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HUAWEI ATN 990 Multi-service Access Equipment V600R003C00

Product Description
Issue Date 02 2011-08-12

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions


and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

Website: Email:

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HUAWEI ATN 990 Multi-service Access Equipment Product Description

About This Document

About This Document


Purpose
This document describes the product positioning and features, product architecture, link features, service features, application scenarios, operation and maintenance, and technical specifications of the HUAWEI ATN 990 device. This document provides an overall description of the HUAWEI ATN 990 device, which helps intended readers get a general understanding of all the product features.

Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document. Product Name HUAWEI ATN 990 Multiservice Access Equipment Version V600R003

Intended Audience
This document is intended for: l l l l l l l Network planning engineers Hardware installation engineers Commissioning engineers Data configuration engineers On-site maintenance engineers Network monitoring engineers System maintenance engineers

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
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HUAWEI ATN 990 Multi-service Access Equipment Product Description

About This Document

Symbol

Description

DANGER

Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

WARNING

CAUTION
TIP

NOTE

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains all updates made in previous issues.

Changes in Issue 02 (2011-08-12)


The second commercial release has the following updates: l Service Features 6.12 ClockThe performance monitoring function on Passive ports of a 1588v2 device is added. l Operation and Maintenance 8.6 System Test and Diagnosis, The packet capture function is added.

Changes in Issue 01 (2011-05-30)


Initial field trial release.

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HUAWEI ATN 990 Multi-service Access Equipment Product Description

Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii 1 Product Positioning.......................................................................................................................1
1.1 Product Positioning.............................................................................................................................................2 1.2 Product Features.................................................................................................................................................2

2 Product Architecture.....................................................................................................................4
2.1 Physical Architecture..........................................................................................................................................5 2.2 Logical Architecture...........................................................................................................................................5 2.3 Software Architecture.........................................................................................................................................6 2.4 Data Forwarding Process....................................................................................................................................8

3 Technical Specifications.............................................................................................................10 4 FPIC................................................................................................................................................12 5 Link Features................................................................................................................................15


5.1 TDM Link Features..........................................................................................................................................16 5.2 Ethernet Link Features......................................................................................................................................16 5.3 CPOS Link Features.........................................................................................................................................16 5.4 E1 Link Features...............................................................................................................................................17

6 Service Features...........................................................................................................................18
6.1 Ethernet Features..............................................................................................................................................19 6.1.1 Layer 2 Ethernet Features........................................................................................................................19 6.1.2 Layer 3 Ethernet Features........................................................................................................................19 6.1.3 QinQ Features..........................................................................................................................................19 6.1.4 Flexible Access to VPNs.........................................................................................................................20 6.1.5 RRPP Link Features................................................................................................................................20 6.1.6 RSTP/MSTP Features..............................................................................................................................20 6.1.7 BPDU Tunneling Features.......................................................................................................................21 6.2 IP Features........................................................................................................................................................21 6.2.1 IPv4 Features...........................................................................................................................................21 6.3 Routing Protocol...............................................................................................................................................21 6.3.1 Unicast Routing.......................................................................................................................................21 6.3.2 Multicast Routing....................................................................................................................................23 6.4 MPLS................................................................................................................................................................24 Issue 02 (2011-08-12) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. iv

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Contents

6.5 VPN Features....................................................................................................................................................28 6.5.1 Tunnel Policy...........................................................................................................................................28 6.5.2 VPN Tunnel.............................................................................................................................................28 6.5.3 MPLS L2VPN.........................................................................................................................................28 6.5.4 BGP/MPLS L3VPN................................................................................................................................30 6.6 QoS...................................................................................................................................................................31 6.7 Load Balancing.................................................................................................................................................35 6.8 Traffic Statistics................................................................................................................................................35 6.9 Security Features..............................................................................................................................................37 6.10 IP RAN Features.............................................................................................................................................41 6.11 Network Reliability........................................................................................................................................42 6.12 Clock...............................................................................................................................................................47

7 Applicable Environment............................................................................................................50
7.1 Typical ATN Application on the FMC MAN..................................................................................................51

8 Operation and Maintenance......................................................................................................52


8.1 System Configuration Modes...........................................................................................................................53 8.2 System Management and Maintenance............................................................................................................53 8.3 Device Running Status Monitoring..................................................................................................................53 8.4 HGMP...............................................................................................................................................................55 8.5 System Service and Status Tracking................................................................................................................55 8.6 System Test and Diagnosis...............................................................................................................................55 8.7 NQA..................................................................................................................................................................56 8.8 In-Service Debugging.......................................................................................................................................56 8.9 Upgrade Features..............................................................................................................................................57 8.10 License............................................................................................................................................................57 8.11 Other Operation and Maintenance Features...................................................................................................57

9 NMS...............................................................................................................................................59 10 Acronyms and Abbreviations.................................................................................................61

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1
About This Chapter
1.1 Product Positioning 1.2 Product Features

Product Positioning

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1.1 Product Positioning


The ATN series are case-shaped products used for multi-service access on the edge of the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The ATN models include the ATN 910, ATN 950, ATN 980, and ATN 990. The ATN series, together with the CX600 series, can be used to construct end-to-end routed MANs oriented towards Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC). Taking the challenges faced by carriers with respect to resources, cost, and services at the access layer during the evolvement of mobile networks, the ATN series, which adhere to Huawei's "Any Media" conception, provide sustainable IP RAN solutions to 2G, 3G, and Long Term Evolution (LTE) applications.

ATN 990

An ATN 990 is 5 U high. It has two multi-functional slots for Main Processing Units (MPUs), two slots for Network Processing Units (NPUs), and eight slots for high-speed or low-speed subcards. Its switching capacity is 40G.

1.2 Product Features


ATN990s support a switching capability of 40 Gbit/s and provide dense and various interfaces to meet different access scenarios. An ATN990 is 220 mm high, and thus can be placed in an outdoor cabinet for access convergence. ATN990s provide powerful Layer 2 or Layer 3 functions, supporting L2VPN (or L3VPN), HQoS, QinQ, and NAT. It also provide flexible and comprehensive bearing solutions for different scenarios, which helps Metro services become more intelligent. ATN990s support 1588v2 to provide precise frequency or time synchronization
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services to meet the LTE network's requirements for clock synchronization and to better transport mobile backhaul services. l ATN990s adopt a 100% route architecture to transport multiple services and help the current network finally evolve into an LTE network to protect customers' investment. ATN990s adopt an advanced route architecture and a uniform platform to access and transport multiple types of services on an ALL IP network. This improves network flexibility and transmission efficiency, helps construct reliable carrier-class packet transport network (PTN), and reduces the total cost of ownership (TCO). Based on MPLS/ MPLS-TP series standards, ATN990s adopt a connection-oriented packet switching technology to provide wider bandwidth and low delays to help the current transport network to evolve into an LTE network. l ATN990s provide powerful Layer 3 features and perfect clock synchronization solutions to help rapidly deploy services in complicated scenarios. ATN990s provide powerful Layer 3 features based on the VRP. ATN990s support 5-level HQoS, able to provide flexible and reliable differentiated services for users by using refined traffic scheduling and shaping. In the IP RAN solution, ATN990s provide a mature clock synchronization schemes, including Adaptive Clock Recovery (ACR), Synchronization Ethernet, and 1588v2, to provide precious frequency or clock synchronization services. In addition, ATN990s support intelligent applications during Fixed and Mobile Convergence (FMC) to comply with the trend of intelligent services. l ATN990s are managed by a U2000, which is a visual network management system to implement one-key service provisioning to rapidly locate faults. Consequently, the PTN's operability is greatly enhanced. ATN990s are managed by a U2000. With the help of the convenient service configuration process and perfect OAM fault detection mechanism, the U2000 implements visual management, one-key E2E service provisioning for a single node, and rapid fault detection within 30 seconds. This greatly improves operation and maintenance efficiency and enhances manageability and operability of the PTN. In addition, the NMS supports uniform management of PTN, microwave, MSTP, and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) devices, effectively improving operation and maintenance qualities. ATN990s are able to communicate with non-Huawei devices, implementing seamless access at the network edge. All Layer 3 features provided by ATN990s are interoperable with the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), greatly protecting customers' investment.

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2
About This Chapter
2.1 Physical Architecture 2.2 Logical Architecture 2.3 Software Architecture 2.4 Data Forwarding Process

Product Architecture

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2.1 Physical Architecture


The physical architecture includes the following systems: l l l l Power distribution system Functional host system Heat dissipation system Network management system

All systems except the network management system (NMS) are located in an integrated cabinet. The power distribution system consists of power modules working in 1+1 backup mode. The following describes only the functional host system. The functional host system is composed of the system backplane, MPUs, NPUs, and PICs. The functional host system processes data. In addition, it monitors and manages the entire system, including the power distribution system, heat dissipation system, and NMS through NMS interfaces. Figure 2-1 shows the functional host system of the ATN 990. Figure 2-1 Functional host system
PSU (Power Support Unit) Control Bus Monitor Bus Control Bus Monitor Bus FAN

-48 V

-48 V

PSU (Power Support Unit)

Control Bus Monitor Bus

Control Bus Monitor Bus MPU (Master)

GE/Console/ Bits/USB

Backplane

Control Bus 2*10G NPU Monitor Bus Data Bus Control Bus 2*10G NPU Monitor Bus Data Bus

Control Bus Monitor Bus

MPU (Slave)

GE/Console/ Bits/USB

Control Bus Monitor Bus Data Bus PIC 0-7 GE/FE/E1 (Physical etc Interface Card)

2.2 Logical Architecture


The logical architecture of the ATN 990 consists of the following planes: l l
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Data plane Control and management plane


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Monitoring plane

Figure 2-2 shows the logical architecture. Figure 2-2 Logical architecture
MPU MPU

Monitoring plane

System monitoring unit

System monitoring unit

Control and management plane Management unit Data plane Forwarding unit
NPUI

System monitoring unit Management unit

System monitoring unit PICs management unit

Forwarding unit
NPUI

Data channel
PIC * N

The data plane is responsible for high speed processing and non-blocking switching of data packets. It encapsulates or decapsulates packets, forwards IPv4/IPv6/MPLS packets, performs QoS as well as scheduling and internal high-speed switching, and collects statistics. The control and management plane completes all control and management functions for the system and is the core of the entire system. Control and management units process protocols and signals, and maintain, manage, report on, and control system status. The monitoring plane monitors the ambient environment to ensure secure and stable operation of the system. It detects voltage levels, controls system power-on and-off, monitors temperature, and controls fan modules. When a unit fails, the monitoring plane isolates the faulty unit promptly so that other parts of the system can continue to run normally.

2.3 Software Architecture


Figure 2-3 shows the software architecture of the ATN 990.

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Figure 2-3 Software architecture


Power Monitoring FAN Monitoring

SNMP

RPS Master

RPS Slave IPC

NPU

NPU

Software of the ATN 990 consists of the Routing Process System (RPS), power monitoring system, fan monitoring system. l The RPS, which includes IPOS software, VRP software, and product-adaptation software, is the control and management module that runs on the MPU. The RPS on the active MPU and the one on the standby MPU back up each other. RPSs support IPv4/IPv6, MPLS, LDP, and routing protocols, calculate routes, establish LSPs and multicast distribution trees, generate unicast, multicast, and MPLS forwarding tables, and they deliver information concerning all the preceding mentioned to the NPU.

