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THE GENERAL

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. .. a losing venture published bi-monthly, pretty


close to the first day of January, September and November.

arch, May, July,

The General is edited and published by The Avalon Hill Company almost solely for the cultural edification of adult gaming. (It also helps to sell Avalon Hill products, tool) Articles from subscribers are considered for publication on a gratis contributory basis. Such articles must be typewritten and not exceed 700 words. Examples and diagrams that accompany such articles must be drawn in black ink, ready for reproduction. N o notice can be given regarding acceptance of articles for publication. All back issues, except Voi. 1, Nos. 1 & 4, which are out of stock, are available at $1.00 per issue. Full-year subscriptions @ $4.98.
c 1968 The Avalon Hill Company, Baltimore, Maryland. printed in U.S.A.
i

The fickle Wargamer


No c o n t e s t r e s u l t s h a d b e e n a s e a g e r l y awaited a s the one we r a n i n the l a s t i s s u e (Contest #27). Why? B e c a u s e i t constituted a s u r v e y of p r e f e r e n c e s r e garding game-design e l e m e n t s , tabulation of which would l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e Avalon H i l l ' s f u t u r e c o u r s e of action. E a c h c o n t e s t e n t r a n t w a s d i r e c t e d to a s s i g n n u m b e r s (3, 2 o r 1 ) to e a c h d e sign c a t e g o r y with total point count d e termining p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p ( s e e end of a r t i c l e ) . We fully r e a l i z e d t h a t a built-in b i a s would be d i s t o r t i n g the p i c t u r e s o m e what and allowed f o r this i n o u r r a t i o n the b i a s leaning i n a l e t h a t follows. the d i r e c t i o n of complexity. I t is obvious t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s by s u b s c r i b e r s would not r e f l e c t the public a t l a r g e . However, i t is the nut g r o u p f o r whom we d e s i g n g a m e s p r i m a r i l y , not the public a t l a r g e . In this light m a n y of the r e s u l t s of the s u r v e y c a m e a s no s u r p r i s e to o u r d e s i g n and m a r k e t i n g d e p a r t m e n t s . Certainly it was no surprise to see that the p r e f e r e n c e f o r Hex g r i d o v e r S q u a r e G r i d w a s overwhelming - t h e only c l e a r c u t f a v o r i t e noted i n the e n t i r e survey. Nor w e r e we s u r p r i s e d to find t h a t the b a s i c (Stalingrad) s y s t e m of r e s o l v ing c o m b a t proved l e a s t d e s i r a b l e s c o r ing only 1370 of total points. method of stacking; a 3770 choice a c cording to n u m b e r , 36% according to combat factors.

A Few Surprises In the complexity grouping, again no c l e a r c u t favorite. Stalingrad, 1914 and B l i t z k r i e g e m e r g e d r a t h e r close.. with a r e l a t i v e s u r p r i s e being the choice of Blitzkrieg o v e r 1914, and 1914 but We w e r e a m e r e 3% o v e r Stalingrads. a l s o s u r p r i s e d to find the choice of the B l i t z k r i e g substitute c o u n t e r combat reduction method p r e f e r r e d o v e r 1914's step-down s y s t e m . P e r h a p s the g r e a t e s t s u r p r i s e occ u r r e d in the l u c k e l e m e n t group. We cannot understand why, a f t e r receiving thousands of c o m p l a i n t s down through the y e a r s a g a i n s t the u s e of l u c k in any f o r m , t h a t such a m a j o r i t y of the r e spondents voted to r e t a i n the luck element. indeed, the voting indicated quite the r e v e r s e i n t h a t 3670 actually d e s i r e d two d i c e which would, of c o u r s e , c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e the r a n d o m luck element. On the o t h e r hand, the m a t r i x s y s t e m developed in o u r s p o r t s s t r a t e g y g a m e s which k e e p s the luck e l e m e n t to a n absolute m i n i m u m w a s roundly r e j e c t e d . In a l l f a i r n e s s to the e n t r a n t s , a l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y with the m a t r i x s y s t e m c e r t a i n l y prejudiced this category. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t ' s t h e r e in "No Dice" c a t e g o r y b l a c k and white s c o r e d but 25% of the total points (17% being the absolute m i n i m u m r e s p o n s e p o s s i b l e in this group**. )

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COVER STORY:
Lake Geneva
The End of the Beginnng...
Wargaming took another giant step upward toward recognition as a nationwide hobby with the culmination of the August convention at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin last summer. When you get wargame buffs to travel halfway across the country (Jerry White from Oregon, John Urbas and ensemble from New England) you know that wargaming has come of age. In a hobby where dis-organization seems to be the current vogue, it is refreshing to report on one group that knew how to handle all phases of organizing and conducting a convention of this scale. The success of any undertaking is dependent upon many aspects; publicity, geography, spread of responsibility, and maintainance of interest, to name the important ones. Why was the convention a success? With 96 wargamers in attendance, you can hardly miss. But getting them there was the trick. Publicity began almost a year in advance and, with the aid of many clubs via house organs, continued to build right up to "game time." Just two weeks prior to the event, a front-page feature on the convention ran in The Lake Geneva Regional News, followed by actual convention coverage in Ray F'y's column of The Beloit Daily News. Lake Geneva, chosen in some respects because of its rather centralized location, had much going for it. It's also where convention chairman Gary Gygax lives. Gygax, fitting perhaps into the stereotype mold of a typical 30-ish mid-west family man who might sell insurance, is knowledgeable enough to realize that you can't run a convention by yourself. Thus he and his immediate cohorts delegated authority and responsibility to approximately 30 members of the IFW (International Federation of Wargamers.) The maintainance of interest was, of course, (Continued on Page

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No C l e a r C u t P r e f e r e n c e s What s u r p r i s i n g w a s the f a c t t h a t t h e r e w e r e no c l e a r c u t p r e f e r e n c e s shown in any o t h e r group. Even when you tally f r o m a s c o r i n g s y s t e m i n which the l e a s t of the g r o u p w i l l g e t x - n u m b e r of points** one would s t i l l e x p e c t s o m e c l e a r c u t choice o v e r 2nd and 3 r d bests. Not so, you fickle bunch of w a r garners. You c e r t a i n l y a r e n ' t i n conc e r t regarding designpreferences. F o r instance: r e g a r d i n g r e t r e a t s t h e r e w a s 7 0 ' difference between the choice only a 6 f o r r e treating t h r u blocking t e r r a i n and not r e t r e a t i n g t h r u blocking t e r r a i n ; and t h e r e w a s only a 4% difference between those who thought the r e t r e a t r o u t e should b e dictated by the winner and dictated by the e r .

was

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++Minimum response i s equated a s f o l lows: t h e l e a s t preferable i n any group stillscoresa"1." l + 2 + 3 = 6 6 being t h e t o t a l points possible within a 3-category group on any s i n g l e survey. Thus a t t h e very worst no category could score lower than 116 of t h e t o t a l points.. .1/6 of 100% 17%. I n a two-category group, i n which only 1 ' s and 3 ' s a r e scored, lowest score possiI n 4-cateb l e would be 25% of t o t a l . gory o r more group, minimum response could have been 0.

...

3)

Only 2% s e p a r a t e d the top p r e f e r e n c e s in the v i c t o r y conditions group, with a slight edge going to the t e r r i t o r i a l objective method found i n Bulge. Regarding which s i d e , a t t a c k e r o r d e fender, should be d e a l t with r e g a r d i n g the effect of t e r r a i n o n combat, t h e r e w a s only a 6% differential. The g r e a t e s t indecision s e e m e d to involve the

N e w e s t Design Innovations Welcomed While c l e a r c u t c h o i c e s in m o s t g r o u p s w e r e non-existent we a r e g r a t i fied to r e p o r t that o u r newest design innovations w e r e well received. F o r examples: the new step-down combat r e s u l t s method s c o r e d 2nd b e s t ( f r o m among f i v e ) and m i g h t have been f i r s t

PAGE 3
h a d 1914 b e e n i n c i r c u l a t i o n l o n g e r . 1914's a r t i l l e r y s y s t e m and victory c o n d i t i o n m e t h o d b o t h s c o r e d 2nd b e s t . the l a t t e r a m e r e 270 b e l o w the f i r s t choice. P e r h a p s the m o s t p o p u l a r of the n e w i d e a s , i n t e g r a t e d f o r the f i r s t t i m e i n 1914, w a s the m e t h o d of t u r n i n g t h e t r o o p c o u n t e r s u p s i d e down to r e f l e c t hidden movement.. p r e f e r r e d by a whopping 40%, 7% h i g h e r t h a n t h e 2nd choice. n o t t h r u blocking t e r r a i n . allow stacki n g both by n u m b e r a n d f a c t o r g . . r e v e r t to substitute counters. continue the l i n e - o f - s u p p l y m e t h o d . revert to Guadalcanal f o r artillery combat r e s o u t i l i z e point-count f o r v i c t o r y lution. conditions.. r e v e r t tostalingrad-Blitzkrieg complexity level.. incdrporate B l i t z k r i e g ' s air p o w e r s y s t e m . give defender the benefitof t e r r a i n f a c t o r s . . a n d c o n t i n u e w i t h the p r e s e n t 1 - d i e l u c k e l e m e n t m e t h o d of r e s o l v i n g c h a n c e a n d combat situations. H o w e v e r . . don't b e t o n it.

THE GENERAL

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ISOLATION & SUPPLY:

I Z g' rad)
16

R e p l a c e m e n t City s y s t e m (StalinCity s o u r c e s y s t e m ( B l i t z k r i e g )

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Supply quota s y s t e m (D-Day) Line of supply s y s t e m (Bulge) Supply C o u n t e r s s y s t e m (Afrika Korps)

.. .

16

25

ARTILLERY:

317~
3 6

1914 s y s t e m

O u r P h i l o s o p h y is Y o u r P h i l o s o p h y S o w h a t d o e s i t a l l m e a n ? ? ? Incontrovertibly we learned that Blitzkrieg i s a dandy, t h a t S t a l i n g r a d i s a s l e e p e r , that 1914 p o s e s the g r e a t e s t challenge if, p e r h a p s , a t r i f l e t o o c o m p l e x . F o l l o w i n g y o u r d e s i g n p r e . f e r e n c es t o the l e t t e r o u r n e x t g a m e n a t u r a l l y r e v e r t t o f u l l z o n e s of c o n t r o l must. u t i l i z e the h e x g r i d . . r e t a i n the c o n secutive m o v e m e n t method.. incorporate upside-down counters.. allow l o s e r s to d e t e r m i n e r e t r e a t r o u t e s b u t
ZONES O F CONTROL:

Guadalcanal s y s t e m Gettysburg square-grid system Waterloo s y s t e m

/7 /5

L)O%
18

F u l l zones of control (Stalingrad) P a r t i a l zones ( G e t t y s b u r g ) No zones (1914) COMPLEXITY L E V E L :

32

//yo T a c t i c s I1
2 7 32
30
Stalingrad Blitzkrieg 1914

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GRIDS

30% S q u a r e Grid
70
Hex Grid

AIR POWER: MOVEMENT:

fiz
31

D-Day Bulge Blitzkrieg

COVER STORY
easy once the crowd had arrived. After all, it was "playing the game" that everyone had come .for. The gaqes were played in the Horticulture Hall right smack in beautiful downtown Lake Geneva. The games were also played in the Gygax home; in the Lake Geneva Hotel; in the Lake Geneva restaurants; you name the place, that's where games were in progresi Back at the Hall displays of all kinds, from miniatures to Naval ships to amateur games to Napoleonics to magazines to free coffee and donuts, even a few AH games, opened a broad variety of interests that kept participants involved clear through the dead of the night. Officially, the convention lasted but one day. Of course, many stayed over - one enthusiast, Jim Nelson from Sheldon, Iowa, arrived 4 days early looking for "action." He found it, as did the majority who came in force on Friday descending upon the Gygax mansion in hot anticipation. Highlights centered around Gary Nemeth's Cleveland Wargames Club and the 700 individual naval miniatures they had constructed themselves. These and the "Fight in the Skies" games took up much of the space in the main 50' x 80' hall. The many side rooms housed AH, 3M, Gamescience and Western Enterprise merchandise. You name it - Chess, Go, Shogi, - table top games were in abundance. Ray Johnson's group up from Chicago produced a Napoleonics display that was particularly appealing. The only aspect missing was the inevitable anti-war demonstration, although in evidence were three suspicious characters attired in guru outfits and love medallions. Very much in evidence was IFW Vice-President, William Hoyer, whose photos of the convention make up this issue's cover montague. Helmits off to all members of the sponsoring IFW for giving us the end of the beginning

