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TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS . 1.

Cardiology (from Greek , kardi, "heart"; and -, -logia) is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the heart (specifically the human heart). The field includes diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists.

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Chemical Pathology is another discipline in the field of Pathology which deals with the entire range of disease. It encompasses detecting changes in a wide range of substances in blood and body fluids (electrolytes, enzymes and proteins) in association with many diseases. In addition, it involves detecting and measuring tumour (cancer) markers, hormones, poisons and both therapeutic and illicit drugs. For example Chemical Pathologists are involved in assessing levels of iron in the blood, measuring the levels of enzymes that are released into the blood after a heart attack to help in the diagnosis, and in the measurement of certain proteins produced by cancers to monitor the response to their treatment.
Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty [2][3][4] with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest [3] sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.
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Endocrinology (from Greek , endo, "within"; , krn, "to separate"; and -, -logia) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with theendocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions called hormones, the integration of developmental events such as proliferation, growth, and differentiation (including histogenesis and organogenesis) and the coordination of metabolism, respiration, excretion, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception depend on chemical cues, substances synthesized and secreted by specialized cells.

Endocrinology is concerned with the study of the biosynthesis, storage, chemistry, and physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them. 5. Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and its disorders are studied. The name is a combination of three Ancient Greek words gaster (gen.: gastros) (stomach), enteron (intestine), and logos (reason). In the U.S., Gastroenterology is an Internal Medicine Subspecialty certified by the ABIM (www.abim.org). Hematology, also spelled haematology (from the Greek haima "blood" and -o), is the branch of biology physiology, internal medicine, pathology,clinical laboratory work, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Hematology includes the study of etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of blood diseases. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist. Hematologists physicians also very frequently do further study in oncology - the medical treatment of cancer.
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7. Microbiology (from Greek , mkros, "small"; , bios, "life"; and -, -logia) is the study of microscopic organisms, which are defined as any living organism that is either a single [1] cell (unicellular), a cell cluster, or has no cells at all (acellular). This includes eukaryotes, such [2] as fungi and protists, andprokaryotes. Viruses and prions, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. Microbiology typically includes the study of the immune system, or Immunology. Generally, immune systems interact with pathogenic microbes; these two disciplines often intersect which is why many colleges offer a paired degree such as "Microbiology and Immunology". Microbiology is a broad term which includes virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, immunology and other branches. A microbiologist is a specialist in microbiology and these related topics. 8. Nephrology (from Greek nephros, "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a branch of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with the study of the function and [1] diseases of the kidney.
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1 Scope of the specialty 2 Training 3 Diagnosis 4 Therapy 5 Organizations 6 References 7 External links

9. Neurology (from Greek , neuron, "nerve" + the suffix -, '-logia', "study of") is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. To be specific, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, [1] such as muscle. The corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. A neurologist is aphysician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research, and clinical trials, as well as basic research and translational research. Neurology, being a branch of medicine, differs from neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system in all its aspects. 10. Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular [1][2] system.

11. Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, "to stand by") is the medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children duringpregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period. Veterinary obstetrics is the same concept for veterinary medicine although theriogenology is more commonly used term that includes obstetrics, gynecology, and andrology. Almost all modern obstetricians are also gynaecologists. 12. Oncology (from the Ancient Greek onkos (), meaning bulk, mass, or tumor, and the suffix logy (-), meaning "study of") is a branch of medicine that deals with cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. Oncology is concerned with: The diagnosis of any cancer in a person Therapy (e.g. surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other modalities) Follow-up of cancer patients after successful treatment Palliative care of patients with terminal malignancies Ethical questions surrounding cancer care Screening efforts: a. of populations, or b. of the relatives of patients (in types of cancer that are thought to have a hereditary basis, such as breast cancer 13. Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical and medicalspecialists. The word ophthalmology comes from the Greek roots ophthalmos meaning eye and logos meaning word, thought, or discourse; ophthalmology literally means "the science of eyes". As a discipline, it applies to animal eyes also, since the differences from human practice are surprisingly minor and are related mainly to [citation needed] differences in anatomy or prevalence, not differences in disease processes . However, veterinary medicine is regulated separately in many countries and states/provinces resulting in few ophthalmologists treating both humans and animals. 14. Orthopedics is the study of the human musculoskeletal system. The Greek word 'ortho' means straight or correct and 'pedics' comes from the Greek 'pais' meaning children. For many centuries, orthopedists have been involved in the treatment of crippled children. Orthopedic doctors (also called Orthopedists or Orthopeds) specialize in diagnosis and treatment of problems of the musculoskeletal system. The musculoskeletal system includes: bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves. It is a main branch of surgery.