PIC

PIC

PIC

PIC

PIC

PIC

PIC

PIC

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2.4 Data Forwarding Process


Figure 2-4 Data forwarding process

PIC Datagram
Processing on the incoming interface Upstream traffic classification

Datagram
Processing on the outgoing interface Downstream traffic classification IPv4 unicast IPv4 multicast MPLS IPv6 Packet encapsulation and forwarding in the downstream

PFE

IPv4 unicast Searching the IPv4 multicast routing table to MPLS forward packets IPv6 MAC

QoS in the upstream

Congestion management Queue scheduling

Queue scheduling Congestion management

QoS in the downstream

TM
Packet fragmentation

Multicast replication

Packet reassembly

Micro cell SFU

Micro cell

As shown in Figure 2-4, the Packet Forwarding Engine (PFE) adopts a Network Processor (NP) or an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to implement high-speed packet routing. External memory types include Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), and Net Search Engine (NSE). The SRAM stores forwarding entries; the DRAM stores packets; the NSE performs non-linear searching. Data forwarding processes can be divided into upstream and downstream processes based on the direction of the data flow. l Upstream process: The Physical Interface Card (PIC) encapsulates packets to frames and then sends them to the PFE. On the PFE of the inbound interface, the system decapsulates the frames and identifies the packet types. It then classifies traffic according to the QoS configurations on the inbound interface. After traffic classification, the system searches the Forwarding Information Base (FIB) for the outbound interfaces and next hops of packets to be forwarded. To forward an IPv4 unicast packet, for instance, the system searches the FIB for the outbound interface and next hop according to the destination IP address of the
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packet. Finally, the system sends the packets containing information about outbound interfaces and next hops to the traffic management (TM) module. l Downstream process: Information about packet types that have been identified in the upstream process and about the outbound interfaces is encapsulated through the link layer protocol and the packets are stored in corresponding queues for transmission. If an IPv4 packet whose outbound interface is an Ethernet interface, the system needs to obtain the MAC address of the next hop. Outgoing traffic is then classified according to the QoS configurations on the outbound interfaces. Finally, the system encapsulates the packets with new Layer 2 headers on the outbound interfaces and sends them to the PIC.

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3
Physical Specifications
Table 3-1 Physical Specifications Item Dimensions (width x depth x height) Installation Weight (in full configuration) Typical power Heat dissipation DC input voltage Rated voltage Maximum voltage range Ambient temperat ure Long-term Short-term Remarks Storage temperature Relative ambient humidity Long-term Short-term

Technical Specifications

ATN990 442 mm x 220 mm x 222 mm (5 U height) Mounted in an N63E cabinet, a standard 19-inch cabinet, or a 23inch North American open rack 22 kg 650 W 2109 BTU/hour -48 V -38 V to -72 V

-5C to 50C -20C to 60C (Short-term refers to a period of not more than 96 consecutive hours and a total of not more than 15 days in 1 year.) Restriction on the temperature variation rate: 30C per hour -40C to 70C 5% to 85% RH, non-condensing 5% to 95% RH, non-condensing 0% to 95% RH, non-condensing

Relative storage humidity


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Item Altitude for permanent work Storage altitude

ATN990 Within 3000 meters Within 5000 meters

System Configuration
Table 3-2 System Configuration Item SDRAM CF card USB interface Forwarding capacity Packets forwarding rate Backplane bandwidth Interface capacity ATN990 2 GB 1 GB USB2.0 Host 40 Gbit/s 60 Mpps 450 Gpbs Non-line-rate: 75.2 Gbit/s Linerate: 40Gbit/s Number of subcard slots Number of MPU slots Number of NPU slots 8 2 2

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4 FPIC

4
Table 4-1 Subcards supported by the ATN990 Interface Name 8-port 100/1000Base-X-SFP Flexible Plug-in Card (FPIC) (1588v2) Description Supports synchronization Ethernet feature and multiple types of optical modules, and complies with the 1588v2 standard. l Supports the GE optical module to provide GE optical interfaces. l Supports the FE optical module to provide FE optical interfaces. l Supports the SFP electrical module to provide 100 M/1000 M auto-sensing electrical interfaces. (In this case, the synchronization Ethernet feature is not supported.) l Supports the mixed use of the preceding modules. Remarks

FPIC

The ATN990 has eight slots for subcards. Subcards are hot swappable and support automatic configuration recovery.

Subcards of this type can be inserted in the slots 5, 6, 9, and 10 on the ATN990..

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Interface Name 8-port 100/1000Base-X-SFP FPIC

Description Supports the synchronization Ethernet feature and multiple types of optical modules. l Supports the GE optical module to provide GE optical interfaces. l Supports the FE optical module to provide FE optical interfaces. l Supports the SFP electrical module to provide the features of 100 M/1000 M autosensing electrical interfaces. l Supports the mixed use of the preceding modules.

Remarks Subcards of this type can be inserted in the slots 5, 6, 9, and 10 on the ATN990.

Auxiliary Flexible Interface Card with 4-Port 100BaseRJ45(FIC, Supporting 1588v2)C 8-port 100Base-T FPIC (electrical interface)

Supports on-site ambient monitoring, including the monitoring of burglarproof switches and smoke sensors. -

Only one subcard of this type can used on a device.

Subcards of this type can be inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the ATN990. Subcards of this type can be inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the ATN990. Subcards of this type can be inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the ATN990.

8-port 100Base-X SFP FPIC (optical interface)

1-port channelized STM-1 FPIC

Supports hot swapping, the clock synchronization feature, and three protocols: Circuit Emulation Service (CES), Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA), and Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (ML-PPP). Supports hot swapping.

16-port E1 FPIC (75 ohm)

Subcards of this type can be inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the ATN990. Subcards of this type can be inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the ATN990.

16-port E1 FPIC (120 ohm)

Supports hot swapping.

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4 FPIC

Interface Name 4-port OC-3c/STM-1 ATM SFP FPIC

Description Supports hot swapping.

Remarks Subcards of this type can be inserted in the slots 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 12 on the ATN990.

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5 Link Features

5
About This Chapter
5.1 TDM Link Features 5.2 Ethernet Link Features 5.3 CPOS Link Features 5.4 E1 Link Features

Link Features

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5 Link Features

5.1 TDM Link Features


The ATN 990 provides the following TDM-supporting interfaces: l l E1 cSTM-1 POS

The ATN 990 simulates TDM E1 services and channelized STM-1 services for transparent transmission. The ATN 990 supports the circuit emulation service (CES) by using Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge to Edge (PWE3). The CES is classified into the Structure-aware TDM Circuit Emulation Service over Packet Switched Network (CESoPSN) and Structure-Agnostic TDM over Packet (SAToP) service.

5.2 Ethernet Link Features


The ATN 990 provides the following features on Ethernet interfaces: l l l l l Flow control and auto negotiation of rates The formed Eth-Trunk interface functions the same as a common Ethernet interface in supporting services. Bundling of interfaces of different rates Binding of interfaces on different boards into one Eth-Trunk Eth-Trunk member interfaces in active/standby mode The ATN 990 can perform active/standby switchover automatically on Eth-Trunk member interfaces when the link status of interfaces changes. l Addition or deletion of member interfaces to or from an Eth-Trunk interface The ATN 990 can sense the Up or Down status of member interfaces, thus dynamically changing the bandwidth of the Eth-Trunk. l l l Layer 2 and Layer 3 Eth-Trunk interfaces E-Trunk, that is, Eth-Trunk interface whose member interfaces reside on different devices Association between Eth-Trunk links and BFD LACP defined in 802.3ad The Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) maintains link status according to interface status. LACP adjusts or disables link aggregation in the case of aggregation changes. l l l l Ethernet clock synchronization 1588v2 clock VLAN sub-interfaces Interface loopback, including local loopback and remote loopback

5.3 CPOS Link Features


The ATN 990 provides the following CPOS features:
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Channelization The E1 interface channalized from a CPOS interface, in compliance with SAToP, can transparently transmit unstructured TDM services through PWs on an MPLS network. The E1 interface channalized from a CPOS interface, in compliance with CESoPSN, can transparently transmit structured TDM services through PWs on an MPLS network.

ML-PPP/TDM/ATM IMA The ATN 990 provides CPOS interfaces at 155 Mbit/s. At the link layer, CPOS interfaces support the following protocols: ML-PPP TDM ATM IMA

Interface loopback, including local loopback and remote loopback

5.4 E1 Link Features


The ATN 990 provides an E1 interface. The E1 interface supports the following link protocols: l l l ML-PPP ATM IMA TDM

The E1 interface supports the loopback function on an interface, including local loopback and remote loopback. PPP on serial interfaces supports the following: l MP

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6 Service Features

6
About This Chapter
6.1 Ethernet Features 6.2 IP Features 6.3 Routing Protocol 6.4 MPLS 6.5 VPN Features 6.6 QoS 6.7 Load Balancing 6.8 Traffic Statistics 6.9 Security Features 6.10 IP RAN Features 6.11 Network Reliability 6.12 Clock

Service Features

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6.1 Ethernet Features


6.1.1 Layer 2 Ethernet Features
On the ATN 990, Ethernet interfaces can work in switched mode at Layer 2 and support VLAN, VPLS, and QoS services. Functioning as UNIs, Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces support MPLS VPN services. The ATN 990 provides the following Layer 2 Ethernet features: l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l Default VLAN VLAN trunk VLANIF interfaces VLAN aggregation Inter-VLAN port isolation Ethernet sub-interfaces VLAN aggregated sub-interfaces Port number-based VLAN division VLAN mapping VLAN stacking MAC address limit Unknown unicast/multicast/broadcast suppression Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)/Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) RRPP with switching time less than 50 ms

6.1.2 Layer 3 Ethernet Features


The ATN 990 provides the following Layer 3 Ethernet features: l l l l l l l l IPv4 IPv6 MPLS Multicast VLAN sub-interfaces QoS Ethernet sub-interfaces VLAN aggregation sub-interfaces

6.1.3 QinQ Features


The ATN 990 provides abundant QinQ features to satisfy different networking requirements. The QinQ features are as follows: l
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Identification of double VLAN tags (inner VLAN tag and outer VLAN tag)
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l l l l l l l

Change of the outer VLAN ID Removal of double VLAN tags and then addition of new double VLAN tags QinQ mapping for the outer VLAN tag Change of the EtherType value and 802.1p priority in the outer VLAN tag; copy of the 802.1p priority in the inner VLAN tag to the outer VLAN tag of double-tagged packets Traffic classification based on the 802.1p priorities in the outer VLAN tags of packets Rate limit on interfaces based on the 802.1p priorities in both inner and outer VLAN tags Interface-based QinQ Interface-based QinQ is applicable to the following scenarios: Access to a VPLS network to transparently transmit VLAN packets Access to an L2VPN or PWE3 to transparently transmit VLAN packets

l l l l l l

VLAN-based QinQ QinQ termination EType in the outer tag of QinQ packets used for interoperation with devices of other vendors Multicast QinQ QinQ-based VLAN swapping VLAN stacking can be applied in the following scenarios: Access to VPLS Access to VLL or PWE3

6.1.4 Flexible Access to VPNs


In traditional access identification, user information or service information is identified through a single tag or double tags. For example, the inner tag indicates user information and the outer tag indicates service information. Different interfaces are configured with different double tags to access different VPNs. In some scenarios, the access device does not support QinQ or a single tag is used for multiple services. In this case, the access device may add service access information to the 802.1p or DSCP field. Then, the ATN 990 connected to the access device needs to use the 802.1p or DSCP value to identify access users. This helps configure the accesses to different VPNs and set up different QoS scheduling policies.

6.1.5 RRPP Link Features


The Rapid Ring Protection Protocol (RRPP) supports the following functions: l l l Polling mechanism Link status change notification Mechanism of checking the channel status of the sub-ring protocol packets on the major ring

6.1.6 RSTP/MSTP Features


The ATN 990 supports the following: l l
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RSTP MSTP
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MSTP provides BPDU protection to defend against such attacks. After the BPDU protection is enabled, the switch shuts down the edge port that receives BPDUs. At the same time, the switch informs the NMS of the situation. The edge port can be enabled by the network administrator. ATN 990 can restrict the sending of Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocol packets such as RSTP and DHCP through CP-CAR. This avoids influencing device performance.