5.5% consecutive 45 Simultaneous ( i n e x p e r i m e n t a l


s t a g e , only) HIDDEN MOVEMENT

VICTORY CONDITIONS:

27%
33

AS i n Gettysburg A S i n Guadalcanal A S in 1914 (upside-down c o u n t e r s )

28% 35

Conditional elimination (Stalingrad) P o i n t s y s t e m (1914) T e r r i t o r i a l objective (Bulge)

40

37

RETREATS: ROUGH TERRAIN FACTORS:

' 7 4
53

Allowed t h r u n o r m a l l y blocking terrain Not allowed t h r u blocking t e r r a i n

a Z C o m b a t f a c t o r s added t o defender

STACKING

34 /6

Combat f a c t o r s s u b t r a c t e d f r o m a t tacker No effect

2 G One Unit m a x i m u m ( T a c t i c s 11)


37

36

Stacked a c c o r d i n g t o Units (Stalingrad) Stacked a c c o r d i n g t o combat f a c t o r s (Waterloo)

LUCK ELEMENTS:

39%: Die r o l l u s i n g 1 d i e

36
COMBAT RESULTS METHOD:

Die r o l l using 2 d i c e No d i c e - u s e m a t r i x s y s t e m (Football S t r a t e g y )

25

13% B a s i c s y s t e m (Stalingrad.)
28
Substitute Counter reduction tem (Blitzkrieg) sys-

2q
18
I7

Your C o m m e n t s ? ? ? Y o u r c o m m e n t s o n the s u r v e y a n d o u r a c c o m p a n y i n g r a t i o n a l e a r e invited s u b j e c t s of t h i s n a t u r e c o u l d v e r y w e l l b e a p p r o a c h e d w i t h g r e a t e r depth. The above w a s simply "surface-scratching. Y o u r r e s p o n s e to the s u r v e y i n dicated keen interest in this subject matter.. . c a r e to explore f u r t h e r ? ? ? A d d r e s s y o u r c o m m e n t s to "Head of M a r k e t i n g , " i n c a r e of t h i s m a g a z i n e .

Step-down reduction s y s t e m (1914) Written reduction P a d s y s t e m (Guadalcanal) Elim-Engaged-Retreat system (Bulge)

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DIRECTION O F RETREAT:

4 8 % Dictated by winner
Dictated by l o s e r

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PAGE 4

Belgium-A Must
by Brooke Duvall

Use of the Blitz Tactic


by Michael Paluszek The blitzkrieg tactic h a s been used for c e n t u r i e s by the g r e a t generals of history. It h a s been found t o be one of the most effective t a c t i c s e v e r used, and the most useful, f o r even though it reached i t s optimum u s e with the advent of f a s t moving mobilized troops, the w a r r i o r s of past t i m e s found g r e a t u s e s f o r i t too. Generally speaking, the blitzkrieg. i s m e r e l y the application of the indirect approach to f a s t moving troops. But on the gameboards of the modern w a r gamer does this always hold t r u e ? No i t doesn't. Many people have mistakenly applied the t e r m blitzkrieg to mean the u s e of powerful troops against enemy lines. Yet i s this what the Wehrmacht did to accomplish i t s many v i c t o r i e s of World War II? Of c o u r s e not. The blitzkrieg began i t s f i r s t modern evolution with the Napoleonic e r a when the generals of that time d i s c a r d e d the ancient maxim of attacking the stronge s t p a r t of the enemy line f i r s t and then mopping up l a t e r . Instead they did the opposite. The following i s a n analyzing of blitzkrieg. Exploiting the Hole F i r s t of a l l we will analyze the exploitation of the unguarded portion of an enemy's line-the hole. A hole usually o c c u r s when your opponent e i t h e r ; l a c k s the units t o maintain a line; wishes to draw you into a t r a p ; d i s c a r d s s o m e t e r r a i n which he believes t o be impregnable; o r i s c a r e less. When a gap does o c c u r in your opponents line you should be p r e p a r e d to develope i t to your b e s t use. Before you exploite a hole you a l ways should a s k yourself the following questions: do I have enough t r o o p s to exploite it, can I maintain a n offensive in that a r e a , and can he counterattack? Once you have determined that you can attack you must move a s quickly a s possible. Your main purpose h e r e i s to f o r c e your opponent to r e t r e a t , d i s rupt h i s communications and t o s m a s h his r e s e r v e s . When advancing never w o r r y unnecessarily about your flanks, for if you attempt t o maintain full protection f o r your advance units you will waste too much time and neutralize the purpose of your blitzkrieg. You must advance deep and wide quickly to b r e a k up any organized defense. You must cause confusion among his units never allowing them time to r e f o r m . You must p r e s s h i s flanks and exhaust his troops to s m a s h his line. Breaking a Hole
wish break a When You major in Your line You should always pick not only the weakest point but a l s o the point f r o m which you can do the most damage. When you have chosen the point of attack you then m a s s your troops making s u r e they a r e available simultaneously. Never attack piecemeal ! When you attack, attack a t the b e s t possible odds the focal point of your attackmaking s u r e t o attack the adjacent s q u a r e s . R e m e m b e r when a t tacking never s t r a y f r o m your objective !

Ahh - the areat debate on "Belaium" continues. First, i i w a s Lt. Carl Knabe iuggesting that the tactic of late (turn 3) invasion ensured the Germans of victory in Belgium When? (July-Aug.). Then, the honorable Andrew P. Engebretson says to ignor Belgium and, instead, bring the entire German weight to bear on the Longwy-Belfort line in Belgium Never (Sept.-Oct.). Here, Brooke Duvall says they're both nuts and tells why. . . .

Envelopement Enveloping the enemy should always be strived f o r . It i s the most effective means f o r destroying enemy troops and must be used whenever the opportunity arises. As always u s e the a r m o r a s the spearhead f o r your attack, but do not u s e i t to lay siege to the enemy, that i s the infantry's job. Armor Your a r m o r e d units a r e your most important a s s e t s . They a r e excellent f o r a s s a u l t spearheads and mobile d e fense but never use them f o r static d e fense, they should always be kept moving. Infantry Infantry i s used mainly f o r s t a t i c defense, soakoffs, minor attacks and f o r following up the a r m o r e d spearheads. If you follow these maxims properly and conscientiously you will achieve your objectives - and victory. Michael Paluszek 80 North S t r e e t Rye. New York 10580

It has been suggested that the G e r mans (in "1914") should attack only in the South, between Longwy and Belfort, because the F r e n c h get 35 points if Belgium and Luxemburg a r e invaded. While i t i s t r u e the Germans would have to get 175 points in theNorth to counter the 35 F r e n c h points, I believe a c a r e ful study of the map board will show that the invasion of Belgium i s the only way to achieve a decisive F i r s t l e t us analize the prospects of a !!southern strategy. ~h~ economic -. a r e a s in the South a r e worth 8 points to the French and 20 points to the G e r mans. Since these a l l a r e located on the F r e n c h border i t i s not unreasonable to a s s u m e that most of them would fall to the German even if h i s major attack came against Belgium. Also Metz and S t r a s s b u r g , worth 60 points to the French and 30 points t o the Germans. will stay in G e r m a n hands no m a t t e r which strategy i s pursued. Now, if the "Southern Strategy" i s used, after the e a s y economic objectives have fallen to the German onslaught what a r e his p r o s p e c t s ? He now h a s 60 points i n the South and the n e a r e s t objective i s Rheims, worth a c r u m m y 5 points. Between the German and Rheims a r e numerous F r e n c h f o r t s , the AT gonne f o r r e s t , and a system of ridge squares that a r e ideal for the defender. F o r the sake of argument l e t u s a s s u m e a v e r y successful German campaign in the South. Rheims, P a r i s , and Rouen fall to the Germans and a l m o s t a l l of F r a n c e i s subdued. I submit that even the most incompitent F r e n c h general could hold the channel p o r t s and the northern economic a r e a s . He would have one flank protected by the channel, the other protected by neutral Belgium and the f o r t s of Maubeuge. His short f r o n t would be protected by the Somme. What i s the r e s u l t of this extremely successful German attack that has conquered a l m o s t a l l of F r a n c e ? The G e r mans get 85 points plus points f o r destroyed F r e n c h units. The Allies get 20 points f o r Belgian cities and 23 points in northern F r a n c e . The Germans a r e no where n e a r a decisive victory.

PAGE 5
Using the "Northern Strategy" the G e r m a n gives up 35 points by invading Belgium and Luxemburg, but he h a s a c c e s s t o 115 points, 60 in Belgium and 55 in n o r t h e r n F r a n c e . In addition t o t h i s t h e r e a r e 2 Belgian c o r p s , 3 divisions, and 2 b r i g a d e s that a r e e a s y to d e s t r o y b e c a u s e the Belgians do not get any r e p l a c e m e n t s . T h i s i s another 32 points. Also i t i s not unreasonable t o expect m i n o r s u c c e s s i n the South which would r e s u l t in the c a p t u r e of a t l e a s t 2 o r 3 of the economic s q u a r e s , another 15 points plus 30 f o r Metz and S t r a s s b u r g . T h e r e f o r e if the G e r m a n s can r e a c h the S o m m e in the Noi-th and make minor s u c c e s s e s in the South he h a s 192 points plus points f o r d e s t r o y e d F r e n c h and B r i t i s h units. The F r e n c h will have 48 points plus points f o r d e s t r o y e d G e r m a n units. T h i s i s not a decisive v i c t o r y but i t i s a lot c l o s e r than 85-43. T h i s just goes t o show that in 1914 the points a r e in the North. Brooke Duvall 300 Gateswood Rd. Timonium, Md.

THE GENERAL
change the f i r s t t u r n s h e e t s to a s s u r e you both got the s a m e r e s u l t s . Some of the r u l e s r e q u i r e additional clarification f o r PBM. Gunnery F a c i n g can be incorporated with the "coordinate" s y s t e m s e e F i g u r e s l a and lb.

Gunnery Facing Option

Jutland Play-by-Mail-Part II by R i c h a r d C. G i b e r s o n

Giberson continues here the series begun in the July-Aug. '68 issue. Layout of PBM tables and charts applicable to this series can be found in the July-Aug. issue and because of space limitations, are not re-printed in this edition.

