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Branches of Psychology Psychology is a remarkably diverse subject, which is why a number of different branches have emerged to explore different

topics and perspectives. Explore some of the many branches of psychology and learn more about what each one has to offer, including forensic psychology, cognitive psychology, human factors and many more. Abnormal Psychology Behavioral Psychology Biopsychology Clinical Psychology Cognitive Psychology Comparative Psychology Cross-Cultural Psychology Developmental Psychology Educational Psychology Forensic Psychology Health Psychology Human Factors Psychology I/O Psychology Personality Psychology Positive Psychology Social Psychology Sports Psychology Perspectives in Modern Psychology Psychologists and researchers have many different ways of looking at questions and issues in psychology. The numerous perspectives in psychology offer unique ways to explain and predict human behavior. Subfields of Psychology Find more information on the many subfields in the field of psychology. Includes specialty areas such as biopsychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, forensic psychology, personality psychology, and more. Areas of Psychology - Divisions of the APA Major areas of psychology according to the American Psychological Association's (APA) 53 divisions. Includes specialty area's such as clinical psychology, counseling psychology, forensic psychology, and more. Fields of Psychology Psychology is a huge topic and conveying the depth and breadth of the subject can be difficult. As a result, a number of different fields of psychology have emerged to deal with specific subtopics within the study of the mind, brain and behavior. Learn more about some of the different fields of psychology. Experimental Psychology Experimental psychology is an area of psychology that utilizes scientific methods to research the mind and behavior. What Is Consumer Psychology? Consumer psychology studies how and why we buy goods and services. Learn more about how psychologists study the science of consumer behavior. What Is Community Psychology Community psychology is a relatively young discipline within psychology that is concerned with how individuals relate to society. Learn more in this overview of community psychology. What Is Transpersonal Psychology? Transpersonal psychology is a perspective focused on understanding the spiritual side of human existence. Topics such as meditation and peak experiences are often studied in this field.

Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health. Some unifying themes among counseling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, personenvironment interactions, educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities.[1] In the United States, the premier scholarly journals of the profession are the Journal of Counseling Psychology[2] and The Counseling Psychologist.[3] In Europe, the scholarly journals of the profession include the European Journal of Counselling Psychology (under the auspices of the European Association of Counselling Psychology)[4]and the Counselling Psychology Review (under the auspices of the British Psychological Society).[5] Counselling Psychology Quarterly is an international interdisciplinary publication of Routledge (part of the Taylor & Francis Group).[6] In the U.S., counseling psychology programs are accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA), while counseling programs are accredited through the Counsel for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). To become licensed as a counseling psychologist, one must meet the criteria for licensure as a psychologist (4-7 year doctoral degree post-bachelors, 1 year full-time internship, including 3,000 hours of supervised experience and exams). Both doctoral level counseling psychologists and doctoral level counselors can perform both applied work, as well as research and teaching. History Counseling psychology, like many modern psychology specialities, started as a result of World War II. During the war, the U.S. military had a strong need for vocational placement and training. In the 1940s and 1950s the Veterans Administration created a specialty called "counseling psychology," and Division 17 [7] (now known as the Society for Counseling Psychology) of the APA was formed.[8] This fostered interest in counselor training, and the creation of the first few counseling psychology PhD programs. The first counseling psychology PhD programs were at the University of Minnesota; Ohio State University, University of Maryland, College Park; University of Missouri; Teachers College, Columbia University; and University of Texas at Austin.[9] Employment and Salary Counseling psychologists are employed in a variety of settings depending on the services they provide and the client populations they serve. Some are employed in colleges and universities as teachers, supervisors, researchers, and service providers. Others are employed in independent practice providing counseling, psychotherapy; assessment; and consultation services to individuals, couples/families, groups, and organizations. Additional settings in which counseling psychologists practice include community mental health centers, Veterans AdministrationMedical Centers and other facilities, family services, health maintenance organizations, rehabilitation agencies, business and industrial organizations and consulting within firms. Median salary for US counseling psychologists is US$64,000 Process and outcome Counseling psychologists are interested in answering a variety of research questions about the counseling process and outcome. Counseling process might be thought of as how or why counseling happens and progresses. Counseling outcome addresses whether or not counseling is effective, under what conditions it is effective, and what outcomes are considered effectivesuch as symptom reduction, behavior change, or quality of life improvement. Topics commonly explored in the study of counseling process and outcome include therapist variables, client variables, the counseling or therapeutic relationship, cultural variables, process and outcome measurement, mechanisms of change, and process and outcome research methods.
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Therapist variables Therapist variables include characteristics of a counselor or psychotherapist, as well as therapist technique, behavior, theoretical orientation and training. In terms of therapist behavior, technique and theoretical orientation, research on adherence to therapy models has found that adherence to a particular model of therapy can be helpful, detrimental, or neutral in terms of impact on outcome (Imel & Wampold, 2008). Research on the impact of training and experience is still somewhat contradictory and even counter-intuitive. For example, a recent study found that age-related training and experience, but not amount or quality of contact with older people, is related to older clients.[11] However, a recent meta-analysis of research on training and experience suggests that experience level is only slightly related to accuracy in clinical judgment.[12] Higher therapist experience has been found to be related to less anxiety, but also less focus.[13] This suggests that there is still work to be done in terms of training clinicians and measuring successful training. Client variables Client characteristics such as help-seeking attitudes and attachment style have been found to be related to client use of counseling, as well as expectations and outcome. Stigma againstmental illness can keep people from acknowledging problems and seeking help. Public stigma has been found to be related to self-stigma, attitudes towards counseling, and willingness to seek help.[14] In terms of attachment style, clients with avoidant styles have been found to perceive greater risks and fewer benefits to counseling, and are less likely to seek professional help, than securely attached clients. Those with anxious attachment styles perceive greater benefits as well as risks to counseling.[15] Educating clients about expectations of counseling can improve client satisfaction, treatment duration and outcomes, and is an efficient and cost-effective intervention.[16] Counseling relationship The relationship between a counselor and client is the feelings and attitudes that a client and therapist have towards one another, and the manner in which those feelings and attitudes are expressed.[17][18] The relationship may be thought of in three parts: transference/countertransference, working alliance, and the real- or personalrelationship.[19] Transference can be described as the client's distorted perceptions of the therapist. This can have a great affect on the therapeutic relationship. For instance, the therapist may have a facial feature that reminds the client of their parent. Because of this association, if the client has significant negative/positive feelings toward their parent, they may project these feelings onto the therapist. This can affect the therapeutic relationship in a few ways. For example, if the client has a very strong bond with their parent, they may see the therapist as a father/mother figure and have a strong connection with their therapist. This can be problematic because as a therapist, it is not ethical to have a more than "professional" relationship with a client. It can also be a good thing, because the client may open up greatly to the therapist. In another way, if the client has a very negative relationship with their parent, the client may feel negative feelings toward the therapist. This can then affect the therapeutic relationship as well. For example, the client may have trouble opening up to the therapist because he/she lacks trust in their parent (projecting these feelings of distrust onto the therapist).[20] Another theory about the function of the counseling relationship is known as the secure-base hypothesis, which is related to attachment theory. This hypothesis proposes that the counselor acts as a secure-base from which clients can explore and then check in with. Secure attachment to one's counselor and secure attachment in general have been found to be related to client exploration. Insecure attachment styles have been found to be related to less session depth than securely attached clients.[21] Cultural variables Counseling psychologists are interested in how culture relates to help-seeking and counseling process and outcome. Helms' racial identity model can be useful for understanding how the relationship and counseling process might be affected by the client's and counselor's racial identity.[22] Recent research suggests that clients who are Black are at risk for experiencing racial micro-aggressions from counselors who are White.[23]

