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SETTINGS FOR 247 MW GENERATOR PROTECTION

PANEL
CUSTOMER : NEYVELI LIGNITE CORPORATION

PROJECT: NLC-Retrofitting of Generator Protection.


Generator Data received from customer:

Gen.Capacity
Rated Power Factor
Gen.Capacity at 0.85 PF

= 247 MVA
= 0.85
= 210 MW

Terminal Voltage

= 15.75KV/110V

Synchronous reactance Xd

= 2.05 pu
= 2.05 x 15.75 x 15.75/247 MVA
= 2.058 ohm.

Transient reactance Xd

= 0.217 pu
= 0.217 x 15.75 x 15.75/247

MVA
Sub transient reactance Xd

= 0.217 ohms
= 0.105 pu

CT/PT Details:
Generator Phase CT / Neutral pri
Phase CT / Neutral sec

= 10000 A
=5A

Generator PT ratio

= 15.75 KV/3 / 110V/3

CT/PT Ratio

= 13.97

Numerical Generator Protection-MICOM P343


(All settings in secondary values)
1) Generator differential (87G)
Gen. FLC

= 247 x 106 / 3 x 15.75 x 103


= 9055 A

Referred to sec

= 9055 / 10000/5

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= 4.53 A
a.biased differential
Since we are setting the relay as Biased differential we use the
following settings
The minimum Pick-up current ( Is1 )

= 10%

The first slope for the differential for


fault currents near to rated current ( K1) = 0 %
( to achieve
maximum sensitivity, the value is set to zero or no bias)
The pick-up setting at which bias is
changed to higher Slope ( Is2 )

= 120%

The slope of the bias characteristics


to take care of severe faults ( K2 ) = 150 %
( to achieve clear
discrimination for minor unbalances caused during extreme fault
conditions )
Active settings

Group 1

GenDiff Function Percentage Bias


Gen Diff Is1
0.453A
(for maximum winding coverage)
Gen Diff k1
0%
(for maximum sensitivity)
Gen Diff Is2
5.436A
(to allow consistent sensitivity for all internal faults)
Gen Diff k2
150.0%
b.High Impedence
Gen. FLC

= 247 x 106 / 3 x 15.75 x 103


= 9055 A

Referred to sec

= 9055 / 10000/5
= 4.53 A
Since we are setting the relay as High Impedance Differential we
use the
Following setting.
Maximum Value of the three phase symmetrical short circuit current
Fault current referred to the secondary
Voltage developed across the relay circuit
Vr =KIf x (RCT + 2 RL)
(Note: RCT and RL are assumed, as it is not available)

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Active settings

Group 1

Gen Diff Function: High Impedance


Gen Diff Is : 250 mA
2) Loss of Excitation (40)
Transformation Ratio

= CT Ratio / PT Ratio
= 13.97

Diameter of circle

= Xd x 13.97
= 2.058 x 13.97
= 28.75 ohm

Offset

= 0.5 x Xd x 13.97
= 0.5 x 0.217 x 13.97
= 1.52 ohm

a.Loss of Excitation Without Under voltage


FFail Alm Status Enabled
FFail Alm Angle 15.00 deg
FFail Alm Delay 5.000 s
This setting is equivalent to a power factor of 0.96 leading and
need to be checked with operating power factor at normal
running conditions
FFail1 Status
Enabled
FFail1 -Xa1
1.52 ohm
(-Xa1 = 0.5 Xd in secondary ohms)
FFail1 Xb1
28.75 Ohm
(Xb1 = Xd in secondary ohms)
FFail1 TimeDelay 2.00 s
FFail1 DO Timer 2 s

b.Loss of Excitation With Under voltage


FFail2 Status
Enabled
Ffail2 Xa2
1.52 ohm
(-Xa2 = 0.5 Xd in secondary ohms)
Ffail2 Xb2
28.75 Ohm
(Xb2 = Xd in secondary ohms)
Ffail2 TimeDelay 1.00 s---(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED 0.05S)
Ffail2 DO Timer 2 s---(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED 0.00S)
Under Voltage (27)

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Stage 1: Under voltage at 70 %


UNDER VOLTAGE
V< Measur't Mode Phase-Neutral
V< Operate Mode Any Phase
V<1 Function
DT
V<1 Voltage Set
44.00 V
V<1 Time Delay
0.00 s---(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED
0.05S)
V<1 Poledead Inh Enabled
V<2 Status
Disabled
Note: The above Under voltage stage has to be used for Loss
of Excitation with Under Voltage
) Overvoltage (59)
Stage 1: Over voltage at 120 % (low set)
OVERVOLTAGE
V> Measur't Mode Phase-Phase
V> Operate Mode Any Phase
V>1 Function
DT
V>1 Voltage Set 132.0 V
V>1 Time Delay 3.00 s
---(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED )
OVERVOLTAGE
V> Measur't Mode Phase-Phase
V> Operate Mode Any Phase
V>1 Function
DT
V>1 Voltage Set 127.0 V
V>1 Time Delay 2.500 s
V>2 Status
Enabled
V>2 Voltage Set 143.0 V
V>2 Time Delay 50.00ms

