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BY R.RAMYA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING BS ABDUR RAHMAN UNIVERSITY VANDALUR, CHENNAI

Cycle - I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Verification of Kirchoffs laws Study of RLC series circuits Load test on DC motors Speed control of D.C. shunt motor Load test on three phase induction motor Transfer function of separately excited D.C. generator Cycle II 7. Transfer function of armature and field controlled D.C. motor 8. OCC of DC generator 9. Load test on DC generator 10. Load characteristics of single phase transformer 11. Transfer function of AC servomotor 12. OC and SC test on single phase transformer

Listed below are the (operating) procedures that you are expected to follow in the laboratory. 1. Every student is required to wear their respective lab uniforms, and ssoes. Girls are expected to tuck in their hairs inside their coats. 2. Please be regular with your lab reports submission, failure of which will be viewed very seriously. 3. Please treat the instruments with care, as they are very expensive. 4. Read the laboratory documentation prior to each lab meeting. 5. Read the viva question section before coming to the lab so that you attend the viva questions at each lab session. 6. Return the components to the Lab-attender when you are finished with them. 7. Before leaving the lab, place the stools under the lab bench. 8. Before leaving the lab, turn off the power to all instruments including the printer. 9. Before leaving the lab, turn off the main power switch to the lab bench.

1. Laboratory observation reports will be due at each lab meeting. Work that was performed the previous lab meeting is to be documented and it has to be attested by the respective staff within 2 days of the completion of the experiment and the lab record has to be turned in the following week at the beginning of the lab period. 2. Late reports will have points deducted. 3. All labs must be performed and all lab reports (both observations and records) must be turned in to pass the course. Reports which are so late will be counted as an automatic zero. 4. While laboratory exercises are performed in groups, lab reports are to be written on an individual basis.

RECORD:

It is required of the students to write a formal report describing the procedure and results. In this laboratory problems will be posed and each student team will be required to plan and solve it. Then each individual student will write a formal report describing the laboratory measurements and conclusions. The reports should contain the following sections: I. Aim of the experiment This section will contain a description of theobjective. It will clearly define the questions to be answered by the laboratory experiment. II. Description and theory of the experimentThis section will contain a description of the theory upon which the experiment is based. III. Procedure:

A detailed experimental procedure and a clear description of the data taken. III. Description of data reductionThis section will present sample calculations showing how the theory is applied to the observed data (as tabulation) to answer the questions posed by the laboratory problem. IV. Presentation and discussion of the resultGenerally, the result will be a statement along with based on the observations made, with supporting graph. OSERVATION: 1. There will be sections of the pre-lab calculations, these will have to be done before coming to the lab session. 2. There will be steps to follow in carrying out the pre-lab calculations, these theoretical values will have to be cross checked with the observed values in the lab. 3. If a graph is required, it should be associated with the section/step/sub-step in which it is required. Each graph should have a figure number and caption in addition to a title on the graph: Enter and place the scale ion the graph. So does a circuit diagram. NOTE: Attendance will be checked in each laboratory. If absence is unavoidable, students should contact the lab-in-charge to another time to perform the experiment.

1. Conduct yourself in a responsible manner at all times in the laboratory. 2. Follow all written and verbal instructions carefully. If you do not understand a direction or part of a procedure, ASK YOUR TEACHER BEFORE PROCEEDING WITH THE ACTIVITY. 3. Avoid bulky, loose or trailing clothes. Avoid long loose hair. Remove metal bracelets, rings or watchstraps when working in the laboratories 4. Discard damaged cords, cords that become hot, or cords with exposed wiring. 5. Before equipment is energized ensure, (1) circuit connections and layout have been checked by a Teaching Assistant (TA) and (2) all colleagues in your group give their assent. 6. Never make any changes to circuits or mechanical layout without first isolating the circuit by switching off and removing connections to power supplies. 7. Even low voltage DC supplies can be dangerous. This is especially true if your skin is wet or if probes or wires penetrate your skin. Your body is protected by the high resistance of dry skin. But if the protection is bypassed then lethal currents may flow through your body on contact with a low voltage supply. Make sure your skin is dry and avoid skin punctures with probes or component leads