Efficacy for working with clients who are lesbians, gay men, or bisexual might be related to therapist demographics, gender, sexual identity development, sexual orientation, and professional experience. [24] Clients who have multiple oppressed identities might be especially at-risk for experiencing unhelpful situations with counselors, so counselors might need help with gaining expertise for working with clients who are transgender, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender people of color, and other oppressed populations. [25] Gender role socialization can also present issues for clients and counselors. Implications for practice include being aware of stereotypes and biases about male and female identity, roles and behavior such as emotional expression.[26] The APA guidelines for multicultural competence outline expectations for taking culture into account in practice and research.[27] Counseling Ethics Perceptions on ethical behaviors vary depending upon geographical location. Although, ethical mandates are similar throughout our global community. The standard ethical behaviors are centered on "doing no harm" and preventing harm. As counselors, it is standard that a counselor should take appropriate action to prevent harm. Ethical standards are similar in that you should shall not share information that is obtained through the counseling process without specific written consent by the client or legal guardian except to prevent clear, imminent danger to the client or others or when required to do so by a court order. Counselors are held to a higher standard that most professionals because of the intimacy of their therapeutic delivery. Counselors are not only to avoid fraternizing with their clients. They should avoid dual relationships, and never engage in sexual relationships. Counselors are to avoid receiving gifts, favors, or trade for therapy. In some communities, it may be avoidable given the economic standing of that community. In cases of children, children and the mentally handicap may feel personally rejected "if" an offering is something such as a "cookie." As counselors, a judgement call must be made, but in a majority of cases, avoiding gifts, favors, and trade can be maintained. The National Board for Certified Counselors states that "...important considerations to avoid exploitation before entering into a non-counseling relationship with a former client. Important considerations to be discussed include amount of time since counseling service termination, duration of counseling, nature and circumstances of clients counseling, the likelihood that the client will want to resume counseling at some time in the future; circumstances of service termination and possible negative effects or outcomes."
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Ethical standards are created to help practitioners, clients and the community avoid any possible harm or potential for harm. Ethical standards are a guideline, but for specific standards they are mandates. Recognizing the differences is clear in a majority of organizational codes of ethics. Outcome measurement Counseling outcome measures might look at a general overview of symptoms, symptoms of specific disorders, or positive outcomes, such as subjective well-being or quality of life. The Outcome Questionnaire-45 is a 45-item self-report measure of psychological distress.[29] An example of disorder-specific measure is the Beck Depression Inventory. The Quality of Life Inventory is a 17-item self-report life satisfaction measure.[30] Process and outcome research methods Research about the counseling process and outcome uses a variety of research methodologies to answer questions about if, how, and why counseling works. Quantitative methods include randomly controlled clinical trials, correlational studies over the course of counseling, or laboratory studies about specific counseling process and outcome variables. Qualitative researchmethods can involve conducting, transcribing and coding interviews; transcribing and/or coding therapy sessions; or fine-grain analysis of single counseling sessions or counseling cases.

Training and supervision Professional training process Counseling psychologists are trained in graduate programs. Almost all programs grant a PhD, but a few grant a MCouns, M.Ed, MA, PsyD or EdD. Most doctoral programs take 56 years to complete. Graduate work in counseling psychology includes coursework in general psychology and statistics, counseling practice, and research.[31] Students must complete an originaldissertation at the end of their graduate training. Students must also complete a one-year full-time internship at an accredited site before earning their doctorate. In order to be licensed to practice, counseling psychologists must gain clinical experience under supervision, and pass a standardized exam. Training models and research Counseling psychology includes the study and practice of counselor training and counselor supervision. As researchers, counseling psychologists may investigate what makes training and supervision effective. As practitioners, counseling psychologists may supervise and train a variety of clinicians. Counselor training tends to occur in formal classes and training programs. Part of counselor training may involve counseling clients under the supervision of a licensed clinician. Supervision can also occur between licensed clinicians, as a way to improve clinicians' quality of work and competence with various types of counseling clients. As the field of counseling psychology formed in the mid-20th century, initial training models included Human Relations Training by Carkuff, Interpersonal Process Recall by Kagan, and Microcounseling Skills by Ivey. Modern training models include Egan's Skilled Helper model, and Hill's three stage (exploration, insight, and action) model. A recent analysis of studies on counselor training found that modeling, instruction, and feedback are common to most training models, and seem to have medium to large effects on trainees.[32] Supervision models and research Like the models of how clients and therapists interact, there are also models of the interactions between therapists and their supervisors. Bordin proposed a model of supervision working alliance similar to his model of therapeutic working alliance. The Integrated Development Model considers the level of a supervisee's motivation/anxiety, autonomy, and self and other awareness. The Systems Approach to Supervision views the relationship between supervisor and supervisee as most important, in addition to characteristics of the supervisee's personal characteristics, counseling clients, training setting, as well as the tasks and functions of supervision. The Critical Events in Supervision model focuses on important moments that occur between the supervisor and supervisee. [33] Problems can arise in supervision and training. First, supervisors are liable for malpractice of their supervisee. Also, questions have arisen as far as a supervisor's need for formal training to be a competent supervisor.[34] Recent research suggests that conflicting, multiple relationships can occur between supervisors and supervisees, such as that of evaluator, instructor, and clinical supervisor.[34] The occurrence of racial microaggressions against Black supervisees[35] suggests potential problems with racial bias in supervision. In general, conflicts between a counselor and his or her supervisor can arise when supervisors demonstrate disrespect, lack of support, and blaming (Ladany & Inman, 2008). Vocational development and career counseling Vocational theories There are several types of theories of vocational choice and development. These types include trait and factor theories, social cognitive theories, and developmental theories. Two examples of trait and factor theories, also known as personenvironment fit, are Holland's Theory and Theory of Work Adjustment. Holland hypothesized six vocational personality/interest types and six work environment types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional. When a person's vocational interests match his or her work environment types, this is considered congruence. Congruence has been found to predict occupation and college major.[36] The Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA), as developed by Dawis and Lofquist,[citation needed]hypothesizes that the correspondence between a worker's needs and the reinforcer systems predicts job satisfaction, and that the correspondence between a worker's skills and a job's skill requirements predicts job satisfactoriness. Job satisfaction and satisfactoriness together should determine how long one remains at a job. When there is a discrepancy between a

worker's needs or skills and the job's needs or skills, then change needs to occur either in the worker or the job environment. Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) has been proposed by Lent, Brown and Hackett. The theory takes Albert Bandura's work on self-efficacy and expands it to interest development, choice making, and performance. Person variables in SCCT include self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations and personal goals. The model also includes demographics, ability, values, and environment. Efficacy and outcome expectations are theorized to interrelate and influence interest development, which in turn influences choice of goals, and then actions. Environmental supports and barriers also affect goals and actions. Actions lead to performance and choice stability over time. [37] Career development theories propose vocational models that include changes throughout the lifespan. Super's model proposes a lifelong five-stage career development process. The stages are growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement. Throughout life, people have many roles that may differ in terms of importance and meaning. Super also theorized that career development is an implementation of selfconcept. Gottfredson[citation needed] also proposed a cognitive career decision-making process that develops through the lifespan. The initial stage of career development is hypothesized to be the development of self-image in childhood, as the range of possible roles narrows using criteria such as sex-type, social class, and prestige. During and after adolescence, people take abstract concepts into consideration, such as interests. Career counseling Career counseling may include provision of occupational information, modeling skills, written exercises, and exploration of career goals and plans.[38] Career counseling can also involve the use of personality or career interest assessments, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which is based on Carl Jung's theory of psychological type, or the Strong Interest Inventory, which makes use of Holland's theory. Assessments of skills, abilities, and values are also commonly assessed in career counseling.

Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I-O psychology or work psychology) is the scientific study of employees, workplaces, and organizations. Industrial and organizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance, satisfaction, safety, health and well-being of its employees. An I-O psychologist conducts research on employee behaviors and attitudes, and how these can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, feedback, and management systems.[1] I-O psychologists also help organizations transition among periods of change and development. Industrial and organizational psychology is related to organizational behavior and human capital. An applied science, IO psychology is represented by Division 14 of the American Psychological Association (APA), known formally as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). In the UK, industrial and organizational psychologists are referred to as occupational psychologists and this 'protected title' is regulated by the Health and Care Professions Council.[2] In Australia, the title organizational psychologist is also protected and is regulated by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA).[3] Overview In classic overviews of the field, Guion (1965) defines IO psychology as "the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work: ... in the process of making a living" (p. 817). Blum & Naylor (1968) define it as "simply the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry" (p. 4). Research and practice areas of IO psychologists include, but are not limited to the following:

Governing Boards' Professional Development Job performance appraisal system(s) Job analysis/competency modeling Personnel recruitment and selection Student/educational selection (admissions) and assessment (testing) Judgment and decision making Performance appraisal/management Individual assessment (knowledge, skills, and ability testing, personality assessment, work sample tests, assessment centers) Psychometrics Compensation Professional Staff, Faculty, and Administrators Training Design, Development, Implementation, and evaluation Laws and regulations applicable to personnel decisions Work motivation Job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship, and retaliation) Occupational health and safety Work/life balance Human factors and decision making Organizational culture/climate Organizational surveys Leadership and executive coaching Ethics Diversity Job design Human resources Organizational development (OD) Organizational Research Methods Technology in the workplace Group/team performance Team composition

The formal academic training at U.S. accredited institutions can, for an individual who graduates a university with a B.A., M.A., Ph.D., or a Psy.D. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology, have focused on either the scientific side for those who want to pursue research or university teaching as a career, or have concentrated on a practitioner system, which is suitable for individuals whose major career target is not academic teaching or scientific research. The latter is a good appointment for individuals who prefer the hands-on application of the scientific theory developed in academia. The expertise of IO Psychologists allows them to employ scientific principles and research-based designs to generate new knowledge and applications for improving organizations. The latter are often in an employer role or at least in a role as close advisers to or influencers of employers' systems in many industries and sectors of the economy. They also work within organizations, often as advisers to or members of human resources departments, corporate boards, government legislative bodies, and government agencies.

What are some of the pros and cons of a career in Industrial and Organizational Psychology? Pros of a Career in I-O Psychology: Many career opportunities with a Masters-level degree.

Diverse career paths (i.e. private sector, consulting, government, education.) Opportunities for self-employment.

Cons of a Career in I-O Psychology:

Clients and projects change often. Research can often be tedious and burnout can occur. Many positions require doctoral degrees.[86]

What is an Industrial/Organizational consultant and what does an I/O consultant do? Definition An Industrial/Organizational consultant helps clients and organizations improve productivity and create an optimal working environment through human capital consulting and strategies. Areas of consulting include but are not limited to selection and recruiting, training, leadership, and development, compensation and benefits, employee relations, performance management, succession planning, and executive coaching.[87] Types of consultants Consultants can be categorized as internal or external to an organization. An internal consultant is someone who is working specifically for an organization that he or she is a part of whereas an external consultant can be either a sole proprietor or an employee of a consulting firm who is hired by another organization on a project basis or for a certain period of time. There are different types of I/O consultants: (1) internal corporate consultant, (2) independent external consultant, (3) external consultant in a small firm, (4) external consultant in a large firm, (5) external consultant in a research group, (6) internal consultant in a research unit within a large firm, and (7) internal consultant in a large government organization.[88] Services consultants offer Kurpius (1978; as cited in Hedge & Borman, 2009)
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gave four general types of consultation: (1) services and

products (e.g., selection tools); (2) collecting information and helping the organization identify and solve the problem; (3) collaborating with the client to design and plan changes in the organization; and (4) helping the client implement the changes and incorporate them into the organizational culture. Consultants offer these consulting services to all kinds of organizations, such as profit and nonprofit sectors, public and private sectors, and a government organization.

Pros and cons Like any other careers, there are many benefits and downsides of consulting.[90] Some advantages are substantial material rewards, trust and respect from clients, and personal satisfaction. Some disadvantages are traveling (the number one complaint of all I/O consultants), uncertainty in business especially for external consultants, and marginality which is not belonging to any group or organization that the consultant works for. Competencies of an I/O consultant There are many different sets of competencies for different areas of consulting and different types of consultants. For example, a consultant specializing in selection and recruiting should have expertise in finding the best talent for the organization and getting everyone on board while he or she might not need to know much about executive coaching. Some consultants tend to specialize in specific areas of consulting whereas others tend to generalize their areas of expertise. However, Cummings and Worley (2009)
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claimed that there are basic skills and

knowledge, which most consultants agree, needed to be effective consultants: (1) intrapersonal skills, (2) interpersonal skills, and (3) general consultation skills. Intrapersonal skills include knowing consultants own values and goals, integrity to work responsibly and ethically, and active as well as continuous learning. Interpersonal skills include listening skills, facilitating skills, and building and maintaining relationships. These interpersonal skills are especially important because regardless of how innovative the consultants idea is, if the client does not understand it or does not trust the consultant, the client is not going to accept that idea. General consulting skills are those being able to execute different stages of consulting which will be discussed in the following section titled "Stages of I/O Consulting". Stages of I/O consulting Block (2011)
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identified five stages of consulting: (1) entry and contracting, (2) discovery and diagnosis, (3)

analysis and planning, (4) engagement and implementation, and (5) extension or termination. Entry and contracting This stage is where the consultant makes the initial contact with the client about the project, and it includes setting up the first meeting, exploring more about the project and the client, roles, responsibilities, and expectations about the consultant, the client, and the project, and whether the consult ants expertise and experience fit with what the client wants out of the project. This is the most important part of the consulting, and most consultants agree that most mistakes in the project can essentially be traced back to the faulty contracting stage.[91] Discovery and diagnosis This stage is where the consultant makes his or her own judgment about the problem identified by the client and about the project. Sometimes, the problem presented by the client is not the actual problem but a symptom of a true cause. Then, the consultant collects more information about the situation.[91] Analysis and planning This stage is where the consultant analyzes the data and presents the results to the client. The consultant needs to reduce a large amount of data into a manageable size and present them to the client in a clear and simple way. After presenting the results, the consultant helps the client make plans and goals for actions to be taken as a next step to solve the identified problem.[91] Engagement and implementation This stage sometimes falls entirely on the client or the organization, and the consultants job might be completed at the end of third stage. However, it is important for the consultant to be present at the fourth stage since without implementing the changes suggested by the consultant, the problem is not likely to be solved. Moreover, despite how good the consultants advice might be, employees are actually the ones who need to live the changes. So, in this fourth stage, the consultant needs to get everyone on board with the changes and help implement the changes.[91]

