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Signcryption is a new cryptographic primitive, which simultaneously provides both confidentiality and authenticity.In1998, Zheng demonstrated that by combining both goals into a single primitive it is possible to achieve significant savings both in computational and communication overhead.
this seminar was done by my friend Arunjith. This presentation is uploaded by all his permission.
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A Presentation by :

Arunjith. B

R7A-13

SNGCE

On : 25/08/2009

Out Line

1. INTRODUCTION

1. 1) Why Signcryption

2. 1) Steps involved in signcrypting a message

2. 2) Steps involved in unsigncrypting a message

3.1) Features

3.2) Security

3.3) Comparisons

Out Line

4.1) Handshake protocol

4.2) ATM networks

5.1) Advantages

5.2) Disadvantages

6. CONCLUSION

Introduction

simultaneously provides both confidentiality and authenticity.

single primitive it is possible to achieve significant savings both

in computational and communication overhead.

Public Key (PK) Cryptography

communication between people, who have never met before

over an open and insecure network in a secure and authenticated

way, possible!

Signature-Then-Encryption

Before sending a message out, the sender has to do the

following:

sign it using a Digital Signature (DS) scheme

encryption algorithm under randomly chosen message

encryption key

receiver’s public key

Signature-Then-Encryption

Some Problems with This Approach:

verification and decryption

for digital signature and that for encryption!

The Question is ….

than that required by signature-then-encryption?

Discovery...

has discovered a new cryptography primitive called

“signcryption”.

What is Signcryption?

“Signcryption is a new paradigm in public key cryptography that

simultaneously fulfills both the functions of digital signature and

public key encryption in a logically single step, and with a cost

significantly lower than that required by the traditional

“signature and encryption” approach.”

Two Schemes :

Digital Signature

Public Key encryption

Why Signcryption?

Based on discrete algorithm problem

Signcryption–Implementation

Can be implemented using :

ElGamal’s Shortened Digital Signature Scheme

public key encryption scheme like DES & 3DES

This choice would be made based on the level of

security desired by the users.

Signcryption – Implementation

Using ElGamal’s Shortened Digital Signature

Scheme (SDSS)

enables one person to send a digitally signed message to

another person

signature

Public Key Encryption

PK-1 is the private key

Signcryption – How It Works

key encryption

I’m s e n d in g a m e s s a g e to y o u

A lic e Bob

Parameters for Signcryption

Parameters public p – a large prime number

to all q – a large prime factor of p-1

g – an integer with order q modulo p chosen

randomly from [1,…,p-1]

Hash – a one-way hash function whose

output has, say, at least 128 bits

KH – a keyed one-way hash function

(E, D) – the encryption and decryption

algorithms of a private key cipher

Alice’s keys xa – Alice’s private key, chosen uniformly at

random from [1,…,q-1]

ya – Alice’s public key (ya = gxa mod p)

Bob’s keys xb – Bob’s private key, chosen uniformly at

random from [1,…,q-1]

yb – Bob’s public key (yb = gxb mod p)

x a number chosen uniformly at random from

the range 1,…,q-1

Signcryption – How It Works

Steps to Signcrypt Messages

A lic e

chooses a value x from the large range 1,…,q-1

uses Bob’s public key and the value x, and computes the

hash of it It gives her a 128 bit string

(key pair)

k 1

x

x Є [1 . .q -1 ]

k 6 4 -b it

HASH

1 2 8 -b it

yb k 2

6 4 -b it

Signcryption – How It Works

Steps to Signcrypt Messages ...(Continued)

A lic e

scheme E with the key k1 the cipher text c

c = Ek1(m)

uses the key k2 in the one-way keyed hash function

KH to get a hash of the message m 128-bit called r

r = KHk2(m)

k 1 k 2

6 4 -b it 6 4 -b it

E c K H r

M essage M essage

Signcryption – How It Works

Steps to Signcrypt Messages(Continued)

A l i c e computes the value of s - like in SDSS

She does this using:

• the value of x

• her private key xa

• the value of r

s = x/ (r + xa) mod q

r + x m o d q

a

R e s u lt

x / R e s u lt s

x

Signcryption – How It Works

Steps to Signcrypt Messages(Continued)

A lic e

Now Alice has three different values (c, r and s)

She has to send these three values to Bob to complete the

transaction

She can do this in a couple of ways:

• send them all at one time

• send them separately using secure transmission

channels, which would increase security

Signcryption – How It Works

Steps to Signcrypt Messages ...(Continued)

s e n d (c , r , s ) g e t (c , r , s )

A lic e Bob

Signcryption – How It Works

Steps to Unsigncrypt Messages

Bob

to compute a hash, he uses the values of r and s, his

private key xb, Alice’s public key ya & p and g

This would give him 128-bit result

k = hash((ya * gr)s*xb mod p)

r s

p

k

H ASH

1 2 8 -b i t

g

xb ya

Signcryption – How It Works

Steps to Unsigncrypt Messages(Continued)

B ob

This 128-bit hash result is split into two 64-bit halves

(k1,k2) (key pair)

This key pair would be identical to the key pair that was

generated while signcrypting the message

Bob uses the key k1 to decrypt the cipher text c, which

will give him the message m

m = Dk1(c)

c

k 1

M essage

k D

6 4 -b it

k 2

1 2 8 -b it

6 4 -b it

Signcryption – How It Works

Steps to Unsigncrypt Messages(Continued)

Bob

Bob does a one-way keyed hash function (KH) on m using

the key k2 and compares the result with the value r he has

received from Alice

If match the message m was signed and sent by Alice

If not match the message wasn't signed by Alice or was

intercepted and modified by an intruder

Bob accepts the message m if and only if KHk2(m) = r

c

k 1

M essage

k D

6 4 -b it

k2

1 2 8 -b it = r?

K H R e s u lt

6 4 -b it

Features of Digital Signcryption

Unique Unsigncryptability

• message m of arbitrary length is Signcrypted using

Signcryption algorithm

verify the message m

This Unsigncryption is unique to the message m and the

sender

Features of Digital Signcryption

Security

• Two security schemes

- Digital Signature

- Public Key encryption

- likely to be more secure

Efficiency

Computation involved when applying the Signcryption,

Unsigncryption algorithms and communication overhead is

much smaller than signature-then-encryption schemes

Signcryption Security

Unforgeability:

• Bob is in the best position to be able to forge any Signcrypted

message from Alice!

private key Xb

Confidentiality:

• An attacker has all three components of the Signcrypted

message: c, r and s!

(known only to Alice and Bob)

Possible Applications of Signcryption

Encryption-then-Signature

cryptographic method

Possible Applications of Signcryption

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages of Signcryption

Low computational cost

computational costs doesn’t matter much

Higher Security

increase or decrease the security?”

themselves are complex enough to withstand attacks, it can

only lead to added security

Advantages of Signcryption

Message Recovery

• To recover a message E-mail system, Alice must do one of the

following:

evidence of transmission

message, either in clear or encrypted form

Disadvantages of Signcryption

S h a re T ra d e r

Tow er S h a re T ra d e r

B a n k S e rv e r

S h a re T ra d e r

Disadvantages of Signcryption

recipients

and computational resource usage

Future Scenario of Signcryption

D a ta b a s e

S e rv e r

M o b ile

A p p lic a tio n

S e rv e r

A p p lic a tio n

S e rv e r Tow er

E -C o m m e rc e S e rv e r

Conclusion…

Two birds in one stone

increase the complexity and in turn increase security

implement effectively

effective way of implementing this

Bibliography and Internet Resources

¨http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~mdr/teaching/modules04/secur

ity/ letures/public_key.html

http://www.sis.uncc.edu/~yzheng/papers/

¨

http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~mdr/teaching/modules04/securi

ty/students/ss3/introduction%20to%20signcryption.htm

http://www.bambooweb.com/articles

Thank You....

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