INTRODUCTION: Network equations are formulated from two simple laws that were first expressed by Kirchoff in 1845. These laws concern the algebraic sum of voltages around a loop and currents leaving or entering a node. It is interesting to note that Kirchoff was a 23 year old student at the time of the first publication of these laws. STATEMENTS: Kirchoffs Voltage Law: Kirchoffs voltage law states that the algebraic sum of all branch voltages around any closed loop of a network is zero at all instants of time. Kirchoffs current law: Kirchoffs current law states that the algebraic sum of all branch currents leaving a node is zero at all instants of time. (The law is a consequence of conservation of charge. Charge which enters a node should leave the node because it cant be stored there.) OBJECTIVE: To verify Kirchoffs current and voltage Laws for a given circuit.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.N o 1. 2. Name of the component Regulated power supply Resistors Range (0-30) 220 330 47 68 (0-10)mA Quantity 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

3. 4.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

(0-30) V (0-100) mA

A

220 [ohm]

(0-100) mA A 15 v

(0-100) mA A 47[ohm]

(0-30) V (0-30) V

Fig. 1.1

TABULATION:

BRANCH

OBSERVED VALUES

CURRENT (mA)

VOLTAGE(V)

AB BE BD

1

BC ED CD

PROCEDURE FOR VERIFICATION OF KVL: 1. Give connections as per circuit diagram. 2. Switch on the supply voltage. 3. Note the voltage across the voltage source, and the voltage (drops) across the resistors (using a multi-meter) in the closed loop. 4. Check whether the sum of voltage rises in the closed loop is equal to the sum of voltage drops. 5. Check these observed values with the theoretical values calculated using the algebraic equations formulated based on the KVL law.

PROCEDURE FOR VERIFICATION OF KCL: 1. Give connections as per circuit diagram. 2. Switch on the supply voltage. 3. Check whether the sum of the incoming currents to a node is equal to the sum of the out going currents from that node. 4. Check these observed values with the theoretical values calculated using the algebraic equations formulated based on the KCL law. RESULT: Kirchoffs current and voltage laws have been verified for the given circuit. VIVA QUESTIONS(No need to write these questions in record): 1. State Ohms law. 2. State Kirchoffs current law. 3. State Kirchoffs voltage law. 4. What do you mean by a node? 5. What do you mean by a junction? 6. What do you mean by a branch?

2. STUDY OF RLC SERIES CIRCUITS (FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF SERIES RESONANCE CIRCUITS) AIM: To study the phenomenon of resonance in electrical circuits. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No Name of the component 1. Signal generator 2. Inductor 3. 5. 4. FORMULA: 1. RLC Series circuit, Resistor Capacitor Ammeter Range Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1

100 VS

0.5 F

300 mH

(0 -10) mA

I (mA)

f (Hz)

PROCEDURE: 1. The required circuit is constructed by using circuit components. 2. The frequency of the input sinusoidal signal is varied step by step and the corresponding readings in ammeter are noted. 3. Graph is plotted between current and frequency. 4. From the graph, resonant frequency is determined and compared with that of theoretical value. OBSERVATION: TABLE: RLC SERIES CIRCUIT

S.No.

Frequency (Hz)

Current(mA)

RESULT: Thus the frequency response of RL, RC, and RLC circuits are studied.