Extension or termination This final stage is where the consultant and the client evaluate the project, and it is usually the most neglected yet important stage. Then, the project is completed or extended depending on the clients needs. [91] Ethics of an I/O Consultant In the consulting field, it is important for the consultant to maintain high ethical standards in all aspects of relationships: consultant to client, consultant to consultant, and client to consultant. [92] After all, all decisions made and actions taken by the consultant will reflect what kind of consultant he or she is. Although ethical situations can be more intricate in the business world, American Psychology Association (APA)s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct can be applied to I/O consultants as well. For example, the consultant should only accept projects for which he or she is qualified; the consultant should also avoid all conflicts of interest and being in multiple relationships with those he or she is working with. On the other hand, some might disagree that it is the consultants responsibility to actively promote the application of moral and ethical standards in the consultation and examine ethical issues in organizational decisions and policies. It is an ongoing controversial issue in the consulting field.[93] In addition, as more and more organizations are becoming global, it is imperative for consultants working abroad to quickly become aware of rules, regulations, and cultures of the organizations and countries they are in as well as not to ignore ethical standards and codes just because they are abroad. [94] Future trends of I/O consulting Teachout and Vequist (2008)[95] identified driving forces affecting future trends in the business consulting: (1) changes in the market conditions, (2) competition for market share and talent, (3) changes in customer demands, (4) changes in technology and innovation, (5) increase in costs, especially in energy and health sectors, and (6) globalization. They also discussed three trends in the field as a result of these forces people, process, and technology. Human capital or people In terms of human capital or people consulting, there are major forces for future trends: (1) lack of competencies in STEM and communication fields, (2) aging of workforce, resulting in the loss of experience and expertise in organizations, (3) increasing and aggressive competition for talent, (4) increase in project- or contract-based workforce instead of hiring permanent employees, and (5) globalization. As a result, trends, such as major talent management, selection and recruiting, workplace education and training, and planning for next generation, have emerged. In addition, change management also becomes important in organizations in order to innovate and implement new technology, tools, and systems to cope with changes in the business. [95] Process In terms of process consulting, because of an increase in competition, it becomes important to identify and improve key processes that meet customer values and demands as well as that are faster and cheaper. [95] Technology In terms of technology consulting, there is an increased need to automate processes or data so that employees can focus on actually doing work and focusing on business rather than doing the manual labor. The consultant can add value to these technologies by providing training, communication plan, and change management as well as to incorporate these technologies into organizational culture. So, regardless of how advanced technology is, consultants are still needed in making sure that these advanced technologies have positive effects on employees and organizations in both technical and social aspects.[95]

Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.[1][2] Central to its practice arepsychological assessment and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.[3] In many countries, clinical psychology is regulated as a health care profession. The field is often considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer. In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment. This changed after the 1940s when World War II resulted in the need for a large increase in the number of trained clinicians. Since that time, two main educational models have developedthe Ph.D. scientistpractitioner model (requiring a doctoral dissertation and therefore research as well as clinical expertise) and, in the U.S. the Psy.D. practitionerscholar model. Clinical psychologists provide psychotherapy, psychological testing, and diagnosis of mental illness. They generally train within four primary theoretical orientationspsychodynamic, humanistic, behavior therapy/cognitivebehavioral, and systems or family therapy. Many continue clinical training in post-doctoral programs in which they might specialize in disciplines such as psychoanalytic approaches or child and adolescent treatment modalities.

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking."[1]Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study including social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, and educational psychology. Modern cognitive psychology Modern perspectives on cognitive psychology generally address cognition as a dual process theory, introduced by Jonathan Haidt in 2006, and expounded upon by Daniel Kahneman in 2011.[20] Kahneman differentiated the two styles of processing more, calling them intuition and reasoning. Intuition (or system 1), similar to associative reasoning, was determined to be fast and automatic, usually with strong emotional bonds included in the reasoning process. Kahneman said that this kind of reasoning was based on formed habits and very difficult to change or manipulate. Reasoning (or system 2) was slower and much more volatile, being subject to conscious judgments and attitudes.[20] Applications of cognitive psychology Abnormal psychology Following the cognitive revolution, and as a result of many of the principle discoveries to come out of the field of cognitive psychology, the discipline of cognitive therapy evolved. Aaron T. Beck is generally regarded as the father of cognitive therapy.[21] His work in the areas of recognition and treatment of depression has gained worldwide notoriety. In his 1987 book titledCognitive Therapy of Depression, Beck puts forth three salient points with regard to his reasoning for the treatment of depression by means of therapy or therapy and antidepressants versus using a pharmacological-only approach: 1. Despite the prevalent use of antidepressants, the fact remains that not all patients respond to them. Beck cites (in 1987) that only 60 to 65% of patients respond to antidepressants, and recent meta-analyses (a statistical breakdown of multiple studies) show very similar numbers.[22] 2.Many of those who do respond to antidepressants end up not taking their medications, for various reasons. They may develop side-effects or have some form of personal objection to taking the drugs. 3. Beck posits that the use of psychotropic drugs may lead to an eventual breakdown in the individual's coping mechanisms. His theory is that the person essentially becomes reliant on the medication as a means of improving mood and fails to practice those coping techniques typically practiced by healthy individuals to alleviate the effects of depressive symptoms. By failing to do so, once the patient is weaned off of the antidepressants, they often are unable to cope with normal levels of depressed mood and feel driven to reinstate use of the antidepressants. [23]

Social psychology Many facets of modern social psychology have roots in research done within the field of cognitive psychology. Social cognition is a specific sub-set of social psychology that concentrates on processes that have been of particular focus within cognitive psychology, specifically applied to human interactions. Gordon B. Moskowitz defines social cognition as "...the study of the mental processes involved in perceiving, attending to, remembering, thinking about, and making sense of the people in our social world".[24] The development of multiple social information processing models (SIP) has been influential in studies involving aggressive and anti-social behavior. Kenneth Dodge's SIP model is one of, if not the most, empirically supported models relating to aggression. Among his research, Dodge posits that children who possess a greater ability to process social information more often display higher levels of socially acceptable behavior. His model asserts that there are five steps that an individual proceeds through when evaluating interactions with other individuals and that how the person interprets cues is key to their reactionary process.[25] Developmental psychology Many of the prominent names in the field of developmental psychology base their understanding of development on cognitive models. One of the major paradigms of developmental psychology, the Theory of Mind (ToM), deals specifically with the ability of an individual to effectively understand and attribute cognition to those around them. This concept typically becomes fully apparent in children between the ages of 4 and 6. Essentially, before the child develops ToM, they are unable to understand that those around them can have different thoughts, ideas, or feelings than themselves. The development of ToM is a matter of metacognition, or thinking about one's thoughts. The child must be able to recognize that they have their own thoughts and in turn, that others possess thoughts of their own.[26] One of the foremost minds with regard to developmental psychology, Jean Piaget, focused much of his attention on cognitive development from birth through adulthood. Though there have been considerable challenges to parts of his stages of cognitive development, they remain a staple in the realm of education. Piaget's concepts and ideas predated the cognitive revolution but inspired a wealth of research in the field of cognitive psychology and many of his principles have been blended with modern theory to synthesize the predominant views of today. [27] Educational psychology Modern theories of education have applied many concepts that are focal points of cognitive psychology. Some of the most prominent concepts include:

Metacognition: Metacognition is a broad concept encompassing all manners of one's thoughts and knowledge about their own thinking. A key area of educational focus in this realm is related to self-monitoring, which relates highly to how well students are able to evaluate their personal knowledge and apply strategies to improve knowledge in areas in which they are lacking.[28]

Declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge: Declarative knowledge is a persons 'encyclopedic' knowledge base, whereas procedural knowledge is specific knowledge relating to performing particular tasks. The application of these cognitive paradigms to education attempts to augment a student's ability to integrate declarative knowledge into newly learned procedures in an effort to facilitate accelerated learning.[28]

Knowledge organization: Applications of cognitive psychology's understanding of how knowledge is organized in the brain has been a major focus within the field of education in recent years. The hierarchical method of organizing information and how that maps well onto the brain's memory are concepts that that have proven extremely beneficial in classrooms.[28]

Personality psychology The Big 5 personality traits are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. Those five traits include neuroticism, extraversion, openness,conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Cognitive therapeutic approaches have received considerable attention in the treatment of personality disorders in recent years. The approach focuses on the formation of what it believes to be faulty schemata, centralized on judgmental biases and general cognitive errors.[29]

Cognitive psychology vs. cognitive science The line between cognitive psychology and cognitive science can be a blurry one. The differentiation between the two is best understood in terms of cognitive psychology's relationship toapplied psychology, and the understanding of psychological phenomena. Cognitive psychologists are often heavily involved in running psychological experiments involving human participants, with the goal of gathering information related to how the human mind takes in, processes, and acts upon inputs received from the outside world.[30] The information gained in this area is then often used in the applied field of clinical psychology. One of the paradigms of cognitive psychology derived in this manner, is that every individual develops schemata which motivate the person to think or act in a particular way in the face of a particular circumstance. E.g., most people have a schema for waiting in line. When approaching some type of service counter where people are waiting their turn, most people don't just walk to the front of the line and butt in. Their schema for that situation tells them to get in the back of the line. This then applies to the field of abnormal psychology as a result of individuals sometimes developing faulty schemata which lead them to consistently react in a dysfunctional manner. If a person has a schema that says "I am no good at making friends", they may become so reluctant to pursue interpersonal relationships that they become prone to seclusion.[citation needed] Cognitive science is better understood as predominantly concerned with gathering data through research. Cognitive science envelopes a much broader scope, which has links to philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, neuroscience, and particularly with artificial intelligence. It could be said that cognitive science provides the database of information that fuels the theory from which cognitive psychologists operate. [31] Cognitive scientists' research mostly involves non-human subjects, allowing them to delve into areas which would come under ethical scrutiny if performed on human participants. I.e., they may do research implanting devices in the brains of rats to track the firing of neurons while the rat performs a particular task. Cognitive science is highly involved in the area of artificial intelligence and its application to the understanding of mental processes. [citation needed] Criticisms In its early years, critics held that the empiricism of cognitive psychology was incompatible with its acceptance of internal mental states. However, the sibling field of cognitive neurosciencehas provided evidence of physiological brain states that directly correlate with mental states - thus providing support for the central assumption of cognitive psychology.[32] As cognitive psychology gained momentum as a movement, through the 1970s, the complexity of the processes involved in human thought, in the opinion of many, fractured studies of cognition so greatly that the field lost cohesion. John C. Malone poses the assertion, in his book: Psychology: Pythagoras to Present, that "Examinations of late twentieth-century textbooks dealing with 'cognitive psychology', 'human cognition', 'cognitive science', and the like quickly reveals that there are many, many varieties of cognitive psychology and very little agreement about exactly what may be its domain".[3] The information processing approach to cognitive functioning is currently being questioned by new approaches in psychology, such as dynamical systems, and the embodimentperspective. Developmental psychology is the scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life. Originally concerned withinfants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho-physiological processes; cognitive development involving areas such as problem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding; language acquisition; social, personality, and emotional development; and self-concept and identity formation. Developmental psychology examines issues such as the extent of development through gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage-like developmentand the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures, versus learning through experience. Many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individual's behavior, and environmental factors including social context, and their impact on development; others take a more narrowly-focused approach. Developmental psychology informs several applied fields, including: educational psychology, child psychopathology, and forensic developmental psychology. Developmental psychology complements several other

basic research fields in psychology including social psychology, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and comparative psychology. Cognitive development Cognitive development is primarily concerned with the ways that infants and children acquire, develop, and use internal mental capabilities such as problem solving, memory, and language. Major topics in cognitive development are the study of language acquisition and the development of perceptual and motor skills. Piaget was one of the influential early psychologists to study the development of cognitive abilities. His theory suggests that development proceeds through a set of stages from infancy to adulthood and that there is an end point or goal. Other accounts, such as that of Lev Vygotsky, have suggested that development does not progress through stages, but rather that the developmental process that begins at birth and continues until death is too complex for such structure and finality. Rather, from this viewpoint, developmental processes proceed more continuously. Thus, development should be analyzed, instead of treated as a product to obtain. K. Warner Schaie has expanded the study of cognitive development into adulthood. Rather than being stable from adolescence, Schaie sees adults as progressing in the application of their cognitive abilities. [18] Modern cognitive development has integrated the considerations of cognitive psychology and the psychology of individual differences into the interpretation and modeling of development.[19]Specifically, the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development showed that the successive levels or stages of cognitive development are associated with increasing processing efficiency and working memory capacity. These increases explain differences between stages, progression to higher stages, and individual differences of children who are the same-age and of the same grade-level. However, other theories have moved away from Piagetian stage theories, and are influenced by accounts of domain-specific information processing, which posit that development is guided by innate evolutionarily-specified and content-specific information processing mechanisms. Social and emotional development Developmental psychologists who are interested in social development examine how individuals develop social and emotional competencies. For example, they study how children form friendships, how they understand and deal with emotions, and how identity develops. Research in this area may involve study of the relationship between cognition or cognitive development and social behavior. Emotional regulation or ER refers to an individual's ability to modulate emotional responses across a variety of contexts. In young children, this modulation is in part controlled externally, by parents and other authority figures. As children develop, they take on more and more responsibility for their internal state. Studies have shown that the development of ER is affected by the emotional regulation children observe in parents and caretakers, the emotional climate in the home, and the reaction of parents and caretakers to the child's emotions.[20] Physical development Physical development concerns the physical maturation of an individual's body until it reaches the adult stature. Although physical growth is a highly regular process, all children differ tremendously in the timing of their growth spurts.[21] Studies are being done to analyze how the differences in these timings affect and are related to other variables of developmental psychology such as information processing speed. Traditional measures of physical maturity using x-rays are less in practice nowadays, compared to simple measurements of body parts such as height, weight, head circumference, and arm span.[21] A few other studies and practices with physical developmental psychology are the phonological abilities of mature 5- to 11-year-olds, and the controversial hypotheses of left-handers being maturationally delayed compared to right-handers. A study by Eaton, Chipperfield, Ritchot, and Kostiuk in 1996 found in three different samples that there was no difference between right- and left-handers.[21]