4) Under & Overfrequency (81 U/O)


UNDER FREQUENCY
F<1 Status
Enabled
F<1 Setting
49.0 Hz
F<1 Time Delay 1.000 s
F<2 Status
Enabled
F<2 Setting
48.0 Hz
F<2 Time Delay 0.000 s
F<3 Status
Disabled
F<4 Status
Disabled
---(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED )
F<1
F<1
F<1
F<2
F<3

Status
Enabled
Setting
47.00 Hz
Time Delay 3.000 s
Status
Disabled
Status
Disabled

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F<4 Status
Disabled
F< Function Link 0000
OVER FREQUENCY
F>1 Status
Disabled
F>2 Status
Disabled

5) Negative phase sequence thermal protection (46)


Assuming the continuous NPS withstand of the generator = 8%
And the thermal time constant = 20
I2>1
I2>1
I2>1
I2>2
I2>2
I2>2
I2>2
I2>2
I2>2

Alarm
Enabled
Current Set 0.25 A
Time Delay : 5s
Trip
Enabled
Current Set 0.36 A
k Setting 16.38
kRESET
16.38
tMAX
500.00 s
tMIN
0.25 s

tMIN : This value has been chosen with the assumption that the
machine can withstand 0.5 pu of unbalance for a period of 500 sec.
tMIN :This setting has to be chosen as to co-ordinate with down
stream over current relays / Zone 3 of distance protection / dead
time setting of auto recloser / CB pole discrepancy timer , which
ever is higher.
---(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED )
I2>1
I2>1
I2>2
I2>2
I2>2
I2>2
I2>2
I2>2

Current Set 250.0mA


Time Delay 5.000 s
Trip
Enabled
Current Set 350.0mA
k Setting 4.300 s
kRESET
4.300 s
tMAX
2000 s
tMIN
250.0ms

6) SYSTEM BACKUP protection


Backup Function : Under impedance
Vector Rotation None
Z 1< setting
12.15 ohms
Z 1< time delay 5.000 sec
Z 1< tRESET
0 sec
Z 2< setting
17.00 ohms
Z 2< time delay 1.000 sec
Z 2< tRESET
0 sec
---(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED )
Vector Rotation None
Z<1 Setting
1.200 Ohm
Z<1 Time Delay 1.750 s
Z<1 tRESET
0s
Z< Stage2
Enabled

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Z<2 Setting
1.700 Ohm
Z<2 Time Delay 3.000 s
Z<2 tRESET
0s

The impedance value is set at 70% of the load impedance after


taking care of 30% overloading for a short duration, voltage
variations etc.
7) Reverse Power Protection (32R)
Stage 1 (32-1)
Assuming more then 2% of power level could result in dangerous
over speed transient on loss of electrical loading.
Power protection settings:
Power1 Function Reverse
-P>1 Setting
20 W
Power1 Time Delay 2.000 s
(To prevent false tripping or alarms being given during power
system disturbances or synchronisation)
Power1 DO Timer 0 s
P1 Poledead Inh Enabled
Stage 2 (32-2)
Configure the same stage 1 setting along with one external timer
available in the PSL
Timer setting : 8 sec.
---(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED )
Operating Mode Generating
Power1 Function Low Forward
P<1 Setting
20.00 W
Power1 TimeDelay 2.000 s
Power1 DO Timer 0 s
P1 Poledead Inh Enabled
Power2 Function Reverse
-P>2 Setting
20.00 W
Power2 TimeDelay 2.000 s
Power2 DO Timer 0 s
P2 Poledead Inh Enabled
(CUSTOMER RECOMMANDED SPWR in the relay because During load
oscillation, M/C was not tripped by Reverse power fn. due to available setting)

8) Low Forward Power Protection (32L)


Power2 Function Low Forward
P<2 Setting
40. W
Power2 TimeDelay 2.000 s
Power2 DO Timer 0 s
P2 Poledead Inh Enabled

9. Generator Stand by Earth Fault Protection (51NG)


IN> Input
IN>1 Function
IN>1 Current

Measured
DT
50.00mA

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IN>1 Time Delay 3.000 s-(CUSTOMER


RECOMMNADED 1.0s)
IN>1 tRESET
0s
10) 95% Stator Earth Fault Protection (64G1)
VN>