A number of professions offer non-surgical treatment options for many orthopedic problems, such as: physiotherapy, chiropractic, occupational therapy, podiatry, and kinesiology. Conditions requiring medication or surgical intervention are managed by orthopedic surgeons. 15. Pediatrics (or paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician or paediatrician. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean healer of children; they derive from twoGreek words: (pais = child) and (iatros = doctor or healer).

In the United States, a pediatrician (US spelling) is often a primary care physician who specializes in children, whereas in the Commonwealth apaediatrician (British spelling) generally is a medical [citation needed] specialist not in primary general practice.
16. Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural,cognitive and perceptual abnormalities. The term was first coined by the German physician Johann Christian Reil in 1808, and literally means the 'medical treatment of the mind' (psych-: mind; from Ancient Greek psykh: soul; -iatry: medical treatment; from Gk. itrikos: medical, isthai: to heal). A medical doctor specializing in psychiatry is a psychiatrist. Psychiatric assessment typically starts with a mental status examination and the compilation of a case history. Psychological tests and physical examinations may be conducted, including on occasion the use of neuroimaging or other neurophysiological techniques. Mental disorders are diagnosed in accordance with criteria listed in diagnostic manuals such as the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), edited and used by the World Health Organization. The fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5) is scheduled to be published in 2013, and its development is expected to be of significant interest to many medical [3] fields. Psychiatric treatment applies a variety of modalities, including psychoactive medication, psychotherapy and a wide range of other techniques such astranscranial magnetic stimulation. Treatment may be delivered on an inpatient or outpatient basis, depending on the severity of functional impairment or on other aspects of the disorder in question. Research and treatment within psychiatry as a whole are conducted on an interdisciplinary basis, sourcing an array of sub-specialties and theoretical approaches. 17. Radiology is a medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualised within the human body. Radiologists use an array of imaging technologies (such as x-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET) andmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. The acquisition of medical imaging is usually carried out by the radiographer or radiologic technologist.

18. Rheumatology is a sub-specialty in internal medicine and pediatrics, devoted to diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. Clinicians who specialize in rheumatology are called rheumatologists. Rheumatologists deal mainly with clinical problems involving joints, soft tissues, autoimmune diseases,vasculitis, and heritable connective tissue disorders. The term rheumatology originates from the Greek word rheuma, meaning "that which flows as a river or stream," and the suffix -logy, meaning "the study of." Rheumatology is a rapidly evolving medical specialty, with advancements owing largely to new scientific discoveries related to immunology of these disorders. Because characteristics of some rheumatological disorders are often best explained by immunology, pathogenesis of many major rheumatological disorders are now described in terms of the autoimmune system, i.e. as an autoimmune disease. Correspondingly, most new treatmentmodalities are also based on clinical research in immunology and the resulting improved understanding of the genetic basis of rheumatological disorders. Future treatment may include gene therapy as well. At present evidencebased medical treatment of rheumatological disorders has helped patients withrheumatism lead a near-normal life. 19. Thoracic surgery is the field of medicine involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax (the chest). Generally treatment of conditions of the lungs, chest wall, and diaphragm. Thoracic surgery is often grouped with cardiac surgery and called cardiothoracic surgery. 20. Urology (from Greek - oron, "urine" and -, -logia "study of") is the medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder,urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis). Urology is one of the most competitive specialties to enter [1] for physicians. 21. Venereology is a branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. The name derives from Roman goddess Venus associated with love, beauty and fertility. It includes the study of HIV infection. A medical doctor specializing in venereology is called a venereologist. In some countries the specialty is combined with dermatology. The venereal diseases include bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Some of the important diseases are HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea, candidiasis, herpes simplex, human papillomavirus infection, and genital scabies. Other sexually transmitted infections are Chancroid, Lymphogranuloma venereum, Granuloma inguinale, Hepatitis B, and Cytomegalovirus infection