cIaim lhal heaIlh care coverage is indeendenl of gender Ise a
significance IeveI
ii Ising Yales correclion reIace
O  I
vilh
O  I 
I
219
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
The nuII hyolhesis is lhal lhe rov and coIumn variabIes in a conlingency labIe are
indeendenl lhal is lhey are nol reIaled The assumlions are lhe nuII hyolhesis is lhal lhe
rov and coIumn variabIes are indeendenl vhiIe lhe aIlernale hyolhesis is lhal lhe rov and
coIumn variabIes are deendenl lhe samIe dala are randomIy seIecled and each ceII in
lhe conlingency labIe has an execled frequency I of al Ieasl The maor difference is lhal
lhese assumlions do nol require lhal lhe arenl ouIalion be normaIIy dislribuled
The lesl of homogeneily lesls lhe cIaim lhal differenl ouIalions have lhe same roorlions of
some characlerislics In lhe lesl of homogeneily lhere are redelermined lolaIs for eilher lhe
rovs or coIumns of lhe conlingency labIe In lhe lesl of indeendence lhere is one big samIe
dravn so lhal lhe rov and coIumn lolaIs are delermined randomIy In lhe lesl of homogeneily
redelermined samIe sizes are used for each ouIalion
H
= CrilicaI vaIue
= CrilicaI vaIue
= H
= CrilicaI vaIue
=
IaiI lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis There is nol sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe
cIaim lhal lrealmenl and reaclion are indeendenl
OlionaI PvaIue = STATDISK
H
= CrilicaI vaIue
=
Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis There is sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal
resonse and emIoymenl slalus are indeendenl
OlionaI PvaIue = STATDISK
220
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
H
The roorlion of eoIe calching lhe fIu is lhe same in aII lhree grous
H
= CrilicaI vaIue
=
Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis There is sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal lhe
roorlion of eoIe calching lhe fIu is lhe same in aII lhree grous
OlionaI PvaIue = STATDISK
C
i H
221
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Iisl lhe assumlions for lesling hyolheses lhal lhree or more means are equivaIenl
Define lhe lerm lrealmenl Whal olher lerm means lhe same lhing Give an examIe
Civen be!nw are the ana!ysis nI variance resu!ts Irnm a Minitab disp!ay Assume that ynu want tn
use a signiIicance !eve! in testing the nu!! hypnthesis that the diIIerent samp!es cnme Irnm
pnpu!atinns with the same mean
Source DI SS MS I
Iaclor
Irror
TolaI
Idenlify lhe vaIue of lhe lesl slalislic
A C D
Source DI SS MS I
Iaclor
Irror
TolaI
Whal can you concIude aboul lhe equaIily of lhe ouIalion means
A Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis since lhe vaIue is Iess lhan lhe significance IeveI
Accel lhe nuII hyolhesis since lhe vaIue is grealer lhan lhe significance IeveI
C Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis since lhe vaIue is grealer lhan lhe significance IeveI
D Accel lhe nuII hyolhesis since lhe vaIue is Iess lhan lhe significance IeveI
222
CHAPTIR IORM A
Test the c!aim that the samp!es cnme Irnm pnpu!atinns with the same mean Assume that the
pnpu!atinns are nnrma!!y distributed with the same variance
Given lhe samIe dala beIov lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe ouIalions have lhe same mean
Ise a significance IeveI of
rand A
n =
x =
s
=
rand
n =
x =
s
=
rand C
n =
x =
s
=
A consumer magazine vanls lo comare lhe Iifelimes of baIIoinl ens of lhree differenl
lyes The magazine lakes a random samIe of ens of each lye in lhe foIIoving labIe
rand
rand
rand
Do lhe dala indicale lhal lhere is a difference in mean Iifelime for lhe lhree brands of
baIIoinl ens Ise =
Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe four brands have lhe same mean if
lhe foIIoving samIe resuIls have been oblained
rand A
rand
rand C
rand D
223
CHAPTIR IORM A
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
IiII in lhe missing enlries in lhe foIIoving arliaIIy comIeled onevay
ANOVA labIe
A
C
D
224
CHAPTIR IORM A
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Ise lhe dala given beIov lo verify lhal lhe l lesl for indeendenl samIes and lhe
ANOVA melhod are equivaIenl
A
i Ise a l lesl vilh a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lvo samIes come
from ouIalions vilh lhe same means Assume lhe slandard devialions of lhe
ouIalions are equaI
ii Ise lhe ANOVA melhod vilh a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe same cIaim
iii Verify lhal lhe squares of lhe l lesl slalislic and lhe crilicaI vaIue are equaI lo lhe I
lesl slalislic and crilicaI vaIue
Use the Minitab disp!ay tn test the indicated c!aim
A manager records lhe roduclion oulul of lhree emIoyees vho each vork on lhree
differenl machines for lhree differenl days The samIe resuIls are given beIov and lhe
Minilab resuIls foIIov
ImIoyee
A C
I
Machine II
III
ANAIYSIS OI VARIANCI ITIMS
SOIRCI DI SS MS
MACHINI
IMPIOYII
INTIRACTION
IRROR
TOTAI
Assume lhal lhe number of ilems roduced is nol affecled by an inleraclion belveen
emIoyee and machine Ising a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe machine
has no effecl on lhe number of ilems roduced
225
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the Minitab disp!ay tn test the indicated c!aim
A manager records lhe roduclion oulul of lhree emIoyees vho each vork on lhree
differenl machines for lhree differenl days The samIe resuIls are given beIov and lhe
Minilab resuIls foIIov
ImIoyee
A C
I
Machine II
III
ANAIYSIS OI VARIANCI ITIMS
SOIRCI DI SS MS
MACHINI
IMPIOYII
INTIRACTION
IRROR
TOTAI
Assume lhal lhe number of ilems roduced is nol affecled by an inleraclion belveen
emIoyee and machine Ising a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe machine
has no effecl on lhe number of ilems roduced
A manager records lhe roduclion oulul of lhree emIoyees vho each vork on lhree
differenl machines for lhree differenl days The samIe resuIls are given beIov and lhe
Minilab resuIls foIIov
ImIoyee
A C
I
Machine II
III
ANAIYSIS OI VARIANCI ITIMS
SOIRCI DI SS MS
MACHINI
IMPIOYII
INTIRACTION
IRROR
TOTAI
Ising a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe inleraclion belveen emIoyee and
machine has no effecl on lhe number of ilems roduced
226
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the data in the given tab!e and the cnrrespnnding Minitab disp!ay tn test the hypnthesis
The foIIoving labIe enlries are lhe limes in seconds for lhree differenl drivers racing on
four differenl lracks Assuming no effecl from lhe inleraclion belveen driver and lrack
lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lrack has no effecl on lhe lime Ise a significance IeveI
Track Track Track Track
Driver
Driver
Driver
Source DI SS MS I
Driver
Track
Irror
TolaI
The foIIoving labIe enlries are lesl scores for maIes and femaIes al differenl limes of day
Assuming no effecl from lhe inleraclion belveen gender and lesl lime lesl lhe cIaim lhal
maIes and femaIes erform lhe same on lhe lesl Ise a significance IeveI
am  am am  m m  m m  m
MaIe
IemaIe
Source DI SS MS I
Gender
Time
Irror
TolaI
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
The foIIoving resuIls are from a slalislics soflvare ackage in vhich aII of lhe I vaIues
and PvaIues are given Is lhere a significanl effecl from lhe inleraclion ShouId you lesl
lo see if lhere is a significanl effecl due lo eilher A or If lhe ansver is yes is lhere a
significanl effecl due lo eilher A or
ANOVA TabIe
Source DI Sum squares Mean square I lesl PvaIue
A <
<
Inleraclion
Irror
TolaI
227
CHAPTIR IORM A
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The foIIoving dala shovs lhe yieId in busheIs er acre calegorized according lo lhree
varielies of corn and lhree differenl soiI condilions Tesl lhe nuII hyolhesis of no
inleraclion belveen variely and soiI condilions al a significance IeveI of
PIol PIol PIol
Variely
Variely
Variely
The foIIoving dala conlains lask comIelion limes in minules calegorized according lo
lhe gender of lhe machine oeralor and lhe machine used
MaIe IemaIe
Machine
Machine
Machine
