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Universiti Teknologi Petronas Geosciences and Petroleum Engineering Department Bandar Seri Iskandar. 317 !

Trono"

Lab Experiment No. 1: Porosity Test (Gas)


1. Objective:

To determine t"e porosit# o$ core plug sample %# using t"e Heli m Porosimeter S#stem. !. "ntro# ction

&rom t"e vie'point o$ petroleum engineers( t"e t'o most important properties o$ a reservoir rock are porosit# and permea%ilit#. Porosit# is a measure o$ storage capacit# o$ a reservoir. T"e porosit# is calculated as ratio o$ t"e pore volume to t"e %ulk volume o$ t"e core sample e)uation 1.
Porosity = Pore..Volume Bulk ..volume Grain..Volume = Bulk ..Volume Bulk ..Volume

*1+

Pore $ol me: T"e pore volume is t"e volume in t"e sample t"at can %e $illed 'it" a $luid. T"e advantages o$ determining t"is volume 'it" "elium is t"at invasion o$ t"e sample is rat"er eas# *t"ank to t"e small si,e o$ t"e molecule and t"e lo' viscosit# o$ t"e gas+ and t"at t"e sample remains clean *not spoiled %# oil or ot"er li)uid+. % l& vol me: &or regular c#linders( t"e %ulk volume is t"e c#linder volume o$ t"e core sample. T"e matri- cup can accommodate irregular core sample. In t"is case t"e %ulk volume must %e determined $rom mercur# immersion $or instance. Grain vol me: is t"e volume o$ solid o$ t"e sample. During t"e e-periment( it is determined as t"e di$$erence o$ a re$erence volume 'it"out and 'it" t"e sample. '. T(e )oncept o* HePorosimeter +ystem:

T"is s#stem allo's $or automatic Grain .olume and Pore .olume determination on rock samples including unconsolidated or irregular s"ape samples. /ust enter t"e c"aracteristic o$ #our sample *ID( diameter( lengt" and 'eig"t+( click on t"e %utton 0easure and t"e s#stem 'ork. T"e measure is %ased on Bo#le10ariotte2s la' t"eor#. T"e process takes place in t'o stages3 at stage one a kno'n amount o$ "elium gas is contained in a cell *pressure and volume accuratel# kno'n+. 4t stage t'o( t"is )uantit# o$ gas is s"ared 'it" t"e matri- cup containing

t"e sample. T"e ne' pressure is measured and t"e volume not accessi%le to gas *grain volume+ is automaticall# calculated. T"e s#stem includes a console 'it" necessar# instrument and actuators connected to a matri- cup to accommodate 15 and 15167 dia samples. 4n optional spare matri- cup is dedicated to $ull si,e samples *85 diameter+. T"e console is controlled via user $riendl# inter$ace on computer t"roug" serial connections *USB t#pe+. 9ali%ration( Process operation( and report in E-cel s"eet are automatic t"roug" :macro9ommand5 )onsole: T"e console is t"e %o- t"at includes plum%ing( valves( manometer and pressure transducer. ,atrix c p: T"e matri- cup is connected to t"e console. It accommodates core sample and cali%rated %illets. -. %oyle.,ariotte/s La0

T"e Bo#le10ariotte2s ;a' is used to determine grain and pores volume $rom t"e e-pansion o$ a kno'n mass o$ "elium into a matri- cup. T"e $ollo'ing e)uations are used to calculate t"e porosit# o$ core sample.
P.ref < V .ref Vdead P. e-p P.ref grain.volume = *V .matrix +V .ref + < V .ref P. e-p pore.volume =

*7+ *3+ *8+

bulk .volume = *D 7 6 8+ < L

="ere P.re$ > ?e$erence Pressure *initial pressure+ P.e-p > E-panded Pressure *$inal pressure+ ..re$ > ?e$erence .olume *initial volume+ ..e-p > E-panded .olume *$inal volume+ ..dead > gas volume gat"ers surrounding t"e core ..matri- > volume o$ t"e matri- cup( P.re$ and P.e-p are measured 'it" t"e @ePorosimeter. ..re$( ..matri- and ..dead are determined using t"e cali%ration met"od provided 'it" t"e mac"ine. 1. +tep by +tep Proce# re to +tart +ample Test

0ost o$ time( t"e dail# 'ork 'ill %e to simpl# click on 0easure. To reac" t"is status( #ou need at $irst to run $our stages. Aou "ave to di$$erentiate eac" class $or cali%ration and $or 0easure. 1. +et p: Setup allo's $or selecting t"e suita%le class to operate. In t"e Setup panel( click on t"e %utton relative to t"e re$erence volume to use *standard or e-tended+ and #our sample series *15( 15B( 85+. 4$ter a $e' seconds( a green lig"t is displa#ed %eside #our selection. !. 2e*ine: De$ine allo's t"e operator to de$ine t"e 'orking report $ile 'it" a name o$ its o'n.

1. Start t"e de$inition %# clicking on t"e %utton :de$inition5( 'ait t"e loading o$ t"e macro until a dialog %o- appears( and $ollo' t"e instructions. 7. ?ename t"e ne' $ile to allo' #ou entering t"e re)uested in$ormation in t"e #ello' column at ?eport ta%. 3. Ce# in t"e core ID( core diameter( lengt"( and t"e 'eig"t and t"en close t"e renamed $ile. 8. Dpen t"e matri- cup and load t"e core sample. . ;oad one or several %illets to $ill in t"e empt# place in t"e matri- and t"en close tig"t t"e matri- cup. '. ,eas re3 Start t"e measurement %# clicking on t"e %utton :measurement5( 'ait until t"e ne-t dialog %o- appear. 1. So t"is ne-t dialog %o- asks #ou to close @.!8( click Dk. 7. T"e second dialog %o- asks to con$irm to start proceed( clicking AES. 3. T"e t"ird dialog %o- re)uests to 'rite t"e %illets t"at #ou loaded 'it" t"e core 'rite t"e num%ers o$ t"ese %illets and click DC. 8. ="en #our sample is measured( t"e dialog %o- asks #ou to proceed to a ne-t sample click :Eo5. . 4 ne' dialog asks to $ill t"e num%er o$ t"e sample to proceed( and t"en enter ! to )uit t"e measure mode. F. 4t t"is time( #ou can read all t"e results $or t"is sample $rom t"e $ile.

)omp ter inter*ace

3es lts an# 2isc ssions

Universiti Teknologi Petronas Geosciences and Petroleum Engineering Department Bandar Seri Iskandar. 317 ! Trono"

Experiment no 1: Porosity 2etermination Gro p No: 4ey in parameters Sample 1 1 7 3 8 9ore plug sample ID 9ore plug sample diameter( mm 9ore plug sample lengt"( mm 9ore plug sample 'eig"t( g &illed up %illets num%ers T(e res lts *or t(e porosity F 7 G H Bulk volume cc Grain volume cc Pore volume cc Grain densit# g6cc

2ate:

Sample 7

Sample 3

1! E$$ective core porosit# I

Prepare# by: Eame3 Signature3

$eri*ie# by: Eame3 Signature

*Please $ill in t'o copies o$ t"is s"eet( one $or students2 cop# and t"e ot"er $or la% graduate assistant+

2isc ssions3

)oncl sions3