The extension of the P B M r u l e s to the Advanced and Tournament g a m e i s f a i r l y simple. Maneuver and F i r e should r e a l l y be simultaneous and c a n be in the P B M f o r m a t . We should m a k e the following a d j u s t m e n t s t o the P a r t I article: 1. Movement in a diagonal d i r e c t i o n should count 1.5 m o v e m e n t f a c t o r s p e r square. Allow a ship moving i n the diagonal d i r e c t i o n with one m o v e m e n t f a c t o r l e f t t o move one m o r e s q u a r e . 2. The " s q u a r e s " allowed f o r battle board e n t r y should b e r e v i s e d a c c o r d ing to Table I. T h i s d o e s two things; p e r m i t s g r e a t e r flexibility in initial line-up and m a k e s the "hexagon" s i d e s m o r e n e a r l y equal. P r o p e r s t a r t i n g s q u a r e s f o r nighttime i s l e f t a s an e x e r c i s e f o r the r e a d e r . 3. Battle r e s u l t s t a b l e s should be c o n v e r t e d to "stock tables" a s follows: 1-6 a s i s , 7 = 1, 8 = 2, 9 = 5, and 0 = 4, o r the modulo 6 method d i s c u s s e d below should be used. If stocks a r e used I r e c o m m e n d choosing s o m e fixed ones f o r Wind Di-

rection, Flotation Hits, etc. A p r e f e r able method originally d e s c r i b e d by Tony L e a l in Vol. 3 No. 3 of the GENERAL i s the mod 6 method. This would work e x t r e m e l y well in JUTLAND using the following procedure: 1. When sighting h a s o c c u r r e d between two T F ' s p l a y e r s p r e p a r e i n duplicate, t h e i r s t a r t i n g placement and f i r s t m o v e ; a single OB s h e e t suffices. They simultaneously m a i l of t h e i r s h e e t s to the opponent. E a c h p l a y e r then l i s t s a firing p a t t e r n ( i e . , B a t t l e s ) on h i s own s h e e t (the duplicate he r e tained) and on the opponents sheet. F o r e a c h battle p l a y e r s randomly l i s t numb e r s 1-6. A second n u m b e r might be l i s t e d f o r e a c h battle in c a s e a "6" is rolled. Now, on a g r e e d mailing date p l a y e r s exchange B r i t i s h ( o r G e r m a n ) s h e e t s (not both). Now e a c h p l a y e r h a s in h i s p o s s e s s i o n a complete move f o r e a c h side and Battles f o r e a c h side. To avoid having the s a m e "die-roll" i n b o t h the G e r m a n and B r i t i s h b a t t l e s p l a y e r s should l i s t offensive and defensive numb e r s . The p r o p e r "die-roll" i s obtained f r o m Table 1 1 . Obviously this p r o c e d u r e i s extendable to A i r Recon. and Red. Visibility, etc. just provide a p p r o p r i a t e boxes on your OB s h e e t s to r e c o r d the numbers. 2. P l a y e r s now make t h e i r n e x t m a neuver and f i r e t u r n and p r o c e e d a s in 1. I t might a l s o be advisable to e x -

one

As s t a t e d in the Battle A i r Rec. Manual t h i s r u l e i s u s e l e s s (since Br. m u s t c a l l out a l l T F ' s anyway). Change r u l e to r e a d "if spotted B r i t i s h m u s t tell the number and type of ships but do not give any n a m e s . F o r the "stock" method u s e 1 = 1, 2 and 3 = 2, a l l o t h e r s visibility too poor. Smoke S c r e e n M e r e l y indicate the path followed by ship laying smoke screen. S u b m a r i n e s Sighting by s u b s r e q u i r e s the identification a s in the rules. P l a y e r s then simultaneously m a i l their "sub action. " Realistic Hidden Movement coming next. Torpedoes, and B r o a d s i d e s to be f i r e d to 1422 Agnes, Richland, Washington 99352.

TABLE I REVISED GRID COORDINATES FOR INITIAL FLAGSHIP PLACEMENT Enter E or W All on E21 o r W21 f r o m N12 t o S12 inclusive N14E20, N15E19, N15E18, Nl6E17, N16E16, N17E15, N17E14, N18E13, N18E12, N19El1, N19E10, NZOE9, NZOE8, N21E7, N21E6, NZZE5, NZZE4, N23E3, N23E2, N24E1. (N24-0 i s not allowed). AND NW u s e a s i m i l a r set.

TABLE I1 DIE ROLL RESOLVER BRITISH

SE, SW.

THE GENERAL

PAGE 6

hXstorica1 Simulation Game for Two -1914


by James H. Alley The statement can be made, without too much fear of contradiction, that 1914 i s the most realistic wargame yet published. That is, if the historical simulation version i s the one played. Unfortunately, this version would seem to require a third player, and this i s a commodity often hard to come by. Also, the third player's job i s generally neither enjoyable nor interesting. So, we came to historical simulation without a third player. F i r s t , you need two players who trust each other. (All right, but m i r a cles do happen.) Now, we will go through the necessary rules step by step and explain the procedure for play with two people. The Inverted Counter rule does not pose a problem, a s i t was designed for use by two players. Neither does the Eastern Front rule, since allotments must be written down., The Game Variation Rule provides a large problem. I t is recommended, however, that this rule be omitted in the historical simulation game a s it actually d e t r a c t s f r o m the game's realism by allowing situations which did not exist during the actual battle. This cannot be used with only two players, but i t i s recommended that i t be used only if you want to alter the existing basic situation. None of the other advanced game rules need a third player. It i s strongly recommended that you drop the Time Limit and Dummy Counter rules along With the Game Variation rule when playing the Historical Simulation v e r sion. This i s because you now lack the knowledge of all your opponent's unit locations. The two first-mentioned rules were designed tooffsetthis knowledge and a r e not necessary in the Historical Simulation Version. We now come to the heart of the Historical Simulation game Simultaneous Movement, Delayed Command, and cle to Historical Simulation with two players, but it can be solved very simply with cardboard, felt-tip markers. and a paper clip o r two. Each side writes its move on aMobilization Chart a s explained insimultaneous Movement, with these exceptions. When moving, do not place the unit code of the unit in the square to which i t i s moving. If units wish to remain in place or to attack o r move away from a square adjacent to the enemy, place an "R" in the square along with the appropriate move-. ment notation. It will be necessary to refer to the previous move's mobilization chart to see your exact units. F o r the sake of convenience we will use the viewpoint of the German player to describe how to discover when units collide o r a r e adjacent to each other. The Allied player can perform the task just a s easily by reversing the procedure. If you have pieces of shirt cardboard, you will notice that their width corresponds very nicely to the width of the mobilization charts. Now after both sides have moved, the German player takes the cardboard and slides it a s f a r e a s t on top of his mobilization chart a s i s possible without covering any square adjacent to the final positions of his units. He then clips the chart to the cardboard. Then with a felt-tip pen or magic marker he colors in all squares left uncovered by the cardboard which a r e to the west of ,the squares his units a r e adjacent to. He does not color squares adjacent to his units. This whole procedure should take only two to three minutes and i s actually faster than comparison of moves by a third player. Irregular shaped pieces of cardboard may be cut and clipped to the German's c h a r t to eliminate some of the a r e a which needs to be colored. After using the magic marker, (black i s good for this), the German simply aligns the Allied player's chart under his without looking a t i t and holds the whole thing up to the light. The German player sees all his units, but only lines, arrows, o r "R1"s to indicate enemy units adjacent to or in collision with him. He does not know their strengths and he does not even see any enemy units which a r e not adjacent to him. Later, the comparison of the sheet's unit codes can be filled inat the units' destination. The German player then places units which a r e adjacent to enemy units on the board, upside down. The Allied pldyer does the same. Battles and collisions a r e handled with the Inverted Counter and Simultaneous Movement Rules. It i s recommended that you use a different colored magic marker to keep track of the path of your EB units if you a r e playing the Germans. Although this system may sound complicated, you will find it to be quite simple. It will provide you with the ultimate in realism for a wargame without the necessity of a third player and will actually take l e s s time than a third player. Besides, the Historical Simulation version finally gives the cavalry something to do. James Alley 24 Lincoln Avenue Old Greenwich, Connecticut 06870.

--

Hidden Movement. Simultaneous movement does not create a problem. I t only necessitates the use of Mobilization Charts. This means everything must be written down. Thus you have something to check your opponent on a t the end of the game. Maybe you don't have to trust him after all. Delayed Command can be handled with a bit of diligent work by the German player and the expenditure of a little more time. This rule i s not absolutely necessary, but then the game takes some time to play and Delayed Command does add to the realism without sacrificing any playability. Hidden Movement i s the main obsta-

Third Armored Division, Spearhead in the West, Frankfurt a m main; F r a n s Joseph Henrich Druckerei & Verlag, 1946. Dewey Decimal #940.542 U581 s. PP 14- 35 Describes the subordinate units and their role in the 3rd Armored Division. PP 14- 15 mentions the subordinate units normally under the CCA H Q especially 32 Armored Regiment (minus 1 Battalion. PP 16- 17 does the same for CCB and i t s major component

33 Armored Regiment (minus 1 Battalion). PP 194 explains the organization of the c&bat commands and the subordinate task forces. It also mentions that CCR was normally composed of 36 Armored Infantry Regiment minus 2 Battalions but plus 1 Battalion each from 32 & 33 Armored Regiment. Also unless CCR committed organic and attached artillery was not given to it but supported the Armored Combat Commands.

PAGE 7

All it Takes is Efficient Planning. . .


by E m m e t Dowling a b r e a k in the R u s s i a n l i n e s in the a r e a of GG11- 12 and F F 1 1 - 12. In the south the G e r m a n m u s t only a t t a c k a t 3-1 odds, however, the G e r m a n m u s t a t t a c k a t e v e r y 3-1 opportunity he gets. As the g a m e p r o g r e s s e s the R u s s i a n h a s to withdraw units f r o m the south to r e e n f o r c e the n o r t h e r n c e n t r a l f c e n t r a l . At that time, when the southern a r e a i s sufficiently weakened.the G e r m a n should b r e a k through making Stalingrad h i s p r i m e goal, with Moscow a s a seconda r y target. In this d r i v e , the G e r m a n m u s t knife around the R u s s i a n s in a NE direction toward the P r i p y a t M a r s h e s and then swiftly wheelSE and s m a s h the Russian's r i g h t flank ( t h a t i s , the one n e a r e s t the P r i p y a t M a r s h e s ) driving h i m toward the Black Sea. The G e r m a n should only u s e enough t r o o p s h e r e to p r e s s him h a r d but not completely def e a t him. R e m e m b e r ! Keep Stalingrad a s your m a i n goal h e r e . ARMY GROUP NORTH A r e a of Operations A35 to J 3 0 Units 2 4-4-6 All Rumanian All F i n n i s h

ARMY GROUP CENTER A r e a of Operations S17 to AA14 & U 4 2 4 4 2 4 8-8-6 7-7-6 6-6-6 5-5-4 4-4-6 4-4-4

Many individuals have t r i e d , and failed, to c r e a t e what they f e l t w a s the perfect R u s s i a n defensive placement. It i s m y opinion t h a t any placement, no m a t t e r how well-thought out, i s v u l n e r able to a n adequate and efficient G e r m a n plan. I would now like to r e l a t e to you a plan I have used with g r e a t s u c c e s s and I hope i t will w o r k f o r you a s well a s i t h a s f o r myself. In the o r i g i n a l campaign, the G e r m a n G e n e r a l Staff c o m m i t t e d the m a j o r i t y of the G e r m a n a r m o r and a r m o r e d infant r y to the n o r t h e r n c e n t r a l f c e n t r a l s e c tion. I t w a s proposed that this f o r c e should d r i v e toward Leningrad and Moscow, with the p r i m e t a r g e t being Moscow itself. The G e r m a n s a l s o wisely used the geographical position of the P r i p y a t m a r s h e s to their advantage in o r d e r to b r e a k the R u s s i a n line in two. In the s o u t h e r n a r e a (between B r e s t Litovsk and the B l a c k s e a ) the G e r m a n s planned to f o r c e the R u s s i a n s to c o m m i t the m a j o r i t y of t h e i r a r m y in this a r e a by making a show of f o r c e with m o s t of t h e i r infantry. H e r e then i s m y plan which i s quite s i m i l a r to the o r i g i n a l G e r m a n set-up. I have divided the G e r m a n a r m y into three groups; A r m y Group South, A r m y Group C e n t e r and A r m y Group North. Each of these g r o u p s w i l l h a v e a d e f i n i t e a r e a of o p e r a t i o n s and a p a r t i c u l a r numb e r of divisions allotted to i t asfollows: ARMY GROUP SOUTH A r e a of O p e r a t i o n s U s BB14 t o P P 1 3 4 5-5-4

In the south (BB14 to P P 1 3 ) , A r m y Group South will be used to d r a w a s much of the R u s s i a n A r m y a s possible to this a r e a . T h i s c a n be achieved by f i r s t placing s i x units of 4-4-4 and one unit of 3-3-6 between the B l a c k S e a and s q u a r e L L l 2 in the c u s t o m a r y fashion. Next, six additional units of 4-4-4 m u s t be placed next to Hungary ( t h r e e a t MM8 and t h r e e a t MM9) in o r d e r to a t t a c k the a r e a of GG 11-12. The r e s t of A r m y Group South should be placed between AA and EE. Special attention should be given to these units s o they c a n exploit

