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Technical Information Handbook

DESIGN IN SUPPORT THAT SAVES YOU TIME

As an architect or engineer youre always faced with tight time frames and lastminute changes. Thats why, with Georgia Powers Architects and Engineers Program, you receive responsive support from pre-planning through commissioning. Youll have one knowledgeable account executive who provides access to all the technical expertise, troubleshooting and design assistance you need to meet your deadlines. If youre ready for a partnership that works this hard for you, call 1-888-655-5888 or visit georgiapower.com/AandE.

2002 Southern Company. All rights reserved. This handbook has been developed to help you. However, we cannot be held liable for inaccuracies or any damages caused by using this for engineering or other design or analysis.

To learn more about Georgia Power rates, products and services, call your Georgia Power representative or call the Business Call Center at 1-888-655-5888.

Georgia Power would like to acknowledge the contributions of Carrier Complete Systems. CCS provided information on HVAC energy requirements and heat recovery technologies.

Table of Contents
Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Electric Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ratcheted Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Time of Use Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Marginal Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Customer Choice in Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Customer Choice Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 kWh vs. Therm Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Conversions between Fuel Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

HVAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Recommended Systems by Building Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Cost Comparisons for System Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Typical EFLH for Buildings, Atlanta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 City Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Typical Heating and Cooling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Heat Gain from Typical Electric Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Typical Equipment Energy Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 EER Rating to kW Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Psychrometric Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Heat Recovery Opportunities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Building Envelope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Sustainable Building Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Basic R-value information and calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Ceiling Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Wall Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Slab Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Insulating Values for Common Building Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Basic Passive Solar Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Water Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Water Heating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Water Heating Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Water Use Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
System Wattages for Typical Lamp/Ballast Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Light Level Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Reflectance Values of Different Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The Effect of Lighting on Cooling Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Annual Cost for Lighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Outdoor Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Cooking Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


How to Evaluate Energy Cost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Equipment Input, Diversity, and Preheat Times. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Cooking Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Ventilation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Equipment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Typical Equipment List Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Refrigerants and Chillers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


Common Refrigerants, Applications, and Current Status. . . . . . . . . . 41 Chiller Types, Applications, Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Motors and Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42


Motor Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Motor Cost Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Recommendation Chart for Motor Replacement/New Installation . 45 Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Motor Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Affinity Laws for Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Fans and Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


Fan Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Criteria for Fan Selection:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Duct Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Industrial Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Compressed Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Typical Compressor Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Leakage Rate from Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Process Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Saturated Steam: Pressure Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Steam Loss from Leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Combustion Heat Losses, Gas Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Industrial Process Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Industrial Heating and Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Emitters and Applications of IR Radiant Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Typical Oven Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

On-Site Generation and Power Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


Standby Generation Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Uninterruptible Power Supply/Power Conditioning Systems. . . . . . . 63 Alternative Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Electrical Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Useful Electrical Formulae for Determining Amperes, Horsepower, Kilowatts and kVa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Estimating Loads From kWh Meter Clocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Effects From Voltage Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Percent of Rated Heater Watts at Reduced Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Motor Wattages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Ohm's Law Made Easy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 BTUHkWAmperes Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Transformer Types and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Requirements For Service Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Motor Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Miscellaneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Diversity Factors for EFLH calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Design Criteria for Room Loudness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Room Sones dBA Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Typical Weather Data for Metro Atlanta Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Climatic Conditions for Georgia Cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Wind Effect on Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Useful Web Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Rates
Electric Rates
Electric rates for commercial and industrial customers can generally be categorized into three types: Ratcheted, demand-based rates Time of use rates Marginal rates, including Real Time Pricing (RTP) They differ in critical ways when it comes to calculations.

Ratcheted Rates

How to Recognize:
Ratcheted rates will have language in the tariff(s) like: Hours use of demand Billing demand Tiered pricing structure (first block of kWh at one rate, second block at another rate, etc.)

Rates

Rates

How to Calculate Pricing for Racheted Rates:


1. Determine Billing Demand by applying ratchet rules of the tariff/rider 2. Determine Hours Use Demand (HUD); HUD = kWh/Billing Demand 3. Apply tariff prices according to blocks and any breaks within each block 4. Apply other applicable tariffs such as ECCR, FF, FCR, etc. and appropriate taxes

Time of Use Rates

How to Recognize:
Time of use rates will have language in the tariff(s) like: On-Peak, Off-Peak, Shoulder kWh and kW Timed (or block) pricing structure NOTE: there are market-based time of use rates that are real-time. In Georgia Power, these are called real-time pricing. The prices are confidential and are provided to the customer the day before or hour before the price takes effect, depending on the contract. In these cases, you will have to contact the utility to get blended averages (see pricing calculation worksheet)

How to Calculate Pricing for Time of Use Rates:


1. Obtain (or estimate) the on-peak, off-peak and shoulder (if applicable) kWhs and kW 2. Determine if Economy Demand charges are applicable (summer months only) 3. Apply appropriate tariff prices 4. Apply other applicable tariffs such as EECR, FF, FCR, etc. and appropriate taxes

Rates

Rates

Marginal Rates

How to Recognize:
Marginal rates will have language in the tariff(s) like: Hourly Prices Customer Baseline Load (CBL) Interval Data Incremental kWhs Demonstration

How to Calculate Marginal Rates:


RTP Bills will have both a standard or CBL bill and an RTP (incremental energy) bill 1. To calculate the standard or CBL bill, use the appropriate ratcheted or TOU steps as outlined previously 2. The RTP bill is calculated by multiplying the hourly kWh consumption by the hourly RTP price; repeat step for all hours of the month. (It is not as simple as multiplying the total kWhs by the average RTP price due to varying consumption amounts/weighting) 3. Apply other applicable tariffs such as ECCR, FF, FCR, etc. and appropriate taxes

Customer Choice in Georgia


Under the Territorial Act of 1973, many customers over 900 kW who are outside of municipal limits may choose their electric supplier. This is a one-time, irrevocable choice.

Customer Choice Considerations


Price Stability Since your choice is for the life of the building, it is critical to evaluate your long-term costs. Beware of short-term fixed prices that escalate sharply after the first few years. Georgia Powers rates are regulated by the Public Service Commission. Municipal authority and cooperative rates are not. The cost of one outage can far outweigh any apparent price savings, depending on the customer. When evaluating overall price, outage costs should be included. Does the supplier have bricks and mortar generation? Or is it buying power on the open market? A supplier with a large percentage of bricks and mortar generation is better able to meet its customers electricity needs cost-effectively over the long term than a supplier who must buy on the open market. What other knowledge/assistance will the customer need? Georgia Power offers a host of technical and other energy services to its customers.
5

Service Reliability

Generation Capability

Ancillary Services

Rates

Rates
* Please refer to Page 91 for graph notations. 6

Conversions between Fuel Types


Gas: 1 Therm = 100,000 Btu = 100 CCF 1 cubic foot = 1,000 Btu 1 MCF = 1,000,000 Btu = 10 therms Electricity: 1 kWh = 3,413 Btu Liquid Gas (Propane): 1 cubic foot = 2,500 Btu 1 pound = 21,500 Btu 1 gallon = 91,160 Btu Oil: 1 gallon = 140,000 Btu Coal: 1 ton = 25 Million Btu 1 pound = 12,500 Btu

Rates

HVAC
Recommended Systems by Building Type
Building Type Hospitals System #1 Chillers, VAV, room control. Energy recovery ventilators on operating rooms. Heat pump water heater in kitchen/laundry. System #2

HVAC
Schools Restaurants Small Offices/Retail Hotels (small)

Through-the-wall units Water source heat in classroom. pump with cooling tower and boiler; split system for offices; package unit for auditorium. Heat pump water heater in kitchen. Small electric water heater in teachers lounge. Rooftop package heat Split system heat pump. pumps. Heat pump Heat pump water in water heater in kitchen. heater kitchen. Split system heat pump. Small-tank water Point of use water heater. heater. Through-the-wall heat pump. Heat pump water heater in laundry, ducting cooling to lobby.

Recommended Systems by Building Type (cont.)


Building Type Hotels (large) System #1 Water source heat pumps with cooling tower and boiler. Heat pump water heater in kitchen and indoor pool. Through-the-wall heat pumps. Gas water heater with recirculating pump. Weekend only: Electric heat. System #2 Two-pipe system with fan-coil units, chillers, electric resistance heat.

Motels

Churches

Weekday/school buildings: Package unit heat pumps.

Historic Buildings Ground source heat pumps.

Cost Comparisons for System Types:


A quick and easy way to estimate costs for different systems, EFLH analysis is not as accurate as building modeling. This analysis generally gives reasonable estimates for operating costs however. Annual cost = EFLH *City Factor * kW * $/kWh + 12 * kWd * $/kW Annual cost = EFLH * Btuh * $/therm /100000 Where: EFLH = City Factor = kW = kWd = Btuh = taken from table (on following page) Degree-day factoring to adjust EFLH Connected kW of equipment Diversified kW (takes cycling into account, see miscellaneous section for table) Rated Btu input of equipment
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HVAC

Typical EFLH for Buildings, Atlanta


Type Business EFLH, Air Conditioning
2

EFLH, Heating 800 700 500 800 800 800 800 500 800 1500 800 800 800 800 400 800 800

Small Retail 0-25 M ft Medium Retail Large Retail Small Office Medium Office Large Office Convenience Stores Supermarkets Hotels/Motels Fast Food Restaurants 9 Month Schools 12 Month Schools Healthcare (drs. offices, etc.) Churches Services Warehouses

2000 2200 2400 1500 1800 2000 2500 2500 1600 3000 1800 1000 2000 2000 600 1500 1500

HVAC

City Factors
City Alma Brunswick Macon Rome Cooling Factor 1.37 1.48 1.33 .96 Heating Factor .61 .53 .75 1.03

To find your city factor: City factor, cooling = Cooling degree days for the city/1670 City factor, heating = Heating degree days for the city/3021
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Typical Heating and Cooling Requirements


Type of Bldg. Btuh/SF, Cooling Apartments 24 Audit. & Theater 40 Banks 49 Barber Shops 46 Bars & Taverns 120 Beauty Parlors 63 Bowling Alleys 38 Churches 35 Cocktail Lounges 65 Comp. Rooms 141 Dental Offices 50 Dept. Stores Basement 33 Dept. Stores Main Floor 39 Dept. Stores Upper Floors 29 Dormitory, Rooms 38 Dormitory, Corridors 20 Dress Shops 40 Drug Stores 77 Factories 39 High Rise Office Ext. Rooms 43 High Rise Office Int. Rooms 35 Hospitals 69 Hotel, Guest rooms 35 Hotel, Corridors 28 SF/ton, Cooling 500 300/19* 245 260 100/10* 190 315 340/21* 185 85 240 360 310 410 320 600 300 155 310 280 340 175 345 425 Btu/SF, Heating 21 38 48 44 114 60 37 33 63 20 49 32 38 28 35 18 39 75 38 41 33 67 35 27 Supply CFM/SF 0.8 1.3 1.6 1.5 4.0 2.1 1.3 1.2 1.6 4.7 1.7 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.3 0.7 1.3 2.6 1.3 1.4 1.2 2.3 1.2 0.9

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HVAC

Typical Heating and Cooling Requirements (cont.)