6.1.7 BPDU Tunneling Features


The ATN 990 supports BPDU tunneling in the following modes: l l l l l Port-based BPDU tunneling VLAN-based BPDU tunneling QinQ-based BPDU tunneling VLL-based transparent transmission of BPDUs VPLS-based transparent transmission of BPDUs

6.2 IP Features
6.2.1 IPv4 Features
The ATN 990 supports the following IPv4 features: l l l l l l TCP/IP protocol suite, including ICMP, IP, TCP, UDP, socket (TCP/UDP/Raw IP), and ARP Static DNS and specified DNS server FTP server/client and TFTP client DHCP relay agent and DHCP server Suppression of DHCP flooding Ping, tracert, and NQA NQA can detect the status of ICMP, TCP, UDP, DHCP, FTP, HTTP, and SNMP services and test the response time of the services. The system supports NQA in UDP jitter and ICMP jitter tests by sending and receiving packets on LPUs. The minimum interval at which packets are transmitted can be 10 ms. Each LPU supports up to 100 concurrent jitter tests. The entire system supports up to 1000 concurrent jitter tests. l l l l IP policy-based routing (PBR) and flow-based next hop to which packets are forwarded IP PBR-based load balancing Load balancing in unequal cost multiple path (UCMP) mode Configuration of secondary IP addresses for all physical and logical interfaces Each interface can be configured with a maximum of 255 secondary IP addresses with 31bit masks.

6.3 Routing Protocol


6.3.1 Unicast Routing
The ATN 990 supports the following unicast routing features:
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l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

IPv4 routing protocols, including RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP4 IPv6 routing protocols, including Routing Information Protocol Next Generation (RIPng), OSPFv3, IS-ISv6, and BGP4+ Static routes that are manually configured by the administrator to simplify network configurations and improve network performance Selection of the optimal route through the perfect routing policy Import of routing information of other protocols Use of routing policies in advertising and receiving routes and filtering of routes through route attributes Password authentication and MD5 authentication to improve network security Restart of protocol processes through command lines RIP-1 (classful routing protocol) and RIP-2 (classless routing protocol) Advertisement of a default route from a RIP-enabled device to its peers and setting of the metric of this route RIP-triggered updates Disabling a specified interface from sending or receiving OSPF or RIP packets Association between OSPF and BGP Association between OSPF and LDP Fast OSPF convergence, which can be implemented in the following manners: Adjusting the interval at which LSAs are sent Enabling OSPF GR Configuring BFD for OSPF

l l l

OSPF I-SPF and IS-IS I-SPF (I-SPF re-calculates only the affected routes of a shortest path tree (SPT) rather the entire SPT) OSPF PRC OSPF calculation of link costs based on the reference bandwidth Link costs can be manually configured or automatically calculated by the system based on the reference bandwidth by using the following formula: Link cost = Reference bandwidth/Interface bandwidth The integer of the calculated result is the link cost. If the calculated result is smaller than 1, the cost is 1. The link cost can be changed by changing the reference bandwidth. By default, the reference bandwidth of the ATN 990 is 100 Mbit/s. The value can be changed to one in the range of 1 to 2147483648 in Mbit/s by running commands.

l l l l l l l
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Two-level IS-IS in a routing domain Association between IS-IS and LDP IS-IS GR, OSPF GR and BGP GR, which ensure high reliability with Non-Stop Forwarding (NSF) BGP indirect next hop and dynamic update peer-groups Policy-based route selection by BGP when there are multiple routes to the same destination BGP route reflector (RR), which addresses the problem of high costs of full-mesh requirement when there are many IBGP peers Sending of BGP Update packets that carry no private AS number
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l l l

Route dampening, which suppresses unstable routes (unstable routes are neither added to the BGP routing table nor advertised to other BGP peers) Routing protocol BGP fast convergence The ATN 990 adopts a new route convergence mechanism and algorithm, which speeds up convergence of BGP routes. The features are as follows: Indirect next hop On-demand route iteration

l l

BGP load balancing in multi-homing networking Non-Stop Routing (NSR) The ATN 990 supports the following NSR modes: IS-IS NSR BGP NSR

The formula for calculating the bandwidth occupies by LSAs on interfaces in the same area is as follows: Assume that there are 10000 routes, Ethernet interfaces are used, and the MTU of the Ethernet interfaces is 1500 bytes. In this case, the Ethernet frame header is of 24 bytes, and each LSA is of 44 bytes. Each LSA carries information about a route. (1500-24)/44=33. The preceding formula indicates that an Ethernet frame can carry information about 33 routes. In this case, 303 Ethernet frames are required to carry information about 10000 routes.

6.3.2 Multicast Routing


The ATN 990 provides the following multicast features: l Multicast protocols Multicast protocols include the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) ( IGMPv1, IGMPv2 and IGMPv3), Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-DM), Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM), Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP), and Multi-protocol Border Gateway Protocol (MBGP). l l l l l l Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) PIM-SSM Anycast RP IPv6 multicast routing protocols IPv6 multicast routing protocols include PIM-IPv6-DM, PIM-IPv6-SM, and PIM-IPv6SSM. MLD Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) has the following versions: MLDv1 defined in RFC 2710 MLDv1 supports Any-Source Multicast (ASM) directly and supports Source-Specific Multicast (SSM) together with SSM mapping. MLDv2 defined in RFC 3810 MLDv2 supports ASM and SSM directly.
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l l l

Multicast static routes Configuration of multicast protocols on physical interfaces such as Ethernet, and Trunk interfaces. Filtering of routes based on the routing policy when the multicast routing module receives, imports, or advertises multicast routes and filtering and forwarding of multicast packets based on the routing policy when IP multicast packets are forwarded Multicast VPN The multicast domain (MD) scheme is used to implement this function. Addition and deletion of dummy entries Query of PIM neighbors and number of control messages Filtering of PIM neighbors, control of the forwarding boundary, and control of the BSR service and management boundary Filtering and suppression of PIM Register messages MSDP authentication IGMP packet rate limiting and IGMP proxy Prompt leave of IGMP and MLD group members and the use of group-policies to restrict the setup of forwarding entries Configuration of ACLs, including source address-based packet filtering, control of multicast group number, setup of multicast forwarding entries, and Switch-MDT switching, to ensure multicast security Multicast group-based, multicast source-based, multicast source/group-based, stablepreferred, and balance-preferred load splitting IGMP snooping The ATN 990 supports IGMP snooping on Layer 2 interfaces, Layer 3 interfaces, QinQ interfaces, STP topologies, RRPP rings, and VPLS PWs.

l l l l l l l l l

l l

Multicast flow control The ATN 990 discards or broadcasts unknown multicast packets in the VLAN to which the receiving interface belongs. Unknown multicast packets are packets that have no corresponding forwarding entries in the multicast forwarding table. In addition, the ATN 990 restricts the maximum percentage of multicast flows on Ethernet interfaces to control multicast traffic.

Multicast VLAN The ATN 990 supports multicast VLAN and VLAN-based 1+1 protection of multicast traffic.

l l

Multicast VPN For details, see section "6.5 VPN Features". Multicast CAC The ATN 990 supports multicast Call Admission Control (CAC). When multicast CAC rules are configured, the number of multicast groups and bandwidth are restricted for IGMP snooping on interfaces or the entire system.

6.4 MPLS
The ATN 990 supports MPLS features, and static and dynamic LSPs. Static LSPs require that the administrator configure the Label Switch Routers (LSRs) along the LSPs and set up LSPs
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manually. Dynamic LSPs are set up dynamically in accordance with the routing information through the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) and RSVP-TE. The delay for MPLS packets can be controlled in the following aspects: l l In the case that there is no traffic congestion, the ATN 990 adopts a high-speed processor to ensure line-rate forwarding and low delay. In the case of traffic congestion, the ATN 990 ensures preferential forwarding and low delay for traffic with high priority through mechanisms such as QoS, HQoS, MPLS TE, and DS-TE.

MPLS is supported on all interfaces of the ATN 990.

Basic MPLS Functions


The ATN 990 supports the following MPLS functions: l l l Basic MPLS functions, service forwarding, and LDP MPLS distributes labels, sets up LSPs, and transfers parameters used for setting up LSPs. A maximum of four MPLS labels LDP Downstream Unsolicited (DU) and Downstream on Demand (DoD) label advertisement modes Independent and ordered label distribution control modes Liberal and conservative label retention modes Loop detection mechanism by using the maximum number of hops and path vector Basic discovery mechanism and extended discovery mechanism of LDP sessions l l l l l l l l MPLS ping and tracert and detection of the availability of an LSP through the exchange of MPLS Echo Request packets and MPLS Echo Reply packets LSP bandwidth alarm function and LSP-based traffic statistics function that is used to calculate bandwidth usage Management functions such as the LSP loop detection mechanism MPLS QoS, mapping from the ToS field in IP packets to the EXP field in MPLS packets, and MPLS uniform, pipe, and short pipe modes Static configuration of LSPs and label forwarding based on traffic classification MPLS trap function Association between LDP and IGP, which shortens traffic loss to the minimum through the synchronization between the LDP status and IGP status in case of network faults ATN 990 functioning as a Label Edge Router (LER) or an LSR An LER is an edge device on an MPLS network that connects the MPLS network to other networks. The LER classifies services, distributes labels, encapsulates or removes multilayer labels. When functioning as an egress, the ATN 990 supports PHP. That is, the ATN 990 allocates an explicit null label or an implicit null label to the penultimate hop. An LSR is a core router on an MPLS network. The LSR switches and distributes labels. l l
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Establishment of LSPs between ATN 990s of different IS-IS levels and between the ATN 990 and non-Huawei devices through LDP MPLS supported by the ATN 990 complies with the following standards:
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RFC 3031 RFC 3032 RFC 3034 RFC 3035 RFC 3036 RFC 3037 The ATN 990 supports CR-LDP and RSVP-TE and can interoperate with non-Huawei devices through CR-LDP or RSVP-TE.

MPLS TE
The MPLS TE technology combines the MPLS technology with traffic engineering. It can reserve resources by setting up LSP tunnels for a specified path in an attempt to avoid network congestion and balance network traffic. In the case of resource scarcity, MPLS TE allows the preemption of bandwidth resources of LSPs with low priorities. This meets the demands of important services or the LSPs with large bandwidth. When an LSP fails or a node is congested, MPLS TE can ensure smooth network communication through the backup path and the fast reroute (FRR) function. Through automatic re-optimization and bandwidth adjustment, MPLS TE improves the self-adaptation capability of tunnels and properly allocates network resources. The process of updating the network topology through the TEDB is as follows: When a link goes Down, the CSPF failed link timer is enabled. If the IGP route is deleted or the link is changed within the timeout period of the CSPF failed link timer, CSPF deletes the timer and then updates the TEDB. If the IGP route is not deleted or the link is not changed after the timeout period of the CSPF failed link timer expires, the link is considered Up. MPLS TE provides the following functions: l Processing of static LSPs MPLS can create and delete static LSPs, which require bandwidth but are manually configured. l Processing of Constrained Route-Label Switched Path (CR-LSP) of various types and route calculation through the CSPF algorithm

CR-LSPs are classified into the following types: l l RSVP-TE RSVP authentication complies with RFC 3097. Auto routing Auto routing works in either of the following modes: IGP shortcut: An LSP is not advertised to neighboring routers. Therefore, other routers cannot use the LSP. Forwarding adjacency: An LSP is advertised to neighboring routers. Therefore, other routers can use the LSP. l Fast reroute (FRR) The switchover through FRR is within 50 ms, which minimizes the data loss when network faults occur. l
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Auto FRR
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Auto FRR is an extension to MPLS TE FRR. You can create a bypass tunnel that meets the requirement on the LSP by configuring the attributes of the bypass tunnel, global auto FRR, and auto FRR on the interface of the primary tunnel. With the change of the primary tunnel, the previous bypass tunnel is deleted automatically. Then, a new bypass tunnel that meets the requirement is set up. l Backup CR-LSP The ATN 990 supports the following backup modes: Hot backup A backup CR-LSP is established immediately after the primary CR-LSP is established. When the primary CR-LSP fails, MPLS TE switches traffic immediately to the backup CR-LSP. Ordinary backup A backup CR-LSP is set up when the primary CR-LSP fails. l LDP over TE In existing networks, not all devices support MPLS TE. It is possible that only the devices at the network core support TE and the devices at the network edge use LDP. The application of LDP over TE is therefore put forward. With LDP over TE, the TE tunnel is considered as a hop of the entire LDP LSP. Through forwarding adjacency, one MPLE TE tunnel can be considered as a virtual link and advertised to an IGP network. l Make-before-break Make-before-break is a technology for ensuring highly reliable CR-LSP switchover. The original path is not deleted until a new path has been created. Before a new CR-LSP is created, the original CR-LSP is not deleted. After a new CR-LSP has been created, the traffic is switched to the new CR-LSP first, and then the original CR-LSP is deleted. This ensures non-stop traffic forwarding. l DS-TE DS-TE implemented on the ATN 990 supports the Non-IETF mode and the IETF mode. The Non-IETF (non-standard) mode supports two CTs (CT0 and CT1), eight priorities (0-7), and two bandwidth constraint models (RDM and MAM). The CT here refers to the class type of a corresponding service flow. The priority here refers to the LSP preemption priority. The IETF (standard) mode supports eight CTs (CT0 through CT7), eight priorities (0-7), and three bandwidth constraint models (RDM, MAM, and Extended). DS-TE supports TE FRR, hot standby, protection switchover, and CT-based traffic statistics collection.