In Finland, where you have l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , consider the s t r e n g t h of the G e r m a n f o r c e s h e r e . Usually, the Russ i a n will c o m m i t f r o m 18-28 defensive f a c t o r s i n t h i s a r e a , while the G e r m a n will have 38 a t t a c k f a c t o r s . F r e q u e n t soak-offs a r e ill-advised a s you soon won't have any units to soak-off with a t all. However, if the R u s s i a n p l a c e s h i s units a s to allow you to h i t h i s flank, then by a l l m e a n s do so. You c a n a t t a c k a t 3-1 on a 5-7 o r 4-1 on a 4-6 and s t i l l be able t o p r o t e c t your flanks f r o m a R u s s i a n counter-offensive. If t h i s i s not possible, you c a n attack Leningrad a t 1-2 if the R u s s i a n p l a c e s a 4-6 o r 5-7 in the city. These 1-2 a t t a c k s c a n be repeated until you f o r c e h i m to r e t r e a t o r a n exchange situation o c c u r s . Of these two s t r a t a g e m s , the f i r s t one i s the b e t t e r one because if you can eliminate one R u s s i a n unit on your v e r y f i r s t turn, the R u s s i a n will be f o r c e d t o withdraw and he would never think of counter-attacking a s t h i s would danger his position. If you c a n tie-up f o u r to seven R u s s i a n units and a t the s a m e time t h r e a t e n the R u s s i a n positions around Leningrad and Moscow, then the R u s s i a n m u s t c o m m i t h i s r e s e r v e s to this a r e a , thus denying h i m of needed r e e n f o r c e m e n t s in o t h e r danger s p o t s

Now then, i n the n o r t h e r n c e n t r a l / c e n t r a l section, A r m y Group Center m u s t d r i v e without r e s p i t e a s the succ e s s of t h i s group will decide a G e r m a n defeat o r victory. In this p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , t h e r e a r e t h r e e key a r e a s , which if c a p t u r e d e a r l y , will prove f a t a l to the Russian. The f i r s t a r e a i s that of S18 a n d S19, e s p e c i a l l y if any unit l e s s than a 5-7 a p p e a r s there. A 3-1 attack, with a soak-off, a g a i n s t S19 will allow the G e r m a n to c r o s s the r i v e r no l a t e r than the second turn. In conjunction with t h i s attack, a 1- 1 a t t a c k against R18 could v e r y well leave the unit on S18 (usually a 7-10-3) pinned in and f o r c e d to a t t a c k a t unfavorable odds. If you do eliminate his 7-10-3, you will deny h i m of one of his m o s t powerful units and will be well on the way to completely breaking through in this a r e a . The second key a r e a i s that of V19. Another 3- 1 attack, with a soak-off, can be launched a t t h i s point with the r e s u l t s being: f i r s t , being able to c r o s s the r i v e r a t t h i s point and second, boxing in the units between S18 and V19. The R u s s i a n m u s t withdraw this line o r e l s e f a c e envelopment. The l a s t a r e a of importance i s the position around B r e s t Litovsk, AA15 and BB15. H e r e if a 5-7 i s placed in the city, with a 4-6 inBB15, a 3-1 a t t a c k will c u t a l l t r a n s portation between the c e n t r a l and southe r n s e c t o r s . If the R u s s i a n places m o r e than one unit p e r s q u a r e , these a r e a s a r e s t i l l the p l a c e s to attack. Once you have c r o s s e d the Nemunas R i v e r no l a t e r than the second turn, the R u s s i a n m u s t fight a t l e a s t four, 3-1 o r b e t t e r battles a c r o s s a l l of his f r o n t s on e a c h of the following turns. L e s s than four battles p e r t u r n will allow the Russ i a n to u s e s o m e of h i s replacements. You m u s t decide a t about the third o r f o u r t h turn, depending upon the Russian defense, whether you want to take Leningrad o r Moscow. One of these c i t i e s m u s t be taken before winter in o r d e r to reduce the R u s s i a n r e p l a c e m e n t rate. I f e e l that if t h i s plan i s followed with the p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r of 3-1 a t t a c k s and if you c r o s s the Nemunas r i v e r o n t i m e , G e r m a n victory i s yours. E m m e t Dowling 2713 Urbana Drive Wheaton, Maryland 20906

After this Key German Move, You Allies Pray


by Glenn A. H a r r i s The G e r m a n in the Battle of the Bulge g e t s the advantage of s t r i k i n g a t a f o r c e which, in a l l g a m e s , r e m a i n s the s a m e . T h u s he can develop h i s f i r s t move, and u s e i t on a l l of h i s g a m e s . About a l l the A m e r i c a n can do about t h i s i s p r a y , and hope that h e h a s enough f o r c e s left t o f i l l the gaps. On the f i r s t move, the G e r m a n should t r y to d e s t r o y units, block r e t r e a t s , a n d open up holes in the A m e r i can l i n e s , setting up f o r a n a s s a u l t on key points. With t h e s e points in mind h e r e i s the f i r s t move: EXACT UNITS Lehr 217.8 2/17 116 150 A. C. lss 9ss 12 18;26/51 62;26/52 79 167;276/551 276/552;5/7 2771553 2771554 326 340;560/915 352 560/916 5/8,9 3 ORIGINAL PLACEMENT PP-23 PP-25 PP-24 qq-25 PP-25 uu-15 uu-11 qq-26 uu-13 uu- 8 r r - 17 rr-27 uu-27 uu- 16 qq-26 PP-24 uu-10 ss-27 uu- 9 uu-28 PP-22

...

Victory by Default
by B a r r y Branch

1. T h i s a t t a c k with the 418 r e t r e a t ing along the TT-line will stop the unit .from r e t r e a t i n g on i t s next t u r n . 2. Same a s above but r e t r e a t along UU-line . 3. F o r c i n g back 9 / c c r will allow G e r m a n a s s a u l t on Diekirch next t u r n , and widen c e n t e r gap. 4. With unit r e t r e a t i n g t o r o a d a n d 116th advancing t o Clervaux, the Allied player m u s t r e t r e a t o r attack. 5. Having 281 110 r e t r e a t along r o a d t o Wiltz with L e h r advancing helps f o r c e s u r r e n d e r of Clervaux. 6. T h i s battle a s s u r e s elimination of 1061422. 7. Same a s above, but e l i m i n a t e s 1061423. 8. Battle f o r c e s 14 A. C . out of t e r r i t o r y and o f f e r s good G e r m a n advancem e n t . Have 14 A. C. r e t r e a t along St. Vith road. On a l l F i r s t t u r n m o v e s infantry w a s i n c o r p o r a t e d s o i t could be eliminated instead of precious p a n z e r s . On following t u r n s , send p a n z e r s ahead and l e a v e infantry f o r mop-up. The 99th and 2nd infantry w e r e not attacked b e c a u s e of prohibitive odds. With even the w o r s t luck, the only r e t r e a t f o r t h e m will be up r o a d t o Malmedy. Infantry involved in battle $9 should advance t o Spa. Use 17AM and p a r t of 18AM r e i n f o r c e m e n t s f o r a t t a c k on Spa only if needed, otherwise put in place m o s t in need of a r m o r . The 4th should b e surrounded and d e s t r o y e d by local infantry on l 6 P M t u r n . The 3 r d p a r a division can b e used f o r cutoff of r e t r e a t s if possible. Even with exceptionally bad luck, St. Vith, Clervaux, and possibly Diek i r c h will fall a t l e a s t by l 6 P M t u r n . C o m m e n t s to Glenn A. H a r r i s , 524 R o s e m a r i e A r c a d i a , California 91006.

t3arry.K. Branch is a 34-year-old attorney who got hooked on A.H. games back in 1963. He made the pilgrimage to Avalon Hill in 1966, after appearing in the U.S. Supreme Court, but found no one "at home" that afternoon (something about out playing games). Barrister Branch plays 'em all except, of 1 . course, Verdict 1
Do you find t h a t your pbm opponents sound like l i o n s before the g a m e s s t a r t , but r u n like gophers a s soon a s the a c tion g e t s h o t ? About the 3 r d o r 4th move, when the sunshine of your m i l i t a r y genius shows them t h e i r shadows, they duck back into t h e i r holes and n e v e r come o u t ? I t a p p e a r s there a r e many i m m a t u r e w a r g a m e r s who r o a r f o r w a r , but when they feel the f i r s t danger, you n e v e r h e a r f r o m them again. Do you t r e a t t h i s a s a victory, o r an incomplete g a m e ? You should have no doubt whatsoever - a default i s an absolute victory, f a r m o r e a triumph than one which takes " y e a r s " of play and dozens of "destroyed divisions". Give yourself full c r e d i t f o r your skill. No w a r i n h i s t o r y was e v e r won by complete e r a d i c a t i o n of the enemy a r m e d f o r c e s ; w a r i s won when the enemy bec o m e s convinced that h i s salvation l i e s only in s u r r e n d e r o r truce. So i n pbm, if you have convinced your enemy by m i l i t a r y and psychological m e a n s - to flee your wrath, you have won grandly. The m o r e so, if i t took just 2 o r 3 moves. The complete route and flight of the enemy i s not r a r e in history. In 331 b. c . , when the day-long battle of Arbela swayed in Alexander's favor, Darius turned h i s c h a r i o t and fled the field in panic. When Napoleon b e c a m e convinced in 1812 t h a t he could not conquer Russia, though he w a s holding Moscow and much of the C z a r ' s t e r r i t o r y , he leaped to h i s sleigh and r e t r e a t e d a l l the way to P a r i s to hide. In 1940, a few P a n z e r s rattling a c r o s s F r a n c e convinced the B r i t i s h , s o they packed up t h e i r e n t i r e a r m y and vanished f r o m the continent, v i a Dunkirk. When a pbm opponent vanishes f r o m the m a i l s , t h e r e should be no doubt you a r e the victor. P r o p o s e d Rule: if no r e p l y f o r 2 weeks, send a warning postc a r d ; if no r e p l y f o r 2 m o r e weeks, m e r e l y c r o s s h i m off your l i s t and chalk up another win.

-,

STOP 00-24 00-26 00- 25 PP-26 00- 26 s s - 15 uu- 1 1 PP-27 uu- 13 tt-9 rr-16 qq-28 tt-30 uu- 14 PP-27 00-25 uu- 10 rr-28 uu- 9 uu-30 00-22

The a t t a c k s in t h i s o r d e r a r e : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5/7;276/552 518,9 167;352;276/551 12;116;277/554;150 A . C . 2/7,8 5. ~ e h r ; 3 2 6 ; 2 / 1 7 6. lss;26/51;2771553 7. 9 s s ; 1 8 8. 62;560;340;26/52 vs. vs. vs. vs.
VS.

418 4/12 91ccr 281109 281110 1061422 1061423 14A.C.

1-1 1-1 5- 1 6- 1 5- 1 4- 1 4- 1 7- 1

vs. vs. vs.