3. (i) LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SHUNT MOTOR AIM To conduct the load test and determine the performance (load) characteristics of DC shunt motor NAME PLATE DETAILS Name plate Details S.No

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No 1. 2. 3. Apparatus Rheostat Ammeter Voltmeter Type and Range 400 ohm/1.5A (0-10)A, MC (0-250)V,MC Quantity 1 1 1

FUSE RATING CALCULATION Fuse rating=120% of the rated current CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

THEORY In a DC Shunt motor, the field winding is connected across the supply and hence is almost constant. Hence the shunt motor has almost constant speed characteristics. Also Ta is directly proportional to armature current. Hence, the torque Vs armature current ) Output)

characteristic will be a straight line. From the expression Eb= V-IaRa, It is evident that as load increases, armature current increases, IaRa Drop increases thus reducing Eb. Speed N = V-IaRa/K = Eb/K. Where K is a constant. From the relation it is clear that as load increases, speed decreases. Hence the speed characteristics will be drooping in nature. The efficiency of a DC Shunt motor is given by the ratio of output to input . Output can be calculated as 2 NT/60. Input is calculated as the product of input voltage and input current. As load increases, efficiency increases and at a particular load, maximum efficiency is reached. DC shunt motors are used is situation where the speed has to be maintained approximately constant between no load and full load. It is also used in situation where a variable load is to be driven at different speed but at each load, the speed is to be kept constant. Since the power is wasted to do this test, it is suitable only for small capacity motors. MODEL GRAPH

PRECAUTIONS Keep the Field rheostat in the minimum resistance position before starting. Keep the starter in OFF position. Do not start the motor under loaded condition and release the load before stopping. Pour water in brake drum to prevent it from overheating. Make sure that all the meters connected are moving coil type.

PROCEDURE Make the connection as shown in the circuit diagram. Observing all the precautions, start the motor with the help of the three point starter. With the help of field rheostat, adjust the speed of the motor circuit. Apply the load gradually, in steps, till the motor draws 120% of the rated current from the supply and at each step note the meter readings, speed and the spring balance readings. Release the load and bring back the motor filed rheostat to minimum position and switch off the motor

Torque in Nm

Input

Output

Speed regulation

FORMULAE USED Input= Input voltage X Input Current = VI Watts Output = 2 NT/60 Watts Torque = ( S1~ S2) X 9.81 X R N-m Where S1 and S2 are spring balance readings in Kg R is the radius of the brake drum in meter % Efficiency= Output/ Input *100 % Speed Regulation = N no load - N full load / N no load RESULT The load test is conducted on DC shunt motor and its characteristic curves are drawn

3 (ii) LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SERIES MOTOR AIM To conduct the load test on the given dc series motor and draw the performance curves NAME PLATE DETAILS Name plate Details S.No

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No

1. 2.

Quantity 1 1

FUSE RATING CALCULATION Fuse rating=120% of the rated current CIRCUIT DIAGRAM(Note:Leave space for this circuit diagram on the left side of your record)

THEORY For a series motor the flux is proportional to armature current. The expression for speed of a dc series motor is given as N = V-IaRa/k where k is a constant. If the input voltage is constant, then speed is inversely proportional to armature current. Hence speed of the series motor will be decreasing as load is increasing. If the series motor is allowed to run at light load or at no load, its speed will become much higher than the normal speed, which may cause damage to the motor. For this reason, series motors are never started on no load and not used in applications where there Is a chance of the load being completely removed when the motor remains connected to the supply. The relation for torque is given as Ta = kIa or Ta = kIa2, since flux is directly proportional to armature current. Hence,the torque Vs armature current (output) characteristics will be in the form of a parabola with increase in armature current the flux also increases linearly upto the saturation of the magnetic core. Beyond saturation, increase in flux with armature current is negligible. Thus, beyond saturation, point torque also varies linearly with change in armature current. Series motor has got very high starting torque and hence it is used in electric trains, hoists, trolleys, etc. As the load increases efficiency increases and at a particular load, maximum efficiency is reached. MODEL GRAPH

T,,N %

T (Nm) N (rpm)

Output(watts) PROCEDURE Make the connection as shown in the circuit diagram. Observing all the precautions, start the motor with the help of the two point starter. Note the initial readings of motor including the spring blance readings Load the motor in steps till the motor draws rated current from the supply and in each step note the meter readings, speed and spring balance readings. Switch off the motor with load