Type of Bldg. Btuh/SF Cooling Hotel, Public Spaces 51 Industrial Plants, Offices 35 General Offices 33 Plant Areas 38 Libraries 43 Low Rise Office, Ext. Rooms 39 Low Rise Office, Int. Rooms 33 Medical Centers 35 Motels 29 Office (small suite) 40 Post Office, Ind. Office 40 Post Office, Central Area 43 Residences 20 Restaurants 60 Schools & Colleges 42 Shoe Stores 53 Shopping Centers, Supermarkets 30 Retail Stores 32 Specialty Stores 57 Schools, Elem. 36 Schools, Middle 36 Schools, High 33 Schools, Vo-Tech 22
* People/Ton 12,000 Btu = 1 ton of air conditioning 12

SF/ton Cooling 235 345 360 315 280 310 365 340 420 300 300 280 600 200 285 225 400 370 210 335 335 365 550

Btu/SF Heating 48 34 32 37 40 32 32 33 27 38 39 41 20 60 40 52 28 31 57 32 32 32 20

Supply CFM/SF 1.7 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.4 0.7 2.0 1.4 1.8 1.0 1.1 1.9 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.8

HVAC

Heat Gain from Typical Electric Motors


Motor Nameplate or Rated Horsepower 0.25 0.33 0.50 0.75 1 1 2 3 5 7,5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Motor Type Split Ph. Split Ph. Split Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. 3-Ph. In, Motor Out, Motor and Full Load Motor Driven Driven Driven Motor Nominal Efficiency EquipEquipEquiprpm ment in ment in ment Out in Space of Space Percent Space Btuh Btuh Btuh 1750 54 1,180 640 540 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 60 72 75 77 79 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 91 91 2,120 2,650 3,390 4,960 6,440 9,430 15,500 22,700 29,900 44,400 58,500 72,300 85,700 114,000 143,000 172,000 212,000 283,000 353,000 420,000 569,000 699,000 1,270 1,900 2,550 3,820 5,090 7,640 12,700 19,100 24,500 38,200 50,900 63,600 76,300 102,000 127,000 153,000 191,000 255,000 318,000 382,000 509,000 636,000 850 740 850 1,140 1,350 1,790 2,790 3,640 4,490 6,210 7,610 8,680 9,440 12,600 15,700 18,900 21,200 28,300 35,300 37,800 50,300 62,900

Copyright 1989, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. www.ashrae.org. Reprinted by permission from 1989 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals.

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HVAC

1750

56

1,500

840

660

Typical Equipment Energy Requirements


System Type Rooftop package unit Water-source heat pump with cooling tower and boiler 4-pipe system, chilled water, boiler, air handlers 2-pipe system, chilled water, boiler, air handlers Split-system, residential Split-system, commercial Heat pump, split-system Heat pump, package Ground water source heat pump kW/ton, Cooling 0.9-1.3 Heating System Efficiency (electric) 0.95 Heating System Efficiency (gas) 0.75-0.77

HVAC

0.86-1.1 0.8-1.3 0.75-1.1 1.0-1.2 0.7-1.3 1.0-1.2 0.9-1.3 0.38-0.5

2.0 0.8 0.82 0.95 0.95 2.3 2.3 2.8

1.8-1.9 0.6-0.7 0.6-0.7 0.7-0.92 0.75-0.77 N/A N/A N/A

Note: the heating efficiency considers heat exchanger losses, fan requirements, pump power, and other losses.

EER Rating to kW Conversions


EER Rating 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 kW, Cooling 2.0 1.85 1.71 1.60 1.50 1.41 1.33 EER Rating 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 14 kW, Cooling 1.26 1.20 1.15 1.09 1.0 0.92 0.86

ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 1

Normal Temperature Barometric Pressure: 29,921 Inches of Summary Copyright 1992 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. www.ashrae.org Reprinted by permission.

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HVAC

Heat Recovery Opportunities


Heat Wheel
This system involves a motor-driven wheel packed with heat absorbing material, installed directly in the ventilation air system, with outdoor and exhaust air kept separate. This system transfers heat from a warmer stream to a cooler one and some systems can serve both in the heating and air conditioning mode.

HVAC

Runaround System
When the outdoor air intake and exhaust air duct are not in close proximity, heat transfer can be accomplished by circulating an ethylene glycol solution. One finned tube heat exchanger is located in the outdoor air stream, one in the exhaust air stream, with the two being connected by a pipe loop. A pump circulates the liquid for heat transfer.

Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger


In contrast to the aforementioned techniques, the air-to-air heat exchanger has no moving parts but conveys heat between exhaust and outdoor air streams by means of a counterflow technique. The heat exchanger is an open-ended steel box compartmented into many narrow passages. Energy is transferred by conduction through the walls of the passages so that contamination of the makeup air cannot occur.

Heat Pipe
A heat pipe is a sealed, static tube in which a refrigerant transfers heat from one end of the device to the opposite end. The device is installed through adjacent walls of inlet and exhaust ducts with their opposite ends projecting into each air stream. A temperature difference between the ends of the pipe causes the refrigerant to migrate by capillary action to the warmer end where it evaporates and absorbs heat. It then returns to the cooler end, condenses, and gives up the heat.
16

Economizer
Reducing the amount of air conditioning needed by utilizing the cooling potential of outdoor air can be accomplished by the use of economizer systems. A mixed air temperature controller regulates the proportion of outside air admitted, opening the outdoor air dampers as the mixed air temperature increases. The most effective systems, called enthalpy controllers, take into account the humidity control of the air as well as the dry bulb temperature.

Peak Demand Controller


This device is programmed to cycle electricity consumption by limiting total demand during on-peak hours. This technique is popular in conjunction with closed loop water source heat pump systems and is used to achieve higher savings with a minimum of interruption.

Off-Peak Thermal Storage


Throughout a 24-hour period, the demand for electric power, in most service areas, fluctuates widely. Typically, it is lowest at night. Often it is advantageous, not just for the utility but for the customer, to shift some electrical usage from on-peak to off-peak operations, as utility rates are based on the cost to serve the customer. Heating and cooling loads can be shifted through thermal storage. Heat captured from internal sources can be saved and/or heat generated at night can be stored for later use. With cooling there is little energy savings, but demand load can be shifted and demand charges reduced. By running chillers at night and storing cool water or ice, the size of chillers can be reduced. Closed water source heat pump systems lend themselves to achieve savings through thermal storage and captured heat for use during off-peak hours.

17

HVAC

Building Envelope
Sustainable Building Design
Theres more of a focus now on sustainable buildings. This term is used for buildings that have considerably lower impact on the environment during both construction and long-term operation than a typical building of similar size and location. Its very important to take local conditions (economic and environmental) into account when designing a low-impact building.

Building Envelope

There arent rules of thumb available yet. The most active groups in this movement recommend modeling the building to assess the energy-using features.

Basic R-value information and calculations


Total heat flow = U * TD * Area Where: U = 1/R TD = Design temperature difference Area = Total area of space with that R value To estimate total R value of a series of material, add the values of each together. To Compare Annual Cost: Use EFLH Calculation (described above) as follows: Annual cost = Tons/1000 SF * Area (SF)/1000 * Equipment kW/ton * EFLH * $/kWh + Tons/1000 SF * Area (SF)/1000 * Equipment kW/ton * 12 * $/kW Heating is analogous. If comparing with gas, remember to use efficiency. See following page for Tons/1000 SF and Equipment kW/ton.
18

Ceiling Insulation
Roof Type Flat Steel Insulation No kW/ U TD Btu/hr/ Tons/ TD Btu/hr/ 1000 Factor (Cool) 1000 SF 1000 SF (Heat) 1000 SF SF .64 .23 80 80 51200 18400 4.26 1.53 48 48 30720 11040 9.0 3.23

.15 .07 .04

55 55 55

8250 3850 2200

0.69 0.32 0.18

48 48 48

7200 3360 1920

2.11 0.98 0.56

Wall Insulation
Wall Type Insulation kW/ U TD Btu/hr/ Tons/ TD Btu/hr/ 1000 Factor (Cool) 1000 SF 1000 SF (Heat) 1000 SF SF .30 22 6600 0.55 48 14400 4.22

No insulation 4 Face Brick 1 Cavity insulation (R-5/inch in 8 Concrete Cavity) Block 2 insulation (R-5/inch in Cavity)

.11

22

2420

0.20

48

5280

1.55

.07

22

1540

0.128

48

3360

0.98

19

Building Envelope

1 insulation (R-3 or R-4/ Deck, inch) No Ceiling 3 insulation (R-3 or R-4/ inch) No Frame insulation Roofing, R-11 Attic, insulation Ceiling R-19 insulation

.10

80

8000

0.67

48

4800

1.41

Glass (transmission losses/gains onlydoes not include radiation!)


Glass Type Single Double, 1/4 air space Prime + Storm Window U Factor 1.06 0.61 TD (Cool) 14 14 Btu/hr/ 1000 SF 1484 854 Tons/ 1000 SF 0.124 .071 TD (Heat) 48 48 Btu/hr/ 1000 SF 5424 3120 kW/ 1000 SF 1.589 0.914

0.54

14

756

.063

48

2688

0.788

Building Envelope

Slab Floor
Insulation No Insulation 1" Insulation (R-5 /inch) 2" Insulation (R-5 /inch) U Factor 0.81 0.41 0.21 TD (Cool) Btu/hr/ 100 LF Tons/ 100 LF TD (Heat) 48 48 48 Btu/hr/ 1000 LF 3888 2968 1008 kW/ 100 LF 1.14 0.58 0.30

Insulating Values for Common Building Materials


Materials R Value U Value* Air Space, 3/4" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.91 . . . . . . 1.098 Batt or Blanket Insulation1" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 . . . . . . . 0.27 Batt or Blanket Insulation2" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 . . . . . . . 0.135 Batt or Blanket Insulation3 5/8" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 . . . . . . . 0.075 Batt or Blanket Insulation6" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.0 . . . . . . . 0.053 Batt or Blanket Insulation6 1/2" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.0 . . . . . . . 0.045 Brick, common4". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.44 . . . . . . 2.27 Beadboard Plastic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0 . . . . . . . 0.25 Built-up Roofing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.0 . . . . . . . 0.333
20

Insulating Values for Common Building Materials (cont.)


Materials R Value U Value* Cellulose Fiber Blown In3 1/2" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.0 . . . . . . . 0.077 Concrete, Block8" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.11 . . . . . . 0.900 Concrete, Block (Cores filled with vermiculite)8" . 1.94 . . . . . . 0.515 Concrete, Poured10" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 . . . . . . . 1.0 Expanded Polyurethane1". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.25 . . . . . . 0.16 Expanded Polyurethane2". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 . . . . . . . 0.08 Extruded Styrofoam1" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 . . . . . . . 0.185 Flexicore4", 8", 10" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.89 . . . . . . 1.124 Glass Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.38 . . . . . . 0.42 Gypsum Board1/2" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.45 . . . . . . 2.222 Insulation Board1/2". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.52 . . . . . . 0.657 Plaster with metal lath3/4" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.23 . . . . . . 4.347 Plywood3/8" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.47 . . . . . . 2.127 Roof Deck1" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.78 . . . . . . 0.36 Sheathing and flooring3/4" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.92 . . . . . . 1.086 Shingles, asbestos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.21 . . . . . . 4.76 Shingles, wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.78 . . . . . . 1.282 Siding, drop3/4" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.28 . . . . . . 0.781 Steel Doors: 1 3/4" mineral fiber core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 . . . . . . . 0.59 1 3/4" urethane foam core with thermal break . . . 5.26 . . . . . . 0.19 1 3/4" polystyrene core with thermal break. . . . . . 2.13 . . . . . . 0.47 Siding, lap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.78 . . . . . . 1.282 Surface, inside (air film). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.68 . . . . . . 1.47 Surface, outside (15 mile per hour wind). . . . . . . . . . . 0.17 . . . . . . 5.882 Windows: Single glass, outdoor exposure . . . . . . . . . 0.88 . . . . . . 1.136 Double glass, 1/4" apart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.54 . . . . . . 0.649 Double glass, 1/2" apart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.72 . . . . . . 0.581 Triple glass, 1/4" apart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.13 . . . . . . 0.469 Wood: Hardwoods (Maple, Oak, etc.)1" . . . . . . . . . 0.91 . . . . . . 1.099 Softwoods (Pine, Fir, Cedar, etc.)1". . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.25 . . . . . . 0.8 Wood Doors1 1/2" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04 . . . . . . 0.49 Wood Doors1 1/2" w/Storms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 . . . . . . . 0.27 1 *U=R U x Temperature Difference = heat loss in watts per square foot.
21

Building Envelope

Basic Passive Solar Techniques


Technique Overhang on South-facing windows What it Does Reduces summer cooling load while letting in natural light; reduces glare. In winter, allows solar gain. Absorbs heat during the day and releases at night. This reduces peak cooling load and helps maintain wintertime temperatures. Absorbs heat during the day, and can be connected to potable water to reduce water heating costs. Absorbs heat during the day to preheat potable water. Reduces heat absorption, lowering cooling requirements. Reduces glare and cooling load. Reduces lighting energy requirement; can improve employee performance.