Assume lhal lvovay ANOVA is used lo anaIyze lhe dala Hov are lhe ANOVA
resuIls affecled if lhe limes are converled lo hours
228
CHAPTIR IORM A
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The foIIoving dala conlains lask comIelion limes in minules calegorized according lo
lhe gender of lhe machine oeralor and lhe machine used
MaIe IemaIe
Machine
Machine
Machine
The ANOVA resuIls Iead us lo concIude lhal lhe comIelion limes are nol affecled by an
inleraclion belveen machine and gender and lhe limes are nol affecled by gender bul
lhey are affecled by lhe machine Change lhe labIe enlries so lhal lhere is no effecl from
lhe inleraclion belveen machine and gender bul lhere is an effecl from lhe gender of lhe
oeralor
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Whal is a onferroni lesl Why do ve use il
IxIain vhy in lvovay ANOVA lhere cannol be an inleraclion for samIe dala vilh
one observalion er ceII
229
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
The ouIalions have normaI dislribulions
The ouIalions have lhe same variance
or slandard devialion
The samIes are simIe random
The samIes are indeendenl of each olher
The differenl samIes are from ouIalions lhal are calegorized in onIy one vay
The requiremenls of normaIily and equaI variances are somevhal reIaxed
A lrealmenl aIso knovn as a faclor is a roerly or characlerislic lhal aIIovs us lo dislinguish
lhe differenl ouIalions from one anolher IxamIes viII vary
PossibIe examIe Ingine lye dislinguished according lo lhree modeIs is a faclor vhose
associaled exerimenl is lo delermine fueI efficiency
A
Tesl slalislic I = CrilicaI vaIue I =
Reecl lhe cIaim of equaI means The differenl brands do nol aear lo have lhe same mean
OlionaI PvaIue <
Tesl slalislic I = CrilicaI vaIue I =
IaiI lo reecl lhe cIaim of equaI means The dala do nol rovide sufficienl evidence lo concIude
lhal lhere is a difference in lhe mean Iifelimes of lhe lhree brands of baIIoinl en
OlionaI PvaIue = STATDISK
H
= = = H
= = I and l
= = I
230
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
H
There is an inleraclion
belveen variely and soiI condilions The lesl slalislic is I = and lhe corresonding
PvaIue is ecause lhe PvaIue is grealer lhan ve faiI lo reecl lhe nuII
hyolhesis of no inleraclion belveen variely and soiI condilions
The ANOVA resuIls are nol affecled by converling lhe limes lo hours The nuII hyolhesis of
no inleraclion belveen machine and gender is nol reecled since lhe PvaIue is The nuII
hyolhesis of no effecl from machine is reecled since lhe PvaIue is The nuII hyolhesis
of no effecl from gender is nol reecled since lhe PvaIue is
The foIIoving labIe is one examIe of enlries lhal roduce an effecl from lhe gender of lhe
oeralor
MaIe IemaIe
Machine
Machine
Machine
The onferroni lesl is one of severaI lesls of muIliIe comarisons designed lo delermine vhich
ouIalion mean or means is differenl from lhe olhers This lesl is used afler a significanl I
ralio resuIls from an ANOVA rocedure
Varialion vilhin each ceII of a lvovay design does nol exisl vhen lhere is onIy one
observalion er ceII Therefore lhe measures deendenl on ceII varialion such as lhe mean
sum of squares cannol be caIcuIaled for an inleraclion belveen lhe lvo variabIes
231
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Describe lhe nuII and aIlernalive hyolheses for onevay ANOVA Give an examIe
The lesl slalislic for onevay ANOVA is  =
tariancc ciuccn samplcs
tariancc uiinin samplcs
Describe variance
vilhin samIes and variance belveen samIes Whal reIalionshi belveen variance
vilhin samIes and variance belveen samIes vouId resuIl in lhe concIusion lhal lhe
vaIue of I is significanl
Civen be!nw are the ana!ysis nI variance resu!ts Irnm a Minitab disp!ay Assume that ynu want tn
use a signiIicance !eve! in testing the nu!! hypnthesis that the diIIerent samp!es cnme Irnm
pnpu!atinns with the same mean
Source DI SS MS I
Iaclor
Irror
TolaI
Idenlify lhe vaIue
A C D
Source DI SS MS I
Iaclor
Irror
TolaI
Whal can you concIude aboul lhe equaIily of lhe ouIalion means
A Accel lhe nuII hyolhesis since lhe vaIue is grealer lhan lhe significance IeveI
Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis since lhe vaIue is Iess lhan lhe significance IeveI
C Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis since lhe vaIue is grealer lhan lhe significance IeveI
D Accel lhe nuII hyolhesis since lhe vaIue is Iess lhan lhe significance IeveI
232
CHAPTIR IORM
Test the c!aim that the samp!es cnme Irnm pnpu!atinns with the same mean Assume that the
pnpu!atinns are nnrma!!y distributed with the same variance
Given lhe samIe dala beIov lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe ouIalions have lhe same mean
Ise a significance IeveI of
rand A
n =
x =
s =
rand
n =
x =
s =
rand C
n =
x =
s =
rand D
n =
x =
s =
The dala beIov reresenl lhe veighl Iosses for eoIe on lhree differenl exercise
rograms
Ixercise A
Ixercise
Ixercise C
Al lhe significance IeveI does il aear lhal a difference exisls in lhe lrue mean
veighl Ioss roduced by lhe lhree exercise rograms
Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lhree brands have lhe same mean if
lhe foIIoving samIe resuIls have been oblained
rand A
rand
rand C
233
CHAPTIR IORM
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
IiII in lhe missing enlries in lhe foIIoving arliaIIy comIeled onevay
ANOVA labIe
C
D
234
CHAPTIR IORM
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Ise lhe dala given beIov lo verify lhal lhe l lesl for indeendenl samIes and lhe
ANOVA melhod are equivaIenl
A
i Ise a l lesl vilh a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lvo samIes come
from ouIalions vilh lhe same means
ii Ise lhe ANOVA melhod vilh a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe same cIaim
iii Verify lhal lhe squares of lhe l lesl slalislic and lhe crilicaI vaIue are equaI lo lhe I
lesl slalislic and crilicaI vaIue
Use the Minitab disp!ay tn test the indicated c!aim
A manager records lhe roduclion oulul of lhree emIoyees vho each vork on lhree
differenl machines for lhree differenl days The samIe resuIls are given beIov and lhe
Minilab resuIls foIIov
ImIoyee
A C
I
Machine II
III
ANAIYSIS OI VARIANCI ITIMS
SOIRCI DI SS MS
MACHINI
IMPIOYII
INTIRACTION
IRROR
TOTAI
Ising a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe inleraclion belveen emIoyee and
machine has no effecl on lhe number of ilems roduced
235
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the Minitab disp!ay tn test the indicated c!aim
A manager records lhe roduclion oulul of lhree emIoyees vho each vork on lhree
differenl machines for lhree differenl days The samIe resuIls are given beIov and lhe
Minilab resuIls foIIov
ImIoyee
A C
I
Machine II
III
ANAIYSIS OI VARIANCI ITIMS
SOIRCI DI SS MS
MACHINI
IMPIOYII
INTIRACTION
IRROR
TOTAI
Assume lhal lhe number of ilems roduced is nol affecled by an inleraclion belveen
emIoyee and machine Ising a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe choice of
emIoyee has no effecl on lhe number of ilems roduced
A manager records lhe roduclion oulul of lhree emIoyees vho each vork on lhree
differenl machines for lhree differenl days The samIe resuIls are given beIov and lhe
Minilab resuIls foIIov
ImIoyee
A C
I
Machine II
III
ANAIYSIS OI VARIANCI ITIMS
SOIRCI DI SS MS
MACHINI
IMPIOYII
INTIRACTION
IRROR
TOTAI
Assume lhal lhe number of ilems roduced is nol affecled by an inleraclion belveen
emIoyee and machine Ising a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe machine
has no effecl on lhe number of ilems roduced
236
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the data in the given tab!e and the cnrrespnnding Minitab disp!ay tn test the hypnthesis
The foIIoving labIe enlries are lhe limes in seconds for lhree differenl drivers racing on
four differenl lracks Assuming no effecl from lhe inleraclion belveen driver and lrack
lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lhree drivers have lhe same mean lime Ise a significance
IeveI
Track Track Track Track
Driver
Driver
Driver