B a r r y K. B r a n c h 2106 E l m h u r s t Royal Oak, Michigan 48073

PAGE 9

THE GENERAL

Time-Saver Tips
Both the a u t h o r s of "Psychology i n W a r g a m i n g , " Vol. 416, and "Kounter Kunst, " Vol 5/ 1, have i n t h e i r lighth e a r t e d way, indicated how s o m e of the p r e p a r a t o r y tedium c a n b e r e m o v e d f r o m wargaming. B e f o r e playing a n y opponent, I s o r t out 'the c o u n t e r s of m y new A / H g a m e into h e a p s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r o r d e r of a p p e a r a n c e with f u r t h e r sub dividing if n e c e s s a r y . S p e c i a l i s t units have s m a l l s q u a r e s o r s t r i p s of c o l o r e d p a p e r o r tape s t u c k i n the l a r g e s t a v a i l a b l e s p a c e on t h e f r o n t of the counter, t o quote f r o m TACTICS 11, p u r p l e f o r p a r a s . g r e e n f o r the mountain men, and yellow f o r the amphibians. All c o u n t e r s a r e coded on the r e v e r s e , e . g . t h e r e a r e 14 c o u n t e r s i n D-DAY with the f i g u r e s 16 on the b a c k t o show that they go up the l i n e o n the 16th week. E a c h h e a p i s placed i n a suitably labelled t i n o r matchbox t h a t will itself f i t into t h e p a r e n t A / H box. BLITZKRIEG gave m e p a r t i c u l a r p l e a s u r e , f o r i n addition t o s o r t i n g out a l l t h o s e counters. I i m m e d i a t e l y d e cided t o give n a m e s t o a l l t h o s e soull e s s c i t i e s . If anyone f a n c i e s a s t a n d a r d i s e d s e t of n a m e s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g a m e , m a y I s u g g e s t t h e following. The n a m e s I u s e a r e a l l t h e n a m e s of f i l m d i r e c t o r s , c a p i t a l s a r e u n d e r lined. GREAT BLUE - - - - S u g g e s t s a n Anglo Saxon country. Massingham, F o r d S-25, DonnerV33, Gance-133, Huston-C30, A n d e r son-CZO, G r i e r s o n - L 1 9 , MackendrickQ16, Losey-112, S t u r g e s - D 7 , MelvilleG4, Clayton- JZ8. BIG R E D - - - - Slavonic connotations ? Dovzhenko-SZ5, Wajda-RRR54, Kub r i c k - J J J 5 6 , Ustinov-BBB54, ChukraiNN48, Tashlin-ZZ48, Vadim-YY43, Pudovkin-BBB33, G r i g o r i - F F F 3 0 , Donskoi-11137, Dmytryk-NNN35, GuitryRRR39. Between t h e Big Two a r e the poor neut r a l s whose n a m e s I have invented. HEGLAND - - - - Somewhat Teutonic. Kramer-U11, Sucksdorff-EEZ5. Sternberg-VZO, OphulsReisz-XZ7, M14. FARINIA - - - Obviously Italian connections. F e l l i n i - B B 3 1,Lattuada-EE34,CapraCC39, Visconti-AA42. HURGEN - - - - The towns sound F r e n c h if the country doesn't. B r e s s o n - JJ46. F r a n j u - JJ38. Clouzot-VV42, C h a b r o l - 0 0 4 0 . KROVENIA ---- One of two C e n t r a l E u r o p e a n places. Benedek-HH31,
- -

Mamoulian-NN33,

Berlanga-0030. MALCO - - - - The o t h e r one. Bunuel-WW32, Astruc-UU37, Negulesco-VVZ5. Another BLITZKRIEG a i d i s to roughl y r e p r o d u c e your own m a p of the a r e a (the continent Fantasia, on a piece of paper about 18x9, s t i c k i t t o a n empty c a r d b o a r d box and f o r e a c h city unit s t i c k a paper r e i n f o r c e m e n t r i n g on the map, they may o v e r l a p w h e r e t h e r e a r e

m o r e than one t o a city, but it d o e s not m a t t e r . By u s i n g c o l o r e d m a p pins one c a n s e e a t a glance who c o n t r o l s which town even if c o u n t e r s a r e a b s e n t . A s r e i n f o r c e m e n t s and c a s u a l t i e s come and go I keep a running s c o r e of strengthratios On a "Orer as used o v e r h e r e f o r b i l l i a r d s - - you c a n a l w a y s u s e a n a b a c u s . T h i s a l s o s e r v e s f o r the
maintenance of ammo in GUADALCANAL. Most of t h e s e a i d s m a y s e e m a little but who have thought of t h e m , I find t h e m invaluable.

W. E . Me11 21 Wheathouse T e r r a c e Birkby, Huddersfield Y o r k s h i r e , G r e a t Britain

PBM Mistakes - Rulings


Many's the time Avalon Hill has been asked to make rulings on mistakes that occur in the course of a play by mail game. Up to this point we have tried to refrain from the role of arbiter since we felt that most war garners were mature enough to resolve situations among themselves. Apparently this is not the case. Therefore, we are reversing our earlier stand and publishing what we feel are guide lines towards the most realistic way of resolving play by mail mistakes. Our thanks go to many of our "regulars" for their contributions and, in particular, Joseph Pollock of North Babylon, New York for compiling the following rulings':
of the OB. If a unit i s omitted but is adjacent to an enemy unit i t must be included in the attack and the odds changed accordingly.

1. M - The location of a unit i s omitted from the 0 B sheet. R - The unit in question is placed at its last recorded position (prior turn). 2. M - The omitted unit is included in a battle. R - Since its location has been omitted and it i s considered at its last known position i t i s removed from section 3 of the OB sheet and does not take part in the battle. (battle odds are corrected). 3. M - Units positions are recorded wrong on PBM OB sheet. ex., 99/393 position shown to be 99/395's and vice versa. R - Provided both units in question are in play (on the board) the defender makes the correction in location and play proceeds as normal. Otherwise units are located at last known position (prior turn).

4. M - A unit is moved beyond its movement capability. R - The unit i s moved to closest position i t could have reached - along its line of march. If i t was listed in section 3 of OB remove and correct odds.
5. M - A unit i s moved in violation of terrain or weather restrictions. R - Ruling same as #4. 6. M - A unit i s moved in violation of enemy zones o f control. R - The unit i s placed on the zone of control i t violated and a battle is fought, or existing battle odds are changed. (if this i s not possible due to stacking limitations the unit is returned to its last recorded position)

7. M - Units are recorded on PBM OB sheet violating stacking limitations. R - The first units to occupy the square starting from the top left of the order of battle sheet and reading towards the bottom right are considered to be at that location. A l l other units are returned to last known positions.
8. M - Units are located wrong in section 3 of the OB sheet or omitted from section 3. R - The governing factor i s the recorded position on the front

9. M - Battle odds figured wrong. R--Defender corrects odds and fights battles as normal. 10. M - Wrong defending unit listed in section 3 or omitted from R- Ruling same as #8. 11. M - Closing Transaction Date omitted, or stock market closed on CTD. R - If CTD omitted use day after post mark on attackers envelope or next open market day. If market closed on CTD use next available days results. An explanation, the entire stock clipping and the attackers postmarked envelope must be sent back to him. 12. M - A stock i s omitted from 3d. R - Before starting the game each player selects 5 stocks and sends the list to his opponent. These stocks are not to be used during regular turns so that they may be used in these situations. List must be used in its original order. 13. M - An entire attack not listed. R - If the units in question are adjacent to an enemy unit a battle must be fought. If this i s not possible due to a limitation on the number of attack per turn, a l l the adjacent attacking units in question are returned to last recorded position. (prior turn) 14. M - Stock result not shown in daily clipping. R- Same as #12 use emergency stock. The entire stock result clipping must be sent to the attacker. 15. M - Defender does not have result for CTD, due to his own mistake or whatever. R - He uses next available CTD but pays a 2 unit penalty. Only units on the board can be used and the defender has the choice of which units to remove. 16. M - Dispositions after combat omitted section 3f. R - Tough luck for the attacker, defender retreats as he wishes, no advance unless attacking units boxed. 17. M - Weatherm supply or artillery stocks omitted. R - Use ruling #12 18. M - Disposition after combat wrong due to weather, terrain, R - movement or enemy zones of control. R - Corrected by defender with an explanation. 19. M - Incorrect rule interpretation. R - Correct interpretation should be quoted from rules, stating page and section, turn then corrected as per rules by defender. Units moved to furthest possible forward positions on their original line of march. If this i s not possible, units in question are returned to last recorded position.
20. M - Different rule interpretations and no proof available in rules. R Send to Avalon Hill for the answer. Use self-addressed stamped envelope. Avalon Hill answer binding on both players. Both players should write.

THE GENERAL

PAGE 10
identical, except you have a n advantage. The d e s e r t i s m o r e e a s i l y reached f r o m your b o r d e r . The d e s e r t offers the key t o victory f o r you. c. If both p l a y e r s u s e the s a m e s t r a t e g y , the f i r s t t o r e a c t and move through the c e n t r a l portion f i r s t will usually win. The s e c r e t t o the game i s SPEED. The f a s t e r you can gobble up t e r r i t o r y in the beginning of the game, the b e t t e r chance of victory exi s t s . Don't take a defensive posture u n l e s s you absolutely have to. Attack and counterattack. Both countries a r e e a s y to defend, with many mountains, r i v e r s and f o r e s t s offering excellent points f o r a m b u s h e s . If a l l t h i s sounds e a s y , i t i s n ' t . P l a y r e q u i r e s a l l the skill and d e ing t e r m i n a t i o n you have, s o don't give up. However, t h i s game o f f e r s everyone a chance t o b e a c r e a t i v e l e a d e r ; not one who m e r e l y second-guesses the h i s t o r i c a l general. Don't l e t the optional r u l e s r u i n the game e i t h e r . I have played the b a s i c g a m e a s well a s the full-blown t o u r n a m e n t v e r s i o n , and each o f f e r s excitement and i n t e r e s t . Michael A. F l a m e r , 2d L t , USAF CMR 1, Box A-5408 Sheppard A F B , T e x a s 7631 1.

Speed -the Blitz Secret


by 2nd Lt. Micha e l A. F l a m e r Blitzkrieg i s called the m o s t difficult and complex i n the Avalon Hill l i n e of w a r g a m e s . The usual r e a c t i o n of a prospective opponent i s one of confusion and awe. A s the l a r g e mapboard opens up, s h e e r h o r r o r r e g i s t e r s on the novi c e ' s face. I t r y t o b e f r i e n d l y a n d hopeful, encouraging h i m with "Oh, i t i s n ' t that hard. o r "once you get the f e e l of it, i t all goes r a t h e r smoothly. " Of c o u r s e , he s m i l e s weakly and, having committed himself previously, goes through the machinations of playing, but h i s h e a r t i s n ' t r e a l l y in i t . the m o s t v a r i e d Actually, =offers opportunities t o w a r g a m e r s . The pos sibilities of s t r a t e g y a n d t a c t i c s a r e endless. The g a m e i s n e i t h e r l i m i t e d by h i s t o r i c a l action n o r i s i t c o n s t r i c t e d t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r pattern, such a s who m u s t take the offensive and defensive. The l a r g e board i s a definite advantage, offering the opportunity t o develop the s t r a t e g y before a c t u a l combat o c c u r s . The l a r g e s i z e o f f e r s maneuverability. while challenging the w a r g a m e r t o wage w a r within supply limitations. The question a r i s e s : i s t h e r e a s t r a t e g y that h a s the b e s t chance t o win? Yes, a resounding y e s ! Okay, you think y o u r s i s b e t t e r . I only submit t h i s plan a s a guide, not a s the gospel. a . If you a r e Blue, move your a r m o r a s f a s t a s you can a c r o s s the G r e a t Koufax D e s e r t . If R e d i g n o r e s t h i s action, o r f o r s o m e r e a s o n d o e s not putup a n a d e q u a t e defense, R e d ' s n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r y i s y o u r s f o r the asking. Your infantry m a y b e s e t up a s you s e e f i t along P i n s k y Lake f r o m the s e a t o the mountains t o stop R e d ' s a t t a c k s . T h i s i s e a s i l y defended country a n d r e q u i r e s many moves and much manpower t o breakthrough. b. If you a r e Red, your s t r a t e g y i s

PBM Artillery fire


When playing a P B M g a m e of Guadalcanal, the long r a n g e of a r t i l l e r y c a n be difficult to solve. I have found the following method of f i r i n g c a n be u s e d to g r e a t l y simplify the battles. The attacking p l a y e r l i s t s e a c h of his units f i r i n g and t h e i r t a r g e t s , a s well a s the number of s h o t s e a c h one will f i r e . The a t t a c k e r then l i s t s two l e t t e r s f r o m the stock m a r k e t . (example: A and D) He m u s t designate which l e t t e r i s f o r the attacking units and which i s f o r defending units. In the example, u s e A f o r a t t a c k e r and D f o r defender. The defender looks a t the stocks l i s t e d f o r h i s f i r e and the attacke r s f i r e . After the l e t t e r i s located, the s a l e s in hundreds f o r the n u m b e r of shots f i r e d a r e l i s t e d by digit. E x a m ple: The a t t a c k e r f i r e s 4 rounds a t t a r g e t XX. 3 a t t a r g e t YY, and 2 a t t a r g e t Z Z . This t o t a l s 9 shots. The defender g o e s to the 'A' section of the m a r k e t , and l i s t s the s a l e s of the s t o c k s in o r d e r , by digit. On the s a m p l e s shown, the l i s t would be 1, 2,4, 1 , 3 , 1, 7, 1, and 4. The n o r m a l r e s u l t s table i s used. The s a m e s t e p s would have been taken f o r the d e f e n d e r s f i r e . If he f i r e d 5 shots, f r o m the 'Dl s a l e s , he would have used 3 , 8 , 4, 3. Again, the n o r m a l r e s u l t s would have applied.