MPLS OAM
MPLS OAM functions are as follows: l MPLS OAM detection MPLS OAM sends CV/FFD and BDI packets along an LSP to be detected and its reverse LSP to detect its connectivity. l l
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OAM auto protocol Protection switching


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6.5 VPN Features


6.5.1 Tunnel Policy
Tunnel policies are used to select tunnels according to destination IP addresses. Tunnels are selected according to tunnel policies as required. If no tunnel policy is created, the tunnel management module searches for a tunnel according to the default tunnel policy. The ATN 990 supports the following tunnel policies: l Tunnel policy in select-sequence mode In this mode, you need to specify the sequence in which the tunnel types are selected and the number of tunnels carrying out load balancing. If a tunnel listed earlier is Up, it is selected regardless of whether other services have selected it. The tunnels listed later are not selected except in case of load balancing or when the preceding tunnels are all Down. l VPN tunnel binding VPN tunnel binding means that the peer end of the VPN on the PE of the VPN backbone network is associated with a certain MPLS TE tunnel. The data from the VPN to the peer PE is transmitted through the dedicated TE tunnel. The bound TE tunnel carries only specified VPN services. This ensures QoS of the specified VPN services.

6.5.2 VPN Tunnel


The ATN 990 supports the following types of VPN tunnels: l l LSPs TE tunnels

6.5.3 MPLS L2VPN


The ATN 990 provides L2VPN services over an MPLS network where the ISP can provide L2VPNs over different media.

VLL
The ATN 990 supports the following VLL functions: l Martini VLL The Martini mode supports double labels. The inner label adopts extended LDP for signaling in compliance with RFC 4096. The type of VC FEC is 128. VC encapsulation types include 0x0004 Ethernet Tagged Mode, 0x0005 Ethernet, and 0x000B IP Layer2 Transport. l Kompella VLL VC encapsulation types of Kompella VLL include Ethernet, PPP, VLAN, and IPinterworking. Kompella VLL supports the local inter-board switching of packets in 802.1Q mode. Kompella VLL supports inter-AS VPN. l
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CCC VLL
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CCC VLL supports the local inter-board switching of packets in 802.1Q mode l l SVC VLL VLL heterogeneous interworking VLL heterogeneous IP-interworking is used when the link types of CEs on both ends of an L2VPN link are different. In MPLS L2VPN heterogeneous IP-interworking, after receiving a frame from a CE, a PE decapsulates the link-layer packet and transmits the IP packet across an MPLS network. The IP packet is transparently transmitted to the peer PE. The peer PE re-encapsulates IP packet according to its link layer protocol and transmits the packet to the connected CE. The link-layer control packet sent by the CE is processed by the PE and is not transmitted through the MPLS network. All non-IP packets such as MPLS and IPX packets are discarded. l Transparent transmission of certain types of link layer protocol packets Interfaces can be configured to transparently transmit certain types of link layer protocol packets, such as BPDUs, STP packets, LLDP packets, UDLD packets, CDP packets, and HGMP packets. l Inter-AS VLL SVC VLL, Martini VLL, and Kompella VLL can implement inter-AS L2VPN Option A (VRF-to-VRF). Option B requires the switching of both inner and outer labels on the ASBR, and is therefore not suitable for the VLL. Option C is the best solution. l VLL over TE ECMP

VPLS
In a VPLS network, PEs can be all connected to each other and enabled with split horizon to prevent Layer 2 loops. The implementations of VPLS control plane through BGP and LDP are called Kompella VPLS and Martini VPLS respectively. l Kompella VPLS Kompella VPLS has good scalability. With Kompella VPLS, BGP is adopted for signaling, and VPN targets are configured to implement automatic discovery of VPLS members. Therefore, the addition or deletion of PEs requires few additional operations. l Martini VPLS Martini VPLS has poor scalability. With Martini VPLS, LDP is adopted for signaling, and the peers of a PE need to be manually specified. PEs in a VPLS network are all connected to each other. Therefore, adding a new PE requires configurations on all the other associated PEs to be modified.A pseudo wire (PW) is actually a point-to-point link. This means that using LDP to create, maintain, and delete the PW is more effective. The ATN 990 supports the following VPLS functions: l l l l l
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Access to the VPLS network in QinQ mode HVPLS IGMP snooping for VPLS One MAC address space for each VSI VPLS learns MAC addresses in the following modes:
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Unqualified mode: In this mode, a VSI can contain multiple VLANs sharing a MAC address space and a broadcast domain. When learning MAC addresses, VPLS also needs to learn VLAN IDs. Qualified mode: In this mode, a VSI has only one VLAN, which has an independent MAC address space and a broadcast domain. When learning MAC addresses, VPLS does not need to learn VLAN IDs. l l l l l l VPLS/HVPLS equal-cost load balancing Fast switching of multicast traffic mVPLS STP over PW STP over VPLS Transparent transmission of certain types of link layer protocol packets Interfaces can be configured to transparently transmit certain types of link layer protocol packets, such as BPDUs, STP packets, LLDP packets, UDLD packets, CDP packets, and HGMP packets. l Ethernet loop detection

PWE3
The ATN 990 supports the following PWE3 functions: l Virtual Circuit Connectivity Verification PING (VCCV-PING) The ATN 990 supports the manual LDP PW connectivity detection on the UPE, including the connectivity of static PWs, dynamic PWs, single-hop PWs, and multi-hop PWs. l PW template The ATN 990 supports the binding between a PW and a PW template, and the reset of PWs. The ATN 990 supports heterogeneous interworking. Currently, the ATN 990 supports the transparent transmission of the following packets through PWE3: ATM AAL5 SDU VCC transport, Ethernet, ATM n-to-one VCC cell transport, IP Layer 2 transport, and ATM one-to-one VCC cell mode. l l l PW redundancy ATM IWF ATM IWF runs on an L2VPN in CCC local connection mode or an L2VPN in PW mode. The ATN 990 supports the circuit emulation service (CES) by using Pseudo-Wire Emulation Edge to Edge (PWE3). The CES is classified into the Structure-aware TDM Circuit Emulation Service over Packet Switched Network (CESoPSN) and Structure-Agnostic TDM over Packet (SAToP) service.

6.5.4 BGP/MPLS L3VPN


The ATN 990 supports MPLS/BGP L3VPN, providing an end-to-end VPN solution for carriers. Carriers can provide VPN services for users as a new value-added service. The ATN 990 supports the following BGP/MPLS L3VPN functions: l Access of a CE to an L3VPN through Layer 3 interfaces such as Ethernet, and VLANIF interfaces
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l l l

Static routes, BGP, RIP, OSPF, or IS-IS running between a CE and a PE Carrier's carrier Inter-AS VPN The ATN 990 supports the following inter-AS VPN solutions described in RFC 2547bis: VPN instance to VPN instance, also called Inter-Provider Backbones Option A In Option A, sub-interfaces connecting the Autonomous System Boundary Routers (ASBRs) manage VPN routes. EBGP redistribution of labeled VPN-IPv4 routes, also called Inter-Provider Backbones Option B In Option B, ASBRs advertise labeled VPN-IPv4 routes to each other through MPEBGP. Multihop EBGP redistribution of labeled VPN-IPv4 routes, also called Inter-Provider Backbones Option C In Option C, PEs advertise labeled VPN-IPv4 routes to each other through Multihop MP-EBGP.

l l

Multicast VPN IPv6 VPN The ATN 990 supports the following IPv6 VPN networking solutions: Intranet VPN Extranet VPN Hub&Spoke Inter-AS or multi-AS backbones VPN Carriers' carrier

l l l

HoVPN Resource reservation VPN (RRVPN) Multi-role host

6.6 QoS
On the ATN 990, you can collect traffic statistics on the packets on which QoS is performed and view the statistics result through corresponding display commands. The ATN 990 supports the following QoS functions:

Diff-Serv Model
Multiple service flows can be aggregated into a Behavior Aggregate (BA) and then processed based on the same Per-Hop Behavior (PHB). This simplifies the processing and storage of services. On the Diff-Serv core network, packet-specific QoS is provided. Therefore, signaling processing is not required.

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Simple Traffic Classification


Currently, the ATN 990 supports simple traffic classification not only on physical interfaces and sub-interfaces but also on logical interfaces such as member interfaces of VLANIF and trunk interfaces.

Complex Traffic Classification


The ATN 990 performs complex traffic classification based on the following information: l l Layer 2 and Layer 3 information of packets Source MAC address, destination MAC address, link layer protocol number, and 802.1p value (of tagged packets) in the Ethernet frame header; IP precedence, DSCP, or ToS value, source IP address prefix, destination IP address prefix, protocol number, fragmentation flag, TCP SYN flag, TCP/UDP source port number or port range, and TCP/UDP destination port number or port rang of IPv4 packets Information carried in IPv6 packets In addition to physical interfaces, traffic classification can be performed on logical interfaces, including sub-interfaces and trunk interfaces.

l l

Traffic Policing
CAR is mainly used for rate limit. In the implementation of CAR, a token bucket is used to measure the data flows that pass through the interfaces on a router so that only the packets assigned with tokens can go through the router in the specified time period. In this manner, the rates of both incoming and outgoing traffic are controlled. In addition, the rate of certain types of data flows can be controlled based on the information such as the IP address, port number, and priority. Rate limit is not performed on the data flows that do not meet the specified conditions, and such data flows are forwarded at the original interface rate. CAR is mainly implemented at the edge of a network to ensure that core devices on the network process data properly. The ATN 990 supports CAR for both incoming and outgoing traffic.