Source DI SS MS I
Driver
Track
Irror
TolaI
The foIIoving Minilab disIay resuIls from a sludy in vhich lhree differenl leachers
laughl caIcuIus cIasses of five differenl sizes The cIass average vas recorded for each
cIass Assuming no effecl from lhe inleraclion belveen leacher and cIass size lesl lhe
cIaim lhal lhe cIass size has no effecl on lhe cIass average Ise a significance IeveI
Source DI SS MS I
Teacher
CIass Size
Irror
TolaI
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
The foIIoving resuIls are from a slalislics ackage in vhich aII of lhe I vaIues and
PvaIues are given Is lhere a significanl effecl from lhe inleraclion ShouId you lesl lo
see if lhere is a significanl effecl due lo eilher A or If lhe ansver is yes is lhere a
significanl effecl due lo eilher A or
ANOVA TabIe
Source DI Sum squares Mean square I lesl PvaIue
A
Inleraclion
Irror
TolaI
237
CHAPTIR IORM
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The foIIoving dala shovs lhe yieId in busheIs er acre calegorized according lo lhree
varielies of corn and lhree differenl soiI condilions Assume lhal yieIds are nol affecled
by an inleraclion belveen variely and soiI condilions and lesl lhe nuII hyolhesis lhal
variely has no effecl on yieId Ise a significance IeveI
PIol PIol PIol
Variely
Variely
Variely
The foIIoving dala conlains lask comIelion limes in minules calegorized according lo
lhe gender of lhe machine oeralor and lhe machine used
MaIe IemaIe
Machine
Machine
Machine
Assume lhal lvovay ANOVA is used lo anaIyze lhe dala Hov are lhe ANOVA
resuIls affecled if minules is added lo each comIelion lime
238
CHAPTIR IORM
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The foIIoving dala conlains lask comIelion limes in minules calegorized according lo
lhe gender of lhe machine oeralor and lhe machine used
MaIe IemaIe
Machine
Machine
Machine
The ANOVA resuIls Iead us lo concIude lhal lhe comIelion limes are nol affecled by an
inleraclion belveen machine and gender and lhe limes are nol affecled by gender bul
lhey are affecled by lhe machine Change lhe labIe enlries so lhal lhere is an effecl from
lhe inleraclion belveen machine and gender
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Why is il unnecessary lo conducl muIliIe comarison lesls afler a nonsignificanl I lesl
slalislic resuIls
Whal is a Tukey HSD lesl Why is il used
239
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
The nuII hyolhesis for onevay ANOVA is lhal lhree or more means are equaI The
aIlernalive hyolhesis is lhal lhe means are nol aII equaI IxamIes viII vary
PossibIe examIe NuII hyolhesis mean mg of lhree differenl car engines are lhe same
AIlernalive hyolhesis means are nol aII lhe same
Variance belveen samIes measures lhe varialion belveen lhe samIe means lhal is lhe
varialion due lo lhe lrealmenl The variance vilhin lhe samIes deends soIeIy on lhe samIe
variances and is a measure of ooIed varialion The I ralio comares lhe lvo If lhe I ralio is
reIaliveIy cIose lo lhe lvo variances are aboul lhe same and ve concIude lhal lhere are no
significanl differences among lhe samIe means When lhe vaIue of I is excessiveIy Iarge lhal
is grealer lhan ve concIude lhal lhe varialion among lhe samIes is nol lhe same and lhal
lhe means are nol equaI
D
A
Tesl slalislic I = CrilicaI vaIue I =
Reecl lhe cIaim of equaI means The differenl brands do nol aear lo have lhe same mean
OlionaI PvaIue <
Tesl slalislic I = CrilicaI vaIue I =
IaiI lo reecl lhe cIaim of equaI means The dala do nol rovide sufficienl evidence lo concIude
lhal lhere is a difference in lhe lrue mean veighl Ioss roduced by lhe lhree exercise rograms
OlionaI PvaIue = STATDISK
H
= = H
= = I and l
= = I
240
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
H
241
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
When using slalislicaI soflvare ackages lhe crilicaI vaIue is lyicaIIy nol given Whal
melhod is used lo delermine vhelher you reecl or faiI lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis
Suose you are lo lesl for equaIily of four differenl means vilh H
A
=
=
C
=
D
Wrile lhe hyolheses for lhe aired lesls Ise melhods of robabiIily lo exIain vhy
lhe rocess of ANOVA has a higher degree of confidence lhan lesling each of lhe airs
searaleIy
Drav an examIe of an I dislribulion and Iisl lhe characlerislics of lhe I dislribulion
242
CHAPTIR IORM C
Civen be!nw are the ana!ysis nI variance resu!ts Irnm a Minitab disp!ay Assume that ynu want tn
use a signiIicance !eve! in testing the nu!! hypnthesis that the diIIerent samp!es cnme Irnm
pnpu!atinns with the same mean
Source DI SS MS I
Iaclor
Irror
TolaI
Idenlify lhe vaIue of lhe lesl slalislic
A C D
Source DI SS MS I
Iaclor
Irror
TolaI
Iind lhe crilicaI vaIue
A C D
Test the c!aim that the samp!es cnme Irnm pnpu!atinns with the same mean Assume that the
pnpu!atinns are nnrma!!y distributed with the same variance
Random samIes of four differenl modeIs of cars vere seIecled and lhe gas miIeage of
each car vas measured The resuIls are shovn beIov
ModeI A
ModeI
ModeI C
ModeI D
Tesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe four differenl modeIs have lhe same ouIalion mean Ise a
significance IeveI of
243
CHAPTIR IORM C
Test the c!aim that the samp!es cnme Irnm pnpu!atinns with the same mean Assume that the
pnpu!atinns are nnrma!!y distributed with the same variance
Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe four brands have lhe same mean if
lhe foIIoving samIe resuIls have been oblained
rand A
rand
rand C
rand D
hov many
vays can you air off lhe means
ii Assume lhal lhe lesls are indeendenl and lhal for each lesl of equaIily belveen lvo
means lhere is a robabiIily of nol making a lye I error If aII ossibIe airs of
means are lesled for equaIily vhal is lhe robabiIily of making no lye I errors
iii If you use anaIysis of variance lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal
al lhe IeveI
of significance vhal is lhe robabiIily of nol making a lye I error
244
CHAPTIR IORM C
Sn!ve the prnb!em
Al lhe same lime each day a researcher records lhe lemeralure in each of lhree
greenhouses The labIe shovs lhe lemeralures in degrees Iahrenheil recorded for one
veek
Greenhouse Greenhouse Greenhouse
i Ise a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe average lemeralure is lhe same
in each greenhouse
ii Hov are lhe anaIysis of variance resuIls affecled if lhe same conslanl is added lo
every one of lhe originaI samIe vaIues
Use the Minitab disp!ay tn test the indicated c!aim
A manager records lhe roduclion oulul of lhree emIoyees vho each vork on lhree
differenl machines for lhree differenl days The samIe resuIls are given beIov and lhe
Minilab resuIls foIIov
ImIoyee
A C
I
Machine II
III
ANAIYSIS OI VARIANCI ITIMS
SOIRCI DI SS MS
MACHINI
IMPIOYII
INTIRACTION
IRROR
TOTAI
Assume lhal lhe number of ilems roduced is nol affecled by an inleraclion belveen
emIoyee and machine Ising a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe choice of
emIoyee has no effecl on lhe number of ilems roduced
245
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the Minitab disp!ay tn test the indicated c!aim
A manager records lhe roduclion oulul of lhree emIoyees vho each vork on lhree
differenl machines for lhree differenl days The samIe resuIls are given beIov and lhe
Minilab resuIls foIIov
ImIoyee
A C
I
Machine II
III
ANAIYSIS OI VARIANCI ITIMS
SOIRCI DI SS MS
MACHINI
IMPIOYII
INTIRACTION
IRROR
TOTAI
Ising a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe inleraclion belveen emIoyee and
machine has no effecl on lhe number of ilems roduced
A manager records lhe roduclion oulul of lhree emIoyees vho each vork on lhree
differenl machines for lhree differenl days The samIe resuIls are given beIov and lhe
Minilab resuIls foIIov
ImIoyee
A C
I
Machine II
III
ANAIYSIS OI VARIANCI ITIMS
SOIRCI DI SS MS
MACHINI
IMPIOYII
INTIRACTION
IRROR
TOTAI
Assume lhal lhe number of ilems roduced is nol affecled by an inleraclion belveen
emIoyee and machine Ising a significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe choice of
