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Jenette Crisologo v Globe Telecom Inc.

16 December 2005 | Ponente: Austria-Martinez Overview: RTC rendered judgment by default (i.e. declared Crisologo in default) in favor of Globe Telecom. Crisologo then filed with the C a !etition for review on certiorari (Rule "#). C denied the !etition for being the wrong remedy under the $%%& Rules of Civil 'rocedure( as amended. )ence( this !resent *R by Crisologo. C said that under the ROC( the different modes of a!!eal are clearly laid down+ thus( the filing of the !resent !etition is clearly not the !ro!er remedy to assail the default judgment rendered by the trial court. Crisologo still has the available remedy of filing with the RTC a motion for new trial or an ordinary a!!eal to the C, from the trial court-s default judgment. )O./0/R( C granted Crisologo-s *R and referred the case to the C, for a!!ro!riate action under Rule #1. The 2uestion of fact involved in the a!!eal and substantial ends of justice warrant a referral of this case to the Court of ,!!eals for further a!!ro!riate !roceedings. (3ote: ee list of remedies of a !arty declared in default). Statement of the Case RTC: Declared Crisolo o in de!ault in t"e action !or reco#er$ o! %ossession o! a motor #e"icle &it" a%%lication !or a &rit o! re%le#in &it" dama es !iled b$ 'lobe Telecom( Rendered )ud ment in de!ault in !a#or o! 'lobe Telecom *nc( +C: Denied t"e %etition !or certiorari( Crisolo o t"us !iled t"e %resent MR, alle in t"at t"e !ilin o! said %etition is t"e %ro%er recourse( Statement of Facts Crisolo o &as an em%lo$ee o! 'lobe Telecom *nc( -"en s"e &as %romoted as Director o! Cor%orate A!!airs and Re ulator$ Matters, s"e became entitled to an e.ecuti#e car - a 1//0 To$ota Camr$( A%ril 2002 1 Crisolo o &as se%arated !rom t"e com%an$ so t"is %rom%ted "er to !ile a com%laint !or ille al dismissal and reinstatement &it" t"e 23RC( 23RC dismissed t"e com%laint( Au ust 12, 2004 1 Crisolo o !iled a %etition !or certiorari &it" t"e CA 5CA-'(R( +P 2o( 6560/7 assailin t"e 23RC8s dismissal( Pendin t"e abo#ementioned certiorari %etition, 'lobe !iled &it" RTC Mandalu$on an action !or reco#er$ o! %ossession o! a motor #e"icle &it" a%%lication !or a &rit o! re%le#in &it" dama es 5Ci#il Case 2o( MC04-24607( Crisolo o t"en !iled a motion to dismiss on t"e round o! litis !endentia and !orum s"o%%in but t"is &as denied b$ t"e RTC( T"us, s"e !iled a %etition !or certiorari &it" t"e CA 5CA-'(R( +P 2o( 65/207( +"e also !iled &it" t"e CA a motion !or t"e issuance o! a &rit o! %ro"ibition to en)oin %roceedin s in t"e re%le#in case be!ore t"e RTC( T"erea!ter, 'lobe !iled a motion to declare de!endant in de!ault in Ci#il Case 2o( MC04-2460 5i(e( re%le#in case7, &"ic" &as ranted b$ t"e RTC( 'lobe &as t"us allo&ed to %resent its e#idence e45!arte( Crisolo o !iled a motion !or reconsideration o! t"e order o! de!ault but it &as denied b$ t"e trial court( A%ril 5, 2005 1 RTC rendered )ud ment b$ de!ault in !a#or o! 'lobe Telecom( A&arded 'lobe dama es in t"e !orm o! dail$ un%aid car rental, e.em%lar$ dama es and attorne$8s !ees( Crisolo o t"en !iled &it" t"e +C a %etition !or re#ie& on certiorari under Rule 45( Ma$ 16, 2005 1 +C denied t"e %etition !or bein t"e &ron remed$ under t"e 1//0 Rules o! Ci#il Procedure, as amended( Crisolo o t"us !iled t"e %resent MR, alle in t"at t"e !ilin o! said %etition is t"e %ro%er recourse: o *atute vs. Court of ,!!eals ($%1%): A de!endant declared in de!ault "as t"e remed$ set !ort" in +ection 2, %ara ra%" 9 o! Rule 41 o! t"e old Rules o! Court: :A %art$ &"o "as been declared in de!ault ma$ li;e&ise a%%eal !rom t"e )ud ment rendered a ainst "im as contrar$ to t"e e#idence or to t"e la&, e#en i! no %etition !or relie! to set aside t"e order o! de!ault "as been %resented b$ "im in accordance &it" Rule 96(< Crisolo o t"en cited in "er motion +ection 2, %ara ra%" 9 or 5c7 o! t"e Rules o! Ci#il Procedure: =5c7 ,!!eal by certiorari( - *n all cases &"ere onl$ >uestions o! la& are raised or in#ol#ed, t"e a%%eal s"all be to t"e +u%reme Court b$ %etition !or re#ie& on certiorari in accordance &it" Rule 45(= o +"e !urt"er ar ues t"at t"e %etition in#ol#ed >uestions o! la&, and t"e +C s"ould "a#e ta;en co nizance o! t"e case( ?er rounds are as !ollo&s: 517 3itis %endentia and #iolation o! rules on non-!orum s"o%%in @ 527 Presentation o! e#idence e.-%arte des%ite "er %endin MR@ 597 Monetar$ a&ard !or dama es and attorne$8s !ees are un&arranted not bein su%%orted b$ la& and )uris%rudence@ 547 )ud ment not in accordance &it" la&( Applicable Laws: +ection 2, Rule 41 o! t"e 1//0 Rules o! Ci#il Procedure, as amended: :+ection 2( *odes of a!!eal( A (a7 Ordinary a!!eal( A T"e a%%eal to t"e Court o! A%%eals in cases decided b$ t"e Re ional Trial Court in t"e e.ercise o! its ori inal )urisdiction s"all be ta;en b$ !ilin a notice o! a%%eal &it" t"e court &"ic" rendered t"e )ud ment or !inal order a%%ealed !rom and ser#in a co%$ t"ereo! u%on t"e ad#erse %art$( 2o record on a%%eal s"all be re>uired e.ce%t in s%ecial %roceedin s and ot"er cases o! multi%le or se%arate a%%eals &"ere t"e la& or t"ese Rules so re>uire( *n suc" cases, t"e record on a%%eal s"all be !iled and