Heavy ceramic tile or stone floors in lobbies with large expanse of glass

Building Envelope

Water tubes in areas with large glass expanse

Water boxes on roof

Reflective roof coatings

Low-emissivity glass Natural light/light tubes

22

Water Heating
Water Heating Systems
System Type Tank-Style Application Typical potable water requirements: small office areas, retail, etc. Large process water heat requirements (laundries, kitchens, space heat). Considerations Easy to use, install, maintain. Familiar to most customers.

Boiler

Relatively easy to use, install, maintain. Electric will lose elements if water quality not monitored properly. Gas will lose efficiency and have long-term maintenance issues if water quality not monitored. Removes need for circulating pump. Can reduce overall plumbing costs (only need one piping run instead of two). Heats water during off-peak in sealed storage tank. Potable water is run through heat exchanger to tap heat in tank as needed. Can take a lot of room (although they can be placed outside). Provides dehumidification as well. Must be sized to meet either cooling or water heating load.

Point-of-Use

Small medical offices, remote washrooms. Hospitals, industrial sites, schools.

Thermal Storage

Laundries, kitchens, Heat Pump Water Heater pools.

23

Water Heating

Water Heating Calculations


Recovery
4.1 x Wattage = GPH at 100 Rise 1,000 1 kWh will raise the temperature of 4.1 gallons of water 100F at 100% efficiency in one hour.

Figuring Load Required to Heat Water


kW = Gallons x 8.34 {Wt. of Gal. of Water} x Degrees F. Rise 3,413 {Btu Content} x Time in Hours x Efficiency {0.98-1.0}

Estimating Water Heating Electrical Energy Use


kWh = Gallons Per Time Period x 8.34 x Average Degree F. Rise 3,413 x Efficiency {0.98-1.0}

Booster Heater Sizing (Rule of Thumb)


G.P.H. {Gals. Per Hr.} 10 = kW Required {40F Temp. Rise} Rinse Water Temperature 180-Standard Set by U.S. Department of Health

Water Heating

PER MEAL kWh ESTIMATES-WATER HEATING FOR RESTAURANTS

Total Use
Full Meal Restaurants and Cafeterias Drive-in Snack Shops 0.6 kWh 0.2 kWh

Dishwasher Booster***
0.2 kWh 0.04 kWh

***Booster Use is Included in Total Use Figures

24

Water Use Charts


Type of Building Maximum Hourly Maximum Daily
22.0 gal/student 26.5 gal/student 35.0 gal/unit 25.0 gal/unit 15.0 gal/unit 30.0 gal/bed 2.0 gal/person 11.0 gal/maximum meals/hour

Average Daily
13.1 gal/student 12.3 gal/student 20.0 gal/unit 14.0 gal/unit 10.0 gal/unit 18.4 gal/bed 1.0 gal/person 2.4 gal/average* meals/day

1.5 gal/student 3.6 gal/student

0.6 gal/student* 1.8 gal/student

*per day of operation The hourly and daily hot water demands listed represent the maximum flows metered in each type of building.
Copyright 1999, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. www.ashrae.org. Reprinted by permission from 1999 ASHRAE Handbook Applications.

25

Water Heating

Mens Dormitories 3.8 gal/student Womens Dormitories 5.0 gal/student Motels: No. of Units 20 or less 6.0 gal/unit 60 5.0 gal/unit 100 or more 4.0 gal/unit Nursing Homes 4.5 gal/bed Office Buildings 0.4 gal/person Food Service Establishments 1.5 gal/maximum Type A-Full Meal meals/hours Restaurants & Cafeterias Type B-Driveins, Grilles, Luncheonettes, 0.7 gal/maximum Sandwich & meals/hour Snack Shops Apartment Houses: No. of Apartments 20 or less 12.0 gal/apt. 50 10.0 gal/apt. 75 8.5 gal/apt. 100 7.0 gal/apt. 200 or more 5.0 gal/apt. Elementary Schools 0.6 gal/student Junior & Senior High 1.0 gal/student Schools

6.0 gal/maximum meals/hour

0.7 gal/average* meals/day

80.0 gal/apt. 73.0 gal/apt. 66.0 gal/apt. 60.0 gal/apt. 50.0 gal/apt.

42.0 gal/apt. 40.0 gal/apt. 38.0 gal/apt. 37.0 gal/apt. 35.0 gal/apt.

Food Service Hot Water Consumption


Use Gallons Per Hour
Vegetable Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Single Compartment Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Double Compartment Sink. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Triple Compartment Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Pre-Rinse for Dishes-Shower Head Type (Hand Operated) . . . . . . . 45 Pre-Scraper for Dishes (Salvajor Type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Pre-Scraper for Dishes (Conveyor Type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Bar Sink (Three Compartment). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Bar Sink (Four Compartment) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Chemical Sanitizing Glasswasher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Lavatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Service Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Cook Sink. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9-12 Pound Washers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 16 Pound Washers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Shower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Required Water Temperatures*


Dishmachine Final Rinse (At Manifold) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Chemical Sanitizing Dishwasher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 General Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Bar Sinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Lavatories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Chemical Sanitizing Glasswasher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Water Heating

*From Guideline for Hot Water Generating Systems for Food Service Establishments. Michigan Department of Public Health.

NSFDishwasher Rinse Water Requirements


180 Rinse Water Demands (Pressure at Washer20 psi) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 16" x 16" Single Tank, Stationary Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Gals/Hr. 18" x 18" Single Tank, Stationary Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Gals/Hr. 20" x 20" Single Tank, Stationary Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Gals/Hr. Multiple Tank, Conveyor, Flat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Gals/Hr. Multiple Tank, Conveyor, Inclined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Gals/Hr. Single Tank, Conveyor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Gals/Hr. 26

Lighting

System Wattages for Typical Lamp/Ballast Combinations

27

Lamp Type Ballast Type (No.) No. of Lamps 40 Watt T12 34 Watt T12 32 Watt T6 F96/75W/SL F96/60W/SL F96/59W/T8 F96/110W/HO F96/215W/VHO F96/215W/VHO F96/185W/VHO N/A N/A 98 83 135 125 230 200 41 Standard (1) 1-Lamp 49 Energy Eff. (1) 1N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 52 37 44 Lamp Electronic (1) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 86 35 34 28 1-Lamp Electronic (1)* N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 32 1-Lamp N/A N/A Standard (1) 2-Lamp 79 96 175 138 257 219 440 375 Energy Eff. (1) N/A N/A N/A 86 158 123 237 199 70 70 2-Lamp Electronic (1) N/A N/A 105 118 194 160 69 134 62 57 2-Lamp Electronic (1)* N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 102 51 2-Lamp Standard (2) N/A 148 127 3-Lamp All wattages are +/- 4 Watts. The actual wattages depend on the Energy Eff. (2) 134 107 109 specific manufacturer's lamp and ballast combinations. 3-Lamp Electronic (1) 108 88 90 3-Lamp Lumen output also varies with lamp/ballast combinations. Electronic (1)* N/A N/A 75 3-Lamp Actual light output is dependent on the ballast factor. Standard (2) N/A 192 158 4-Lamp Energy Eff. (2) *These ballasts are low power ballasts. In addition to consuming 172 140 140 4-Lamp less energy, they will result in reduced light output. Electronic (1) 142 108 114 4-Lamp Electronic (1)* N/A N/A 95 4-Lamp

Lighting

Lighting

Light Level Recommendations


The Illuminating Engineers Society of North America (IESNA) has recently changed its focus on lighting levels. They have made a dramatic shift from considering the lighting quantity only to consider the quality of lighting. For full details, consult chapter 10 of their manual (available at www.iesna.org).

Efficacy Comparison Chart


LIGHT SOURCE Incandescent Mercury Vapor Fluorescent Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium Low Pressure Sodium 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200

Lumens per Watt

28

Reflectance Values of Different Surfaces


Material Category
Glass Masonry

Description
Clear or Tinted Reflective Brick, Red Cement, Gray Granite Limestone Marble, Polished Plaster, White Sandstone Aluminum, Brushed Aluminum, Etched Aluminum, Polished Stainless Steel Tin White Light Birch Mahogany Oak, Dark Oak, Light Walnut

Reflectance (%)
5-10 20-30 10-20 20-30 20-25 35-60 30-70 90-92 20-40 55-58 70-85 60-70 50-60 67-72 70-90 35-50 6-12 10-15 25-35 5-10

Metals

Paint Wood

29

Lighting

Lighting

The Effect of Lighting on Cooling Load


Initial Lamp Lumens/ Hours Watt Life 750 2,000 System kW per 1,000,000 Lumens 57.1 46.51 Ton-hours Cooling Required* 16.24 13.23

Source

Btu Input* 194882 158749

Incandescent GE 100A A-19/F 17.5 Quartz GE Q1000T3/CL 21.5 Fluorescent Standard Ballast F40CW 71.6 Fluorescent Standard Ballast F40LW/RS/WMII 76.5 Fluorescent Max Miser I Ballast f40CWIRS/WMII 85.4 Fluorescent Optimiser System FM28KW 87.9 Mercury-Regulator (CW) Ballast HR400DX33 48.9 Metal Halide Auto Regulator (Peak Lead) Ballast MVR400/VBV 86.0 High Pressure Sodium 102.9

20,000

13.9

47680

3.97

20,000

13.08

44642

3.72

20,000

11.71

39966

3.33

15,000+

11.37

38806

3.23

24,000

20.44

69762

5.81

20,000 20,000

11.625 9.72

39676 33174

3.31 2.76

*Assumes 2500 Hours Use of the Lighting System Annually, 1,000,000 Lumen Output

30

Annual Cost for Lighting Systems


Annual cost = demand charge + energy charge, where Demand charge = (Number of fixtures* W/fixture * $/kW * 12)/(1000) Energy charge = (Number of fixtures * W/fixture*Annual burn hours * $/kWh)/1000

Outdoor Lighting
For Improved
Safety Security Appearance Merchandising

Rule of Thumb Guides


1. Use efficient light sources (high pressure sodium, metal halide high intensity discharge lamps) that will produce maximum light output for the lowest use of energy and cost. Specify high power factor ballasts (minimum .90 P.F.) 2. "Positive Cutoff" fixtures on poles or buildings are preferred to reduce distracting glare for more attractive surveillance of premises. 3. Spacing to mounting height ratios between poles are preferred at a 3 to 1 ratio and not greater than a 4 to 1 ratio. 4. High reflectance materials and/or light paint for all possible vertical and horizontal surfaces will lighten dark areas, walkways, aisles, entrances, exits. Higher reflectances will help to quickly identify possible intruders. 5. Improve parking lot visibility and identification by applying two-foot white or yellow paint (thermal plastic) parking guidelines between cars. This technique will improve reflected light between cars on asphalt surfaces.
31

Outdoor Lighting

6. Perimeter lighting (75 feet or more when possible in front of buildings) will act as a light barrier deterrent to would-be intruders. 7. Floodlighting should not be directed out from a building more than twice the mounting height of the equipment above the ground. This avoids the problem of extreme light and dark areas in addition to the distracting glare problem. 8. Recommend installation of photocell and/or time switch controlled for maximum customer benefit.