Memory development Researchers interested in memory development look at the way our memory develops from childhood and onward. According to Fuzzy-trace theory, we have two separate memory processes: verbatim and gist. These two traces begin to develop at different times as well as at a different pace. Children as young as 4 years-old have verbatim memory, memory for surface information, which increases up to early adulthood, at which point it begins to decline. On the other hand, our capacity for gist memory, memory for semantic information, increases up to early adulthood, at which point it is consistent through old age. Furthermore, our reliance on gist memory traces in reasoning increases as we age.[22]

Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. Although many behaviours could be considered as abnormal, this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context.[1] There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior deemed to be aberrant or deviant (statistically, morally or in some other sense), and there is often cultural variation in the approach taken. The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal". There has traditionally been a divide between psychological and biological explanations, reflecting a philosophicaldualism in regards to the mind body problem. There have also been different approaches in trying to classify mental disorders. Abnormal includes three different categories, they are subnormal, supernormal and paranormal.[2] The science of abnormal psychology studies two types of behaviors: adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. Behaviors that are maladaptive suggest that some problem(s) exist, and can also imply that the individual is vulnerable and cannot cope with environmental stress, which is leading them to have problems functioning in daily life.[3] Clinical psychology is the applied field of psychology that seeks to assess, understand and treat psychological conditions in clinical practice. The theoretical field known as 'abnormal psychology' may form a backdrop to such work, but clinical psychologists in the current field are unlikely to use the term 'abnormal' in reference to their practice. Psychopathology is a similar term to abnormal psychology but has more of an implication of an underlying pathology (disease process), and as such is a term more commonly used in the medical specialty known aspsychiatry. Problem-solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, for finding solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used inartificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, medicine, etc. are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology. The term problem-solving is used in many disciplines, sometimes with different perspectives, and often with different terminologies. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science. Problems can also be classified into two different types (ill-defined and well-defined) from which appropriate solutions are to be made. Ill-defined problems are those that do not have clear goals or solution paths, while well-defined problems have specific goals and clearly defined solution paths.[1] Psychology In psychology, problem solving refers to a state of desire for reaching a definite 'goal' from a present condition that either is not directly moving toward the goal, is far from it, or needs morecomplex logic for finding a missing description of conditions or steps toward the goal.[2] In psychology, problem solving is the concluding part of a larger process that also includes problem finding and problem shaping. Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as a higherorder cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills. [3] Problem solving has two major domains: mathematical problem solving and personal problem solving where, in the second, some difficulty or barrier is encountered.[4]Further problem solving occurs when moving from a given state to a desired goal state is needed for either living organisms or an artificial intelligence system.

While problem solving accompanies the very beginning of human evolution and especially the history of mathematics,[4] the nature of human problem solving processes and methods has been studied by psychologists over the past hundred years. Methods of studying problem solving include introspection, behaviorism, simulation, computer modeling, and experiment. Social psychologists have recently distinguished between independent and interdependent problem-solving (see more).[5] Characteristics of Difficult Problems As elucidated by Dietrich Drner and later expanded upon by Joachim Funke, difficult problems have some typical characteristics that can be summarized as follows:

Intransparency (lack of clarity of the situation)

commencement opacity continuation opacity

Polytely (multiple goals) inexpressiveness opposition transience

Complexity (large numbers of items, interrelations and decisions) enumerability connectivity (hierarchy relation, communication relation, allocation relation) heterogeneity

Dynamics (time considerations) temporal constraints temporal sensitivity phase effects dynamic unpredictability

The resolution of difficult problems requires a direct attack on each of these characteristics that are encountered.[11] Problem-Solving Strategies Problem-solving strategies are the steps that one would use to find the problem(s) that are in the way to getting to ones own goal. Some would refer to this as the problem-solving cycle. (Bransford & Stein, 1993) In this cycle one will recognize the problem, define the problem, develop a strategy to fix the problem, organize the knowledge of the problem, figure-out the resources at the user's disposal, monitor one's progress, and evaluate the solution for accuracy. Although called a cycle, one does not have to do each step in order to fix the problem, in fact those who dont are usually better at problem solving.[citation needed] The reason it is called a cycle is that once one is completed with a problem another usually will pop up. Blanchard-Fields (2007) looks at problem solving from one of two facets. The first looking at those problems that only have one solution (like math problems, or fact based questions) which are grounded in psychometric intelligence. The other that is socioemotional in nature and are unpredictable with answers that are constantly changing (like whats your favorite color or what you should get someone for Christmas). The following techniques are usually called problem-solving strategies:[citation needed]

Abstraction: solving the problem in a model of the system before applying it to the real system Analogy: using a solution that solves an analogous problem Brainstorming: (especially among groups of people) suggesting a large number of solutions or ideas and combining and developing them until an optimum solution is found Divide and conquer: breaking down a large, complex problem into smaller, solvable problems

Hypothesis testing: assuming a possible explanation to the problem and trying to prove (or, in some contexts, disprove) the assumption Lateral thinking: approaching solutions indirectly and creatively Means-ends analysis: choosing an action at each step to move closer to the goal Method of focal objects: synthesizing seemingly non-matching characteristics of different objects into something new Morphological analysis: assessing the output and interactions of an entire system Proof: try to prove that the problem cannot be solved. The point where the proof fails will be the starting point for solving it Reduction: transforming the problem into another problem for which solutions exist Research: employing existing ideas or adapting existing solutions to similar problems Root cause analysis: identifying the cause of a problem Trial-and-error: testing possible solutions until the right one is found

Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. Since its conception, the field has been committed to the development of a discipline that is both value oriented and problem oriented, prioritizing research aiming at solving complex environmental problems in the pursuit of individual well-being within a larger society.[1] When solving problems involving human-environment interactions, whether global or local, one must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. With such a model one can design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that enhance reasonable behavior, predict what the likely outcome will be when these conditions are not met, and diagnose problem situations. The field develops such a model of human nature while retaining a broad and inherently multidisciplinary focus. It explores such dissimilar issues ascommon property resource management, wayfinding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments, human information processing, and the promotion of durable conservation behavior. This multidisciplinary paradigm has not only characterized the dynamic for which environmental psychology is expected to develop, but it has been the catalyst in attracting other schools of knowledge in its pursuit as well aside from research psychologists. Geographers, economists, landscape architects, policymakers, sociologists, anthropologists, educators, and product developers all have discovered and participated in this field.[1] Although "environmental psychology" is arguably the best-known and most comprehensive description of the field, it is also known as human factors science, cognitive ergonomics, environmental social sciences, architectural psychology, socio-architecture, ecological psychology, ecopsychology, behavioral geography, environment-behavior studies, person-environment studies, environmental sociology, social ecology, and environmental design research. Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness and healthcare. [1] It is concerned with understanding howpsychological, behavioral and cultural factors are involved in physical health and illness, in addition to the biological causes that are well understood bymedical science. Psychological factors can affect health directly (such as stress causing the release of hormones such as cortisol which damage the body over time) and indirectly via a person's own behavior choices which can harm or protect health (such as smoking or taking exercise).[2] Health psychologists take a biopsychosocial approach - this means that they understand health to be the product not only of biological processes (e.g. a virus, tumour, etc.) but also of psychological processes (e.g. stress, thoughts and beliefs, behaviours such as smoking and exercise) and social processes (e.g. socioeconomic status, culture and ethnicity).[2] By understanding and harnessing psychological factors, health psychologists can improve health by working directly with individual patients, indirectly in large-scale public health programs, and by training healthcare professionals (e.g. physicians and nurses) to take advantage of this knowledge when working with their patients. Health psychologists work in a variety of settings: alongside other medical professionals in hospitals and clinics,