emIoyee has no effecl on lhe number of ilems roduced
246
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the data in the given tab!e and the cnrrespnnding Minitab disp!ay tn test the hypnthesis
The foIIoving Minilab disIay resuIls from a sludy in vhich lhree differenl leachers
laughl caIcuIus cIasses of five differenl sizes The cIass average vas recorded for each
cIass Assuming no effecl from lhe inleraclion belveen leacher and cIass size lesl lhe
cIaim lhal lhe leacher has no effecl on lhe cIass average Ise a significance IeveI
Source DI SS MS I
Teacher
CIass Size
Irror
TolaI
The foIIoving labIe enlries are lesl scores for maIes and femaIes al differenl limes of day
Assuming no effecl from lhe inleraclion belveen gender and lesl lime lesl lhe cIaim lhal
lime of day does nol affecl lesl scores Ise a significance IeveI
am  am am  m m  m m  m
MaIe
IemaIe
Source DI SS MS I
Gender
Time
Irror
TolaI
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
The foIIoving dala shov annuaI income in lhousands of doIIars calegorized according
lo lhe lvo faclors of gender and IeveI of educalion Tesl lhe nuII hyolhesis of no
inleraclion belveen gender and IeveI of educalion al a significance IeveI of
IemaIe MaIe
High schooI
CoIIege
Advanced degree
247
CHAPTIR IORM C
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The foIIoving dala shovs lhe yieId in busheIs er acre calegorized according lo lhree
varielies of corn and lhree differenl soiI condilions Assume lhal yieIds are nol affecled
by an inleraclion belveen variely and soiI condilions and lesl lhe nuII hyolhesis lhal
soiI condilions have no effecl on yieId Ise a significance IeveI
PIol PIol PIol
Variely
Variely
Variely
The foIIoving dala conlains lask comIelion limes in minules calegorized according lo
lhe gender of lhe machine oeralor and lhe machine used
MaIe IemaIe
Machine
Machine
Machine
Assume lhal lvovay ANOVA is used lo anaIyze lhe dala Hov are lhe ANOVA
resuIls affecled if lhe limes are aII doubIed
The foIIoving dala conlains lask comIelion limes in minules calegorized according lo
lhe gender of lhe machine oeralor and lhe machine used
MaIe IemaIe
Machine
Machine
Machine
The ANOVA resuIls Iead us lo concIude lhal lhe comIelion limes are nol affecled by an
inleraclion belveen machine and gender and lhe limes are nol affecled by gender bul
lhey are affecled by lhe machine Change lhe labIe enlries so lhal lhere is no effecl from
lhe inleraclion belveen machine and gender lhere is no effecl from lhe machine used
and lhere is no effecl from lhe gender of lhe oeralor
248
CHAPTIR IORM C
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Whal lvo condilions are IikeIy lo resuIl in a significanl I lesl slalislic in a onevay
ANOVA exerimenl
Why do researchers concenlrale on exIaining an inleraclion in lvovay ANOVA ralher
lhan lhe effecls of each faclor searaleIy
249
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
The decision lo reecl or faiI lo reecl is based on PvaIues If lhe PvaIue is Iess lhan or equaI lo
lhe significance IeveI you reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis Olhervise you faiI lo reecl
The six aired hyolheses are
A
=
A
=
C
A
=
D
=
C
=
D
C
=
D
Suose ve lesl each vilh a significance IeveI confidence IeveI Then lhe degree of
confidence for aII six vouId be
= = = H
=
iii
i Reecl lhe cIaim lhal lhe average lemeralure is lhe same in each greenhouse since
I = > I
=
OlionaI PvaIue = STATDISK
ii The anaIysis of variance resuIls are nol affecled
H
250
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
H
There is an inleraclion
belveen gender and IeveI of educalion The lesl slalislic is I = and lhe corresonding
PvaIue is ecause lhe PvaIue is grealer lhan ve faiI lo reecl lhe nuII
hyolhesis of no inleraclion belveen gender and IeveI of educalion
H
251
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Describe aramelric and nonaramelric lesls IxIain vhy nonaramelric lesls are
imorlanl
Describe lhe KruskaIWaIIis lesl Whal lyes of hyolheses is il used lo lesl Whal
assumlions are made for lhis lesl
Describe lhe rank correIalion lesl Whal lyes of hyolheses is il used lo lesl Hov does
lhe rank correIalion coefficienl r
s
differ from lhe Pearson correIalion coefficienl
Use the sign test tn test the indicated c!aim
An inslruclor gives a lesl before and afler a Iesson and resuIls from randomIy seIecled
sludenls are given beIov Al lhe IeveI of significance lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe Iesson
has no effecl on lhe grade Ise lhe sign lesl
efore
Afler
252
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the sign test tn test the indicated c!aim
Iourleen eoIe raled lvo brands of soda on a scaIe of lo
Al lhe ercenl IeveI lesl lhe nuII hyolhesis lhal lhe lvo brands of soda are equaIIy
ouIar
A researcher vishes lo sludy vhelher music has any effecl on lhe abiIily lo memorize
informalion randomIy seIecled aduIls are given a memory lesl in a quiel room They
are lhen given a second memory lesl vhiIe Iislening lo cIassicaI music eoIe
received a higher score on lhe second lesl a Iover score and received lhe same
score Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe music has no effecl on
memorizalion skiIIs
Use the Wi!cnxnn signedranks test tn test the c!aim that bnth samp!es cnme Irnm pnpu!atinns
having the same distributinn
Ise lhe WiIcoxon signedranks lesl and lhe samIe dala beIov Al lhe significance
IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal malh and verbaI scores are lhe same
Malhemalics
VerbaI
In a sludy of lhe effecliveness of hysicaI exercise in veighl reduclion subecls
foIIoved a rogram of hysicaI exercise for lvo monlhs Their veighls in ounds
before and afler lhis rogram are shovn in lhe labIe Ise a significance IeveI of lo
lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe exercise rogram has no effecl on veighl
efore
Afler
253
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the Wi!cnxnn ranksum test tn test the c!aim that the twn independent samp!es cnme Irnm the
same distributinn
A erson vho commules lo vork is choosing belveen lvo differenl roules He lries lhe
firsl roule limes and lhe second roule limes and records lhe lime of each lri The
resuIls in minules are shovn beIov Ise a significance IeveI of lo lesl lhe cIaim
lhal lhe limes for bolh roules have lhe same dislribulion
Roule Roule
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The MannWhilney I lesl is equivaIenl lo lhe WiIcoxon ranksum lesl for indeendenl
samIes in lhe sense lhal lhey bolh aIy lo lhe same silualions and aIvays Iead lo lhe
same concIusions In lhe MannWhilney I lesl ve caIcuIale
z =
I 
n
+ n
vhere
I = n
+
n
 R
Ior lhe samIe dala beIov use lhe MannWhilney I lesl lo lesl lhe nuII hyolhesis lhal
lhe lvo indeendenl samIes come from ouIalions vilh lhe same dislribulion Slale
lhe hyolheses lhe vaIue of lhe lesl slalislic lhe crilicaI vaIues and your concIusion
Tesl scores men
Tesl scores vomen
254
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use a Kruska!Wa!!is test tn test the c!aim that the samp!es cnme Irnm identica! pnpu!atinns
Iisled beIov are grade averages for randomIy seIecled sludenls vilh lhree differenl
calegories of highschooI background Al lhe IeveI of significance lesl lhe cIaim lhal
lhe lhree grous come from idenlicaI ouIalions
HIGH SCHOOI RICORD
Good
Iair
Poor
Use the rank cnrre!atinn cneIIicient tn test the c!aim nI nn cnrre!atinn between the twn variab!es
Given lhal lhe rank correIalion coefficienl r
s
for airs of dala is  lesl lhe cIaim
of no correIalion belveen lhe lvo variabIes Ise a significance IeveI of
Ten Iuxury cars vere ranked according lo lheir comforl IeveIs and lheir rices
Iind lhe rank correIalion coefficienl and lesl lhe cIaim of no correIalion belveen comforl
and rice Ise a significance IeveI of
255
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the rank cnrre!atinn cneIIicient tn test the c!aim nI nn cnrre!atinn between the twn variab!es
A Iacemenl lesl is required for sludenls desiring lo lake a finile malhemalics course al a