Outdoor Lighting

Outdoor Lighting Levels


Building Exteriors Minimum Entrances Footcandles Active (pedestrian and/or conveyance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Inactive (normally locked, infrequently used) . . . . . . . . . . 1 Building Floodlighting Bright surroundings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Dark surroundings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Building Surroundings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Parking Areas Self-Parking Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Attendant Parking Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vital Locations or Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

32

Light System Selection Lamp Table


(b) Initial Lumens Efficacy Lamp & Ballast Wattage (c) (d) (e) LLD x LDD = LLF

Light Source

Burning Position

(a) Lamp Life

High Pressure Sodium Lamps (Clear)

33 155,000 115,000 110,000 40,000 36,000 19,500 23,000 14,000 12,000 1,625 1,050 1,050 460 460 300 300 210 210

1000W 400W 310W 250W 200W 150W 100W 70W 50W 35W 95 110 105 87 78 65 77 67 71 .84 .73 .73 .68 .68 .76 .76 .67 .67

Any Any Any Any Any Any Any Any Any Any

24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 24,000

140,000 50,000 37,000 30,000 22,000 16,000 9,500 6,300 4,000 2,250

1,100 465 380 305 250 200 135 95 63 45

127 108 97 98 88 80 70 66 64 50

.83 .83 .82 .83 .82 .83 .83 .83 .83 .83

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

.65 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .65 .65 .65 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

.54 .58 .57 .58 .57 .58 .58 .58 .58 .58 .55 .48 .48 .48 .48 .53 .53 .47 .47

Metal Halide Lamps (Clear)

1500W 1000W(I) 1000W 400W(I) 400W 250W 250W(l) 175W 175W(l)

Vert. Vert. (j) Vert. Vert. (j) Vert. Vert. Horz. (k) Vert. Horz. (k)

3,000 12,000 12,000 20,000 20,000 (f) 10,000 10,000 10,000 (g) 6,000

Outdoor Lighting

Lamp Table (cont.)


(a) Lamp Life 24,000 + 24,000 + 24,000 + 24,000 + 24,000 + 16,000 + 16,000 + 16,000 + 10,000 (h) 10,000 (h) 10,000 (h) 10,000 (h) 20,000+(h) 20,000 (h) 15,000 (h) 20,000 (h) 20,000+(h) 20,000 (h) 20,000+(h) 250 400 600 900 3,150 2,925 3,350 2,900 3,250 2,900 3,250 8 10 12 16 48 40 48 40 48 40 48 31 40 50 56 66 73 67 72 66 72 67 63,000 22,500 12,100 8,600 4,200 2,800 1,575 1,140 1,060 450 300 210 120 99 74 61 59 50 40 41 38 32 21 19 .50 .71 .74 .78 .67 .68 .68 .68 .70(i) .70(i) .70(i) .70(i) .83 .83 .83 .83 .83 .83 .83 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (b) Initial Lumens Efficacy .65 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .70 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 Lamp & Ballast Wattage (c) (d) (e) LLD x LDD = LLF = .32 = .50 = .52 = .55 = .47 = .48 = .48 = .48 = .46 = .46 = .46 = .46 = .54 = .54 = .54 = .54 = .54 = .54 = .54

Light Source

Burning Position

Mercury Lamps (Deluxe White)

1000W 400W 250W 175W 100W 75W 50W 40W

Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert. Vert.

Fluorescent Lamps

PL5 (or equiv.) PL7 (or equiv.) PL9 (or equiv.) PL13 (or equiv.) F40CWRS (M)F40LW/RS/II F40SP30/RS (or equiv.) (M)F40SP30/RS (or equiv.) F40SP35/RS (or equiv.) (M)F40SP35/RS (or equiv.) F40SP41/RS (or equiv.)

Outdoor Lighting

34

Lamp Table (cont.)


(a) Lamp Life (b) Initial Lumens Efficacy Lamp & Ballast Wattage (c) (d) (e) LLD x LDD = LLF

Light Source

Burning Position

Fluorescent Lamps (Cont.)

35 2,000 2,000 2,000 1,500 35,800 21,500 11,100 3,350 1500 1000 500 200

(M)F40SP41/RS (or equiv.) F40SPX30/RS (or equiv.) (M)F40SPX30/RS (or equiv.) F40SPX35/RS (or equiv.) (M)F40SPX35/RS (or equiv.) F96T12/CW (Slimline) (M)F96T12/LW (Slimline) F96T12/CW/HO (800MA) (M)F96T12/CW.HO (800MA) F96T12/CW/VHO (1500MA) (M)F96T12/LW/VHO (1500MA) F96PG17/CW (1500MA) (M)F96PG17/LW (1500MA) 24 22 22 17

20,000 (h) 20,000+(h) 20,000 (h) 20,000+(h) 20,000 (h) 18,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 12,500 11,250 15,000 15,000

2,900 3,275 2,900 3,275 2,900 6,300 6,000 9,200 8,300 14,000 13,800 16,000 14,900

40 48 40 48 40 86 71 121 106 222 196 225 196

71 68 71 67 71 73 84 76 78 63 70 71 76

.83 .83 .83 .83 .83 .89 .89 .82 .82 .67 .67 .67 .67 .95 .95 .95 .95

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

.65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .60 .60 .60 .60 .65 .65 .65 .65

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

.54 .54 .54 .54 .54 .58 .58 .53 .53 .40 .40 .40 .40 .62 .62 .62 .62

Quartz Tungsten Halogen Lamps

1500W T-3 1000W T-3 500W T-3 200W T-3

Horz. (n) Horz. (n) Horz. (n) Horz. (n)

Outdoor Lighting

Lamp Table (cont.)


(a) Lamp Life 18,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 10,000 (h) (i) (j) (k) 33,000 22,500 13,500 8,000 4,800 1,800 220 178 125 80 68 30 150 126 108 100 71 60 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 x x x x x x (b) Initial Lumens Efficacy .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 Lamp & Ballast Wattage (c) (d) (e) LLD x LDD = LLF = .65 = .65 = .65 = .65 = .65 = .65

Light Source

Burning Position

Low Pressure Sodium Lamps

180W T-21 135W T-21 90W T-21 55W T-17 35W T-17 18W T-17

(a) Lamp life based: 10 hours per start for HID lamps and 12 hours per start for fluorescent unless otherwise noted. (b) Initial lumens (after 100 hours). (c) Lamp lumen depreciation at 70% rate life (LLD). (d) Luminary dirt depreciation (LDD). For outdoor luminaries only. (e) Light loss factor (LLF). For outdoor luminaries only. (f) Average rate life 20,000 hours (when operated vertical 30). All other burning positions 15,000 hours. (g) Average rated life 10,000 hours (when operated vertical 30). All other burning positions 6,000 hours.

Average rated life at 3 hours per start. Estimated. Lamp must be operated within 15 of vertical. Lamp must be operated within 15 of horizontal. Requires special socket to accept position oriented base. (l) High output lamps. (m) Energy efficient lamps. (n) Lamp must be operated within 4 of vertical.

Outdoor Lighting

36

Cooking Equipment
How to Evaluate Energy Cost
Electric Cost/yr = Nameplate rating (kW) * Diversity Factor (default of .25) * 12 * $/kW + kW * Diversity Factor * Hours per year * $/kWh -ORTo estimate further (this is a reasonable estimate, since cooking will be a flat load throughout the year): Electric Cost/yr = kW * Diversity Factor * Hours per year * Average $/kWh (from Table below) Gas Cost/yr = Nameplate rating (Btuh) * Diversity Factor (default of .35) * Hours per year * $/therm /100000 Btu per therm

Equipment Input, Diversity, and Preheat Times


Diversity (Elec/Gas) Equipment Type Electric Fryer (conventional), 45 # Griddle, 3' Deck Oven, 2-pan 5' Convection Oven, Single Full-Size Conveyor Oven, 36" Tilting Skillet, 40 gal. Solid Top Range, 3' Range Oven, 1 pan Radiant Broiler, 3' Charbroiler, 3' Steam Jacketed Kettle, 40 gal. .20 .20 .20 .18 .25 .20 .30 .20 .60 .60 .20 Gas .39 .40 .39 .35 .45 .39 .80 .39 .95 .95 .45 Typical Input Electric Gas (Btuh) (kW) 14 9 10 11 18 18 8 5 12 12 18 120000 90000 75000 55000 120000 100000 80000 35000 50000 50000 110000 Preheat Time, min. Electric 5-8 7-12 20-36 9-10 20-40 8-13 7-15 20-36 5-10 8-11 10-20 Gas 8-12 10-15 45-60 20-30 30-40 5-9 10-30 20-30 15-20 20 10-20

Note that diversity is different between electric and gas because of reheat, thermal efficiency, and operational differences.

37

Cooking Equipment

Business Type
Fast Food Full Service Cafeteria Church/Synagogue Large Office Building School (K-12) College/University Healthcare

Typical Electric Costs ($/kWh)


.085 .095 .095 .1 .05 .085 .08 .085

Typical Gas Costs ($/therm)


1.35 1.4 1.4 1.45 1.25 1.2 1.3 1.2

Effective 10/2002. Check powerzone@georgiapower.com for updated information.

Cooking Efficiency
Equipment
Broiler, over fired Charbroiler Fryer, conventional Fryer, pressure Griddle, grooved Kettle, jacketed Open range burner Oven, convection Oven, deck Oven, range Skillet, tilting Steamer, convection Steamer, pressure

Electric
.52 .65 .78 .83 .71 .73 .73 .62 .55 .45 .79 .23 .39

Gas
.22 .16 .28 .3 .51 .42 .38 .28 .24 .13 .52 .13 .19

Cooking Equipment

Note: This represents the energy that is put into the food (as opposed to the kitchen or up the flue). Source: Comparative gas/electric foodservice equipment energy consumption ratio study, University of Minnesota, 3/3/83, p. 12. O.P. Snyder, D.R. Thompson, J.F. Norwig.

38

Ventilation Requirements (CFM per SF of Cooking Surface)


Equipment
Ovens, Steamers, Kettles Fryers Griddles and Ranges Hot Top Ranges Salamanders, High Broilers Grooved Griddles Char-Broilers

Electric
20 35 35 85 60 65 75

Gas
25 60 40 100 70 75 150

For every 250 CFM reduction, AC load is reduced by 1.1 tons and heating requirement is reduced by 13,200 Btuh.

Equipment Considerations
Typical Foodservice Budgets
Food Sales FOOD COST LABOR COST, BENEFITS Pretax Profits Rent, Property Tax, Insurance Administration, General Advertising, Promotion UTILITIES Supplies Repair, Maintenance, Int. Depreciation

Burger Chains Family Restaurant


100% 33.3 24 24 8 6 4.8 3.6 4 3.1 2.8 100% 31.5 29.1 29.1 7.9 6.5 2.6 0.48 3.2 2.6 2.8

Utilities represent less than 5% of a restaurant's operating budget.