Queue Scheduling
The ATN 990 supports FIFO, PQ, and WFQ for queue scheduling on interfaces. The ATN 990 maps packets of different priorities to different queues and adopts Round Robin (RR) on each interface for queue scheduling. Priority Queues (PQs) are classified into four types: top PQs, middle PQs, normal PQs, and bottom PQs. They are ordered in descending order of priorities. When packets leave queues, PQ allows the packets in the top PQ to go first. Packets in the top PQ are sent as long as there are packets in this PQ. The ATN 990 sends packets in the middle PQ only when all packets in the top PQ are sent. Similarly, the ATN 990 sends packets in the normal PQ only when all packets in the middle PQ are sent; the ATN 990 sends packets in the bottom PQ only when all packets in the normal PQ are sent. As a result, the packets in the PQ of a higher priority are always sent preferentially, which ensures that packets of key services are processed preferentially when the network is congested. Packets of common services are processed when the network is idle. In this manner, the quality of key services is guaranteed, and the network resources are fully utilized. Weight Fair Queuing (hereinafter referred to as WFQ) is a complex queuing process, which ensures that the services with the same priority are fairly treated and the services with different
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priorities are weighted. The number of WFQ queues can be pre-set and is allowed to range from 16 to 4096. WFQ weights services based on their requirements for the bandwidth and delay. The weights are determined by the IP precedence in the IP packet headers. With WFQ, the ATN 990 implements dynamic traffic classification based on quintuples or ToS values. The packets with the same quintuple (source IP address, destination IP address, source port number, destination port number, and protocol number) or ToS value belong to the same flow. Packets in one flow are placed in one queue through the Hash algorithm. When flows enter queues, WFQ automatically places different flows into different queues based on the Hash algorithm. When flows leave queues, WFQ allocates bandwidths to flows on the outbound interface based on different IP precedence of the flows. The smaller the precedence value of a flow, the smaller the bandwidth of the flow. In this manner, services of the same precedence are treated fairly; services of different precedence are treated based on their weights.

Congestion Avoidance
Congestion avoidance is a traffic control mechanism used to avoid network overload by adjusting network traffic. With this mechanism, the ATN 990 can monitor the usage of network resources (such as queues and buffers in the memory) and discard packets when the network congestion intensifies. Random Early Detection (RED) or Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) algorithms are frequently used in congestion avoidance. The RED algorithm sets the upper and lower limits for each queue and specifies the following rules: l l l When the length of a queue is below the lower limit, no packet is discarded. When the length of a queue exceeds the upper limit, all the incoming packets are discarded. When the length of a queue is between the lower and upper limits, the incoming packets are discarded randomly. A random number is set for each received packet, and the random number is compared with the drop probability of the current queue. The packet is discarded when the random number is larger than the drop probability. The longer the queue, the higher the drop probability. The drop probability, however, has an upper limit.

Unlike RED, the random number in WRED is based on the IP precedence of IP packets. WRED keeps a lower drop probability for the packets that have a higher IP precedence. RED and WRED employ the random packet drop policy to avoid global TCP synchronization. The ATN 990 adopts WRED to implement congestion avoidance. The ATN 990 supports congestion avoidance in both inbound and outbound directions of an interface. The WRED template is applied in the outbound direction; the default scheduling policy in the system is applied in the inbound direction. In addition, WRED can be applied to the Multicast Tunnel interface (MTI) that is bound to the distributed multicast VPN on the ATN 990. The ATN 990 supports congestion avoidance based on services. The ATN 990 reserves on each interface eight service queues, that is, BE, AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4, EF, CS6, and CS7. The ATN 990 colors packets with red, yellow, and green to identify the priorities of packets and discard certain packets.

HQoS
The ATN 990 supports the following HQoS functions:
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l l l l l l

Provides five levels of scheduling modes to ensure diverse services. Sets parameters such as the maximum queue length, WRED, low delay, SP/WRR, CBS, PBS, and statistics function for each queue. Sets parameters such as the CIR, PIR, number of queues, and algorithm for scheduling queues for each user. Provides the traffic statistics function. Users can learn the bandwidth usage of services and properly distribute the bandwidth by analyzing traffic. Supports HQoS in the VPLS, L3VPN, VLL, and TE scenarios. Supports interface-based, VLAN-based, user-based, and service-based HQoS.

QoS for Ethernet


l Layer 2 simple traffic classification The ATN 990 performs simple traffic classification according to the 802.1p field in VLAN packets. On the ingress PE, the 802.1p priority in a Layer 2 packet is mapped to the precedence defined by the upper layer protocol, such as the IP DSCP value or the MPLS EXP value. In this manner, Diff-Serv is implemented for the packets on the backbone network. On the egress PE, the precedence of the upper layer protocol is mapped back to the 802.1p priority. l QinQ simple traffic classification In the QinQ implementation, the 802.1p values in both inner and outer VLAN tags need to be detected. The ATN 990 can detect the 802.1p value by the following means: Ignores the 802.1p value in the inner VLAN tag and sets a new 802.1p value in the outer VLAN tag. Automatically converts the 802.1p value in the inner VLAN tag into the 802.1p value in the outer VLAN tag. Sets a new 802.1p value in the outer VLAN tag according to the 802.1p value in the inner VLAN tag. Based on the preceding methods and the mapping of the inner VLAN tag to the outer VLAN tag, QinQ supports 802.1p re-marking in the following modes: Specifying a given value. Adopting the 802.1p value in the inner VLAN tag. Mapping the 802.1p value in the inner VLAN tag to the 802.1p value in the outer VLAN tag. The 802.1p values in multiple inner VLAN tags of different packets can be mapped to the 802.1p value in one outer VLAN tag; whereas the 802.1p value in one inner VLAN tag cannot be mapped to the 802.1p values in multiple outer VLAN tags of different packets.

MPLS HQoS
MPLS QoS is a complete L2VPN/L3VPN QoS solution. It resorts to various QoS techniques to meet the diversified and delicate QoS demands of VPN users. MPLS QoS provides relative QoS on the MPLS Diff-Serv network and end-to-end QoS on the MPLE TE network. In actual applications, the following QoS policies are supported. l l l
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MPLS Diff-Serv applied to an L2VPN/L3VPN MPLS TE applied to an L2VPN/L3VPN MPLS DS-TE applied to an L2VPN/L3VPN
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VPN-based QoS applied to the network side of an L2VPN/L3VPN

6.7 Load Balancing


In a scenario where there are multiple equal-cost routes to the same destination, the ATN 990 can balance traffic among these routes. The ATN 990 provides equal-cost load balancing and unequal-cost load balancing, which can be selected as required. In equal-cost load balancing mode, traffic is evenly load-balanced among different routes. In unequal-cost load balancing mode, traffic is load-balanced among different routes based on the proportion of bandwidth of each interface.

Equal-Cost Load Balancing


The ATN 990 can implement equal-cost load balancing on the traffic transmitted through the member links of an IP-Trunk or an Eth-Trunk. When there are multiple equal-cost routes to the same destination, the ATN 990 can evenly balance traffic among these routes. Load balancing can be implemented in session-by-session mode.

Unequal-Cost Load Balancing


The ATN 990 supports the following unequal-cost load balancing modes: l Load balancing based on routes When the costs of different direct routes are the same, you can configure a weight for each route for load balancing. l Load balancing based on interfaces For an IP-Trunk or an Eth-Trunk, you can configure a weight for each member link for load balancing. l Load balancing based on link bandwidth for IGP In this mode, unequal-cost session-by-session load balancing is performed on the outbound interfaces of paths carrying out load balancing. The proportion of traffic transmitted along each path is approximate to or equal to the proportion of bandwidth of each link. This mode fully considers the link bandwidth. In this manner, the case that links with low bandwidth are overloaded whereas links with high bandwidth are idle does not exist. The ATN 990 can balance traffic between physical interfaces or between physical interfaces and logical interfaces. In addition, the ATN 990 can detect the changes of logical interface bandwidth due to manual configuration of new member links or the status changes of member links. When the bandwidth of a logical interface changes, traffic is automatically load-balanced based on the new bandwidth proportion.

6.8 Traffic Statistics


The ATN 990 collects the statistics on access services for various users with multiple statistic functions. The traffic statistics functions are as follows: The traffic statistics functions are as follows: l l
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Helps carriers analyze the traffic model of the network. Provides reference data for carriers to deploy and maintain Diff-Serv TE.
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Supports traffic-based accounting for non-monthly rental users.

URPF Traffic Statistics


The ATN 990 collects statistics on the forwarded traffic based on URPF and the traffic discarded during the URPF check.

ACL Traffic Statistics


The ATN 990 supports the ACL traffic statistics function. When the created ACLs are applied to QoS and PBR, the ATN 990 can collect statistics based on ACLs after the ACL traffic statistics function is enabled. The ATN 990 also provides commands to query the number of matched packets and bytes.

CAR Traffic Statistics


The ATN 990 provides diverse QoS functions such as traffic classification, traffic policing (CAR), and queue scheduling. For these specific functions, the ATN 990 provides the following QoS traffic statistics functions: l l In traffic classification, the system can collect statistics on the traffic that matches rules and fails to match rules. The traffic statistics function for traffic policing is implemented in the following manners: Collects the statistics on the total traffic that matches the CAR rule. Collects the statistics on the traffic that is permitted or discarded by the CAR rule. Supports the interface-based traffic statistics. Supports interface-based CAR traffic statistics when the same traffic policy is applied to different interfaces.

HQoS Traffic Statistics


The ATN 990 can collect the following HQoS traffic statistics: l l l Statistics on the number of forwarding packets, bytes, and discarded packets of a user queue which includes eight flow queues of different priorities Statistics on the number of forwarded packets, bytes, and discarded packets of a user group queue Statistics on the number of forwarded packets, bytes, and discarded packets of eight queues of different priorities on an interface

Interface-Based Traffic Statistics


Traffic statistics can be collected on all interfaces, including physical interfaces, sub-interfaces, loopback interfaces, null interfaces, logical channel interfaces, and virtual Ethernet interfaces. Statistics on IPv4 and IPv6 packets, including unicast packets, multicast packets, and broadcast packets, can also be collected. Statistics on all protocol packets that are supported can be collected, such as MPLS packets, ARP packets, IGP packets, BGP packets, PIM packets, and DHCP packets. The ATN 990 uses the 64-bit register to store the interface-based traffic statistics. For example, the register can store the traffic statistics on a 10G interface for 58.5 years.
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VPN Traffic Statistics


On a VPLS network, the ATN 990, functioning as a PE, can collect statistics on incoming and outgoing traffic of L2VPN users that are connected to the ATN 990. On an L3VPN, the ATN 990, functioning as a PE, can collect statistics on incoming and outgoing traffic of various types of access users. The access users include: l l l l Users that access the network through interfaces including logical interfaces Multi-role hosts Users that access the network through the VPLS/VLL When MPLS HQoS services are configured, the ATN 990, functioning as an ingress PE, can collect statistics on the traffic that is sent by the network side.

Traffic Statistics on TE Tunnels


The ATN 990, functioning as a PE on an MPLS TE network, can collect statistics on incoming and outgoing traffic of a tunnel. When a VPN is statically bound to a TE tunnel, the ATN 990 can collect statistics on traffic of each RRVPN over the TE tunnel and the total traffic over the TE tunnel. Statistics can be collected on traffic of each CT on a DS-TE tunnel.

6.9 Security Features


Security Authentication
The ATN 990 supports the following security authentication functions: l l l l AAA Plain text authentication and MD5 encrypted text authentication supported by routing protocols that include RIPv2, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP MD5 encrypted text authentication supported by LDP and RSVP SNMPv3 encryption and authentication

URPF
The ATN 990 supports URPF for IPv4/IPv6 traffic.

MAC Address Limit


The ATN 990 supports the following MAC address limit functions: l l l l l l
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Limit on the number of MAC addresses that can be learned Limit on the speed of MAC address learning Limit on interface-based MAC address learning Limit on PW-based MAC address learning Limit on VLAN+interface-based MAC address learning Limit on interface+VSI-based MAC address learning
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Limit on QinQ-based MAC address learning

MAC entries in a MAC address table are classified into three types: l Dynamic entries Dynamic entries are learnt by interfaces and stored in hardware of LPUs. Dynamic entries age. Dynamic entries will be lost in the case of the system reset, LPU hot swap, or LPU reset. l Static entries Static entries are configured by users and delivered to LPUs. Static entries do not age. After static entries are configured and saved, they are not lost in the case of the system reset, LPU hot swap, or LPU reset. l Blackhole entries Blackhole entries are used to filter out the data frames that contain specific destination MAC addresses. Blackhole entries are configured by users and delivered to LPUs. Blackhole entries do not age. After blackhole entries are configured and saved, they will not be lost in the case of the system reset, LPU hot swap, or LPU reset.