in public health departments working on large-scale behavior change and health promotion programs, and in universities and medical schools where they teach and conduct research. Although its early beginnings can be traced to the kindred field of clinical psychology, four different divisions within health psychology and one allied field have developed over time. The four divisions include clinical health psychology, public health psychology, community health psychology, and critical health psychology.[3] The allied field is occupational health psychology. Professional organizations for the field of health psychology includeDivision 38 of the American Psychological Association, the Division of Health Psychology of the British Psychological Society, and theEuropean Health Psychology Society. Advanced credentialing in the U.S. as a Clinical Health Psychologist is provided through the American Board of Professional Psychology. Recent advances in psychological, medical, and physiological research have led to a new way of thinking about health and illness. This conceptualization, which has been labeled thebiopsychosocial model, views health and illness as the product of a combination of factors including biological characteristics (e.g., genetic predisposition), behavioral factors (e.g., lifestyle, stress, health beliefs), and social conditions (e.g., cultural influences, family relationships, social support). Psychologists who strive to understand how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health and illness are called health psychologists.Health Psychologists use their knowledge of psychology and health to promote general well-being and understand physical illness.[4] They are specially trained to help people deal with the psychological and emotional aspects of health and illness. The term "health psychology" is often used synonymously with the terms "behavioral medicine" and "medical psychology". Health psychologists work with many different health care professionals (e.g., physicians, dentists, nurses, physician's assistants, dietitians, social workers, pharmacists, physical and occupational therapists, and chaplains) to conduct research and provide clinical assessments and treatment services. Many health psychologists focus on prevention research and interventions designed to promote healthier lifestyles and try to find ways to encourage people to improve their health. For example, they may help people to lose weight or stop smoking.[4] Health Psychologists also use their skills to try to improve the healthcare system. For example, they may advise doctors about better ways to communicate with their patients
[4]

Health Psychologists work in many different settings including the NHS, private practice,

universities, communities, schools and organisations. While many health psychologists provide clinical services as part of their duties, others function in non-clinical roles, primarily involving teaching and research. Leading journals include Health Psychology, the Journal of Health Psychology, the British Journal of Health Psychology, and Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being. Health Psychologists can work with people on a one-to-one basis, in groups, as a family, or at a larger population level.[4]

Clinical health psychology (ClHP) is a term that refers to the application of scientific knowledge, derived from the field of health psychology, to clinical questions that may arise across the spectrum of health care. ClHP is one of many specialty practice area for clinical psychologists. It is also a major contributor to the prevention focused field of behavioral health and the treatment oriented field of behavioral medicine. Clinical practice includes education, the techniques of behavior change, and psychotherapy. In some countries, a clinical health psychologist, with additional training, can become a medical psychologist and, thereby, obtain prescription privileges.

Public health psychology (PHP) is population oriented. A major aim of PHP is to investigate potential causal links between psychosocial factors and health at the population level. Public health psychologists present research results to educators, policy makers, and health care providers in order to promote better public health. PHP is allied to other public health disciplines including epidemiology, nutrition, genetics and biostatistics. Some PHP interventions are targeted toward atrisk population groups (e.g., undereducated, single pregnant women who smoke) and not the population as a whole (e.g., all pregnant women).

Community health psychology (CoHP) investigates community factors that contribute to the health and well-being of individuals who live in communities. CoHP also develops community-level interventions that are designed to combat disease and promote physical and mental health. The community often serves as the level of analysis, and is frequently sought as a partner in health-related interventions.

Critical health psychology (CrHP) is concerned with the distribution of power and the impact of power differentials on health experience and behavior, health care systems, and health policy. CrHP prioritizes social justice and the universal right to health for people of all races, genders, ages, and socioeconomic positions. A major concern is health inequalities. The critical health psychologist is an agent of change, not simply an analyst or cataloger. A leading organization in this area is the International Society of Critical Health Psychology.

Health psychology is both a theoretical and applied field. Health psychologists employ diverse research methods. These methods include controlled randomized experiments, quasi-experiments, longitudinal studies, timeseries designs, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies as well as action research. Health psychologists study a broad range of variables including genotype, cardiovascular disease (cardiac psychology), smoking habits, religious beliefs, alcohol use, social support, living conditions, emotional state, social class, and much more. Some health psychologists treat individuals with sleep problems, headaches, alcohol problems, etc. Other health psychologists work to empower community members by helping community members gain control over their health and improve quality of life of entire communities. Objectives of health psychology Understanding behavioral and contextual factors Health psychologists conduct research to identify behaviors and experiences that promote health, give rise to illness, and influence the effectiveness of health care. They also recommend ways to improve health care and health-care policy.[15] Health psychologists have worked on developing ways to reduce smoking [16] and improve daily nutrition[17] in order to promote health and prevent illness. They have also studied the association between illness and individual characteristics. For example, health psychology has found a relation between the personality characteristics of thrill seeking, impulsiveness, hostility/anger, emotional instability, and depression, on one hand, and high-risk driving, on the other.[18] Health psychology is also concerned with contextual factors, including economic, cultural, community, social, and lifestyle factors that influence health. The biopsychosocial model can help in understanding the relation between contextual factors and biology in affecting health. Physical addiction plays an important role in smoking cessation. Some research suggests that seductive advertising also contributes to psychological dependency on tobacco,[19] although other research has found no relationship between media and smoking in youth.[20] Research in occupational health psychology indicates that people in jobs that combine little decision latitude with a high psychological workload are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease.[21]Other OHP research reveals a relation between unemployment and elevations in blood pressure.[22] OHP research also documents a relation between social class and cardiovascular disease.[23] Health psychologists also aim to change health behaviors for the dual purpose of helping people stay healthy and helping patients adhere to disease treatment regimens (also see Health Action Process Approach). Health psychologists employ cognitive behavior therapy and applied behavior analysis (also see behavior modification) for that purpose. Preventing illness Health psychologists work towards promoting health through behavioral change, as mentioned above; however, they attempt to prevent illness in other ways as well. Health Psychologists try to help people to lead a healthy life by developing and running programmes which can help people to make changes in their lives such as stopping smoking,reducing the amount of alcohol they drink, eating more healthily,and taking regular exercise.[4] Campaigns informed by health psychology have targeted tobacco use. Those least able to afford tobacco products consume them most. Tobacco provides individuals with a way of controlling aversive emotional states accompanying daily experiences of stress that characterize the lives of deprived and vulnerable individuals.[24] Practitioners emphasize education and effective communication as a part of illness prevention because many people do not recognize, or minimize, the risk of illness present in their lives. Moreover, many individuals are often unable to apply their knowledge of health practices owing to everyday pressures and stresses. A common example of population-based attempts to motivate the smoking public to reduce its dependence on cigarettes is anti-smoking campaigns.[25]