39

Cooking Equipment

Electric foodservice equipment has the following advantages: Savings in Food Savings in Labor
1. Less shrinkage in meat roasting 2. Significant savings in frying fat 3. Less spoilage due to overcooking 4. Less spoilage due to uneven heating 5. Longer holding of food is possible 6. Larger servings from the griddle 7. Elimination of crippled baking runs 1. No pilot lights to relight 2. Less scrubbing of pots and pans 3. Fast recovery speeds production 4. Watching of food is minimized 5. Requires less skilled help 6. Minimum of supervision 7. Compact layout saves space

Other savings provided by electric cooking


1. The cooking process is energy efficient only 50% of typical gas BTUs 2. This results in cooler kitchens, less or no A/C, more efficient employees 3. The equipment lasts longer 4. Does not require a flue 5. It is easier to balance the buildings air flow 6. Ovens are insulated on all six sides to conserve energy 7. Electricity is clean, providing for lower building maintenance costs 8. Water vapor and resulting humidity (bacteria, molds) are reduced 9. Equipment does not lose its efficiency with age 10. Kitchen design is easier and more flexible

Cooking Equipment

Typical Equipment List Prices


Equipment Braising Pan, 40 gal. Charbroiler Griddle, 3' Fryer, 45 lb. Kettle, 40 gal. Oven, Combination Oven, Double Convection Pasta Cooker Range Steamer, 5-pan Electric $20,223 $4,908 $4,910 $5,485 $19,563 $26,129 $20,695 $12,308 $8,588 $11,449 40 Gas $24,270 $5,152 $5,260 $5,977 $25,743 $33,578 $22,575 $14,000 $5,726 $16,679

As of 4/1/2008 Per autoquotes manufacturers suggested retail price (msrp)

Refrigerants and Chillers


Common Refrigerants, Applications, and Current Status
No. 11 12 22 Name Trichlorofluoromethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Chlorodifluoromethane Application Chillers (old) Chillers (old) Small equipment, heat pumps, A/C units, cars New chillers New chillers, cars, heat pumps Food processing, low-temperature applications Small equipment, heat pumps, A/C units, cars Chillers Status No longer manufactured, still available No longer manufactured, still available Phaseout scheduled for 2010 Current Current Current Current Current

123 Dichlorotrifluoroethane 134a Tetrafluoroethane 717 Ammonia

410a R32/R125 (50/50 blend), marketed as Puron 407c R32/R125/R134a (23/25/52 blend)

Chiller Types, Applications, Considerations


Type Centrifugal, Water-cooled Reciprocating Screw, Water-cooled Absorption Application High-rises; large applications (150t+) 100-120 t. 75-300 t. Industrial, 800-1000 t. Considerations Are most efficient run at full load; lose efficiency rapidly at partial loading Lower capital expense; less efficient than most alternatives Good efficiency at partial loading; can be noisy Not generally economic unless free steam is available. Lower upfront cost, lower installation, doesnt require building space, less efficient than water-cooled

Reciprocating and 100-300 t. scroll, air-cooled 41

Refrigerants & Chillers

Motors and Pumps


Motor Basics
There are several terms used in motor applications. These include slip, motor efficiency, torque, and synchronous speed. The definitions of these terms are included in the glossary. Within the AC motor category, there are 2 main categories: Single phase 3-phase Single phase motors are typically used in applications of 1 horsepower or less. Three-phase motors are used for larger applications that dont require a DC motor. The allowable slip for the three-phase motors varies depending on the application. The speed listed on the motor is typically the actual speed (which takes slip into account). NEMA categorizes motors based on torque; we show the applications below: NEMA Design
Breakdown Torque % slip, max. Applications

Motors & Pumps

B
High 5% Constant load speed, low inertia starts. Fans, compressors, conveyors, etc.

C
High Medium 5% Constant load speed, high inertia starts Flywheels, large blowers, etc.

D
Very High Low 5% or more Variable load speed, high inertia starts. Hoists, elevators, some industrial equipment (punches, some presses).

Locked Rotor Torque Medium

42

Code Letter
A B C D E F G H J K

kVa/hp
0.0 3.15 3.55 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.3 7.1 8.0 3.15 3.55 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.6 6.3 7.1 8.0 9.0

Code Letter
L M N P R S T U V

kVa/hp
9.0 - 10.0 10.0 - 11.2 11.2 - 12.5 12.5 - 14.0 14.0 - 16.0 16.0 - 18.0 18.0 - 20.0 20.0 - 22.4 22.4 and up

Starting current = (1000 x hp x kVa/hp)/(1.73 x Volts)

Motor Cost Comparison


Choosing the right motor is an important part of the design process. There is no rule of thumb for all motor types. To determine the annual operating cost and the best choice, you need to consider: Annual hours of operation Loading Electric rate Capital cost of the various options The formula for the total cost would be: Demand cost = hp under loading * 0.746 kW/hp* $/kW-month * 12 months/year / Efficiency Energy cost = % loading * number of hours of operation * hp * 0.746 kW/hp * $/kWh / Efficiency Total cost = demand cost + energy cost
43

Motors & Pumps

The nameplate code rating is a good indication of the starting current the motor will draw. A code letter at the beginning of the alphabet indicates a low starting current and a letter at the end of the alphabet indicates a high starting current. Starting current can be calculated using the following formula:

Motors & Pumps

44

Recommendation Chart for Motor Replacement/New Installation3


5 hp
1000 hpy Rewind/Std. Efficiency 3000 Rewind/High Eff. 5000 Rewind/High Eff. 7000 Install New High Eff. 8760 Install New High Eff.

10 hp
Rewind/Std. Efficiency Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff.

15 hp
Rewind/Std. Efficiency Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff.

20 hp
Rewind/Std. Efficiency Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff.

30 hp
Rewind/Std. Efficiency Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff. Install New High Eff.

Heat Gain from Typical Electric Motors


Rated hp 0.5 0.75 1 1 2 3 5 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 Motor Nominal Full-load Type rpm Eff. % Split-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 3-phase 1750 60 72 75 77 79 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 Motor Insider; Equipment Inside (Btuh) 2120 2650 3390 4960 6440 9430 15500 22700 29900 44400 58500 72300 85700 114000 Motor Outside; Equipment Inside (Btuh) 1270 1900 2550 3820 5090 7640 12700 19100 24500 38200 50900 63600 76300 102000 Motor Inside; Equipment Outside (Btuh) 850 740 850 1140 1350 1790 2790 3640 4490 6210 7610 8680 9440 12600

45

Motors & Pumps

3 Assumes small business tax rate, 15% discount rate, PLM rate schedule, standard and high efficiency as observed in supply catalogs, standard market prices. For any extensive motor replacements/installations, please contact Georgia Power to find the best customized decision

Heat Gain from Typical Electric Motors (cont.)


Rated hp 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Motor Nominal Full-load Type rpm Eff. % 3-phase 1750 89 3-phase 1750 89 3-phase 1750 90 3-phase 1750 90 3-phase 1750 90 3-phase 1750 91 3-phase 1750 91 3-phase 1750 91 Motor Insider; Equipment Inside (Btuh) 143000 172000 212000 283000 353000 420000 569000 699000 Motor Outside; Equipment Inside (Btuh) 127000 153000 191000 255000 318000 382000 509000 636000 Motor Inside; Equipment Outside (Btuh) 15700 18900 21200 28300 35300 37800 50300 62900

Copyright 2001, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. www.ashrae.org. Reprinted by permission from 2001 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals.

Motor Formulae
Torque (lb-ft) = hp * 5250/RPM Hp = Volts * Amps * Efficiency/746 % slip = (Synchronous RPM Full-load RPM)*100/Synchronous RPM

Motors & Pumps

Affinity Laws for Pumps


Impeller Diameter Speed Specific To Correct Gravity (SG) for Flow Constant Variable Constant Head BHP (or kW) Flow Variable Constant Constant Head BHP (or kW) BHP (or kW) Multiply by Speed ( New Old Speed ) Speed 2 ( New Old Speed ) Speed 3 ( New Old Speed ) Diameter (New Old Diameter ) Diameter 2 (New Old Diameter ) Diameter 3 (New Old Diameter ) New SG Old SG

Constant

Constant

Variable

Copyright 1987, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. www.ashrae.org. Reprinted by permission from 1987 ASHRAE Pocket Handbook.

46

Fans and Ducts


Fan Laws
CFM1/CFM2 = RPM1/RPM2 SP1/SP2 = (RPM1/RPM2)2 HP1/HP2 = (RPM1/RPM2)3

Criteria for Fan Selection:


To get the best fan for a particular application, the designer must consider these aspects: Required air volume and static pressure Application type (temperature of discharge, corrosive vapors, etc.) Available space Noise criteria Location of discharge Motor position Air density (particularly important in South Georgia)

47

Fans & Ducts

Duct Design
Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts

Fans & Ducts


48

Industrial Applications
Compressed Air
Existing compressor capacity: C = V(P2-P1)*60/(14.7*time) Where: C = capacity of compressor in cfm V = receiver and piping volume in cu. ft. P2 = final cutout pressure (absolute, psia) P1 = initial pressure (absolute, psia) Time = pump up time, in seconds Additional Air Required = Existing Capacity * Desired Pressure/ Existing Pressure

Typical Compressor Capacity:


Type of Compressor CFM per hp Piston, Two Stage 3.5 Rotary Screw 4.0

49

Industrial Applications

Leakage Rate from Holes Air Flow Through Orifices


15 Gauge Pressure in Receiver (pounds) 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200

Dia. of Orifice (in.)

10

1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 3/32 1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/18 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-3/4 2

0.04 0.158 0.356 0.633 1.43 2.53 5.7 10.1 22.8 40.5 63.03 91.2 124 162 205 253 307 364 496 648

0.062 0.248 0.568 0.993 2.23 3.97 8.93 15.9 35.7 63.5 99.3 143 195 254 321 397 482 572 780 1015

0.077 0.311 0.712 1.24 2.80 4.98 11.2 19.9 44.7 79.6 124.5 179.2 244.2 318.2 402.5 498 604 716 972 1274

0.105 0.420 0.944 1.68 3.78 6.72 15.2 26.9 60.5 108 168 242 329 430 544 672 816 968 1318 1720

0.123 0.491 1.10 1.96 4.41 7.86 17.65 31.4 70.7 126 196 283 385 503 637 784 954 1132 1540 2120

0.158 0.633 1.42 2.53 5.69 10.1 22.8 40.5 91.1 162 253 365 496 648 820 1019 1230 1460 1985 2594

0.194 0.774 1.75 3.10 7 12.4 28.0 49.6 112 198 310 446 607 793 1004 1240 1505 1783 2429 3173

0.23 0.916 2.06 3.66 8.25 14.7 33.0 58.6 132 235 366 528 718 938 1187 1464 1780 2112 2875 3752

0.267 1.06 2.38 4.23 9.5 16.9 38 67.6 152 271 423 609 828 1082 1370 1693 2054 2335 3310 4330

Note: For well-rounded entrance, mu8ltiply values by 0.97; for sharp-edged orifices, multiply by 0.65

Industrial Applications
0.335 1.34 3.0 5.36 12.0 21.4 48.3 85.7 193 343 536 771 1050 1371 1734 2144 2607 3081 4200 5480 0.0406 1.62 3.66 6.49 14.6 26.0 58.5 104 234 415 649 934 1272 1661 2101 2596 3153 3734 5085 6650 0.494 1.98 4.44 7.90 17.8 31.6 71.0 126 284 506 790 1138 1549 2023 2560 3160 3840 4550 6195 8100 0.583 2.23 5.25 9.1 20.9 37.3 84 149.3 336 596 932 1340 1825 2385 3020 3725 4525 5360 7300 9540 0.75 3.18 6.86 12.17 27.35 48.7 109.6 195 438 777 1216 1750 2382 3112 3940 4860 5910 7000 9530 12450

50

Process Steam
Saturated Steam: Pressure Table
Enthalpy Sat. Liquid Evap. hfg hg
1075.5 1087.4 1096.3 1105.8 1131.1 1143.3 1150.5 1150.9 1156.3 1164.1 1169.8 1174.1 1177.6 1180.6 1183.1 1185.3 1187.20 1188.9 1190.4 1191.7 1193.0 0.3358 0.3682 0.3921 0.4122 0.4273 0.4411 0.4534 0.4643 0.4743 0.4834 0.4919 0.4998 0.5071 1.3962 1.3313 1.2844 1.2474 1.2167 1.1905 1.1675 1.1470 1.1284 1.1115 1.0960 1.0815 1.0681 0.0000 0.0542 0.0925 0.1326 0.2349 0.2836 0.3121 0.3137 2.1872 2.0425 1.9446 1.8455 1.6094 1.5043 1.4447 1.4415