MAC Entry Deletion


The ATN 990 provides the following MAC entry deletion functions: l l l l Interface+VSI-based MAC entry deletion Interface+VLAN-based MAC entry deletion Trunk-based MAC entry deletion Outbound QinQ interface-based MAC entry deletion

Unknown Traffic Limit


With the unknown traffic limit, the ATN 990 implements the following operations on a VPLS or Layer 2 network: l Manages user traffic. Boards that are not LPUI-41s or LPUF-100s manage only the traffic of VSI and VLAN users. l Allocates bandwidth to users.

In this manner, the network bandwidth is reasonably used and the network security is guaranteed.

IGMP Snooping
The ATN 990 supports IGMP snooping on Layer 2 interfaces, Layer 3 interfaces, QinQ interfaces, STP topologies, RRPP rings, and VPLS PWs.

DHCP Snooping
DHCP snooping is mainly used to prevent DHCP Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, bogus DHCP server attacks, ARP middleman attacks, and IP/MAC spoofing attacks when DHCP is enabled on the ATN 990. The working mode of DHCP snooping varies with the attack type, as shown in Table 6-1.
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Table 6-1 Attack types and DHCP snooping working modes Attack Type DHCP exhaustion attack Bogus DHCP server attack Middleman attack and IP/MAC spoofing attack DoS attack by changing the value of the Client Hardware Address (CHADDR) field DHCP Snooping Anti-Attack Working Mode MAC address limit Trusted/untrusted DHCP snooping binding table Check on the CHADDR field in DHCP packets

Local Attack Defense


The ATN 990 provides a uniform local attack defense module to manage and maintain the attack defense policies of the whole system, thus offering an all-around attack defense solution that is operable and maintainable to users. The ATN 990 supports the following attack defense functions: l l l l l l Whitelist Blacklist CPU Total CAR IGMP VLAN CAR User-defined flow Active link protection (ALP) The ATN 990 protects the TCP-based application-layer data such as session data with the whitelist function. l Uniform configuration of CAR parameters The ATN 990 provides the following methods of configuring CAR parameters: Same CAR parameters configured on different LPUs Same configuration interface for users Configuration of protocol-specific CAR parameters, making the user interface more friendly l Smallest packet compensation The ATN 990 can efficiently defend the network against the attacks of small packets with the smallest packet compensation function. After receiving packets, the system checks the lengths of packets before sending them to the CPU. If the packet length is smaller than the preset minimum packet length, the system calculates the sending rate with the pre-set minimum length. If the packet length is greater than the pre-set minimum packet length, the system calculates the sending rate with the actual packet length. l l
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Association between the application layer and lower layers Local URPF
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l l

Management and service plane protection Defense against TCP/IP packet attacks The ATN 990 provides defense measures against attacks by sending the following types of packets on TCP/IP networks: Malformed packets Null IGMP packets, packets with invalid TCP flag bits, LAND attack packets, IP packets whose payloads are null, and smurf attack packets. Fragmented packets Packets with a huge number of fragments or packets that have a large offset value, repetitive fragmented packets, tear Drop, syndrop, nesta, fawx, bonk, NewTear, Rose, ping of death, and Jolt attacks TCP SYN UDP flood

Attack source tracing When the ATN 990 is attacked, it obtains and stores suspicious packets, and then displays the packets in a certain form through command lines or offline tools. This helps locate the attack source easily. When attacks occur, the system automatically removes the data encapsulated at upper layers of the transmission layer and then caches the packets in memory. When there are a certain number of packets in the cache, for example, 20000 packets on each LPU, the earliest cached packets are overridden when more packets are cached.

GTSM
On the current network, attackers forge valid packets to attack routers, which overloads the routers and consumes limited resources such as the CPU on the MPU. For example, an attacker forges BGP protocol packets and continuously sends them to a router. After the LPU of the router receives the packets, it finds that the packets are destined to itself and then sends the packets directly to the BGP processing module on the MPU without checking the validity of the packets. As a result, the system is abnormally busy processing these forged valid packets and the CPU usage is high. To guard against the preceding attacks, the ATN 990 provides the Generalized TTL Security Mechanism (GTSM). The GTSM protects services above the IP layer by checking whether the TTL value in the IP header is within a specified range. In actual applications, the GTSM is mainly used to protect the TCP/IP-based control plane such as the routing protocol against attacks of the CPU-utilization type such as CPU overload. The ATN 990 supports BGP GTSM, OSPF GTSM, and LDP GTSM.

ARP Attack Defense


The ATN 990 supports the following ARP attack defense functions: l l l
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Interface-based ARP entry restriction Timestamp suppression based on the destination IP address and source IP address of an ARP packet The destination address check for the ARP packet
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The system checks whether the destination IP address of the ARP packet received on the interface is correct. If the destination IP address is correct, the packet is sent to the CPU; otherwise, the packet is discarded. l l ARP bidirectional isolation Filtration of invalid ARP packets The ATN 990 filters out the following types of ARP packets: Invalid ARP packets Invalid ARP packets include ARP request packets with the destination MAC addresses being unicast addresses, ARP request packets with the source MAC addresses being non-unicast addresses, and ARP reply packets with the destination MAC addresses being non-unicast addresses. Gratuitous ARP packets ARP request packets with valid MAC addresses You can use commands to filter out one or more previously mentioned invalid packets.

Local Mirroring
In local mirroring, an LPU can be configured with a physical observing port, multiple logical observing ports, and multiple mirrored ports. Local mirroring can be inter-LPU mirroring, which means that the observing port and mirrored port reside on different LPUs.

Remote Mirroring
The ATN 990 provides MPLS LSPs, MPLS TE tunnels for remote mirroring. In remote mirroring, an LPU can be configured with multiple observing ports and mirrored ports. In remote mirroring, mirroring packets can be intercepted.

SSHv2
The ATN 990 supports the STelnet client and server and the SFTP client and server. Both support SSH 1.5 and SSH 2.0.

6.10 IP RAN Features


PNP
Plug-and-Play (PNP) enables new devices to be automatically identified by the NMS and be commissioned remotely by using the NMS. On an IP RAN network deployed with a large number of devices, the device deployment costs, especially the costs of on-site software commissioning, are high. This greatly harms the growth of profits. To address this issue, Huawei puts forward the PNP solution. The PNP feature effectively reduces the on-site software commissioning time, frees engineers from working in bad outdoor environments, and greatly speeds up the project process and improves project quality.
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Y.1731
Y.1731 supports the following functions: l l l Single-ended frame loss statistics collection, two-ended frame loss statistics collection, one-way frame delay, two-way frame delay and one-way jitter VLL Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and VPLS AIS Multicast MAC ping

MPLS-TP OAM
MPLS-TP OAM supports the following functions: l l l l l l Basic connectivity detection LoopBack (LB) Remote Defect Indication (RDI) Single-ended frame loss statistics collection and two-ended frame loss statistics collection One-way frame delay and two-way frame delay APS 1:1

6.11 Network Reliability


NSR
ATN 990supports the following techniques of Non-Stop Routing (NSR). l l l l l l l l l l l l l NSR OSPF NSR LDP NSR RSVP-TE NSR PIM NSR PPP NSR ARP NSR LACP NSR for L2VPN NSR for L3VPN ISIS/ISIS6 NSR BGP/BGP4+ NSR Multicast (PIM/MSDP) NSR NSR for IPv6

APS
The ATN 990 supports the following Automatic Protection Switching (APS) functions: l l
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1+1 unidirectional mode, 1+1 bidirectional modeand 1:1 bidirectional mode Manual switching of APS groups
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l l l l l l

Forcible switching of APS groups Locking of traffic on the working link of an APS group Interface-based APS Intra-LPU or inter-LPU APS Inter-device APS, that is, Enhanced APS (E-APS)Including APS 1+1 and APS 1:1 Addition of the working and protect interfaces of an APS group to a trunk so that all services are configured on the trunk

FRR
The ATN 990 provides multiple fast reroute (FRR) features. You can deploy FRR as required to improve network reliability. l IP FRR FRR switching can be complete in 50 ms. In this manner, the data loss caused by network failures is minimized to a great extend. FRR supported by the ATN 990 enables the system to monitor and save the status of LPUs and interfaces in real time and to check the status of interfaces during packet forwarding. When faults occur on an interface, the system can rapidly switch the traffic to another preset route, thus reducing time between failures and the packet loss ratio. l l LDP FRR LDP FRR switching can be complete in 50 ms. TE FRR TE FRR is an MPLS TE technology used to protect local networks. Only the interfaces with a transmission rate of over 100 Mbit/s support TE FRR. TE FRR switching can be complete within 50 ms. It can minimize data loss when network failures occur. TE FRR protects traffic only temporarily. When the protected LSP becomes normal or a new LSP is established, traffic is switched back to the original protected LSP or the newly established LSP. When a link or a node on the LSP fails, traffic is switched to the protection link and the ingress node of the LSP attempts to establish a new LSP, if an LSP is configured with TE FRR. With different protected objects, TE FRR is classified into the following types: Link protection Node protection l Auto FRR Auto FRR is an extension of MPLS TE FRR. It automatically creates a bypass tunnel that meets the requirements for the LSP through the configuration of the attributes of the bypass tunnel, global auto FRR attributes, and interface-based auto FRR attributes on the interface of the primary tunnel. When the primary tunnel changes to another path, the previous bypass tunnel is automatically deleted. Then, a bypass tunnel that meets the requirements is set up. l l VLL FRR VLL FRR switching can be complete in 50 ms. VPN FRR VPN FRR switching can be complete in 50 ms.
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Backup of Key Parts


The ATN 990 can be equipped with one MPU or two MPUs. The MPUs support hot backup. If the device is configured with two MPUs, the master MPU works and the slave MPU is in the standby state. The management network interface on the slave MPU cannot be accessed by users, and the console and AUX interfaces cannot be configured with any command. The slave MPU exchanges information (including heartbeat messages and backup data) with only the master MPU. The system supports two types of master/slave switchover of MPUs: failover and switchover. The failover is triggered by serious faults in the master MPU or the reset of the master MPU. The switchover is triggered by commands that are run on the console interface. You can also forbid the master/slave switchover of the MPUs by using commands on the console interface. The system generates alarms, records the faults in the log file, and reports the alarms to the NMS. The cause of the master/slave switchover and the associated operations are recorded in the system diagnosis information base for users to analyze. The system provides two clock boards in master/slave backup mode. If the system detects that the master clock board becomes faulty or is reset through a command, the system automatically performs the master/slave switchover of clock boards. The master/slave switchover of clock boards does not result in phase offsets or interrupt services. The master/slave switchover time of each key part is less than 100 us.

High Reliability of LPUs


The ATN 990 supports backup of key service interfaces of the same type through protocols. l Supports VRRP on Ethernet interfaces. With extended VRRP, two interfaces located on a same ATN 990 or two ATN 990s can back up each other. This ensures high reliability of the interfaces. Supports backup of Eth-Trunk member interfaces, or backup of Eth-Trunk or IP-Trunk member interfaces and non-member interfaces. Supports the bundling of interfaces on different LPUs into a trunk. You can access different LPUs through double links and bundle interfaces on different LPUs into a trunk to ensure high reliability of services. Inter-LPU bundling is implemented by high-performance hardware engines, thus ensuring load balancing of packets among different links. The Hash algorithm based on the combination of the source and destination IP addresses load-balances traffic evenly on links. Seamless switchover is implemented in the case of a link failure so that services are forwarded without interruption. Through extended protocols, the ATN 990 backs up key service interfaces. In this manner, core routers can monitor and back up the running status of interfaces when they carry LAN, MAN, or WAN services. Therefore, the routing table is not affected when the status of the backup interface needs to be changed and services recover rapidly.

l l

Transmission Alarm Suppression


Transmission alarm suppression can efficiently filter and suppress alarm signals. This prevents interfaces from frequently flapping. In addition, transmission alarm customization enables the control over the impact brought by alarms on the interface status.
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Transmission alarm customization and suppression implement the following functions: l l Customizes alarms. This can specify the alarms that can cause the change of the interface status. Suppresses alarms. This can filter out the burr and prevent the network from frequently flapping.