Best Allied Defense -an Aggressive German


Most Afrika K o r p s p l a y e r s r e a l i z e Tobruch i s the key to the defense of North Africa. Avalon Hill s t a t e s , in the Battle Manual f o r this game, that the b e s t s t r a t e g y f o r the Allied p l a y e r avoid c o m b a t and to follow i s to hole up in Tobruk. ' I This m e a s u r e i s fine l a t e r on in the game when the s u m m e r buildup i s in p r o g r e s s . But the m a j o r p r o b l e m r e m a i n s , how a r e you going to delay the Axis t r o o p s f r o m reaching T o b r u k ? The weak point in t h i s Axis a r m o u r i s the f a c t that the die m u s t b e r o l l e d in o r d e r f o r the supply units to a r r i v e . s o i t i s t h e r e f o r e logical t h a t this would be the place to "attack. I ' The s t r a t e g y b e s t used by the Allied player i s a s follows: He should position h i s t r o o p s in such a m a n n e r that t h e r e i s no route the e n e m y c a n take through the B r i t i s h l i n e s without e n t e r ing a zone of control. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of this " shoulder-to-shoulder" placem e n t would be when B r i t i s h units occupy s q u a r e s N19, K16, H16 and Q22. If the G e r m a n player believes in attacking only s m a l l a r e a s a t one t i m e i t i s possible f o r the Allied units to f o r m a double defensive line. ( B r i t i s h units would take positions 0 2 1 . L19, and 118). In l a r g e a r e a a t t a c k s units should be kept in the r e a r to give the enemy something t o maneuver around instead of them heading d i r e c t l y f o r the t a r g e t

"...

The s a m e s t o c k s m a y be used f o r other bdttles, s i n c e only individual digits a r e used f o r a r t i l l e r y . Capt. Richard R. Nichols 121 Illinois Drive Little Rock A F B Jacksonville, A r k a n s a s 72076

if a breakthrough does occur. It should be s t r e s s e d a t this point that t h i s type of defense i s good only f o r delaying e n e m y "blitzes" and i t should und e r NO c i r c u m s t a n c e s be c o n s i d e r e d a position e a s i l y held f o r a long period of time. After e a c h Axis advance Allied f o r c e s in e n e m y c o m b a t zones should withdraw and take up new positions. The a v e r a g e defensive s t r e n g t h should be a m i n i m u m of 3 when not on e s c a r p m e n t s q u a r e s and 2 when on; the p i e c e s nailing down the e n d s of the line should be s t r o n g e r than n o r m a l ( 4 o r 5 ) t o p r e v e n t rolling up of the flanks. If this s y s t e m i s u s e d the B r i t i s h player will achieve two things---first, the G e r m a n p l a y e r will be f o r c e d to use his p r e c i o u s supply f a c t o r s i n o r d e r to advance; and second, the Allied comm a n d e r i s able to keep the Axis comm a n d e r f r o m reaching Tobruch before the allied s u m m e r buildup commences. The Allied p l a y e r m u s t constantly be on the lookout f o r chances of e n c i r cling the enemy; this type of defense i s well suited f o r a maneuver such a s this. Many an Axis c o m m a n d e r h a s had a m a j o r i t y of h i s t r o o p s surrounded and cut off because he attacked on the a s sumptidn that a supply unit would be forthcoming. L e e Matthews 1267 Olive t St. LaJolla, Calif. 92037

PAGE 11

THE GENERAL

Prospect:

.....

One, two, three, four, five

The War Game


A One-Act Play by J a r e d Johnson CHARACTERS Wargamer: An enthusiastic AH Warg a m e r eager to t r a i n a new opponent. Prospect: Reluctant person playing a n AH game for the f i r s t time. Setting: A well-furnished mediumsized den with a l a r g e game table in the middle. Wargamer and P r o s p e c t a r k seated on opposite sides of the game table. minutes. P r o s p e c t s t a r t s t o smile a s Wargamer becomes f r u s t r a t e d . ) Prospect: See? Wargamer: Oh, no ! Here i t i s ! Prospect: T h e r e ? ? ? Wargamer: (Condescendingly): Yeah. It was right in front of your nose. Prospect: You couldn't find i t either. Wargamer: (Somewhat abashed): Well now you take the r e s t of these units and s e t them up anywhere behind this line running f r o m h e r e to here. while I do the same. Prospect: Can they go on the l i n e ? Wargamer: No. Prospect: Why not? Wargamer: Because. I t ' s the r u l e s . ( P r o s p e c t shrugs shoulders and s t a r t s to s e t up his men. Wargamer i s finished in two minutes. ) Wargamer: YOU finished y e t ? Prospect: I don't know what I ' m doing. Wargamer: That unit's in front of the line. It can't be there. Prospect: (Slightly peeved): SO, 1'11 move i t back. What difference does i t make ? Wargarner: If I w e r e you, I ' d put some units over here. P r o s p e c t : (Annoyed): What f o r ? Wargarner: Well, i t ' s always a good idea f o r me to attack down t h i s side. You ought to have some men t h e r e . ( P r o s p e c t s picks up a few of his pieces f r o m the board and drops them f r o m a heibht of six inches over the spot Wargamer h a s pointed to, then straightens them wherever they have fallen. ) Prospect: (Sarcastically): How's that? Wargamer: That'll do. Now, i t ' s your turn. Prospect! What do I do? Wargamer: I thought you said you r e a d the r u l e s ? Prospect: I did, but.. Wargamer: Each unit can move the amount i t says. Like this man worth four whenattacking and four on defense, can move six squares. Prospect: (Pointing to one of Wargame r ' s pieces): I want to kill this man. What do I d o ? Wargamer: J u s t move your units up t o adjacent s q u a r e s . ( P r o s p e c t s t a r t s to move his pieces. He picks up each piece and carefully counts out loud the movement of each. )

Wargamer: NO! Not like that! Prospect: Why not? Wargarner: You're racking up the corn e r s . Just slide them along.

.....

ACT ONE
Prospect: How long does this game take ? Wargamer: It depends. It could take a s long a s four hours. Prospect: FOUR H O U R S ? ? ? ? F o r a g a m e ? C h e s s doesn't take that long. Wargamer: But, this game i s b e t t e r . Prospect: I'll bet. Wargamer: Now, did you r e a d over the r u l e s and everything l a s t night? Prospect: S o r t of. They didn't make much s e n s e . You'll have to explain it. Wargamer: Alright. The f i r s t thing you do i s s e t up a l l of t h e s e units on this O r d e r of Appearance card. Just match them up. By the way, I ' m giving you the side with the advantage. Prospect: You a r e ? Wargarner: I've got the side with the disadvantage. Now, just s t a r t t o s e t up..... Prospect: (Interrupting and looking skeptical): How come you've got m o r e pieces than I do? Wargamer: Huh? T h a t ' s just the way i t i s . I've got m o r e units. Prospect: I won't have a chance. Wargamer: It doesn't make any difference. I don't get a l l of my units in to s t a r t with, but you get most of yours. ( P r o s p e c t c a s t s a suspicious glance a t Wargamer and his box of units and silently s t a r t s to s e t up his p i e c e s . ) Prospect: (Seeming slightly satisfied that something h a s gone wrong already): Hey, t h e r e ' s no place f o r this piece! Wargamer: Whaddaya m e a n ? P r o s p e c t : T h e r e ' s no little s q u a r e f o r i t on this c a r d ? Wargamer: That's impossible. Look ! (Wargamer g e t s up and goes over to P r o s p e c t ' s side of board and s t a r e s a t Order of Appearance Card f o r s e v e r a l

.. .

P r o s p e c t : (Under his breath): #O/o$O/o#@ *yo$#. T h e r e ! I s that enough men? I'll just move these other units up over h e r e f o r now. Now, what do I do? Wargamer: Now you count up the odds. The b e t t e r odds you have the better chance you have of eliminating my unit. MY unit i s on a n e s c a r p m e n t square. It..... P r o s p e c t : A what? .like a Wargamer: An escarpment. hill o r a mountain. That means my unit i s worth m o r e because i t ' s on highe r ground. My unit i s a four, and doubled that's eight. Now we count up your men that a r e adjacent. (Wargamer picks up opponent's pieces and counts them. ) You have a 4 and a 6 . t h a t ' s 10. and two m o r e f o u r s on this square, that's 18, and a 3, that's 21. 21 to 8 i s 2-1. P r o s p e c t : 2 - l ? T h a t ' s closer to 3-1. Wargamer: But, the r u l e s say that you have to round off downward. Prospect: Do we have to go through all t h i s e v e r y t i m e ? T h e r e must be a s i m p l e r way. Wargamer: Now you r o l l the die and cross-index the die r o l l on this Combat R e s u l t s Table under the 2- 1 column to find out the result. Prospect: (Calmly): OK. ( P r o s p e c t picks up die and r o l l s i t on the table. ) A six! What does that m e a n ? Wargamer: You just look under the 2 - 1 column f o r the six row. Attacker Elim. That means a l l of your men a r e dead. Prospect: (Startled): WHAT? ? ? ? ? ? ? Wargamer: A six. A Elim. Your units a r e eliminated. P r o s p e c t : (Angrily). This i s a stupid game. Your one man kills five of mine. What kind of r e a l i s m i s t h a t ? You said this was a r e a l i s t i c game. One guy can't wipe out five others. Wargamer: But, my man was on a hill. P r o s p e c t : So what? This i s stupid.. ( P r o s p e c t a r i s e s in anger and p r e p a r e s to leave). Wargamer: (Attempting to save the situation): Look. L e t ' s a s s u m e , instead, that you just rolled a one. See Defender Elim.. you just wiped out my e n t i r e f o r c e . The escarpment i s yours. P r o s p e c t : Great ! Now you're making sense. Man, this i s a g r e a t game.. . just shows you how strategy pays off.

.. .

...

(Curtain f a l l s a s W a r g a m e r ' s eyes roll toward ceiling in "victory").

THE GENERAL

Oficial Avalon Hill Game Clubs...


Battle of the Bulge
Q. If a Volksgrenadier unit i s isolated when U. S. A i r S u p r e m a c y c o m e s into effect, i s that unit i m m o b i l i z e d ? A . No. The movement f a c t o r of G e r m a n units i s n e v e r reduced by m o r e than two.

The clubs l i s t e d below supplement the initial l i s t i n g made i n the J a n - F e b 1968 i s s u e . Due t o space limitations, we have not r e p e a t e d any p r i o r l i s t i n g s although many have f o r w a r d e d u s updated information. The purpose of t h i s l i s t i n g i s simply t o provide b a s i c information t o those r e a d e r s looking f o r new clubs.