Specific Volume Sat. Vapor Evap. sfg vg


3302.4 1235.5 641.5 333.6 73.532 38.420 26.799 26.290 20.087 13.7436 10.4965 8.5140 7.1736 6.2050 5.4711 4.8953 4.4310 4.0484 3.7275 3.4544 3.2190 196.27 218.9 236.1 250.2 262.2 272.7 282.1 290.7 298.5 305.8 312.6 319.0 325.0 960.1 945.2 933.6 923.9 915.4 907.8 900.9 894.6 888.6 883.1 877.8 872.8 868.8 0.0003 27.382 47.623 69.73 130.2 161.26 180.17 181.21 1075.5 1060.1 1048.6 1036.1 1000.9 982.1 970.3 969.7

Entropy Sat. Vapor sf sg


2.1872 2.0967 2.0370 1.9781 1.8443 1.7879 1.7568 1.7552 1.7320 1.6995 1.6765 1.6586 1.6440 1.6316 1.6208 1.6113 1.6027 1.5950 1.5879 1.5813 1.5752

Abs. Press. Temp (psi) (F) Sat. Liquid Sat. Vapor hf

Sat. Liquid

Evap.

vf

vfg

Abs. Press. (psi) p


0.8865 0.25 0.5 1.0 5.0 10.0 14.696 15.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 120.0 130.0 140.0

0.08865 0.25 0.5 1.0 5.0 10.0 14.696 15.0

32.018 59.323 79.586 101.74 162.24 193.21 212.00 213.03

0.016022 0.016032 0.016071 0.01636 0.016407 0.016592 0.016719 0.016726

3302.4 1235.5 641.5 333.59 73.515 38.404 26.782 26.274

51

20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 120.0 130.0 140.0

227.96 250.34 267.25 281.02 292.71 302.93 312.04 320.28 327.82 334.79 341.27 347.33 353.04

0.016834 0.017009 0.017151 0.017274 0.017383 0.017482 0.017573 0.017659 0.017740 0.01782 0.01789 0.01796 0.01803

20.070 13.7266 10.4794 8.4967 7.1562 6.1875 5.4536 4.8779 4.4133 4.0306 3.7097 3.4364 3.2010

Industrial Applications

Saturated Steam: Pressure Table (cont.)


Enthalpy Sat. Liquid Evap. hfg hg
1194.1 1195.1 1196.0 1196.9 1197.6 1198.3 1199.0 1199.6 1200.1 1200.6 1201.1 1201.5 1201.9 1202.3 1202.6 808.9 794.2 780.4 1202.9 1204.0 1204.6 0.5438 0.5490 0.5540 0.5588 0.5634 0.5679 0.5722 0.5764 0.5805 0.5844 0.5882 0.6059 0.6217 0.5141 0.5206 0.5269 0.5328 0.5384 1.0554 1.0435 1.0322 1.0215 1.0113 1.0016 0.9923 0.9834 0.9748 0.9665 0.9585 0.9508 0.9433 0.9361 0.9291 0.9223 0.8909 0.8630

Abs. Press. Temp (psi) (F) Sat. Vapor Evap. sfg sf Sat. Liquid Sat. Vapor sg
1.5695 1.5641 1.5591 1.5543 1.5498 1.5454 1.5413 1.5374 1.5366 1.5299 1.5264 1.5230 1.5197 1.5166 1.5135 1.5105 1.4968 1.4847

Specific Volume Sat. Sat. Evap. Liquid Vapor vg


3.0139 2.8336 2.6738 2.5312 2.4030 2.2873 2.18217 2.08629 1.99846 1.91769 1.84317 1.77418 1.71013 1.65049 1.59482 1.54274 1.32554 1.16095 394.0 409.8 424.2 355.5 359.9 364.2 368.3 372.3 376.1 379.9 383.6 387.1 390.6 842.8 839.1 835.4 831.8 828.4 825.0 821.6 818.3 815.1 812.0 330.6 336.1 341.2 346.2 350.9 863.4 859.0 854.8 850.7 846.7

p hf

vf

vfg

150.0 160.0 170.0 180.0 190.0

358.43 363.55 368.42 373.08 377.53

0.01809 0.01815 0.01821 0.01827 0.01833

2.9958 2.8155 2.6556 2.5129 2.3847

200.0 210.0 220.0 230.0 240.0 250.0 260.0 270.0 280.0 290.0

381.80 385.91 389.88 393.70 397.39 400.97 404.44 407.80 411.07 414.25

0.01839 0.01844 0.01850 0.01855 0.01860 0.01865 0.01870 0.01875 0.01880 0.01885

2.2689 2.16373 2.06779 1.97991 1.89909 1.82452 1.75548 1.69137 1.63169 1.57597

300.0 350.0 400.0

417.35 431.73 444.60

0.01889 0.01912 0.01934

1.52384 1.30642 1.14162

Industrial Applications
Entropy Abs. Press. (psi) p
150.0 160.0 170.0 180.0 190.0 200.0 210.0 220.0 230.0 240.0 250.0 260.0 270.0 280.0 290.0 300.0 350.0 100.0

52

Steam Loss from Leaks*


Trap Orifice Diameter (inches)
1/32 1/16 1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8

Pressure (psi) 15
0.85 3.4 13.7 30.7 54.7 123.0

100
3.3 13.2 52.8 119.0 211.0 475.0

150
4.8 18.9 75.8 170.0 303.0 682.0

300
9.8 36.2 145.0 326.0 579.0 1303.0

*in lb/hr. A typical plant has a steam value of $5/1000 lbs. steam

Combustion Heat Losses, Gas Boilers

53

Industrial Applications

Industrial Process Technologies


Technology
Ultraviolet

Industrial Applications

Applications
Coatings on heat sensitive substrates. Disinfection in water/ sewage treatment. Electrically conductive work pieces high frequency for surface hardening, low for through heating. Cutting, welding, melting, incineration, vitrification.

Considerations
Fast curing. No VOCs. Low maintenance. Best for symmetric shapes and high productivity applications. More accurate and faster than mechanical cutting Best for difficult drying applications, bound moisture removal New microwave technologies allow web drying applications. Best for high value-added products (high capital cost). Great in areas with high ventilation (comfort application); increases drying speed increasing productivity (process). No VOCs. Higher quality. Good application for IR curing. No bleach required. Rapid startup. High capacity. Small footprint. No exhaust flue. High efficiency. Low noise. Precise control.

Induction

Plasma Arc

Radio Frequency Rapid drying of nonconductive materials. Adhesive curing. Plastics welding. Microwave Cooking and final drying of foods. Rubber vulcanization. Sintering ceramics.

Infrared

Comfort heating. Process heating.

Powder Coating

Painting.

Ozonation

Laundry brightening. Water disinfection.

Electrode Boilers Steam, hot water production.

54

Process
550 430 450 375 350 325 500 400 370 350 450 300

Stainless NonSteel Magnetic Stainless Magnetic Nickel Titanium Copper Brass Aluminum

Melting

500

550

Heat Forging 400

375

Hardening/ Solution Treating N/A 375 250 200 100 75 90 120 250 225 110 80 240 N/A N/A 200 N/A N/A 400 300 N/A 300 325 350 300 250 N/A 200 N/A 70

250

260

300 260 N/A 210 N/A 125

Industrial Heating and Curing

Annealing

250

210

Typical Energy Requirements (kWh/ton)

55

Warm Forming

175

N/A

Stress Relief 150

150

Tempering/ Aging

70

70

Curing

50

50

Industrial Applications

Information to Assess Induction Feasibility


Characteristic
Materials Coatings Production Heat Control Scrap

Industrial Applications

Good Induction Application


Electrically conductive (typically metallic) Dont require long residence time for curing High volume/high speed Requires ability to control temperature and depth of heating precisely Material that oxidizes readily (e.g. aluminum); induction allows control of atmosphere, moisture, and temperature can reduce scrap rate from 7-8% to 1% Little available square footage Moderate to high gas prices/moderate to low electric prices Processes that require sporadic heating; induction can cycle whereas gas convection cannot result is lower energy use for induction Simple, symmetric, regular Less important to customer; induction tends to cost more upfront, but can have rapid payback depending on application High labor costs; induction lends itself to automation which can reduce labor requirements in a plant

Floor Space Energy Costs System Efficiency

Product Shape Capital Cost Labor Cost

For help assessing induction for your customer, contact powerzone@georgiapower.com

Average Induction Heating System Efficiency


Type
Line Voltage Solid State Radio Frequency

Frequency
60 Hz 60 to 200 kHz 200 to 450 kHz

System Efficiency
65% 70% 50%

56

SHORT WAVE (High Intensity)


Tungsten filament lamps T-3 quartz lamps

MEDIUM WAVE
Coil or wire in unsealed quartz, silicon tubes, or panels Metal radiant tubes Metal ribbon emitters Ceramic emitters

LONG WAVE (High Intensity)


Glass panels Vitrified ceramic panels

Type of Emitter

Curing painted surfaces Curing powder coatings Polymerization of organic coatings on cooking utensils Gelling PVC coatings on fabric

Curing painted surfaces Curing powder coatings Drying/heat setting fabrics after dyeing or printing

Activating adhesives Drying textiles Animal care in agriculture Printed circuit board processing

Supplemental heater Drying silkscreen inks for paper drying Preheating plastic

Typical Applications

Drying iron oxide on Drying inks in printing Preheating embossing or silkscreening recording tapes rollers Production of TV tubes Drying porcelain and ceramics Preheating plastic Preheating wooden panels prior to coating Drying paints and lacquers

Drying and production Curing coatings on wooden panels of glass-plastic composites Curing the varnish or paints on mirror backs

57

Industrial Applications

Emitters and Applications of IR Radiant Heating

Typical Oven Comparison


ELECTRIC
Floor space (conveyer length needed) Warm-up time Cure time Efficiency Product temperature range Operational advantages 25 to 30 feet 1 to 90 seconds 1 second to 10 minutes 45 to 60% 0 to 1000F. Can be turned off or reduced to 5-10% power with no parts in the oven Preassembled, move into position

Industrial Applications

GAS CONVECTION
300 to 350 feet 30 minutes 20 to 35 minutes 15 to 25% 0 to 450F. Runs all the time

Ease of installation

Erect on site

58

Metals

Properties of Solids
Heat of Fusion Btu/lb Melting Point (lowest) F Density lb/ft3 lb/in3 Thermal Conductivity Btu/hr/ft2 F Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion per F x 100

Substance

Specific Heat Btu/lb/F

59

Aluminum 1100 Aluminum 2024 Aluminum 3003 Antimony Bismuth Brass (70% Cu. 30% Zn) Copper Gold Incoloy 800 Incoloy 600 Invar Iron, cast Iron, wrought Lead, solid Lead, melted Magnesium Monel 400 Nickel 200 Nichrome (80% Ni; 20% Cr) Platinum Silver Solder (50% Pb; 50% Sn) Steel, mild carbon Steel, stainless, 304 Steel, stainless, 430 Tantalum Tin, solid Tin, melted Titanium Type Metal (85% Pb; 15% Sb) Zinc

.24 .24 .24 .052 .031 .10 .10 .030 .12 .11 .13 .13 .12 .031 .04 .232 .11 .11 .11 .032 .057 .04 .12 .11 .11 .036 .056 .064 .126 .040 .095

169 167 167 69 23 91 29 10 160 133 49 38 17 25 15 51

1190 935 1190 1166 520 1700 1981 1945 2475 2470 2600 2300 2800 621 1202 2370 2615 2550 3224 1761 415 255 2550 2650 5425 450 3300 500 787

169 173 170 423 610 525 550 1203 501 525 508 450 480 710 665 109 551 554 524 1338 655 580 490 488 475 1036 455 437 283 670 445

.098 .100 .099 .245 .353 .304 .318 .697 .290 .304 .294 .260 .278 .411 .385 .063 .319 .321 .303 .775 .379 .336 .284 .282 .275 .600 .263 .253 .164 .388 .258

128 112 112 10.9 4.9 56 224 169 8.1 9.1 6.1 33 36 20 91 14 39 8.7 41 242 26 38 8.8 12.5 31 36 18 9.3 65