Input
Measured
VN>1 Function DT
VN>1 Current
5V
VN>1 Time Delay 3.000 s-(CUSTOMER
RECOMMNADED 0.5s)
VN>1 tRESET
0s
VN>2 Status
Disabled
The pick up setting may be kept to 5 volts so as to provide
maximum coverage of the stator winding towards earth faults and if
the standing voltage level is higher than this, Voltage setting should
be increased accordingly.
11) 100% Stator Earth Fault Protection(64G2)

VN3H<: Enabled

VN3H< Voltage Setting: 2 V-(CUSTOMER


RECOMMNADED 1.0V)
VN3H< Time Delay 3.000 s
V< Inhibit Set : 80 V
P< Inhibit Set : Disabled
Q< Inhibit Set : Disabled
S< Inhibit Set : Disabled

Note:Need to be set during commissioning as per the


machine third harmonic capability
12) Supervision(60FL)

VT Supervision: Enabled
VTS Status : Blocking
VTS Reset Time Delay :- 5 Sec
VTS I> Inhibit : 20 A -(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED 5.0A)
VTS I2> Inhibit : 0.15 A -(CUSTOMER RECOMMNADED

0.25A)

CT Supervision : Disabled

13) Pole Slipping (78 )


Pole Slipping (78 )
Data of the generator and step up transformer :
Base power
Pn = 247 MVA
Base voltage
Vn = 15.75 KV

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System impedance angle 80


Full load current
=9050 A
Base impedance
= 15.75 *15.75/247 =1.005
Generator Transient impedance Xd= Base impedance/3.8 =1.005/3.8
=0.2645
(where 3.8=Transient current of 3 phase short circuit)
System impedance = 15.75 x 15.75 / 40 x 1.732 x 400 (Assuming worst case of
40KA)
= 0.0089 Ohms
The base impedance is
Z base = Vn /Pn = 15.75 2 /247 = 1.005 Ohms .
Z A = (XT + X1) Z base = (0.14 +0.0089) x 1.005 = 0.1489
Ex:
(Sec value=0.1489*CTR/PTR= 2.08 Ohm)
Z B = 2Xd x Z base = 2 x 0.2645 x 1.005 = 0.5316 .
Zc is set to 90% of the transformer reactance
Zc = 0.9 x (XT) Z base = 0.9 x 0.14 x 1.005= 0.12663
Lens Angle
Blinder Angle

=
=

120 degrees
75 degrees

T1 and T2 are set to 15 ms and system impedance angle is set to 80 degrees


PSlip Za Forward 2.100 Ohm
PSlip Zb Reverse 7.400 Ohm
Lens Angle
120.0 deg
PSlip Timer T1 15.00ms
PSlip Timer T2 15.00ms
Blinder Angle
75.00 deg
PSlip Zc
1.800 Ohm
Zone1 Slip Count 1
Zone2 Slip Count 2
PSlip Reset Time 30.00 s

7) SYSTEM BACKUP protection


Backup Function Under impedance
Vector Rotation None
Z< setting
8 ohms
Z< time delay 1.000 sec
Z< tRESET
0 sec
This time delay should be co-ordinated with downstream current relays.
N=No. of machine operating in parallel=3
Length of longest line emanating from bus = 25.2KM
Line positive sequence impedance = (0.15542 + 0.342448 2 )Ohm/KM = 0.376
Impedance required to cover the entire line under maximum generation condition
Z=NZL+ Zt
ZL = Line impedance; Zt = Generator Transformer Impedance
Z=3x(0.376 x 25.2 )+Z t
NZL=3x(0.376 x 25.2)=28.4256

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Zt=0.11815 x (132)2/140 =14.7 ohms (on 132 KV base )


Z =28.4256+14.7=43.12
=43.12/(132)2/(11)2 =0.299 ohms (on 11 KV base )
Z`=ZxCTR/PTR=0.299 x16=4.79 Ohm Secondary.
Machine full load current
= 7217.09 A
CT ratio
= 8000/5 A
Considering a 20% overlaod on the generator:
Generator full load secondary current
= 1.2 x 5 x 7217.09
------------------- = 5.4128 A
8,000
Generator full load impedance (phase to neutral) = 110 / 5.4128 = 20.38 ohms
Please note that full load impedance of the generator is 20.38Ohms but the
impedance required to cover entire line under maximum generation condition is
4.79ohms. So we can give a setting of 8 Ohms.
10) Power decay / Low forward power (32LT)
Assuming more then 2% of power level could result in dangerous overspeed
transient on loss of electrical loading.
Power protection settings:
Power1 Function low forward
-P>1 Setting
16 W
Power1 Time Delay 2.000 s
12) Dead Machine:---(not used by customer)
I>
V<
TPu
TDO