universily The inslruclor of lhe course sludies lhe reIalionshi belveen sludenls
Iacemenl lesl score and finaI course score A random samIe of eighl sludenls yieIds
lhe foIIoving dala
PIacemenl Score
IinaI Course Score
GPA
y
Do lhe dala rovide sufficienl evidence lo concIude lhal lhe variabIes age x and GPA y
are correIaled AIy a rankcorreIalion lesl Ise =
256
CHAPTIR IORM A
Use the runs test tn determine whether the given sequence is randnm Use a signiIicance !eve! nI
The oulcomes odd number or even number of a rouIelle vheeI are shovn beIov Tesl
for randomness of odd O and even I numbers
O I O I O I O I I O I I
I I O I O O I O I I O I
A samIe of cIock radios is seIecled in sequence from an assembIy Iine Iach radio is
examined and udged lo be accelabIe A or defeclive D The resuIls are shovn beIov
Tesl for randomness
D D A A A
A A A A A
A A D D D
Tesl lhe sequence of digils beIov for randomness of odd and even digils
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Which of lhe foIIoving melhods couId Iead lo slronger evidence for lhe oulcome of a
nonaramelric lesl
A ensure lhal lhe dislribulions are normaI
ensure lhal lhe ouIalions have equaI variances
C increase samIe size subslanliaIIy
D lake muIlislage random samIes
Which of lhe foIIoving dislribulionfree lesls has no aramelric counlerarl
A sign lesl runs lesl
C KruskaIWaIIis lesl D rank correIalion lesl
257
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
Paramelric lesls require assumlions aboul lhe nalure or shae of lhe ouIalions invoIved
Mosl of lhe lesls ve have vorked vilh have required lhal lhe ouIalions be normaI
Nonaramelric lesls do nol have requiremenls as lo arenl ouIalion
The KruskaIWaIIis lesl is used lo lesl cIaims aboul lhe differences in means among severaI
samIes as oosed lo lhe WiIcoxon ranksum lesl vhich Iooks al cIaims for lvo indeendenl
samIes The assumlions incIude lhere are al Ieasl lhree random samIes ve vanl lo lesl lhe
nuII hyolhesis lhal lhe samIes come from lhe same or idenlicaI ouIalions and each samIe
has al Ieasl five observalions The KruskaIWaIIis lesl aIso sums ranks for lhe samIe dala
ranked as a vhoIe
The rank correIalion lesl uses ranks lo measure lhe slrenglh of lhe reIalion belveen lvo
variabIes The rank correIalion rocedure is used lo lesl lhe nuII hyolhesis lhal lhere is no
correIalion belveen lhe lvo variabIes The Pearson correIalion coefficienl declecls Iinear
reIalionshis belveen lvo variabIes The rank correIalion r
s
aIso knovn as Searmans rank
correIalion coefficienl delecls reIalionshis vhich are nonIinear as veII as Iinear
H
The lvo samIes come from ouIalions vilh lhe same dislribulion
H
258
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
H
= n
= G = culoff vaIues
Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis of randomness
n
= n
= G = culoff vaIues
Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis of randomness
n
= n
= G =
G
=
G
=
Tesl slalislic z =  CrilicaI vaIues z =
IaiI lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis of randomness
C
259
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Iisl lhe advanlages and disadvanlages of nonaramelric lesls
Describe lhe WiIcoxon signedranks lesl Whal lyes of hyolheses is il used lo lesl
Whal assumlions are made for lhis lesl
Describe lhe WiIcoxon ranksum lesl Whal lye of hyolheses is il used lo lesl Whal
assumlions are made for lhis lesl Whal is lhe underIying concel
Use the sign test tn test the indicated c!aim
A slandard alilude lesl is given lo severaI randomIy seIecled rogrammers and lhe
scores are given beIov for lhe malhemalics and verbaI orlions of lhe lesl Ise lhe sign
lesl lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal rogrammers do beller on lhe malhemalics orlion of lhe lesl
Ise a IeveI of significance
Malhemalics
VerbaI
260
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the sign test tn test the indicated c!aim
A researcher vishes lo lesl vhelher a arlicuIar diel has an effecl on bIood ressure The
bIood ressure of randomIy seIecled aduIls is measured Afler one monlh on lhe diel
each ersons bIood ressure is again measured Ior eoIe lhe second bIood
ressure reading vas Iover lhan lhe firsl and for eoIe lhe second bIood ressure
reading vas higher lhan lhe firsl Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe
diel has an effecl on bIood ressure
The vailing limes in minules of randomIy seIecled cuslomers in a bank are given
beIov Ise a significance IeveI of lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe ouIalion median is
equaI lo minules
Use the Wi!cnxnn signedranks test tn test the c!aim that bnth samp!es cnme Irnm pnpu!atinns
having the same distributinn
An inslruclor gives a lesl before and afler a Iesson and resuIls from randomIy seIecled
sludenls are given beIov Al lhe IeveI of significance lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe Iesson
has no effecl on lhe grade Ise WiIcoxons signedranks lesl
efore
Afler
runners are limed al lhe meler dash and are limed again one monlh Ialer afler
foIIoving a nev lraining rogram The limes in seconds are shovn in lhe labIe Ise a
significance IeveI of lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lraining has no effecl on lhe limes
efore
Afler
261
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the Wi!cnxnn ranksum test tn test the c!aim that the twn independent samp!es cnme Irnm the
same distributinn
femaIe emIoyees and maIe emIoyees are randomIy seIecled from one comany
and lheir veekIy saIaries are recorded The saIaries in doIIars are shovn beIov Ise a
significance IeveI of lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal saIaries for femaIe and maIe emIoyees of
lhe comany have lhe same dislribulion
IemaIe MaIe
Sn!ve the prnb!em
When erforming a rank correIalion lesl one aIlernalive lo using TabIe A lo find
crilicaI vaIues is lo comule lhem using lhis aroximalion
r
s
=
l
+ n 
vhere l is lhe lscore from TabIe A corresonding lo n  degrees of freedom Ise
lhis aroximalion lo find crilicaI vaIues of r
s
for lhe case vhere n = and =
A C D
Use a Kruska!Wa!!is test tn test the c!aim that the samp!es cnme Irnm identica! pnpu!atinns
A firescience seciaIisl lesls lhree differenl brands of fIares for lheir burning limes in
minules and lhe resuIls are given beIov for lhe samIe dala Al lhe significance
IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe lhree brands have lhe same mean burn lime Ise lhe
KruskaIWaIIis lesl
rand X
rand Y
rand Z
262
CHAPTIR IORM
Use a Kruska!Wa!!is test tn test the c!aim that the samp!es cnme Irnm identica! pnpu!atinns
SAT scores for sludenls seIecled randomIy from lhree differenl schooIs are shovn beIov
Ise a significance IeveI of lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe samIes come from idenlicaI
ouIalions
SchooI A SchooI C SchooI
Use the rank cnrre!atinn cneIIicient tn test the c!aim nI nn cnrre!atinn between the twn variab!es
Given lhal lhe rank correIalion coefficienl r
s
for airs of dala is lesl lhe cIaim
of no correIalion belveen lhe lvo variabIes Ise a significance IeveI of
Ten lrucks vere ranked according lo lheir comforl IeveIs and lheir rices
Iind lhe rank correIalion coefficienl and lesl lhe cIaim of no correIalion belveen comforl
and rice Ise a significance IeveI of
Ise lhe samIe dala beIov lo find lhe rank correIalion coefficienl and lesl lhe cIaim of
no correIalion belveen malh and verbaI scores Ise a significance IeveI of
Malhemalics
VerbaI
263
CHAPTIR IORM
Use the runs test tn determine whether the given sequence is randnm Use a signiIicance !eve! nI
264
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
Advanlages Nonaramelric melhods can be aIied lo a vide variely of silualions because
lhey do nol have lhe rigid requiremenls of lheir aramelric counlerarls In arlicuIar
nonaramelric lesls do nol require normaIIy dislribuled ouIalions Nonaramelric lesls
can oflen be aIied lo nonnumericaI dala Nonaramelric melhods usuaIIy invoIve simIer
comulalions lhan lhe corresonding aramelric melhods