13.1 12.9 12.9 4.7-6.0 7.4 11.1 9.2 7.9 7.9 7.4 0.6 6.5 6.5 16.3 14 7.7 7.4 7.3 4.9 10.9 13.1 6.7 9.6 6.0 3.6 13 4.7 9.4-22

Industrial Applications

Solid Non-Metals
Thermal Conductivity Btu/hr/ft2 F
36 .32.4 5

Properties of Solids
Heat of Fusion Btu/lb
40 75 250 144 6700 2200 36 65 60 140 165 130 57 .028.087 .038 .035 .081.38 .08013.8 .096.45 .075.104 .0331.28

Substance

Specific Heat Btu/lb/F

Melting Point (lowest) F. Density lb/ft3 lb/in3

.25 .40 .22 .204 .20 .20 .46

.21 .21 .31 .20 .45 .70

63

133 300

36 58 56 83

Asbestos Asphalt Beeswax Brickwork & Masonry Carbon Glass Graphite Ice Magnesium Oxide before compaction compacted Marinite-36 @ 600 F Mica paper Paraffin Pitch, hard Plastics ABS Cellulosic Epoxy Fluoroplastic Nylon Phenolic Polyethylene Polystyrene Vinyl Quartz Rubber Soil dry Steatite Sugar Sulfur Tallow Wood-oak Wood-pine .1121.2 .021.068 .102.25 .034.068 .032.13 .048 .3 7.7 1.3 18 17 3150 320 230 90 138 95 100 105 125 60 50 34 .036.11.19 .048.10.20 .045.10.12 .077.14 .040.14 .048.085 .033.19.29 .037.03.08 .050.07.17 .080.80 .055 .058.035 .0941.7 .061 .072.15 .035 .029.12.20 .020.06.14 3272 5583 2536 4658 .44 .38 55111 17111 28139 .30 .087 5 36

.3-.4 .3-.5 .25 .28 .4 .3-.4 .55 .32 .2-.3 .21 .40 .44 .20 .30 .203 .45 .45

Industrial Applications
Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion per F x 100
340

60

Substance Acetic acid Alcohol Benzine Brine (25% NACI) Caustic soda (18% NaOH) Dowtherm A (at 450F) Ether Freon 12 (Saturated liquid) Glycerine Mercury Oil, cotton seed Oil, olive Oil, petroleum Paraffin, melted Potassium (at 1000F) Sodium (at 1000F) Sulfur, melted Therminol FR-1 (at 450F) Turpentine Water
Source: Chromalox (5)

Specific Heat Btu/lb/ F .472 .65 .45 .81 .84 .518 .503 .24 .58 .033 .47 .47 .51 .71 .18 .3 .234 .36 .41 1.0

Heat of Vaporization Btu/lb 153 365 166 730 800 42 160 62 117 893 1810 652 133 965

Boiling Point F 245 172 175 220 220 495 95 -20 554 675 570 750 1400 1638 601 650 319 212

Density lb/ft3 66 55 56 74 75 55 46 78.5 79 845 60 58 56 56 44.6 51.2 73.5 54 62.5 lb/gal 8.82 7.35 7.49 9.89 10.03 7.35 6.15 10.50 10.58 112.97 8.02 7.75 7.49 7.49 5.96 6.84 9.83 7.22 8.34

61

Industrial Applications

Properties of Liquids

Industrial Applications

Properties of Gases and Vapors


Specific Heat at Constant Pressure Btu/lb/F Density at 70F and Atmospheric Pressure lb/ft3 .073 .08 .048 .1037 .123 .078 .2 .0728 .0104 .0056 .0447 .1309 .0779 .078 .09 .179 .0372 Thermal Conductivity at 32F and Atmospheric Pressure Btu/hr/ft2/F .0108 .014 .0175 .00912 .0085 .0135 .0043 .0101 .0802 .0917 .0175 .0053 .0138 .014 .0142 .005 .0145

Substance

Acetylene .35 Air .237 Ammonia .520 Argon .124 Carbon dioxide .203 Carbon monoxide .243 Chlorine .125 Ethylene .4 Helium 1.25 Hydrogen 3.41 Methane .6 Methyl chloride .24 Nitric Oxide .231 Nitrogen .245 Oxygen .218 Sulphur dioxide .155 Water vapor (212F) .451
Source: Chromalox (5)

62

On-Site Generation and Power Quality


Standby Generation Considerations
Genset Fuel
Diesel

Cost/kW
$250

Fuel Tank?
24-hour

Considerations
If more than 500 kW standard generator, must have dykes to contain spill in amount of largest delivery tanker compartment. Burns vapor, not liquid. Need a much larger tank to provide the required pressure. Must purchase firm gas contract if for backup of critical systems.

Propane

Natural Gas <100 kW, $200 >100 kW, $400

Not required

Uninterruptible Power Supply/Power Conditioning Systems


Solution Type
Uninterruptible Power System (UPS): Battery (long term)

Protection Time
5-10 minutes typical protection with longer battery times available

Size Range
650 VA to 750 kVA

Comments
Provides for proper operation of protected equipment for outages up to several minutes or seamless transfer to generator or orderly shutdown of protected equipment before the battery power expires.

63

On-Site Generation & Power Quality

<100 kW, $200 >100 kW, $400

Tank not furnished

Uninterruptible Power Supply/Power Conditioning Systems (cont.)


Solution Type
UPS: Flywheel

Protection Time

Size Range

Comments
Provides for orderly shutdown of protected equipment for short duration outages or provides seamless transfer to generator.

13 seconds to 100 kVA 2 minutes to based on 750 kVA power requirements of the protected system. 30 seconds at 313 kVA 100% load and to up to 60 2500 kVA seconds at partial load Sag correction- 250 VA 2 seconds to maximum 3000 kVA Momentary outages up to 12 cycles N/A

UPS: Battery (short-term)

Provides for orderly shutdown of protected equipment for short duration outages or provides seamless transfer to generator. Protects against 92% of voltage events.

On-Site Generation & Power Quality

Dynamic Sag Corrector

Surge Protection N/A

Surge capacity and options vary with model. Protects systems from transient voltages such as lightning, switching transients and over-voltages.

64

Alternative Energy Sources


Type
Fuel Cell Microturbine

Potential In SE Cost/kW
High High $5000 $1000 (standard); $1400 (combined heat and power).

Cost/kWh
Cost of fuel/efficiency Must evaluate system efficiency. At 2002 gas prices, about $0.10/kWh.

Comments
Works by converting natural gas to hydrogen. Cost/kW at fully rated capacity. Cannot use this capacity for cost calculations must derate for temperature

Active Solar

Low $1000-1200 (13% of energy delivered) MedHigh

Free, except land SE US listed by DOE as (if applicable) low potential location. and maintenance cost Industrial application. Requires extensive permitting and design. Best applications have fuel with no retail value and steam requirements in plant.

Waste-to Energy

Location & Fuel-specific size specific, $200/kW.

65

On-Site Generation & Power Quality

Windpower

Low

$1000-1200 Free, except land Only a few mountain and maintenance ridges in N. Ga provide cost. any wind potential.

Electrical Distribution
Transformer secondary For single-phase light and power branch circuits.

Electrical Distribution

Single-phase, 3-wire For three-phase power circuits and singlephase light and power branch circuits. Three-phase, 4-wire delta with one phase center tapped and grounded. (Threephase, 3-wire delta for power loads is used with a separate single phase supply for lighting. For three-phase power circuits and single-phase light and power branch circuits.

Three-phase, 4-wire wye (or star) with grounded neutral rated 120/208 volts. For three-phase power circuits and lighting circuits using 277-volt ballasts. 120-volt lighting and receptacle loads are fed from this system through singlephase transformers rated 480/-120 240 volts or three-phase transformers rated 480/120-208 volts.

Three-phase, 4-wire wye (or star) with grounded neutral rated 277/480 volts. 66

Useful Electrical Formulas for Determining Amperes, Horsepower, Kilowatts, and kVa
To Find
Amperes when Horsepower is known

Direct Current
Hp. x 746 E x Eff.

ALTERNATING CURRENT Single Phase Three Phase


Hp. x 746 E x Eff. x P.F. kW x 1000 E x P.F. kVA x 1000 E Hp. x 746 1.73 x E x Eff. x P.F. kW x 1000 1.73 x E x P.F. kVA x 1000 1.73 x E I x E x 1.73 x P.F. 1000 I x E x 1.73 1000 I x E x 1.73 x Eff. x P.F. 746
P.F. = Power Factor;

Amperes when kW x 1000 Kilowatts is known E Amperes when kVa is known Kilowatts kVA Horsepower (output) I x E x Eff. 746 IxE 1000

I x E x P.F. 1000 IxE 1000 I x E x Eff. X P.F. 746

I = Amperes; E = Volts; Eff. = Efficiency expressed as decimal; kW = Kilowatts; kVA = Kilovolt-amperes; Hp = Horsepower

Estimating Loads From kWh Meter Clocking


kW = No. of Revolutions x 3600 x Kh x C.T. Ratio 1000 x Time in Seconds
Kh = Meter Constant; C.T. Ratio = Multiplier, if used

Effects From Voltage Variations


Motor Characteristics Torque F. L. R. P. M. F.L. Efficiency F.L. Amps Starting Amps F.L. Temperature Noise Level Max. Overloaded Capacity 90% -19% -11/2% -2 Points +11% -10% +11% -Slight -19% 67

% of Rated Voltage 110% 120% +21% +44% +1% +1.5% +1/2 Point +1 Point -7% -.11% +10% +.25% -6% 9% +Slight +Noticeable +21% +44%

Electrical Distribution

Electrical Distribution

Percent of Rated Heater Watts at Reduced Voltage


240 Volt Heater on 230 Volts92% 240 Volt Heater on 220 Volts84% 240 Volt Heater on 208 Volts75% 480 Volt Heater on 440 Volts84% 480 Volt Heater on 277 Volts33%

Motor Wattages
1/6 hp = 250 W 1/4 hp = 350 W 1/3 hp = 460 W 1/2 hp = 680 W 3/4 hp = 980 W 1 hp = 1200 W

Ohms Law Made Easy

I2 x R ExI

E2 R

E R

W E
IxR W I

I R
W I2

E2 W

W E

W x R

W R E I

68

BTUH 3,413 6,826 10,239 13,652 17,065 20,478 23,891 27,304 30,717 34,130 51,195 68,260 85,325 102,390 119,455 136,520 153,585 170,650

Formula for Calculating Line Currents


AMPERES = SINGLE PHASE WATTS LINE VOLTAGE TO CONVERT kW TO WATTS MULTIPLY kW BY 1,000

AMPERES = THREE PHASE WATTS LINE VOLTAGE X 1.73

69

Electrical Distribution
BTUHkWAmperes Chart
kW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 120V 10 8.3 16.7 25.0 33.3 41.7 50.0 58.3 66.6 75.0 83.3 125.0 166.6 208.3 250.0 291.7 333.3 375.0 416.6 10 4.8 9.6 14.4 19.2 24.0 28.9 33.7 38.5 43.5 48.1 72.1 96.2 120.2 144.3 168.4 192.4 216.5 240.5 10 4.2 8.3 12.5 16.6 20.8 25.0 29.1 33.3 37.4 41.6 62.4 83.2 104.0 124.8 145.6 166.4 187.2 208.0 208V 30 2.8 5.5 8.3 11.1 13.9 16.6 19.4 22.2 24.9 27.7 41.6 55.4 69.3 83.1 97.0 110.8 124.7 138.5 240V 30 2.4 4.8 7.2 9.6 12.0 14.4 16.8 19.2 21.6 24.0 36.0 48.0 60.0 72.0 84.0 96.0 108.0 120.0

277V 10 3.6 7.2 10.8 14.4 18.1 21.7 25.3 28.9 32.5 36.1 54.2 72.2 90.3 108.3 126.4 144.4 162.5 180.5

480V

10 2.1 4.2 6.2 8.3 10.4 12.5 14.6 16.6 18.7 20.8 31.2 41.6 52.0 62.4 72.8 83.2 93.6 104.0

30 1.2 2.4 3.6 4.8 6.0 7.2 8.4 9.6 10.8 12.0 18.6 24.0 30.0 36.0 42.0 48.0 54.0 60.0

Electrical Distribution

Transformer Types and Requirements


Service Voltage
120/240V, single-phase, three-wire 120/240V delta, three-phase, four-wire 120/208V grounded wye, three-phase, four-wire 277/480V grounded wye, three-phase, four-wire

Maximum Size Padmounted Transformer (kVA)


167 Overhead transformer service only 1000 2500

If the expected demand will exceed the maximum size transformer, you are asked to design a split bus/panel arrangement to accept service from more than one transformer. Georgia Power Company must approve location of padmounted transformers before final design. The following requirements must be met:1 The selected location must be conducive to the installation of underground primary electrical cables. The edge of the concrete pad nearest the building shall be: No closer than 14 ft. from doorways No closer than 10 ft. from building wall, windows or other openings. If the building is 3 stories or less, the 10-ft. clearance is measured from the edge of any overhang or canopy. Fire escapes, outside stairs, and covered walkways attached to or between buildings shall be considered part of the building.
1As of 10/02. See powerzone@georgiapower.com for most current information.