Ethernet OAM Fault Management


Ethernet OAM fault management includes the following functions: l Ethernet in the First Mile OAM (EFM OAM) Conforming to IEEE 802.3ah, the ATN 990 supports point-to-point Ethernet fault management to detect faults in the last mile of the direct link on the user side of the Ethernet. Currently, the ATN 990 supports OAM discovery, link monitoring, remote fault notification, and remote loopback, as defined in IEEE 802.3ah. l Connectivity Fault Management OAM (CFM OAM) The following describes end-to-end Ethernet fault management in two aspects. Hierarchical MD Each MD has a level that ranges from 0 to 7. The greater the value, the higher the level. The 802.1ag packets from a low-level MD are discarded when entering a high-level MD. The 802.1ag packets from a high-level MD can be transmitted through a low-level MD. End-to-end fault detection and location The ATN 990 realizes end-to-end Ethernet fault management by conforming to IEEE 802.1ag or not. The ATN 990 supports MAC ping and MAC trace by transmitting Loop Back (LB) and Link Trace (LT) messages defined in IEEE 802.1ag to locate faults. Fault detection and location not conforming to IEEE 802.1ag include general MAC ping and general MAC trace.

VRRP
VRRP dynamically associates the virtual router with a physical router that carries services. When the physical router fails, another router is elected to take over services. Failover is transparent to users and thus the internal network and the external network can communicate without interruption. The ATN 990 supports the following VRRP functions: l l l l mVRRP VGMP E-VRRP VRRP For IPv6

GR
Graceful Restart (GR) is a key technology in implementing HA. It is designed based on NSF. GR switchover and subsequent restart can be performed by the administrator or triggered by faults. GR neither deletes the routing information from the routing table or the FIB nor resets
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the board during the switchover when faults occur. This prevents the service interruption of the entire system. The ATN 990 supports system-level GR and protocol-level GR. Protocol-based GR includes: l l l l l l l l l BGP GR OSPF GR IS-IS GR MPLS LDP GR Martini VLL GR Martini VPLS GR L3VPN GR RSVP GR PIM GR

BFD
BFD is a detection mechanism used uniformly in an entire network. It is used to rapidly detect and monitor the connectivity of links or IP routes in a network. BFD sends detection packets at both ends of a bidirectional link to check the link status in both directions. The defect detection is implemented at the millisecond level. The ATN 990 supports single-hop BFD and multi-hop BFD. BFD of the ATN 990 supports the following applications. l BFD for VRRP The system uses BFD to detect and monitor the connectivity of links or IP routes in a network. The rapid VRRP switchover is thus triggered. l BFD for FRR BFD for LDP FRR LDP FRR switchover is triggered after BFD detects faults on protected interfaces. BFD for IP FRR and BFD for VPN FRR IP FRR and VPN FRR are triggered after BFD detects faults and reports fault information to the upper layer applications. l l BFD for static routes BFD for IS-IS The ATN 990 supports detection on the IS-IS adjacency by using the BFD session that is configured statically. BFD detects the fault of the link between the adjacent IS-IS nodes and rapidly reports the fault to IS-IS. Thus fast convergence of IS-IS routes is performed. l BFD for OSPF/BGP The ATN 990 supports OSPF and BGP in dynamically setting up and deleting the BFD session. l BFD for PIM BFD detection on IP-Trunks and Eth-Trunks
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On the ATN 990, BFD can detect a trunk and the member links of the trunk independently. That is, it can detect the connectivity of the trunk and that of an important member link of the trunk. l BFD for LSP BFD for LSP performs fast fault detection of the LSP, the TE tunnel, and the PW. In this manner, BFD for LSP implements fast switchover of MPLS services such as VPN FRR, TE FRR, and VLL FRR. l l l l l l l BFD for Dot1q sub-interface BFD for mVSI Multi-hop BFD BFD For IPv6 BFD for OSPFv3, BFD for ISISv6, BFD for BGP4+, and BFDv6 for default IPv6 BFD for VPLS PW BFD for VPLS/VLL PW VPLS over LDP FRR/FW unicast

6.12 Clock
The ATN 990 supports the following clock features: l l l Ethernet clock synchronization The Ethernet interfaces of the ATN 990 provide Ethernet clock synchronization so that the clock quality and stratum of the network can be guaranteed. 1588v2 The 1588v2 feature: Supports the input and output of the externally synchronized time. Supports 10M/100M/1000M/10G Ethernet interfaces and auto sensing of 10M/100M/ 1000M Ethernet interfaces. Supports Eth-Trunk. Supports OC, BC, E2ETC, P2PTC, E2ETCOC, P2PTCOC and TCandBC. Allows the ATN 990 to function as a GrandMaster. Supports slave-only when functioning as an OC. Supports the dynamic BMC algorithm. Supports two delay measurement methods: Delay and PDelay Supports one-step mode and two-step mode in which 1588v2 packets that are used by 1588v2 devices to perform time synchronization are timestamped.. Supports multicast MAC encapsulation (the VLAN and 802.1p priority are configurable). Supports multicast UDP encapsulation (the source IP address, VLAN, and DSCP priority are configurable). Supports unicast MAC encapsulation (the destination MAC, VLAN, and 802.1p priority are configurable). Supports the performance monitoring function on Passive ports of a 1588v2 device.
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Supports unicast UDP encapsulation (the source IP address, destination IP address, destination MAC, VLAN, and DSCP priority are configurable). Uses the clock recovered through the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) as the clock source and supports the algorithm for dynamic clock source selection (based on the priority and clock stratum). Implements clock recovery that complies with G.813. Implements frequency recovery that meets the requirements of the SDH equipment clock (SEC) in G.823. l SDH Clock synchronization The CPOS interface, E1 interface, and WAN interface on the ATN 990provide clock synchronization so that the clock quality and stratum of the network can be guaranteed. l 1588 ACR Supports frequency synchronization only. Supports the change of selected clock sources. Supports unicast UDP encapsulation (and the DSCP field). Complies with Recommendation G.8261 in terms of service modeling and networking and performs clock recovery with accuracy that is prescribed by G.823. Supports 1588v2 header overlapping without affecting forwarding capabilities. Supports switchover between master and slave MPUs/SRUs without affecting services. Supports hot swapping of LPUs and sub-cards. l Network Time Protocol (NTP) clock The ATN 990 supports the following working modes of NTPv4: Server/client mode Peer mode Broadcast mode Multicast mode The ATN 990 supports two NTP security mechanisms: Access authority The ATN 990 provides four levels of access control. After receiving an NTP access request packet, the ATN 990 matches it from the lowest access control level to the highest access control level. The first successfully matched access control level takes effect. The matching order is as follows: peer: indicates the minimum access control. The remote end can send a time request and a control query to the local end. The local clock can also be synchronized with the clock of the remote server. server: indicates that the remote end can send a time request and a control query to the local end. The local clock, however, is not synchronized with the clock of the remote server. synchronization: indicates that the remote end can only send a time request to the local end. query: indicates the maximum access control. The remote end can only send a control query to the local end. l Authentication When configuring NTP authentication, note the following rules:
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The NTP authentication must be configured on both the client and the server; otherwise, the authentication does not take effect. If NTP authentication is enabled, keys must be configured and declared reliable. The server and the client must be configured with the same key. l Internal clock The ATN 990 provides an internal clock and can extract clock information from LPUs. The clock precision reaches 4.6 ppm, that is, 0.00002s.

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7 Applicable Environment

7
About This Chapter

Applicable Environment

7.1 Typical ATN Application on the FMC MAN

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7 Applicable Environment

7.1 Typical ATN Application on the FMC MAN


The typical application of the ATN on the network is shown in Figure 7-1. ATNs are deployed at the access layer on the FMC MAN, and they can also be deployed at the access points that bear services of a large volume to access multiple services. ATNs can be used to construct an efficient IP RAN network in the times of ALL IP. Figure 7-1 Typical application of the ATN on the FMC MAN
DSL SR/BRAS

DSLAM Enterprise Fiber GE/10GE Ring

Single Metro

RNC

I n t e rn e t

Node B Fiber

Internet

POP

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8 Operation and Maintenance

8
About This Chapter
8.4 HGMP

Operation and Maintenance

8.1 System Configuration Modes 8.2 System Management and Maintenance 8.3 Device Running Status Monitoring

8.5 System Service and Status Tracking 8.6 System Test and Diagnosis 8.7 NQA 8.8 In-Service Debugging 8.9 Upgrade Features 8.10 License 8.11 Other Operation and Maintenance Features

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8.1 System Configuration Modes


The ATN 990 supports two configuration modes: command line configuration and NMS configuration. You can configure the ATN 990 by using command lines through the following: l l l Console interface Auxiliary (AUX) port Telnet

As a command input interface, the console interface can send command lines to the control plane. As a debugging interface, the console interface can receive debugging information from the control plane and data plane, and deliver debugging commands and control commands. The NMS configuration supports the configuration through the SNMP-based NMS.

8.2 System Management and Maintenance


The ATN 990 provides powerful system management and maintenance functions: l Board detection, hot swap detection, Watchdog, board resetting, RUN indicator and debugging indicator control, fan and power supply control, master/slave switchover control, and version query Local and remote loading and upgrade of software and data, and functions such as version rollback, backup, saving, and clearing of version information Hierarchical user authority management, operation log management, command line online help, and comments after the commands Supports inband and outband NMS interfaces. Three user authentication modes: local authentication, RADIUS authentication, and HWTACACS authentication, which authenticate and authorize users through command lines and SNMP. Plug and Play Multi-user operation Query on Layer 2 or Layer 3 interfaces Hierarchical management, alarm classification, and alarm filtering Support of the shutdown and undo shutdown commands on interfaces and optical modules

l l l l

l l l l l

8.3 Device Running Status Monitoring


The running status of the ATN 990 can be monitored through the information center. Syslog is a sub-function of the information center. Syslog is over UDP. It outputs log information to the log host through port 514. The information center receives and processes the following types of information: l
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Log information
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l l

Debugging information Trap information

Information is classified into eight severity levels. The lower the level, the higher the severity. The following table shows the detailed information. Lev el 0 Seve rity Emer gency Alert Critic al Description A fatal exception occurs on the device. The system is unable to function properly and must be restarted. For example, the device is restarted due to program exceptions or memory usage errors are detected. A serious exception occurs on the device, which requires immediate actions. For example, the memory usage of the device reaches the upper threshold. A critical exception occurs on the device, which needs to be handled and analyzed. For example, the memory usage exceeds the alarm threshold; the temperature exceeds the alarm threshold; and Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) detects that a device is unreachable or detects error messages generated by the local device. Improper operation is performed or abnormal process occurs on the device, which does not affect subsequent services but requires attention and cause analysis. For example, users enter incorrect commands or passwords; error protocol packets are received by other devices. An abnormality that may cause the device to malfunction occurs on the device, which requires attention. For example, a routing process is disabled by the user; BFD detects packet loss; and error protocol packets are detected. A key operation is performed to keep the device running normally. For example, the user runs the shutdown command on the interface, a neighbor is discovered, and the protocol state machine changes status. A routine operation is performed. For example, the user runs a display command. A routine operation is performed, which requires no action.

1 2

Error

Warn ing Notic e Infor matio nal Debu gging

The information center supports 10 channels, of which channels 0 through 5 each have a default channel name. By default, the six channels correspond to six directions in which information is output. The log information on the CF card is output to log files through Channel 9 by default. This means that a total of seven default output directions are supported. When multiple log hosts are configured, you can configure log information to be output to different log hosts through one channel or multiple channels. For example, you can configure some log information to be output to a log host through Channel 2 (loghost), and some log information to a log host through Channel 6. In addition, you can change the name of Channel 6 to implement the desired channel management.