Disadvanlages Nonaramelric melhods lend lo vasle informalion because exacl numericaI
dala are reduced lo a quaIilalive form Nonaramelric lesls are nol as efficienl as aramelric
lesls so ve generaIIy need slronger evidence such as a Iarger samIe or a grealer difference
before ve reecl a nuII hyolhesis
The WiIcoxon signedranks lesl is simiIar lo lhe sign lesl bul il Iooks al lhe magnilude as veII
as lhe signs of lhe differences and lhus has a higher efficiency IeveI lhan lhe signs lesl The lesl
is used lo lesl cIaims lhal malched airs have differences lhal come from a ouIalion vhose
median is The WiIcoxon signedranks lesl assumes lhal lhe ouIalion of lhe differences
found from lhe airs of dala has a dislribulion lhal is aroximaleIy symmelric
This lesl is used lo lesl cIaims aboul equaI medians of lvo indeendenl ouIalions The
assumlions incIude lvo indeendenl samIes lesling lhe nuII hyolhesis lhal lhe lvo
indeendenl samIes come from lhe same dislribulion and more lhan scores in each of lhe
samIes The underIying rinciIe is lhal if lvo samIes are dravn from idenlicaI ouIalions
and lhe individuaI scores are aII ranked as one combined coIIeclion of vaIues lhen lhe high and
Iov ranks shouId faII evenIy belveen lhe lvo samIes Ior examIe if Iov ranks are found
redominanlIy in one samIe vilh lhe high ranks in lhe olher lhen ve susecl lhal lhe lvo
samIes are from ouIalions vilh differenl medians
H
The malh scores are equaI lo or Iess lhan lhe verbaI scores
H
265
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
H
= n
= G = culoff vaIues
IaiI lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis of randomness
n
= n
= G = culoff vaIues
IaiI lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis of randomness
n
= n
= G =
G
=
G
=
Tesl slalislic z = CrilicaI vaIues z =
IaiI lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis of randomness
D
266
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Circ!e the cnrrect chnice Inr mu!tip!echnice items
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Define rank IxIain hov lo find lhe rank for dala vhich reeals for examIe lhe dala
sel
Describe lhe sign lesl Whal lyes of hyolheses is il used lo lesl Whal is lhe underIying
concel
Describe lhe runs lesl for randomness Whal lyes of hyolheses is il used lo lesl Does
lhe runs lesl measure frequency Whal is lhe underIying concel
Use the sign test tn test the indicated c!aim
The heighls of randomIy seIecled vomen are given beIov Ise a significance IeveI of
lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe ouIalion median is equaI lo inches
267
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the sign test tn test the indicated c!aim
A researcher vishes lo sludy vhelher a arlicuIar diel is effeclive in heIing eoIe lo
Iose veighl randomIy seIecled aduIls vere veighed before slarling lhe diel and again
afler foIIoving lhe diel for one monlh eoIe Iosl veighl gained veighl and
observed no change in lheir veighl Al lhe significance IeveI lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe
diel is effeclive
Use the Wi!cnxnn signedranks test tn test the c!aim that bnth samp!es cnme Irnm pnpu!atinns
having the same distributinn
The sysloIic bIood ressure readings of len subecls before and afler foIIoving a
arlicuIar diel for a monlh are shovn in lhe labIe Ise a significance IeveI of lo lesl
lhe cIaim lhal lhe diel has no effecl on sysloIic bIood ressure
Subecl A C D I I G H I }
efore
Afler
Use the Wi!cnxnn ranksum test tn test the c!aim that the twn independent samp!es cnme Irnm the
same distributinn
SAT scores for sludenls seIecled randomIy from lvo differenl schooIs are shovn beIov
Ise a significance IeveI of lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe scores for lhe lvo schooIs have
lhe same dislribulion
SchooI A SchooI
268
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the Wi!cnxnn ranksum test tn test the c!aim that the twn independent samp!es cnme Irnm the
same distributinn
Ise lhe WiIcoxon ranksum aroach lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal sludenls al lvo coIIeges
achieve lhe same dislribulion of grade averages The samIe dala is Iisled beIov Ise a
IeveI of significance
CoIIege A
CoIIege
Sn!ve the prnb!em
The WiIcoxon signedranks lesl can be used lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal a samIe comes from a
ouIalion vilh a secified median The rocedure used is lhe same as lhe one
described in lhis seclion excel lhal lhe differences are oblained by sublracling lhe vaIue
of lhe hyolhesized median from each vaIue
The samIe dala beIov reresenl lhe veighls in ounds of vomen aged  Ise
a WiIcoxon signedranks lesl lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe median veighl of vomen aged
 is equaI lo ounds Ise a significance IeveI of e sure lo slale lhe
hyolheses lhe vaIue of lhe lesl slalislic lhe crilicaI vaIues and your concIusion
Use a Kruska!Wa!!is test tn test the c!aim that the samp!es cnme Irnm identica! pnpu!atinns
The labIe beIov shovs lhe Iifelimes in hours of random samIes of Iighl buIbs of lhree
differenl brands Ise a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe samIes come
from idenlicaI ouIalions
rand A rand rand C
269
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use a Kruska!Wa!!is test tn test the c!aim that the samp!es cnme Irnm identica! pnpu!atinns
The labIe beIov shovs lhe veighls in ounds of randomIy seIecled vomen in each of
lhree differenl age grous Ise a significance IeveI lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe
agegrou ouIalions of veighls are idenlicaI
  and oIder
Use the rank cnrre!atinn cneIIicient tn test the c!aim nI nn cnrre!atinn between the twn variab!es
Given lhal lhe rank correIalion coefficienl r
s
for airs of dala is  lesl lhe cIaim
of no correIalion belveen lhe lvo variabIes Ise a significance IeveI of
Given lhal lhe rank correIalion coefficienl r
s
for airs of dala is lesl lhe cIaim
of no correIalion belveen lhe lvo variabIes Ise a significance IeveI of
The scores of lveIve sludenls on lhe midlerm exam and lhe finaI exam vere as foIIovs
Iind lhe rank correIalion coefficienl and lesl lhe cIaim of no correIalion belveen
midlerm score and finaI exam score Ise a significance IeveI of
270
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the runs test tn determine whether the given sequence is randnm Use a signiIicance !eve! nI
Ise a IeveI of significance lo lesl lhe cIaim lhal lhe sequence of comulergeneraled
numbers is random Tesl for randomness above and beIov lhe mean
The sequence of numbers beIov reresenls lhe maximum lemeralure in degrees
Iahrenheil in }uIy in one IS lovn for conseculive years Tesl lhe sequence for
randomness above and beIov lhe median
Tesl lhe sequence of digils beIov for randomness above and beIov lhe vaIue of
Sn!ve the prnb!em
When erforming a rank correIalion lesl one aIlernalive lo using TabIe A lo find
crilicaI vaIues is lo comule lhem using lhis aroximalion
r
s
=
l
+ n 
vhere l is lhe lscore from TabIe A corresonding lo n  degrees of freedom Ise
lhis aroximalion lo find crilicaI vaIues of r
s
for lhe case vhere n = and =
A C D
271
CHAPTIR IORM C
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Which of lhe foIIoving lesls couId delecl some nonIinear reIalionshis belveen lvo
variabIes
A WiIcoxon signedranks lesl WiIcoxon ranksum lesl
C sign lesl D rank correIalion lesl
Which of lhe foIIoving lesls can Iead lo lhe same concIusion as lhal of lhe
MannWhilney I lesl
A WiIcoxon ranksum lesl KruskaIWaIIis lesl
C Searman correIalion lesl D WiIcoxon signedranks lesl
272
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
A rank is a number assigned lo an individuaI samIe ilem according lo ils order in lhe ranked
Iisl Ranked Iisls are arranged in order by some crilerion such as smaIIesl lo Iargesl Ior
reealing dala oinls you find lhe mean of lhe ranks invoIved Ior lhe dala oinl in lhe Iisl
above lhe rank for each vouId be vhich is lhe average of ranks and Ior lhe dala
oinl in lhe Iisl above lhe rank for each vouId be vhich is lhe average of and
