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Copyright 2013 by StatPoint Technologies, Inc. Web site: www.statgraphics.com

The simultaneous observation and analysis of more than one response variable. *Primary Uses 1. Data reduction or structural simplification 2. Sorting and grouping 3. Investigation of the dependence among variables 4. Prediction 5. Hypothesis construction and testing

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STATGRAPHICS Contents

Plot Multivariate Visualization Scatterplot matrix Parallel coordinates plot Andrews plot Star glyphs and sunray plots Chernoff faces

Correlation analysis Principal components analysis Factor analysis Canonical correlations

Cluster analysis

Correspondence analysis

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STATGRAPHICS Contents

Compare Analysis of Variance General Linear Models MANOVA Relate Multiple Factors Partial Least Squares

Discriminant analysis Neural networks Bayesian classifier

T-Squared Chart

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Package of multivariate statistical methods that read Statgraphics data files. Additional features for: Principal components analysis Simple and multiple correspondence analysis Cluster analysis

Other procedures:

Factor analysis for mixed data (quantitative and qualitative) Multiple factorial analysis and STATIS two methods for three-way tables Classical multidimensional scaling Confidence and tolerance ellipses Qualitative discriminant analysis Scoring

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Correlation analysis Partial correlation analysis Parallel coordinates plot Principal components analysis (PCA) Factor analysis Multivariate T-squared chart Additional features using UNIWIN (supplementary variables for PCA and multidimensional scaling)

1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

Pop. Density inhabitants per square km Farmable - % of land usable for growing crops Birth rate annual births per 1,000 of population Literacy - % of population classified as literate Infant mortality deaths of infants under 1 year old per 100 live births GDP Gross Domestic Product per capita Death rate annual deaths per 1,000 of population Agriculture proportion of GDP attributable to agriculture

Box-Cox Transformations

Variable Stnd. skewness Optimal Box- Selected Cox power transformation Stnd. Skewness after transformation

Pop. density

Farmable

50.96

5.86

0.027

0.386

Log

Square root

-1.58

0.32

Birthrate

Literacy GDP

4.33

-7.19 8.44

-0.083

3.419

Log

Cube

0.43

-3.97

Agriculture

0.002

0.065

Log

Log

-0.27

-0.82

10.07

8.43

-0.175

0.254

Log

Cube root

1.58

0.81

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Correlation Analysis

Estimates linear correlations between pairs of variables.

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Estimates correlations between pairs of variables, adjusting for effects of the other variables.

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Used to explain the variance-covariance structure of a set of

variables.

Converts a set of correlated variables into a set of linearly

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The first principal component is the linear combination of the

The second principal component is the linear combination

orthogonal to the first that explains the next greatest amount of variance.

Often helps reveal the understanding structure in the data by

Also used to build predictive models via Principal

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Analysis Summary

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Scree Plot

Used to determine how many components are important.

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Component Weights

Shows the linear combinations defining the principal components. Helpful in interpreting their meaning.

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2D Component Plot

Plots the component weights for each variable.

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2D Scatterplot

Shows the value of the first 2 components for each case.

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Coded Scatterplot

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Biplot

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Factor Analysis

Used to describe the variability amongst a set of correlated, observed variables in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables. The factor analysis model describes each observed variable as a linear combination of common factors F and specific factors e.

X2 m2 = l2,1F1 + l2,2F2 + + l2,mFm + e2

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Factor Loadings

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Shows relative contribution to each variable of common and specific factors.

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Varimax rotation tries to spread out the loadings on each factor as much as possible.

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T-Squared Chart

Hotellings T2 measures the distance of each observation from the centroid of the data, in a standardized scale.

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T-Squared Decomposition

Large values indicate that a particular variable has a big effect on T-Squared for that observation.

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Uniwin PCA

Allows for supplemental variables or observations.

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(quantitative and qualitative)

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Correlation Circle

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Objective: to display the observations in a low dimensional coordinate system such that the distance between data points is distorted as little as possible. Input: an N by N matrix of similarities (or dissimilarities).

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Step 1: removed all rows with incomplete data on the 8 variables of interest.

Step 2: used the STANDARDIZE operator to subtract the mean of each column and divide by its standard deviation. Step 3: saved a new data file named countries scaled for UNIWIN.sf6.

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Scatterplot of Countries

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More Information

Statgraphics Centurion: www.statgraphics.com Uniwin: www.statgraphics.fr or www.sigmaplus.fr

57

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