Health psychologists help to promote health and well-being by preventing illness.[4] Some illnesses can be treated better if they are caught early.Health Psychologists have worked to understand why some people do not go for screening or immunisations and are finding ways to encourage people to have health checks for illnesses such as cancer or heart disease.[4]Health Psychologists are also finding ways to try to help people to avoid risky behaviours that may affect their health and well-being, such as unprotected sex and can also help to encourage regular teeth brushing or hand washing to prevent future ill health.[4] Health psychologists also aim at educating health professionals, including physicians and nurses, in communicating effectively with patients in ways that overcome barriers to understanding, remembering, and implementing effective strategies for reducing exposures to risk factors and making health-enhancing behavior changes.[26] There is also evidence from occupational health psychology that stress-reduction interventions at the workplace can be effective. For example, Kompier and his colleagues[27] have shown that a number of interventions aimed at reducing stress in bus drivers has had beneficial effects for employees and bus companies. The effects of disease Health psychologists investigate how disease affects individuals' psychological well-being. An individual who becomes seriously ill or injured faces many different practical stressors. The stressors include problems meeting medical and other bills; problems obtaining proper care when home from the hospital; obstacles to caring for dependents; having one's sense of self-reliance compromised; gaining a new, unwanted identity as a sick person; and so on. These stressors can lead to depression, reduced self-esteem, etc.[28] Health psychology also concerns itself with bettering the lives of individuals with terminal illness. When there is little hope of recovery, health psychologist therapists can improve the quality of life of the patient by helping the patient recover at least some of his or her psychological well-being.[29] Health psychologists are also concerned with identifying the best ways for providing therapeutic services for the bereaved.[30] Critical analysis of health policy Critical health psychologists explore how health policy can influence inequities, inequalities, and social injustice. These avenues of research expand the scope of health psychology beyond the level of individual health to an examination of the social and economic determinants of health both within and between regions and nations. The individualism of mainstream health psychology has been critiqued and deconstructed by critical health psychologists using newer qualitative methods and frameworks for investigating health experience and behavior. [3] Applications of health psychology Improving doctorpatient communication Health psychologists attempt to aid the process of communication between physicians and patients during medical consultations. There are many problems in this process, with patients showing a considerable lack of understanding of many medical terms, particularly anatomical terms (e.g., intestines).[32] One main area of research on this topic involves "doctor-centered" or "patient-centered" consultations. Doctor-centered consultations are generally directive, with the patient answering questions and playing less of a role in decisionmaking. Although this style is preferred by elderly people and others, many people dislike the sense of hierarchy or ignorance that it inspires. They prefer patient-centered consultations, which focus on the patient's needs, involve the doctor listening to the patient completely before making a decision, and involving the patient in the process of choosing treatment and finding a diagnosis.[33] Improving adherence to medical advice Getting people to follow medical advice and adhere to their treatment regimens is a difficult task for health psychologists. People often forget to take their pills or consciously opt not to take their prescribed medications because of side effects. Failing to take prescribed medication is costly and wastes millions of usable medicines that could otherwise help other people. Estimated adherence rates are difficult to measure (see below); there is, however, evidence that adherence could be improved by tailoring treatment programs to individuals' daily lives.[34]

Ways of measuring adherence Health psychologists have identified a number of ways of measuring patients' adherence to medical regimens:

Counting the number of pills in the medicine bottlealthough this has problems with privacy and/or could be deemed patronizing or showing lack of trust in patients Using self-reportsalthough patients may fail to return the self-report or lie about their adherence Asking a doctor or health workeralthough this presents problems on doctorpatient confidentiality Using "Trackcap" bottles, which track the number of times the bottle is opened; however, this either raises problems of informed consent or, if informed consent is obtained, influence through demand characteristics.[35]

Managing pain Health psychology attempts to find treatments to reduce and eliminate pain, as well as understand pain anomalies such as episodic analgesia, causalgia, neuralgia, and phantom limb pain. Although the task of measuring and describing pain has been problematic, the development of the McGill Pain Questionnaire[36] has helped make progress in this area. Treatments for pain involve patient-administered analgesia, acupuncture (found by Berman to be effective in reducing pain for osteoarthritis of the knee[37]), biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy. Health Psychologist roles Below are some examples of the types of positions held by Health Psychologists within applied settings such as the NHS and privatepractice.

Consultant Health Psychologist: A Consultant Health Psychologist will take a lead for health psychology within public health, including managing tobacco control and smoking cessation services and providing professional leadership in the management of Health Trainers.[31]

Principal Health Psychologist: A Principal Health Psychologist could, for example lead the health psychology service within one of the UKs leading heart and lung hospitals, providing a clinical service to patients and advising all members of the multidisciplinary team.[31]

Health Psychologist: An example of a Health Psychologist's role would be to provide health psychology input to a centre for weight management. Psychological assessment of treatment,development and delivery of a tailored weight management programme, and advising on approaches to improve adherence tohealth advice and medical treatment.[31]

Research Psychologist: Research psychologists carry out health psychology research, for example exploring the psychological impact of receiving a diagnosis of dementia, or evaluating ways of providing psychological support for people with burn injuries. Research can also be in the area of health promotion, for example investigating the determinants of healthy eating or physical activity or understanding why people misuse substances.[31]

Health Psychologist in Training/Assistant Health Psychologist: As an Assistant/in training, a health psychologist will gain experience assessing patients, delivering psychological interventions to change health behaviours and conducting research, whilst being supervised by a qualified Health Psychologist.[31]

Training in Health Psychology In the United Kingdom, Health Psychologists are registered by the Health Professions Council (HPC) and have trained to a level to be eligible for full membership of the Division of Health Psychology within the British Psychological Society (BPS).[38] Registered Health Psychologists who are chartered with the British Psychological Society (BPS) will have undertaken a minimum of six years of training and will have specialised in health psychology for a minimum of three years.[31] Health Psychologists in training must have completed BPS stage 1 training and be registered with the BPS Stage 2 training route or with a BPS-accredited university doctoral Health Psychology programme. Once qualified, Health Psychologists can work in a range of settings, for example the NHS, universities, schools, private healthcare, research and charitable organisations.[31] A Health Psychologist in training might be working within applied settings whilst working towards registration and chartered status. [31] A Health Psychologist will have demonstrated competencies in all of the following areas:

professional skills (including implementing ethical and legal standards, communication and team work), research skills (including designing, conducting and analysing psychological research in numerous areas), consultancy skills (including planning and evaluation), teaching and training skills (including knowledge of designing,delivering and evaluating large and small scale training programmes), intervention skills (including delivery and evaluation of behaviour change interventions).[31]

All qualified Health Psychologists must also engage in and record their continuing professional development (CPD) for psychology each year throughout their career.[38]