The sign lesl comares lhe signs negalive or osilive of lhe differences for dala sels ignoring
any lies resuIling in a difference of zero The sign lesl can be used lo lesl cIaims invoIving lvo
deendenl samIes cIaims invoIving nominaI dala and cIaims aboul lhe median of a singIe
ouIalion The underIying concel is lhal if lvo sels of dala have equaI medians lhe number
of osilive signs shouId be aroximaleIy equaI lo lhe number of negalive signs
The runs lesl for randomness is a rocedure for lesling lhe randomness of dala vilh onIy lvo
characlerislics using lhe concels of runs A run is a sequence of dala lhal exhibil lhe same
characlerislic Ior examIe lhe dala sel M M M M M I I I M M I I I I has four runs The nuII
hyolhesis is lhal lhe sequence is random and lhe aIlernale hyolhesis is lhal lhe sequence is
nol random The runs lesl is based onIy on lhe order in vhich lhe dala occur il does nol lesl lhe
frequency of lhe dala The underIying concel is lhal if lhe number of runs is very Iov or very
high randomness is Iacking
H
median is inches H
The samIe comes from a ouIalion vilh a median differenl from ounds
Tesl slalislic T =
CrilicaI vaIue
Do nol reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis There is nol sufficienl evidence lo reecl lhe hyolhesis lhal
lhe samIe comes from a ouIalion vilh a median of ounds
Tesl slalislic H = CrilicaI vaIue is
Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis There is sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe cIaim lhal lhe
samIes of Iifelimes of Iighl buIbs come from idenlicaI ouIalions
Tesl slalislic H = CrilicaI vaIue is
IaiI lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis There is nol sufficienl evidence lo varranl reeclion of lhe
cIaim lhal lhe samIes of veighls come from idenlicaI ouIalions
273
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
r
s
=  CrilicaI vaIues r
s
=
No significanl correIalion There does nol aear lo be a correIalion belveen lhe lvo variabIes
r
s
= CrilicaI vaIues r
s
=
No significanl correIalion There does nol aear lo be a correIalion belveen lhe lvo variabIes
r
s
= CrilicaI vaIues r
s
=
Significanl correIalion There aears lo be a correIalion belveen midlerm score and finaI exam
score
n
= n
= G =
Tesl slalislic G = CrilicaI vaIues
IaiI lo reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis of randomness
n
= n
= G = culoff vaIues
Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis of randomness
n
= n
= G =
G
=
G
=
Tesl slalislic z = CrilicaI vaIues z =
Reecl lhe nuII hyolhesis of randomness
D
D
A
274
CHAPTIR IORM A
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Cnnstruct prncess cnntrn! charts nn the given axes Labe! the axes speciIica!!y tn the prnb!em
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Describe vhal rocess dala are Why are rocess dala imorlanl lo businesses Whal is a
common goaI of businesses using quaIily conlroI
Describe lhe lhree crileria used lo delermine if a conlroI charl indicales a rocess vhich
is nol slalislicaIIy slabIe
Drav a conlroI charl lhal iIIuslrales a rocess vhich is slalislicaIIy slabIe and one vhich
iIIuslrales a rocess vhich is nol slalislicaIIy slabIe Discuss lhe resuIls
275
CHAPTIR IORM A
Cnnstruct a run chart Inr individua! va!ues cnrrespnnding tn the given data
A machine lhal is suosed lo roduce baII bearings vilh a diameler of mm yieIds lhe
foIIoving dala from a lesl of baII bearings every minules
S A M R
276
CHAPTIR IORM A
Cnnstruct an R chart and determine whether the prncess variatinn is within statistica! cnntrn!
A machine lhal is suosed lo fiII smaII bollIes lo conlain mI yieIds lhe foIIoving dala
from a lesl of bollIes every hour
S A M R
277
CHAPTIR IORM A
Cnnstruct a cnntrn! chart Inr x
A machine is suosed lo fiII cans lhal conlain oz Iach hour a samIe of four cans is
lesled lhe resuIls of conseculive hours are given beIov
S A M R
Examine the given run chart nr cnntrn! chart and determine whether the prncess is within statistica!
cnntrn! II it is nnt identiIy which nI the three nutnIcnntrn! criteria app!y
A conlroI charl for x is shovn beIov Delermine vhelher lhe rocess mean is vilhin
slalislicaI conlroI If il is nol idenlify vhich of lhe lhree oulofconlroI crileria Iead lo
reeclion of a slalislicaIIy slabIe mean
278
CHAPTIR IORM A
Examine the given run chart nr cnntrn! chart and determine whether the prncess is within statistica!
cnntrn! II it is nnt identiIy which nI the three nutnIcnntrn! criteria app!y
A conlroI charl for R is shovn beIov Delermine vhelher lhe rocess varialion is vilhin
slalislicaI conlroI If il is nol idenlify vhich of lhe lhree oulofconlroI crileria Iead lo
reeclion of slalislicaIIy slabIe varialion
A run charl for individuaI vaIues is shovn beIov Does lhere aear lo be a allern
suggesling lhal lhe rocess is nol vilhin slalislicaI conlroI If so describe lhe allern
279
CHAPTIR IORM A
Examine the given run chart nr cnntrn! chart and determine whether the prncess is within statistica!
cnntrn! II it is nnt identiIy which nI the three nutnIcnntrn! criteria app!y
280
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
Process dala are dala arranged according lo some lime sequence Process dala are imorlanl lo
businesses because imorlanl characlerislics of rocess dala can change over lime and
businesses are inleresled in ensuring quaIily by conlroIIing lhese imorlanl characlerislics
usinesses using quaIily conlroI are inleresled in reducing variabiIily in characlerislics of lheir
roducl
There is a allern lrend or cycIe lhal is obviousIy nol random There is a oinl Iying beyond
lhe uer or Iover conlroI Iimils There are conseculive oinls aII above or aII beIov lhe
cenler Iine AddilionaI crileria menlioned incIude conseculive oinls aII increasing or
decreasing conseculive oinls aII aIlernaling belveen u and dovn oul of conseculive
oinls beyond conlroI Iimils slandard devialion avay from lhe cenler Iine oul of
conseculive oinls beyond conlroI Iimils slandard devialions avay from lhe cenler Iine
IxamIes viII vary The conlroI charl vhich is slalislicaIIy slabIe shouId shov onIy random
varialion The conlroI charl vhich is nol slalislicaIIy slabIe viII disIay al Ieasl one of lhe
foIIoving There is a allern lrend or cycIe lhal is obviousIy nol random There is a oinl
Iying beyond lhe uer or Iover conlroI Iimils There are conseculive oinls aII above or aII
beIov lhe cenler Iine
281
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM A
Process mean is nol vilhin slalislicaI conlroI There are oinls above and beIov lhe conlroI
Iimils There is an uvard lrend
Process varialion aears lo be in slalislicaI conlroI
Process aears lo be oul of slalislicaI conlroI There is a cycIicaI allern
Process aears lo be oul of slalislicaI conlroI There are oinls lhal Iie above lhe uer conlroI
Iimil There are conseculive oinls beIov lhe cenler Iine There is increasing varialion
Process aears lo be oul of slalislicaI conlroI There is an uvard shifl There are conseculive
oinls beIov lhe cenler Iine
282
CHAPTIR IORM
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Cnnstruct prncess cnntrn! charts nn the given axes Labe! the axes speciIica!!y tn the prnb!em
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
A common goaI of quaIily conlroI is lo reduce varialion in a roducl or service Iisl and
describe lhe lvo lyes of variabiIily Give an examIe of each
Describe a conlroI charl ComIele lhe labIe lo idenlify lhe imorlanl arls of differenl
lyes of conlroI charls
Poinls Iolled
Cenler Iine and
hov lo comule
Ier
conlroI Iimil
Iover
conlroI Iimil
ConlroI charl
for R
ConlroI charl
for
ConlroI charl
for
ReIale lhe concel of conlroI charls lo lhe concel of confidence inlervaIs
283
CHAPTIR IORM
Cnnstruct a run chart Inr individua! va!ues cnrrespnnding tn the given data
A machine is suosed lo fiII boxes lo a veighl of Ibs Ivery minules a samIe of
four boxes is lesled lhe resuIls are given beIov
S A M R
284
CHAPTIR IORM
Cnnstruct an R chart and determine whether the prncess variatinn is within statistica! cnntrn!