CLUB The F o r c e s of Evil ( F O E ) 7331 E. P o r t l a n d St. Scottsdale, Arizona 85257 The Renegades 3405 W e s t c h e s t e r Bakersfield, California 93309 The New Regime (DMSF) 1885 E d n a m a r y Way Mt. View, California 94040 Laotian P e a s a n t s Militia 2195 Deborah Way Upland, California 91786 Mercenaries Rt. 7, Box 48 E x c e l s i o r , Minnesota The Devil's Brigade Aloe S t r e e t Egg H a r b o r , New J e r s e y 08215 P r i n c e t o n Avalon Hill Club 28 Longview Drive P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y St. John's University Military S t r a t e g y Club St. John's Univ. G r a n d C e n t r a l & Utopia Pkwy. J a m a i c a , New York 11432 Kampfgruppe Viper 164 S. C e n t r e Avenue Rockville C e n t r e , N. Y . 11570 S i - F a n I1 100 Dogwood Lane New B e r n , North C a r o l i n a 28860 Oregon G e n e r a l s 2811 S. E. L a m b e r t P o r t l a n d , Oregon 97202 F u e h r e r Escuadville 6 Gen. Washington Drive Media, Pennsylvania 19063 Liberty Liberators Box 209 Liberty, Texas The Riff Raff 2707 36th S t r e e t Washington, D. C. 20007

PRESIDENT Mike Walacavage

MEMBERSHIP 8

Blitzkrieg Dan E v a n s
Q. Since A i r b o r n e dnits m u s t b e dropped

within 20 s q u a r e s of the city they flew out of, c a n they b e a i r t r a n s p o r t e d t o a friendly city a n d then flown out and dropped within 20 s q u a r e s ? A. No. Q. Can R a n g e r s invade on a beach s e p a r a t e f r o m the one being invaded by friendly infantry u n i t s on the s a m e t u r n ? A. Yes. The landing of R a n g e r units i s not c o n s i d e r e d a n "invasion. I f The s t a t e m e n t i n the Battle Manual that s a y s ' I . . . s u b j e c t t o the one invasion per T u r n r u l e . " R e f e r s only t o the f a c t that R a n g e r units cannot l a n d o n a beach that w a s just invaded by enemy t r o o p s . D-Day
Q. Can the A l l i e s make only a SAC a t t a c k on the f i r s t t u r n a n d make the t r o o p invasion on s o m e l a t e r t u r n ? A. No. The invasion m u s t c o m e on the f i r s t turn.

D a r y l l Alt

Kent Colbath

S c o t t Belfry

David Colangelo

P e t e r Nichols

Damian H a n s m a n

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May F r e n c h a n d B r i t i s h units u s e Belgium r a i l r o a d s f o r supply? A. YES, but they m u s t b e a b l e t o t r a c e a supply line through Belgium t o F r a n c e and then t o the south a s p e r r e g u l a r supply r u l e s . Q. If a G e r m a n unit i s not within t h r e e s q u a r e s of a n E B unit o r within s i x s q u a r e s of a G e r m a n r a i l line, BUT i s within t h r e e s q u a r e s of a c l e a r e d (being p a s s e d through by a n E B u n i t ) r a i l line, i s i t supplied? A. Yes. Q. Can F r e n c h a n d G e r m a n r e p l a c e ment f a c t o r s b e a c c u m u l a t e d ? A. NO, NO, NO.
Q.

R i c h a r d Citti

John D. Hudson

Ken F r e d e e n

R i c h a r d Morton

How and w h e r e d o e s the 42O/RR unit ( F a c t o r of 0-0-0) m o v e ? A. It moves along existing c l e a r e d r a i l l i n e s and m a y move one s q u a r e off the r a i l l i n e but only t o a t t a c k a n enemy f o r t which i s in adjacent s q u a r e t o s q u a r e move to. 0. Is the attacker ever forced to r e treat? A. No.
Q.

Matt Williamson

J a m e s Bacon

PACE 13 -------- ------AvalOn are urged to r e g i s t e r officially with The General. Those who have r e g i s t e r e d previously need only to complete the f o r m i n the event of a n a d d r e s s change. I

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This i s a n a d d r e s s change r e g i s t r a -tion. Don't f o r g e t t o vote on what a r e t h e t h r e e b e s t a r t i c l e s of t h i s i s s u e . . . r e c o r d your votes w h e r e provided on the Contest E n t r y blank.

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Contest No. 28
The object of Contest #28 will b e f o r you, a s the B r i t i s h player, t o l o c a t e the B i s m a r c k on the next turn, with a s many B r i t i s h B B ' s a s possible. On t h e Battle Plan, simply indicate the zones t o which you a r e moving each B r i t i s h battle ship. The B i s m a r c k player h a s decided t o make h i s next move a s r a n d o m a s possible. F o r contest p u r p o s e s , the B i s m a r c k ' s position will b e d e t e r m i n e d by c r o s s -indexing Ampex and Zenith (CTD Oct. 15th) on the location c h a r t . The l a s t digit of Zenith d e t e r m i n e s which of the Ampex columns t o u s e - count l a s t digit of 0 a s even; l a s t digit of 1 a s odd, etc. All e n t r i e s m u s t b e postmarked no l a t e r than Oct. 14th. The situation f o r the 5th May, 27th t u r n involving a n undamaged B i s m a r c k and a n undamaged B r i t i s h fleet, except f o r one point s c o r e d by the B i s m a r c k f o r sinking the Manchester, i s shown on the SEARCH BOARD d i a g r a m . The B i s m a r c k ' s position i s known t o be G - 1 , d . C a r r i e r s and c r u i s e r s a r e omitted to avoid confusion. T e n w i n n e r s who succeed in locating the B i s m a r c k with the m o s t B B ' s will be named. In c a s e of t i e s , the point values of s h i p s will b e d e t e r m i n e d using the c h a r t on the Battle Board. All ent r a n t s m u s t l i s t what they f e e l a r e the t h r e e b e s t a r t i c l e s of t h i s i s s u e . This selection h a s no b e a r i n g on the contest r e s u l t s but e n t r i e s not containing t h i s information will be voided.

Subscriber Discount :..


The Coupon shown below i s f o r t h e benef i t of the full-year s u b s c r i b e r . A s soon a s you have accumulated 4 such compons. 1 each f r o m t h i s and succeeding i s s u e s , you a r e entitled t o a $1.00 d i s count applied t o t h e p u r c h a s e of a n y AvalonHill g a m e s , p a r t s , play-bym a i l equipment a n d the G e n e r a l . H e r e ' s how i t w o r k s Each coupon i s worth 25$. But one coupon alone does not entitle you to a 25$ c r e d i t . You m u s t a c c u m u l a t e 4 different coupons b e f o r e taking advanta g e of the $1.00 c r e d i t . When you have accumulated 4 coupons, then you c l i p t h e m a l l together and send t h e m i n with your orde'r f o r a n Avalon Hill game. When o r d e r i n g in t h i s m a n n e r , you simply send u s a check o r m o n e y - o r d e r f o r $1. 00 l e s s than the u s u a l r e t a i l value of the game.
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LOCATION O F BISMARCK Ampex Zenith 0 1 2 3 4 5 Even F-1.c F-2, c G-1.a G-2, a G-1,c G-2. c H-1,a H-2,a H-1, c H-2, c Odd F-1,d F-2, d G-1,b G-2, b G-l,d G-2, d H-1,b H-2, b H-1,d H-2, d

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( Headlines of 3 Be s t A r t i c l e s :
GOODTOWARDTHEPURCHASE O F A L L AVALON HILL PRODUCTS
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THE GENERAL

PAGE 14
(Cubist Generation) I find that your editors a r e not fully aware of the importance of game science (not in r e l a tion to the publisher of that name). Wargames a r e a branch of game science which i s a branch of formal mathematics. In essence it i s organizational science. It deals with man in competitive situations - any competitive situation (viz. man against man in business, man against man in sports, man against man in warfare, and man against nature). Any given game i s a simplification of an actual situation to reduce that situation to its primary elements and demonstrate probable directions resulting f r o m each of the possible alternative strategies. The f i r s t f o r m a l papers dealing with game science began appearing about 1929 among f o r m a l mathematicians, but i t was not until WWII that its potential was demonstrated a s a tool of education. It was used extensively by the Germans who developed its concepts to a very high degree and was n o l e s s u s e d by the Anglo-American alliance. After the war, in the e a r l y 19501s, i t was developed to its present state by the institute of advanced studies of Princeton Universities by the Associates of Albert Einstein. Today game science i s used by educ a t o r s in business, s p o r t s and military science. It i s a l s o played by amateurs for recreation. I do not believe that the majority of people concerned have any aggressive ambitions o r that i t r e lieves o r enhances such ambitions. At present, I am fighting a group attempting to rebuild an empire in Indo-China and I s e e no indications that President Ho Chi Minh would be willing to give up conquest for gaming. I a l s o do not believe i t can be shown he was led to his ambitions by playing wargames. The question i s one of ethics and a m o r al man can study organizational science (even in wargames) without becoming a warmonger. Of all the a r e a s of game science, wargaming i s the m o s t developed because of the requirements of history and because of the difficulties (in the face of socialist doctrines) of reducing economic situations to similar analysis. Sports games a r e only of limited application and remain a specialty branch, while games of strategy against nature remain almost mathematical curiosity a t this time. As a consequence, to l e a r n the principals of organizational science - o r to enjoy competitive games one m u s t of necessity turn to wargames in m o s t cases. Avalon Hill i s the only source of standardized games a t a reasonable price for the amateur, and many of their products s e r v e well in certain professional applications.

Dear S i r s : In response to your recent "Philosophy" s e r i e s , I gathered that you a r e interested in exactly why people play and buy your games. I've personally found many adults that become pleased with your games just never heard of them before. Many adults that don't particularly c a r e for games find your products stimulating. .but this i n t e r e s t i s not apparent until someone shows them the games. It i s therefore my belief that your sales, to adults, would increase if you employed "salesmen." If you people could somehow get adults to see your games in action.

Ted Pittman Astoria, New York

How right you are. Ted. The problem is developing an economically feasible program of "demonstration." We do know that many specialty game stores, such as F.A.O.Schwarz in New York, plan product demonstrations as they, too, realize the importance of such sales aids. Soooo - we do the next best thing and try to put novices in touch with wargame dubs where the members are only too glad to do anything that will help increase the tribe. - AH.

Gentlemen: I hope the comments in the a r t i c l e Realism v s Abstraction means that you a r e going back to building War Games. Both Jutland and 1914 a r e fine historical exercises but leave me cold on the .game end. I wouldn't s e l l them, but don't play them often. Blitz doesn't have the redeeming qualities of either WWI games and i s just too complicated. Knowing the reaction of the historical nuts to your article, leads m e to write and thank you for your recognition of the f a c t that you have gone too f a r in one direction. H. M. Greenfelder 20 York Hamilton. Ohio 45013

Dear Sirs: I wish to r e g i s t e r a vigorous protest concerning l a s t issue's lead a r t i c l e on Russell Powell and his club, Sparta. Besides containing some misinformation, it gives a distorted picture of the club. Yes. S p a r t a h a s experienced "steady growth1'--at the expense of other clubs. The a r t i c l e s a y s that Aggressor "experienced drastic changes"; indeed, because Sparta destroyed the club and l e t their own people take over. Sparta i s NOT "democratic"! Have you read their l a w s ? F o r one thing, Powell can veto anything and i t takes 90% of the club to override this veto. Powell i s elected president time and again without any opposition. He even s e t him self up a s dictator f o r a while, but since that i s what he i s anyway, the title doesn't make much difference. I urge you to read just one copy of their magazine--it sounds like a Red Chinese propaganda sheet. "The Charte r Founder1'--Powell--issues o r d e r s and condemns o r congratulates his flunkys depending on how well they s e r v e him. Hans Kruger comes out with the most blatant neo-Nazi megalomaniac tripe that I have e v e r seen. Powell and h i s wife must be unbalanced. F a r f r o m needing "20 m o r e Powells", I maintain that he and the club he r u l e s m u s t be destroyed before they spread any more. Their paranoid "rules" and other organizational nonsense a r e a danger to all constructive wargamers ! Brian Libby Portland. Maine

Lieber Kamerade: I've been reading quite a few of the "protest" l e t t e r s that you have been printing in your "letters" section and I wish to make a few comments about this whole mess. F i r s t , Kamerad Squire, l e t me say that this "scum" to which you r e f e r i s