ser#ed in li;e manner( 5b7 'etition for review( A T"e a%%eal to t"e Court o! A%%eals in cases decided b$ t"e Re ional Trial Court in t"e e.ercise o! its a%%ellate )urisdiction s"all be b$ %etition !or re#ie& in accordance &it" Rule 42( 5c7 ,!!eal by certiorari( A *n all cases &"ere onl$ >uestions o! la& are raised or in#ol#ed, t"e a%%eal s"all be to t"e +u%reme Court b$ %etition !or re#ie& on certiorari in accordance &it" Rule 45( 5Bm%"asis su%%lied7 +ection 6, %ara ra%" 2, Rule 56 o! t"e 1//0 Rules o! Ci#il Procedure, as amended: =5A7n a%%eal b$ certiorari ta;en to t"e +u%reme Court !rom t"e Re ional Trial Court submittin issues o! !act ma$ be re!erred to t"e Court o! A%%eals !or decision or a%%ro%riate action(= +ection 55!7, Rule 56 o! t"e 1//0 Rules o! Ci#il Procedure, as amended: :An a%%eal may be dismissed &"en t"ere is error in t"e c"oice or mode o! a%%eal(<

Iss es: -C2 Crisolo o misread t"e %ro#ision cited in t"e Matute case 5DB+7 -C2 !ilin o! %resent %etition 5i(e( certiorari7 is t"e %ro%er remed$ to assail t"e de!ault )ud ment o! t"e RTC 52C7 B#en i! t"e remed$ is &ron , can t"e +C still re!er t"e case to t"e CAE 5DB+7 !ationale: Crisolo o misread t"e %ro#ision cited in t"e *atute case as t"at %ertainin to +ection 25c7, Rule 41 o! t"e 1//0 Rules o! Ci#il Procedure, as amended( +"e s"ould be reminded t"at t"e *atute case is o! 1/6/ #inta e and %ertained to t"e C3D Rules o! Court( As stated in t"e *atute case, a de!endant #alidl$ declared in de!ault "as t"e remed$ set !ort" in +ection 2, %ara ra%" 9 o! Rule 41( 2ote t"at under t"e old Rules, +ection 2, %ara ra%" 9 o! Rule 41 o#erned a%%eals !rom Courts o! First *nstance, t"e +ocial +ecurit$ Commission and t"e Court o! A rarian Relations TC T?B CCGRT CF APPBA3+( ?ad %etitioner been more circums%ect, s"e &ould "a#e easil$ ascertained t"at said +ection 2, %ara ra%" 9 o! Rule 41 o! t"e old Rules o! Court, as cited in t"e *atute case, "ad alread$ been su%erseded b$ t"e 1//0 Rules o! Ci#il Procedure, as amended, and under t"ese ne& rules, t"e di!!erent modes o! a%%eal are clearl$ laid do&n( T"e decision sou "t to be re#ie&ed in t"is case is a )ud ment b$ de!ault rendered b$ t"e trial court in Ci#il Case 2o( MC04-2460( As suc", t"e a%%licable rule is +ection 2, Rule 41 o! t"e 1//0 Rules o! Ci#il Procedure, as amended, &"ic" %ro#ides !or t"e di!!erent modes o! a%%eal !rom a RTC8s )ud ment or !inal order( T"e !ilin o! t"e %resent %etition is clearl$ not t"e %ro%er remed$ to assail t"e de!ault )ud ment rendered b$ t"e trial court( Crisolo o still "as t"e a#ailable remed$ o! !ilin &it" t"e RTC a motion !or ne& trial or an ordinar$ a%%eal to t"e CA !rom t"e trial court8s de!ault )ud ment( o Crisolo o admits t"at s"e &as =%ro%erl$ declared in de!ault(= T"us, t"ere is no >uestion o! an$ im%ro#ident or im%ro%er declaration o! de!ault b$ t"e trial court, and t"e remed$ o! !ilin a s%ecial ci#il action !or certiorari "as been e!!ecti#el$ !oreclosed on %etitioner( ?er onl$ recourse t"en is to !ile an ordinar$ a%%eal &it" t"e CA under +ection 25a7, Rule 41( o Crisolo o came directl$ to t"e +C via %etition !or re#ie& on certiorari, &it"out settin !ort" substantial reasons &"$ t"e ordinar$ remedies under t"e la& s"ould be disre arded and t"e %etition entertained( o Crisolo o cannot e#en !ind solace in t"e *atute case as t"e old RCC t"en a%%licable e.