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The ATN 990 stores all alarms in a log file, and provides the CF card to store the log file. How long the alarms can be stored depends on the number of the alarms. Generally, the alarms can be stored for months.

8.4 HGMP
The ATN 990 supports the Huawei Group Management Protocol (HGMP). HGMP is a cluster management protocol developed by Huawei. HGMP is used to group Layer 2 devices that are connected to the ATN 990 into a unified management domain, that is, a cluster. HGMP supports automatic collection of network topologies and provides integrated maintenance and management channels. In this manner, a cluster uses only one IP address for external communications, simplifying device management and saving IP addresses.

8.5 System Service and Status Tracking


The ATN 990 provides the following functions for tracking system services and status: l l l l l l l l Monitors the change of the state machine of routing protocols. Monitors the change of the state machine of MPLS LDP. Monitors the change of the state machine of a VPN. Monitors the types of protocol packets sent by the forwarding engine to the control plane and displays detailed information about packets by enabling debugging. Detects and collects the statistics on malformed packets. Supports HGMP. Displays a notification when the processing of abnormality starts. Collects the statistics on the resources used by each feature.

8.6 System Test and Diagnosis


The ATN 990 supports the debugging of running services, including online recording of key events, packet processing, packet parsing, and status switching of services at specified time, which serves as powerful support for device commissioning and networking. Debugging can be enabled or disabled through the console interface for specific service (information about a routing protocol) or specific interface (information about a routing protocol on a specific interface). The ATN 990 provides the system-based trace function to detect and diagnose running software, online recording of important events such as task switchover and interruption, queue reading and writing, and system abnormality. If the system is restarted after a fault occurs, the ATN 990 can read trace information that functions as a reference for fault location. Trace can be enabled and disabled through commands on the console interface. In addition, the ATN 990 supports real-time query about CPU usage of the MPU and LPU. Debugging and trace information provided by the ATN 990 is classified into different levels. Sensitive information with different levels can be output to different destinations as configured. For example, information can be output to the console interface, Syslog server, or SNMP agent to trigger traps.
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When voice services on the network deteriorate, or mosaics appear in some videos, the ATN 990 may have sent or received incorrect packets or have lost packets. You can capture packets to locate the problems. The packet capture function can be used to capture the packets sent to the CPU, and the packets forwarded in the inbound or outbound direction. Compared with the port mirroring function, the packet capture function is easier and faster to configure.

8.7 NQA
The ATN 990 supports Network Quality Analysis (NQA).NQA measures the performance of different protocols running on the network. In that case, carriers can collect the operation index of networks in real time, such as: l l l l l l Total delay of the HTTP Delay in TCP connection Delay in DNS resolution File transmission speed Delay in FTP connection DNS resolution error ratio Taking control of these indexes, carriers can provide network services of different levels and charge differently. NQA is also an effective tool for diagnosing and locating a network fault.

NQA supports the following functions: l l l l l l l l l l l PWE3 tracert Multicast ping Multicast tracert CE-ping (ping the host from a VPLS PW) VPLS MAC ping and VPLS MAC trace VPLS MAC purge and VPLS MAC populate LSP ping, LSP tracerout, and MPLS jitter Verification of DNS functions through DISMAN-NSLOOKUP-MIB NMS management over all NQA functions through NQA-MIB Transmission of consecutive 3000 simulated voice packets in one test Minimum transmission intervals at 10 ms

8.8 In-Service Debugging


The ATN 990 provides port mirroring to map specific traffic to a certain monitoring interface. In this case, in-service debugging can be performed for the advanced maintenance engineers to debug and analyze the operation status of the network.

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8.9 Upgrade Features


In-Service Upgrade
The ATN 990 supports in-service upgrade of software. At the same time, the ATN 990 provides online patching for the system software. You can upgrade only the features that need to be improved.

One-Command System Upgrade


The upgrade process of the ATN 990 is optimized. You can use one command to complete the upgrading. Thus, you can save time. During the upgrading process, the progress is displayed. After the upgrading is complete, you can view the results.

Software Version Rollback


During the upgrading process, if the system fails to start by using the new system software, the system software in the last successful startup is adopted. The rollback function provided by the ATN 990 prevents the services from being affected by the failure in system upgrade.

8.10 License
With the variation of the ATN 990 software functions and higher ratio of software cost occupying the overall cost, the current service mode cannot satisfy the development requirements of customers and carriers. l l Common users need to reduce the purchase cost. Upgrade and expansion users need to effectively control the capacity and functions.

To satisfy the requirements of different users, the ATN 990 needs to implement the flexible authorization to service modules. For the authorization control of service modules, the ATN 990 provides the License authorization management platform through the Global Trotter License (GTL). Through the License authorization mode: l l Common users can purchase service modules as required and reduce the purchase cost. Upgrade and expansion users can expand the capacity, and support and maintain the functions by applying for a new License.

8.11 Other Operation and Maintenance Features


The ATN 990 supports the following configuration features in addition to the preceding features: l l l
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Provides hierarchical commands to prevent unauthorized users from logging in to a device. Users can type in a question mark "?" to obtain online help. Provides detailed debugging information to diagnose network faults.
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l l

Provides DosKey-like functions to run a history command. Provides command line descriptors for partial match of keywords not conflicting with keywords of other command lines. For example, you can enter "disp" for the display command.

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9 NMS

9
SNMP
The ATN 990 supports SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3. l l l SNMPv1 SNMPv2c

NMS

The ATN 990 supports device operation and management by the network management station through SNMP.

SNMPv1 supports community name-based and MIB view-based access control. SNMPv2c supports community name-based and MIB view-based access control. SNMPv3 SNMPv3 inherits the basic functions of SNMPv2c, defines a management frame, and introduces a User-based Security Model (USM) to provide a more secure access control mechanism for users. SNMPv3 supports user groups, user group-based access control, user-based access control, and authentication and encryption mechanisms.

NMS
The ATN 990 adopts Huawei iManager U2000 network management system. It supports SNMPv1/v2c/v3 and the client/server architecture. The network management system can run independently on many operation systems, such as Windows NT/2000/XP, UNIX (Sun, HP, and IBM). The ATN 990 also provides a multi-lingual graphical user interface.

LLDP
The Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is a Layer 2 protocol defined in IEEE 802.1ab. LLDP specifies that the status information is stored on all interfaces and the device can send its status to the neighbor stations. The interfaces can also send information about changes in the status to the neighbor stations as required. The neighbor stations then store the received information in the standard SNMP MIB. The NMS can search for Layer 2 information in the MIB. As specified in the IEEE 802.1ab standard, the NMS can also discover unreasonable Layer 2 configurations based on information provided by LLDP. When LLDP runs on the devices, the NMS can obtain Layer 2 information about all the devices to which it connects and detailed network topology information. This is helpful to the rapid
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9 NMS

expansion of the network and acquirement of detailed network topologies and changes. LLDP also helps discover unreasonable configurations on networks and reports the configurations to the NMS. This removes incorrect configurations in time.

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10 Acronyms and Abbreviations

10
A AAA AAL5 AC ACL AF ANSI AP ARP ASBR ASIC ATM AUX

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Authentication, Authorization and Accounting ATM Adaptation Layer 5 Access Controller Access Control List Assured Forwarding American National Standard Institute Access Point Address Resolution Protocol Autonomous System Boundary Router Application Specific Integrated Circuit Asynchronous Transfer Mode Auxiliary (port)

B BE BGP BGP4 Best-Effort Border Gateway Protocol BGP Version 4

C CAR CBR CE
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Committed Access Rate Constant Bit Rate Customer Edge


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10 Acronyms and Abbreviations

CHAP CoS CPU CR-LDP

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol Class of Service Center Processing Unit Constrained Route - Label Distribution Protocol

D DAA DC DHCP DNS DS Destination Address Accounting Direct Current Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Domain Name Server Differentiated Services

E EACL EF EMC Enhanced Access Control List Expedited Forwarding EElectroMagnetic Compatibility

F FCC FE FEC FIB FIFO FR FTP Fast Channel Change Fast Ethernet Forwarding Equivalence Class Forward Information Base First In First Out Frame Relay File Transfer Protocol

G GE GRE GTS Gigabit Ethernet Generic Routing Encapsulation Generic Traffic Shaping

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HA HDLC HTTP

High availablity High level Data Link Control Hyper Text Transport Protocol

I iVSE ICMP IDC IEEE IETF IGMP IGP IP IPoA IPTN IPTV IPv4 IPv6 IPX IS-IS ISP ITU Integrated Value-added Service Engine Internet Control Message Protocol Internet Data Center Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Group Management Protocol Interior Gateway Protocol Internet Protocol IP Over ATM IP Telephony Network Internet Protocol Television IP version 4 IP version 6 Internet Packet Exchange Intermedia System-Intermedia System; Interim inter-switch Signaling Protocol International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector

L LAN LCD LCP LDP LER LPU LSP LSR


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Local Area Network Liquid Crystal Display Link Control Protocol Label Distribution Protocol Label switching Edge Router Line Processing Unit Label Switched Path Label Switch Router
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10 Acronyms and Abbreviations

M MAC MBGP MD5 MIB MP MPLS MSDP MSTP MTBF MTTR MTU Media Access Control Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol Message Digest 5 Management Information Base Multilink PPP Multi-protocol Label Switch; Multicast Source Discovery Protocol Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Mean Time Between Failures Mean Time To Repair Maximum Transmission Unit

N NLS NP NTP NVRAM Network Layer Signaling Network Processor Network Time Protocol Non-Volatile Random Access Memory

O OSPF Open Shortest Path First

P PAP PE PFE PIC PIM-DM PIM-SM POP POS Password Authentication Protocol Provider Edge Packet Forwarding Engine Parallel Interference Cancellation Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode Point Of Presence Packet Over SDH/SONET

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10 Acronyms and Abbreviations

PPP PQ PT PVC

Point-to-Point Protocol Priority Queue Protocol Transfer Permanent Virtual Channel

Q QoE QoS Quality of Experience Quality of Service

R RADIUS RAM RED RFC RH RIP RMON ROM RP RPR RSVP RSVP-TE Remote Authentication Dial in User Service Random-Access Memory Random Early Detection Requirement for Comments Relative Humidity Routing Information Protocol Remote Monitoring Read Only Memory Rendezvous Point Resilient Packet Ring Resource Reservation Protocol RSVP-Traffic Engineering

S SAP SCSR SDH SDRAM SFU SLA SNAP SNMP Service Advertising Protocol Self-Contained Standing Routing Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Switch Fabric Unit Service Level Agreement SubNet Attachment Point Simple Network Management Protocol

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10 Acronyms and Abbreviations

SONET SP SPI4 SSH STM-16 SVC

Synchronous Optical Network Strict Priority SDH Physical Interface Secure Shell SDH Transport Module -16 Switching Virtual Connection

T TCP TE TFTP TM ToS TP Transfer Control Protocol Traffic Engineering Trivial File Transfer Protocol Traffic Manager Type of Service Topology and Protection packet

U UBR UDP UNI UTP Unspecified Bit Rate User Datagram Protocol User Network Interface Unshielded Twisted Pair

V VBR-NRT VBR-RT VC VCI VDC VLAN VLL VPI VPLS VPN Non-Real Time Variable Bit Rate Real Time Variable Bit Rate Virtual Circuit Virtual Channel Identifier Variable Dispersion Compensator Virtual Local Area Network Virtual Leased Line Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Private LAN Service Virtual Private Network

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10 Acronyms and Abbreviations

VRP VRRP

Versatile Routing Platform Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol

W WAN WFQ WRED WRR Wide Area Network Weighted Fair Queuing Weighted Random Early Detection Weighted Round Robin

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