Contest No. 28
BATTLE PLAN

BOARD (FOR 5TH MAY, 27TH TURN):

but the minority of wargamers. Most of us realize the basic need for competition betweenour fellowhuman beings short of actual bloody combat. In that light most wargaming clubs have been created; to enlarge the variegated int e r e s t s of a few so a s to increase the enjoyment of many who wish a common name under which to rally in competing against others. No man i s an island for very long, we a l l must drift back again to become an integral chunk of the continent. As long a s there i s wargaming there will be wargaming clubs. However. there exists in wargaming clubs ( a s elsewhere) that so-called "undesirable element" that, a s you so aptly put it: "runs around conquering everything in sight.'' We m u s t l e a r n that this attitude of neo-Nazism, P r u s sianism, F a s c i s m , o r whatever nefarious t e r m you choose, i s nothing more than a facade of the times. Some of us do d e s i r e glory, power, and fame and it's basic human nature to d e s i r e ultimate success. There's no denying that many of us will take on seemingly evil appearances in our dealings with other clubs but I do not believe for a moment that there i s wargaming club that truly d e s i r e s to "conquer everything in sight". We rant, rave, threaten, and make nasty noises but I'm s u r e that we only want competition, not conquest. Secondly, Kamerad Guthrie, totalitarianistic clubs definitely exist, the same a s liberalistic clubs. When one joins a club he should be f r e e to choose to do a s he wishes inside that club but this does not mean that that club should be devoid of controls and regulations. If one feels that a club i s too r e s t r i c tive of one's personal dealings and PBM's than one should resign f r o m that club and seek another, more suitable club. I was unaware that any club forced their m e m b e r s to do o r approve of anything that was unacceptable to them. The "cohorts of evil" may dislike a l l of the individual's freedom and attempt to subjugate those individuals but I think that a club should be run according to the majority rule of i t s m e m b e r s and responsible, trustworthy officials should take c a r e of all important m a t t e r s inside the club on a voluntary basis. If a club's policy i s totalitarian than only totalitarian m e m b e r s should belong to that club. In short, what I'm trying to say is: l e t ' s lay off c r i t i c i z ing other clubs o r their policies. Any club formed should be formed to suit the needs of i t s f o r m e r s . If one feels slighted o r dominated than I say to him, resign. You should pick the club you think will best suit your own personal d e s i r e s a s a wargamer. Regardless of your open- o r narrow-mindedness you must bear in mind that you a r e but one voice in the wilderness and that t h e r e a r e hundreds if not thousands of o t h e r s who may have s i m i l a r problems. If you're not satisfied with what y o u p r e s ently have, shop around.

If any of your c r i t i c s a r e willing to pursue the question beyond this point, I will be glad to r e f e r them to professionalmathematicians who, a s develope r s of the science, a r e best capable of defending it. L. Sidney Trevethan F. P. 0. San Francisco, Calif.

Der Alte Das Gernishche Reich WGR-GHQSO 216 4th S t r e e t California, Pennsylvania 15419

Readers of The General will note that we rarely print testimonial letters. While we are appreciative of the many that do come in, we think the space here could be better devoted to more newsworthy items. However, when a store sends in a testimonial, then we just have to tell the world. . . .
Dear Sirs: I wish to commend Avalon Hill f o r a n excellent s e r i e s of games. We have stocked them for sale to our college students. They have an excellent reputation. Kyle Brown Hobbies of Madison Madison, Wisconsin

Dear S i r s : Today I received the July-August issue of the General (the delay due in p a r t to slow mail s e r v i c e to the war zone). On reading your cover s t o r y

PAGE 15
S i m m o n s , Denver, Colorado; Lansing Wong, S a n F r a n c i s c o ; John & M a r k Balog, Highland, Indiana; Thomas Dowling. Wheaton, Md.; Sidney Jolly, LaMesa. California; Ben Brown, Shreveport, Louisiana; Kent Wallace, Wichita, Kansas; R i c h a r d Citti, Rockville Centre, New York; and Cy Deavours, C h a r l o t t e s ville, Virginia. Gift c e r t i f i c a t e s a r e on t h e i r way to the above.. Kudos f o r b e s t a r t i c l e s in l a s t i s s u e go to: David Bush, Columbus, Ohio f o r " L e a r n to Say Nuts, " Andrew P. Engebretson, St. P a u l , Minnesota f o r "Belgium - Never, I '

Tactics & Variants, representing the l a t e s t take-over in the magazine department, i s the r e s u l t of the m e r g e r of S t o r m t r o o p e r and Das S c w a r z e Korps magazines. Also taking o v e r w h e r e Gamescience l e f t off, T a c t i c s & V a r i a n t s publishing company will be p r e s e n t i n g c o m m e r c i a l battle g a m e s f o r public consumption. The g a m e s : Poland '39, Elintzkrieg, and Korea, w e r e displayed in prototype f o r m a t the r e c e n t Lake Geneva IFW convention ( s e e c o v e r story). The enthusiastic reception of these g a m e s w a s highly encouraging, to the point where they will be phblishedin finished f o r m in the not-to-distant fut u r e . E a r l y i n q u i r i e s should be d i r e c t ed to their 38 S a n g e r Avenue. W a t e r ville, Maine 04901 a d d r e s s The Common Market: The benefits of tog e t h e r n e s s abound t o m e m b e r s of v a r i ous w a r g a m e clubs who have f o r m e d a "common m a r k e t , ' I t h e i r intention p r i m a r i l y f o r offering a v a r i e t y of w a r game m a t e r i a l s a t discount p r i c e s . This m a k e s s e n s e . Many of t h e i r p r o d ucts r e q u i r e volume s a l e s in o r d e r to make the production c o s t s l e s s burdensome to those footing the bill. Among the clubs involved to date n u m b e r the AWA, 4thSS, IFW. POW, and the Red F o r c e s , a l l providing discounts to c o m mon m a r k e t m e m b e r s on the s a l e of merchandise. F o r example, the IFW offers a l a r g e 1 / 3 r d discount on hex sheets. M o r e info on the common m a r ket available f r o m 38 Sanger Avenue, .From Waterville, ' Maine 04901.. Ken Brandau, Richmond, Virginia, c o m e s the following suggestions de signed to r e d u c e the awkwardness of the "instruments" u s e d in JUTLAND; the p r o b l e m with the m a n e u v e r gauge l i e s in the f a c t t h a t difficult and c o m plicated m a n e u v e r s cannot be a c c u r a t e ly made with a m o v e m e n t s c a l e affixed to a rigid board. If one t r a n s f e r s the maneuver gauge s c a l e to a piece of s t r i n g , one a r r i v e s with a flexible m a neuver s c a l e . By doing s o the gauge coincides with the d e s i r e d path of the ship o r ships. This p r o v e s to be a b i t m o r e a c c u r a t e and s a v e s time a s well. S o m e t i m e s i t will be n e c e s s a r y to r e s t r i c t i t to i t s m a x i m u m turning ability and this c a n be done by using a one and

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1 1 . ' I He e x p e c t s to expand the C u r r e n t m a p board to four t i m e s the o r i g i n a l s i z e which will allow f o r the a c c u r a t e placement of F r e n c h units in a c c o r d ance with the information found in R o b e r t O l s o n ' s Waterloo a r t i c l e i n the May-June 1968 i s s u e . All Scott needs i s information dealing with r a n g e s of weapons, effectiveness of c a v a l r y types. infantry f o r m a t i o n s and good m a p s o u r c e s . He a l r e a d y h a s the complete o r d e r of battle, which, if i n t e r e s t w a r r a n t s it, will be published in a f u t u r e William P . i s s u e of this magazine. Guthrie, 3130 LaurelAvenue, Cheverly, Maryland sends u s a n unusual i d e a c o n cerning battlefield r e p l a c e m e n t s in Afrika Korps. Too encumbered to be reproduced in the General, we do sugg e s t that r e a d e r s get in touch with Mr. Guthrie if they w e r e i n t e r e s t e d in e x ploring this unusual " r e c o v e r y s y s t e m " with i t s full p a r t i c u l a r s . In brief, Mr. Guthrie's s y s t e m involves the u s e of blank c o u n t e r s a s r e p a i r units thatwould be r a t e d a s a 0-0-7. H i s whole i d e a i s based on the p r e m i s e that "only m i n o r damage w a s sufficient to put a tank out of action" thus, a s stated many such units w e r e back in action within a month We a r e of sustaining battle damage. overjoyed a t the r e s p o n s e to Contest #27. i t i s always gratifying to have s o many s u b s c r i b e r s actively i n t e r e s t e d in the welfare of wargaming in general. The G e n e r a l in p a r t i c u l a r . The ten winners chosen a t random a r e : J a m e s T. Ellison, Norristown, P a . ; R i c h a r d

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THE WEATHER'S ALWAYS AT VALLEY FORGE

five eighths inch disc. T h i s will r e s t r i c t the ship to the s a m e turning r e s t r i c t i o n s s e t f o r t h with the s t a n d a r d Scott Duncan, maneuver gauge.. 2249 North Broad S t r e e t , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19 132 i s asking f p r bibliographical help in developing "Waterloo

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J a r e d Johnson, Chamblee, Georgia f o r "Success T h r u Patience, I f Ronnie Salcedo, New Rochelle, N.Y. f o r lSYes, a G e r m a n Victory in Stalingrad," and Geoff K. Burkman, T e r r a c e P a r k , Ohio f o r "How to E l i m the R u s s i a n s in 1914. " Congrats and a gift c e r t i f i c a t e to the gentlemen named.. Can't s e p a r a t e the chaff f r o m the wheat? H e r e , in brief, a r e the l a t e s t house organs: S p a r t a n Gladiator, 32 pages, mimeo, 50$, published by S p a r t a n Neutral League (Cover S t o r y ~ o l . 5, No. 3), 5820 John Avenue, Long Beach, Calif. 90805; S t r a t e g y & T a c t i c s , 32 pages, professional offset publ., $1.50, f r o m P r o j e c t Analysis C o r p . , 50 F a i r f i e l d Avenue, Albany, N. Y. 12205; Aeolus, 12 pages, duplicator, d e a l s mainly with Diplomacy G a m e s , f r o m Monte Zelazny, P. 0. Box 1062, Melbourne, F l a . 32901; T a c t i c s & Variants. 32 pages, mimeo, 30$ (discount to specifically named clubs), f r o m publisher John Rancourt, 38 Sanger Avenue, Waterville, Maine 04901; Wargamer's Newsletter, 26 pages, $5.00/yr. subs.. semi-offset, . f r o m 69 Hill Lane, Southampton, Hamps h i r e , England SO1 5AD; The Galaxian and Spacelanes, 18 pages, mimeo, f r o m The Galactic E m p i r e , 5756 E. 7th St., Tucson, Arizona 857 11; P a n z e r f a u s t , 24 pages, m i m e o , 50$, f r o m Box 280, RD#2, Sayre, Pa. 18840; The C o u r i e r , 20 pages, m i m e o , 35$, f r o m Boldlands, P . O . Box 547, F r e d e r i c k s b u r g , Va. 22401; IFW's C a r d b o a r d Commander, 12 pages, m i m e o to m e m b e r s only, Scott Duncan, 2249 N. Broad S t r e e t , .F o r those Philadelphia, Pa. 19132.. s p o r t s fanatics i n t e r e s t e d in how the Avalon Hill baseball made out in the post-season tournament, the l o c a l s closed out t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l s e a s o n finishing tourney runner-up behind Spring Grove, a t e a m AH w a s never able to defeat during the c o u r s e of seasonplay. Avalon Hill's o v e r a l l 1968 r e c o r d was 25 wins and 8 l o s s e s . Bookings f o r 1969 p r e - s e a s o n exhibition action f o r the month of May a r e now being made. If your t e a m i s i n t e r e s t e d in travelling to o u r home diamond in Towson (N. B a l t i m o r e ) Maryland, contact E d Adams a t Avalon Hill.

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