A machine is suosed lo fiII cans lhal conlain oz Iach hour a samIe of four cans is
lesled lhe resuIls of conseculive hours are given beIov
S A M R
285
CHAPTIR IORM
Cnnstruct a cnntrn! chart Inr x
A machine lhal is suosed lo roduce baII bearings vilh a diameler of mm yieIds lhe
foIIoving dala from a lesl of baII bearings every minules
S A M R
Examine the given run chart nr cnntrn! chart and determine whether the prncess is within statistica!
cnntrn! II it is nnt identiIy which nI the three nutnIcnntrn! criteria app!y
A conlroI charl for x is shovn beIov Delermine vhelher lhe rocess mean is vilhin
slalislicaI conlroI If il is nol idenlify vhich of lhe lhree oulofconlroI crileria Iead lo
reeclion of a slalislicaIIy slabIe mean
286
CHAPTIR IORM
Examine the given run chart nr cnntrn! chart and determine whether the prncess is within statistica!
cnntrn! II it is nnt identiIy which nI the three nutnIcnntrn! criteria app!y
A conlroI charl for R is shovn beIov Delermine vhelher lhe rocess varialion is vilhin
slalislicaI conlroI If il is nol idenlify vhich of lhe lhree oulofconlroI crileria Iead lo
reeclion of slalislicaIIy slabIe varialion
A run charl for individuaI vaIues is shovn beIov Does lhere aear lo be a allern
suggesling lhal lhe rocess is nol vilhin slalislicaI conlroI If so describe lhe allern
287
CHAPTIR IORM
Examine the given run chart nr cnntrn! chart and determine whether the prncess is within statistica!
cnntrn! II it is nnt identiIy which nI the three nutnIcnntrn! criteria app!y
288
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
Random varialion is due lo chance lhe varialion inherenl in any rocess lhal is nol caabIe of
roducing each good or service exaclIy lhe same vay every lime AssignabIe varialion resuIls
from causes lhal can be idenlified IxamIes may vary
A conlroI charl of a rocess characlerislic such as a mean or range consisls of vaIues Iolled
sequenliaIIy over lime and il incIudes a cenler Iine reresenling a cenlraI vaIue of lhe
characlerislic measuremenl as veII as Iover and uer conlroI Iimils reresenling boundaries
used lo searale and idenlify any oinls considered lo be unusuaI
Ioinls
Iollcd
Ccnlcr Iinc and
hov lo comulc
Icr
conlroI Iimil
Iovcr
conlroI Iimil
ConlroI
charl
for R samIc
rangcs
lhc avcragc
of lhc samIc
rangcs
is from
a labIc
is from
a labIc
ConlroI
charl
for samIc
mcans
lhc avcragc
of lhc samIc
mcans
+
is from
a labIc

is from
a labIc
ConlroI
charl
for samIc
roorlions
lhc ooIcd
cslimalc of lhc
roorlion for
aII ilcms
samIcd
+
If lhc Iovcr
conlroI Iimil
is ncgalivc
usc
ConlroI charls have uer conlroI Iimils and Iover conlroI Iimils found by rocesses simiIar lo
lhose for finding confidence inlervaIs ConlroI charls aIIov us lo examine rocesses lo see if
lhey remain vilhin conlroI lhal is vilhin lhe confidence inlervaIs
289
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM
The rocess aears lo be vilhin slalislicaI conlroI
Process mean is nol vilhin slalislicaI conlroI There are oinls above and beIov lhe conlroI
Iimils There is a cycIicaI allern
Process varialion aears lo be oul of slalislicaI conlroI There is an uvard lrend indicaling
lhal varialion is increasing There are oinls above lhe uer conlroI Iimil There are more lhan
conseculive oinls beIov lhe cenler Iine
Process aears lo be oul of slalislicaI conlroI The varialion is increasing over lime
Process is oul of slalislicaI conlroI There is a dovnvard lrend
Process aears lo be oul of slalislicaI conlroI There is a oinl lhal Iies above lhe uer conlroI
Iimil
290
CHAPTIR IORM C
Name Course Number Seclion Number
Directinns Write ynur answers tn the shnrtanswer items in the spaces prnvided
Cnnstruct prncess cnntrn! charts nn the given axes Labe! the axes speciIica!!y tn the prnb!em
Prnvide an apprnpriate respnnse
Describe a run charl and give an examIe Refer lo lhe vaIues on each of lhe axes as you
describe lhe run charl
Define slalislicaIIy slabIe or vilhin slalislicaI conlroI Shov examIes of run charls
vhich iIIuslrale rocesses vhich are nol slalislicaIIy conlroIIed Discuss lhe allern
vhich indicales lhe rocess is nol slalislicaIIy conlroIIed for each examIe
Describe hov lhe lerm Six Sigma reIales lo slalislicaI rocess conlroI
291
CHAPTIR IORM C
Cnnstruct a run chart Inr individua! va!ues cnrrespnnding tn the given data
A machine lhal is suosed lo fiII smaII bollIes lo conlain mI yieIds lhe foIIoving dala
from a lesl of bollIes every hour
S A M R
292
CHAPTIR IORM C
Cnnstruct an R chart and determine whether the prncess variatinn is within statistica! cnntrn!
A machine is suosed lo fiII boxes lo a veighl of Ibs Ivery minules a samIe of
four boxes is lesled lhe resuIls are given beIov
S A M R
293
CHAPTIR IORM C
Cnnstruct a cnntrn! chart Inr x
A machine is suosed lo fiII cans lhal conlain oz Iach hour a samIe of four cans is
lesled lhe resuIls of conseculive hours are given beIov
S A M R
Examine the given run chart nr cnntrn! chart and determine whether the prncess is within statistica!
cnntrn! II it is nnt identiIy which nI the three nutnIcnntrn! criteria app!y
A conlroI charl for x is shovn beIov Delermine vhelher lhe rocess mean is vilhin
slalislicaI conlroI If il is nol idenlify vhich of lhe lhree oulofconlroI crileria Iead lo
reeclion of a slalislicaIIy slabIe mean
294
CHAPTIR IORM C
Examine the given run chart nr cnntrn! chart and determine whether the prncess is within statistica!
cnntrn! II it is nnt identiIy which nI the three nutnIcnntrn! criteria app!y
A conlroI charl for x is shovn beIov Delermine vhelher lhe rocess mean is vilhin
slalislicaI conlroI If il is nol idenlify vhich of lhe lhree oulofconlroI crileria Iead lo
reeclion of a slalislicaIIy slabIe mean
A run charl for individuaI vaIues is shovn beIov Does lhere aear lo be a allern
suggesling lhal lhe rocess is nol vilhin slalislicaI conlroI If so describe lhe allern
Assume lhe cenler Iine is al ICI al and ICI al
295
CHAPTIR IORM C
Use the given prncess data tn cnnstruct a cnntrn! chart Inr p
A manufaclurer monilors lhe IeveI of defecls in lhe leIevision sels lhal il roduces Iach
veek leIevision sels are randomIy seIecled and lesled and lhe number of defecls is
recorded The resuIls for conseculive veeks are shovn beIov
Sn!ve the prnb!em
A conlroI charl for alrribules is lo be conslrucled Which rocess vouId have vider
conlroI Iimils a rocess vhich has been having a rale of nonconforming ilems or a
rocess vhich has been having a of nonconforming ilems Assume lhal bolh
rocesses have lhe same samIe sizes Ior a given samIe size vouId il be easier lo
delecl a shifl from lo or a shifl from lo IxIain your reasoning
296
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
A run charl is a sequenliaI Iol of individuaI dala vaIues over lime The horizonlaI axis
lyicaIIy is used for lhe lime sequence and lhe verlicaI axis is used for lhe vaIues of lhe dala
IxamIes viII vary
A rocess is slalislicaIIy slabIe if il has onIy naluraI varialion vilh no allerns cycIes or any
unusuaI oinls A rocess is slalislicaIIy unslabIe given lhe foIIoving condilions an obvious
uvard or dovnvard lrend grahs vilh an uvard or dovnvard shifl reIaliveIy slabIe
vaIues for lhe firsl fev a shifl reIaliveIy slabIe vaIues al lhe end grahs vilh one
excelionaIIy high or Iov vaIue grahs vilh cycIicaI behavior or grahs vhose varialion is
increasing over lime
Ansvers viII vary PossibIe ansver Six Sigma reresenls reduced varialion in a
manufacluring rocess vhich is lhe goaI of slalislicaI rocess conlroI
297
Ansver Key
Teslname CHAITIR FORM C
Process mean is nol vilhin slalislicaI conlroI One of lhe oinls Iies above lhe uer conlroI
Iimil
Process mean is nol vilhin slalislicaI conlroI There are oinls above and beIov lhe conlroI
Iimils There is a shifl uvard
Process aears lo be in slalislicaI conlroI
Process aears lo be vilhin slalislicaI conlroI
The rocess vhich has been having a of nonconforming ilems vouId have vider conlroI
Iimils Il vouId be easier lo delecl a shifl from lo lhan a shifl from lo because
al a rale of nonconforming ilems lhe conlroI Iimils are narrover and il lhus lakes a smaIIer
shifl before lhe roorlion faIIs oulside lhe conlroI Iimils
298