Torque Nm

Input watts

Output watts

Speed Regulation %

Formula used: Input = input voltage x Input current = VI (watts) Output = 2NT/60 (watts) Torque = (S1~S2)x9.81xR (Nm) Where S1 and S2 ar spring balance readings in kg R is the radius of the brake drum in meter %Efficiency =( output/input ) x 100

Result: Therefore, the load test was conducted and performance was determined

4. AIM

To control the speed of DC shunt motor by(1)armature control method(2)flux control method. NAME PLATE DETAILS Name plate Details S.No

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No 1. 2. 3. Apparatus Rheostat Ammeter Voltmeter Type and range 800 ohm/0.8A 500 ohm/4.5A (0-2)A,MC (0-250)V, MC Quantity 1 1 1 1

PRECAUTIONS Before closing the field rheostat is to be kept in minimum resistance position and armature circuit series rheostat has to be kept in maximum resistance position. All meters are to be checked before giving connections. THEORY

The speed of DC shunt motor is given by relation N=Eb/, where N is the speed of motor, Eb is the back emf and is the flux per pole. So speed can be controlled by including series resistance in the armature circuit and also by including resistance in the field circuit. The different types of speed control of shunt motors are 1.Variation of flux or flux control method It is seen above that N` 1/.By decreasing the flux, the speed can be increased and vice versa. Hence, the name flux or field control method. The flux of a dc motor can be changed by changing Ish with the help of a shunt field rheostat. Since Ish is relatively small, shunt field rheostat has to carry a small current, which means IR loss is small, so that rheostat is small in size. This method is very efficient in interpolar machines, the speed can be increased by this method in the ration of 2:1.Any further weakening of flux, adversely affects the commutation and hence puts a limit to the maximum speed obtainable from this method. 2. Armature or Rhoestatic control method: This method is used when speeds below the no load speeds are required. As the supply voltage is normally constant, the voltage across the armature is varied by inserting a variable rheostat or resistance in series with the armature circuit. As the controller resistance is increased, p.d across the armature is decreased thereby decreasing the armature speed. For a load of constant torque, speed is approximately proportional to the p.d across the armature PROCEDURE Armature conrol method: Connections are given as per the circuit diagram After connections are checked keeping the R 1 in minimum position R2 in maximum position supply switch is closed. Motor is started with the help of three point starter Adjust R1 such that the ammeter reads some value Now vary R2 and note down the reading of V, N and tabulate it. Flux control method: Bring back R1, R2 to their original position. Adjust R2 such that the voltmeter reads some value Vary R1 and note the values of IF, N at each step, the voltmeter reading must be maintained constant. A graph of N VS IF is drawn by taking N on y axis and IF on x axis. TABULATION Armature control method: s.no If V(volts) N(rpm)

If V(volts) N(rpm)

V If (amps) N(rpm)

MODEL GRAPH

RESULT Thus the speed control of DC shunt motor is controlled by(1)armature control method(2)flux control method.

5. LOAD TEST ON THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To conduct the load test on the given three phase induction motor and to draw the performance curves NAME PLATE DETAILS Name plate Details S.No

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No 4. 5. 6. 7. Apparatus Three phase autotransformer Ammeter Voltmeter Wattmeter Type and range Quantity 1 1 1 2

FUSE RATING CALCULATION Fuse Rating = 120% of rated current CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