%licitl$ laid do&n t"e remed$ o! an ordinary a!!eal to the Court of ,!!eals , and not a%%eal b$ certiorari to t"e +C, b$ a de!endant declared in de!ault( o Cere6o vs. Tua6on (788"): Remedies a#ailable to a %art$ declared in de!ault: T"e de!endant in de!ault ma$, at an$ time a!ter disco#er$ t"ereo! and be!ore )ud ment, !ile a motion under oat" to set aside t"e order o! de!ault on t"e round t"at "is !ailure to ans&er &as due to !raud, accident, mista;e or e.cusable ne li ence, and t"at "e "as a meritorious de!ense 5+ec( 9, Rule 16 Hno& +ec( 95b7, Rule /I7( *! t"e )ud ment "as alread$ been rendered &"en t"e de!endant disco#ered t"e de!ault, but be!ore t"e same "as become !inal and e.ecutor$, "e ma$ !ile a motion !or ne& trial under +ection 1 5a7 o! Rule 90( *! t"e de!endant disco#ered t"e de!ault a!ter t"e )ud ment "as become !inal and e.ecutor$, "e ma$ !ile a %etition !or relie! under +ection 2 Hno& +ection 1I o! Rule 96( ?e ma$ a%%eal !rom t"e )ud ment rendered a ainst "im as contrar$ to t"e e#idence or to t"e la&, e#en i! no %etition to set aside t"e order o! de!ault "as been %resented b$ "im 5+ec( 2, Rule 417( A %etition !or certiorari to declare t"e nullit$ o! a )ud ment b$ de!ault is also a#ailable i! t"e trial court im%ro%erl$ declared a %art$ in de!ault, or e#en i! t"e trial court %ro%erl$ declared a %art$ in de!ault, i! ra#e abuse o! discretion attended suc" declaration( +C concurs &it" Crisolo o in t"at e#en i! t"e remed$ resorted to &as &ron , t"e +C ma$ re!er t"e case to t"e Court o! A%%eals under Rule 56, +ection 6, %ara ra%" 2 o! t"e 1//0 Rules o! Ci#il Procedure, as amended( T"is des%ite t"e e.%ress %ro#ision in +ection 55!7 o! t"e same Rule( Jot" +ections 55!7 and 6 o! Rule 50 use t"e term = may,= denotin discretion on t"e %art o! t"e +C in dismissin t"e a%%eal or re!errin t"e case to t"e CA( T"e >uestion o! !act in#ol#ed in t"e a%%eal and substantial ends o! )ustice &arrant a re!erral o! t"is case to t"e CA !or !urt"er a%%ro%riate %roceedin s(

T"e test o! &"et"er a >uestion is one o! la& or o! !act is not t"e a%%ellation i#en to suc" >uestion b$ t"e %art$ raisin t"e same@ rat"er, it is &"et"er t"e a%%ellate court can determine t"e issue raised &it"out re#ie&in or e#aluatin t"e e#idence, in &"ic" case, it is a >uestion o! la&@ ot"er&ise, it is a >uestion o! !act( T"e issues on t"e a&ard o! dama es call !or a re-e#aluation o! t"e e#idence be!ore t"e trial court, &"ic" is ob#iousl$ a >uestion o! !act( Cases &"ere an a%%eal in#ol#ed >uestions o! !act, o! la&, or bot" !all &it"in t"e e.clusi#e a%%ellate )urisdiction o! t"e CA(

J "gment: MR 'RA2TBD( T"e %etition is reinstated and t"e case is RBFBRRBD to t"e CA !or a%%ro%riate action(