450mA
80 Volts
5sec
500msec

2. Rotor Earthfault Protection MX3IPG2A


STAGE 1
R<,Alarm
Time delay
R<<,Trip
Time delay

4K
1.00
1k
5.00

Ohms
sec
Ohms
Sec

STAGE 2
R<,Alarm
Time delay
R<<,Trip
Time delay

4K
1.00
1k
5.00

Ohms
sec
Ohms
sec

3. Reverse, low forward power Protection - MWTU14


Reverse power(32G)
The reverse power protection shall be set to 0.5 % of rated power. This
corresponds to

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= 0.005 x MVA x 1000000 x CTR x PTR / 3


= 0.005 x 137.5 x 1000000 x (5/8000) x (110/11000) / 3 = 1.4W
VI Cos = 1.4
I = 1.4 / (63.5 x 1)
I = 0.02204A = 22.04mA
Set at 12.5mA
t= 5.0 sec;
This value has been given under the assumption that Generator reverse power
with stand characteristics is equal to 0.5% .
Low Forward power
The low forward power protection shall be set to 1 % of rated power. This
corresponds to
= 0.01 x MVA x 1000000 x CTR x PTR / 3
= 0.01 x 137.5 x 1000000 x (5/8000) x (110/11000) / 3 = 2.8W
t= 5.0 sec;
VI Cos = 2.8
I = 2.8 / (63.5 x 1)
I = 0.02204A = 44.09 mA
Set at Coarse setting = 37.5mA
Fine setting = 5mA
t= 5.0 sec;

3. Overall differential Protection KBCH130


Pick-up setting : 0.2 p.u
Assuming that 20% pick up will ensure sensitivity to internal faults by considering
15% mismatch due to tap ranger and 5% of CT errors.
Ratio Correction:
11KV Full load current
=

=
140MVA / 113
7348A

=
7348 x 5/8000
4.59 A

=
7348 x 5/8000
4.59 A

=
140MVA / 1383
585.73A

=
=

585.73 x 1/800
0.732 A

Secondary current LV1


Secondary current LV2 (UAT)
138KV Full load current
Secondary current

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Secondary current on LV side of ICT

LV1 Ratio correction factor

=
3.29

=
=

5 / 4.59
1.08

=
1.08

5 / 3.29

1.519

LV2 (UAT) Ratio correction factor


HV Ratio correction factor

0.732x 2.6 x 3

5 / 4.59

Vector correction :
Yy0
Yy0
Yy0

CTR 8000/5
CTR 8000/5
CTR 800/1

REF Protection: 0.1


Rstab =
If( Rct + 2Rl) / 0.1
If
=
Iload / %Z
= (140 x 106 / 3 x 138 x 10 3 )/.11815
= 4957.55 A
Referred to secondary
= 4957.55 x 1/800
= 6.19
Rstab =
=

If( Rct + 2Rl) / 0.1


6.19 (1.78+2x1.8)

= 33.3 Ohms

4. Generator Interfault VDG14


Setting:
Assuming maximum standing voltage level is below 5.4V set at V=5.4V
TMS = 0.1
4. GT O/C and standby earth fault Protection - P122
GT Overcurrent setting:
GT FLC

= 140 x 106 / 3 x 138 x 103


= 585.73 A

Referred to sec

= 585.73 / 800/1
= 0.732 A

Assuming 110% overload of full load current


1.10 x 585.73 = 644.3A
Referred to secondary
= 644.3 x 1 /800
= 0.805A

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Standby Earthfault setting:


20% full load current
0.2 x 585.73 =
117.14A
Referred to secondary = 117.14 x 1/800
= 0.15A
5 UAT Differential Protection - KBCH120

Pick-up setting : 0.2 p.u


Assuming that 20% pick up will ensure sensitivity to internal faults by considering
15% mismatch due to tap ranger and 5% of CT errors.
Ratio Correction:
6.8KV Full load current
Secondary current

=
15MVA / 6.83
1273.6A

=
=

1273.6 x 5/1500
4.24 A

=
15MVA / 113
787.3A

=
=

787.3 x 5/1000
3.9365 A

=
5 / 4.24
1.179

11KV Full load current


Secondary current
LV Ratio correction factor
LV Ratio correction factor

=
=

1.27

Vector correction :
Yy0
Yy0

CTR 1000/5
CTR 1500/5

4. UAT O/C and standby earth fault Protection - P122


GT Overcurrent setting:
MVA Rating of UAT
CT Ratio
Voltage level
UAT FLC

=
15MVA
=
1000/5A
=
11KV
= 15 x 106 / 3 x 11 x 103
= 787.3 A

Referred to sec

= 787.3 / 1000/5
= 3.93 A

Assuming 110% overload of full load current

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5 / 3.93

1.10 x 787.3 = 866.03A


Referred to secondary
= 866.03x 5 /1000
= 4.33A
Standby Earthfault setting:
20% full load current
0.2 x 787.3 =
157.46
Referred to secondary = 157.46 x 5/1000
= 0.7873A

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