THEORY Three phase induction motor is the most popular type of AC motor which runs essentially at constant speed from no load to full load. It is very commonly used for industrial drives since it is cheap, robust, efficient and reliable. It has good speed regulation, high starting torque and requires maintenance. It has a reasonable overload capacity. The main parts of induction motor are stator and rotor. The stator carries three phase winding and it is placed in the slots for defnite number of poles. When the stator is supplied with three phase supply, a revolving flux of constant magnitude but rotating with synchronous epdd given by Ns = 120f/P is obtained. This flux sweeps through the air gap between the stator and the rotor and induces an emf in the rotor by mutual induction. This emf induces a current in the rotor circuit which opposes the main field and thus the rotor rotates. The rotor may be of squirrel cage or wound type. The difference between synchronous speed of stator flux and the actual rotor speed is called slip. The characteristics of induction motor can be studied by conducting load test on the given motor. From the figure, it is evident that torque increases linearly and power factor also increases with load. The speed slightly decreases and slip correspondingly increases with the load. FORMULAE USED Input power to the motor = W 1+W 2(watts) Where W 1, W 2 are wattmeter readings Power factor cos = input power/ 3 (V 1*I1) Where V1 = Line voltage in volts I1 = Line current in amps Torque T = (S1~S2)*r*9.81 Nm Where S1,S2 = spring balance readings (Kg) R = Radius of the loading drum (m) Output power = 2NT/60 watts Where N = Speed of the motor (rpm) T = Torque (Nm) Efficiency , = Output power/Input Power *100 % slip = (Ns N)/Ns * 100% Where Ns = Synchronous speed (rpm) PRECAUTIONS 1. Ensure that TPST switch is kept in OFF position 2. Before starting, the motor should be on no load 3. Make sure that all the meters connected are moving iron type

PROCEDURE 1. Make the connection as shown in figure 2. Observing all the precautions, switch ON the supply and start the motor using a star delta starter 3. Note down the no load readings 4. at no load, one of the wattmeter will show negative deflection 5. Stop the motor and interchange the connections of the terminals M and L. Again start the motor following the above procedure 6. Take the wattmeter reading as negative for which the connections are reversed 7. Gradually increase the load in steps and observe the meter readings, speed and spring balance reading, till the current reaches 120% of its rated value 8. Release all load from the motor and switch off the power supply 9. Tabulate the reading and determine the performance in both the cases

MODEL GRAPH

QUESTIONS (Note: No need to write these questions in record) 1. Why one of the wattmeter shows negative reading at no load? 2. What are the various losses occurring in the induction motor? 3. What is the nature of power factor curve with load current? 4. what are the different types of starting methods of three phase induction motor? 5. Which types of speed control has the advantage of improving the starting torque? 6. What happens to motor if one of the phases goes off suddenly? 7. What is meant by slip in an induction motor? Why just slip be present for motor action? 8. Why does the rotor of an induction motor turn slower than the revolving field? 9. What is the difference between cage and wound rotor? 10. If we double the number of poles on the stator of induction motor, will its synchronous speed also double? 11. What is the normal value of slip of induction motor at full load? 12. How will you change the direction of rotation of induction motor?

RESULT Thus the load test on three phase induction motor was conducted and the characteristics curves were drawn.

6. TRANSFER FUNCTION OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC GENERATOR Aim: To obtain the transfer function of separately excited DC generator Name plate Details S.No

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Apparatus Required: S.No 1. 2. 3. Apparatus Rheostat Ammeter Voltmeter Type & Range 300/1.2A (0-2A)MC (0-2A)MI (0-300V)MC (0-30V)MI Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

TO FIND LF AND RF

PRECAUTIONS 1. Motor field rheostat, should be in minimum position. 2. Generator field rheostat should be kept in maximum position PROCEDURE To find Kg 1. Give the connection as per the circuit diagram 2. To perform the OC test bring motor to rated speed 3. Vary the potential using the potential divider and note the field current and generated emf 4. Using the formula obtain the value of Kg

To find Rf 1. Give the connection as per the circuit diagram 2. The dc supply is given 3. Using potential divider assembly vary voltage across the coil and note down the corresponding values of current 4. Using ohms law find the value of resistance of the coil To find Lf 1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram 2. Vary the potential divider and note down the corresponding values of current 3. The ratio of voltage to current gives the impedance of circuit 4. From the value of Zs and Rf, Xf is calculated 5. From the value of Lf, Xf is calculated TABULATION To find Kg S.No If(A) Eg(V)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

To find Rf S.No Vf(Volts) If(Amps) Rf = Vf/If

To find Zf S.No

V(Volts)

I(mA)

Zf = (V/I)

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