70

Any exceptions to the above requirements must be approved by the local fire marshal or the jurisdiction having authority. Before seeking approval, contact Georgia Power Company to evaluate the feasibility of the exceptions. Written approval must be provided to Georgia Power Company. Transformers shall be located such that: The front of the transformer faces away from the building There are 10 ft. of clearance in front of the transformer doors They are easily accessible by personnel and heavy equipment during construction and after project completion If more than one padmounted transformer is required, the minimum spacing between transformers (including cooling fins) is 5 ft. There is unrestricted air flow for cooling requirements. Trees, shrubs, and other similar vegetation must be kept at least 10 ft. from all sides of the transformer. Item
Overhead Service Conductors Single-phase underground service conductors Three-phase underground service from padmounted transformers Three-phase underground service from overhead transformers

Provided by
Georgia Power Georgia Power

Comments/Restrictions
From transformer to customers weatherhead Residential customers must pay a flat fee to receive underground service

Customer

Georgia Power

If LESS than 600A service

71

Electrical Distribution

Electrical Distribution

Item
Three-phase underground service from overhead transformers Service conductor connections in padmounted transformers, at weatherheads, and at metering equipment

Provided by
Customer

Comments/Restrictions
If MORE than 600A service

Georgia Power

Concrete transformer Georgia Power pads (contact Georgia Power for dimensional details)

GPC will furnish and install. Customers service conduits must be designed to fit within the secondary side of the pad opening

Requirements for Service Conductors


All three-phase services from padmounted transformers must be 4-wire, grounded wye service The customers service ground may NOT be terminated in the padmounted transformer compartment Three-phase services should have no more than 12 conductors per phase. If more than 12 are required, contact Georgia Power Company to discuss the feasibility of exceptions.

72

Motor Starting
Who Limits Starting Voltage Drop Georgia Power

Type of Service Single Phase

Comments Responsible for both customer side and system side Must design and install motor starting technology to limit starting voltage drop to the established acceptable values on both the customers and systems side. Must design and install motor starting technology to limit starting voltage drop to the established acceptable values on both the customers and systems side.

Any customer with Customer welding machines

Three-Phase

Customer

Other
Available fault current depends on the size transformer and that transformers impedance. Register your project at powerzone@georgiapower.com to get the available fault current for that location. Consult Georgia Power Companys current Electrical Service and Metering Installations for detailed information on metering and service installation requirements.

73

Electrical Distribution

Miscellaneous
Diversity Factors for EFLH calculations
Equipment
Compressors (air conditioning) Fans, air handlers Lighting, interior Lighting, exterior

Diversity Multiplier (demand)


1 1 0.9 0 (if before the meter) 0.65 0.35 (see cooking tables for specific items) 0.5 0.8 0.25

Miscellaneous

Space heating Cooking Water heating Refrigeration Miscellaneous

This chart can be used to calculate the demand charges for various types of equipment. Demand seen by meter = Rated kW * Diversity. Remember to apply only during the months that the equipment would run!

74

Noise
Design Criteria for Room Loudness
Room Type
Auditoriums Concert and opera halls Stage theaters Movie theaters Semi-outdoor amphitheaters Lecture halls Multi-purpose Courtrooms Auditorium lobbies TV audience studios Churches and schools Sanctuaries Schools and classrooms Recreation halls Kitchens Libraries Laboratories Corridors and halls Hospitals and clinics Private rooms Wards Laboratories Operating rooms Lobbies & waiting rooms Halls and corridors

Sones
1.0 to 3 1.5 to 5 2.0 to 6 2.0 to 6 2.0 to 6 1.5 to 5 3.0 to 9 4.0 to 12 2.0 to 6 1.7 to 5 2.5 to 8 4.0 to 12 6.0 to 18 2.0 to 6 4.0 to 12 5.0 to 15 1.7 to 5 2.5 to 8 4.0 to 12 2.5 to 8 4.0 to 12 4.0 to 12

Room Type
Indoor sports activities Gymnasiums Coliseums Swimming pools Bowling alleys Gambling casinos Manufacturing areas Heavy machinery Foundries Light machinery Assembly lines Machine shops Plating shops Punch press shops Tool maintenance Foremans office General storage Offices Executive Supervisor General open offices Tabulation/computation Drafting Professional offices Conference rooms Board of Directors Halls and corridors

Sones
4 to 12 3 to 9 7 to 21 4 to 12 4 to 12 25 to 60 20 to 60 12 to 36 12 to 36 15 to 50 20 to 50 50 to 60 7 to 21 50 to 15 10 to 30 2 to 6 3 to 9 4 to 12 6 to 18 4 to 12 3 to 9 1.7 to 5 1 to 3 5 to 15

Note: Values shown above are room loudness in sones and are not fan sone ratings. For additional detail see AMCA publication 302 Application of Sone Rating.

75

Miscellaneous

Noise
Design Criteria for Room Loudness (cont.)
Room Type
Hotels Lobbies Banquet rooms Ballrooms Individual rooms/suites Kitchens and laundries Halls and corridors Garages Residences Two & three family units Apartment houses Private homes (urban) Private homes (rural and suburban Restaurants Restaurants Cafeterias Cocktail lounges Social clubs Night clubs Banquet room Miscellaneous Reception rooms Washrooms and toilets Studios for sound reproduction Other studios

Sones
4.0 to 12 8.0 to 24 3.0 to 9 2.0 to 6 7.0 to 12 4.0 to 12 6.0 to 18 3 to 9 3 to 9 3 to 9 1.3 to 4 4 to 12 6 to 8 5 to 15 3 to 9 4 to 12 8 to 24 3 to 9 5 to 15 1 to 3 4 to 12

Room Type
Public buildings Museums Planetariums Post offices Courthouses Public libraries Banks Lobbies and corridors Retail stores Supermarkets Department stores (main floor) Department stores (upper floor) Small retail stores Clothing stores

Sones
3 to 9 2 to 6 4 to 12 4 to 12 2 to 6 4 to 12 4 to 12 7 to 21 6 to 18 4 to 12 6 to 18 4 to 12

Miscellaneous

Transportation (rail, bus, plane) Waiting rooms 5 to 15 Ticket sales office 4 to 12 Control rooms & towers 6 to 12 Lounges 5 to 15 Retail shops 6 to 18

Note: Values shown above are room loudness in sones and are not fan sone ratings. For additional detail see AMCA publication 302 Application of Sone Rating.

76

Room Sones dBA Correlation

Copyright 1972, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. www.ashrae.org. Reprinted by permission from 1972 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals.

77

Miscellaneous

ATLANTA/HARTSFIELD, GEORGIA Lat. 33 39N Long. 84 26W Elev. 1,010 ft.

Mean Frequency of Occurrence of Dry Bulb Temperature (degrees F.) with Mean Coincident Wet Bulb (MCWB) Temperature (degrees F.) for Each Dry Bulb Temperature Range

MAY
Obsn Hour Gp
01 to 08 09 to 16

JUNE
Obsn Hour Gp
01 to 08 09 to 16

Temperature Range
01 to 08 09 to 16

Obsn Hour Gp M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24 M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24 M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24

Obsn Hour Gp

01 to 08

09 to 16

M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24

01 to 08

09 to 16

100/104 95/99 90/94 85/89 80/84


77 74 74 72 71 69 46 51 74 171 68 147 18 69 234 64 46 2 7 55 59 5 0 1 6 55 49 44 72 70 66 60 47 42 76 165 133 19 59 211 54 3 11 68 10 0 1 11 0 0 71 69 65 60 56 1 0 1 5 1 6 30 10 40 0 61 30 91 5 81 57 143 72 74 74 74 73 0 0 6 1 7 30 9 39 72 33 105 3 76 58 137 76 74 74 73 72

4 1 33 13 0 53 28

5 46 81

70 69 67

0 5

0 0 4 1 5 29 10 39 52 25 77 65 44 114

75/79 70/74 65/69 60/64 55/59


0 1 0

3 32 94 59 30

57 47 30 15 7

46 62 52 26 15

106 141 176 100 52

66 64 62 58 53

31 93 82 23 5

50 62 143 28 64 185 11 28 121 1 4 28 1 1 7

50/54 45/49 40/44 35/39 30/34

19 8 3

1 0 0

5 1 0

25 9 3

48 44 40

1 0

Miscellaneous
JULY
Obsn Hour Gp

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER
M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24
01 to 08

OCTOBER
Obsn Hour Gp
09 to 16

M Total C 17 Obsn W to B 24

78

2 0 9 2 31 11 0 60 31 8 72 82 49 22 6 1 0 57 43 21 14 2 1

2 11 42 91 53 118 71 186 40 143 23 86 6 30 1 0 8 1 0

72 71 71 70 68 67 63 59 54 49 45 42 1 8 28 51 60 51 28 14 7 2

0 1 3 16 42 52 53 39 23

0 1 4

0 1 4 20 14 57 34 94 54 135 59 149 40 123 12 24 4 11 2 4 0 1 0 87 43 20 8 2

74 73 70 68 64 63 60 57 52 48 43 39 33 29

NOVEMBER DECEMBER ANNUAL TOTAL

JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

Obsn Temp- Hour Gp Total erature 01 09 17 Obsn to to to Range

08 16 24

M C W B

100/104 95/99 90/94 85/89 80/84

1 0

Obsn Obsn M Obsn M Obsn M Obsn M Obsn M Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp Total C Hour Gp 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 Obsn W 01 09 17 to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to B 08 16 24 B 08 16 24 B 08 16 24 B 08 16 24 B 08 16 24 08 16 24 1 0 17 3 103 2 2 0 2 64 0 254 113 1 67 1 0 1 64 17 7 24 64 13 370 229 M Total C Obsn W B 1 73 20 74 135 74 367 72 612 70

75/79 70/74 65/69 60/64 55/59


3 19 47 61 34 89 47 26 34 39 106 43 32 37 43 117 38 43 30 40 123 34 41 21 28 91 29 29 10 9 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 -3 46 17 9 4 0 24 20 15 11 6 15 7 3 2 1 5 2 1 0 0 6 26 24 5 2 11 19 1 2 6 15 1 0 2 11 0 1 6 37 37 35 25 14 97 106 108 87 53 47 42 38 34 29 38 44 48 34 25 40 34 21 12 6 44 37 30 15 6 1 3 0 1 0 0 122 115 99 61 37 9 2 1 0 47 42 38 33 29 25 20 16 11 60 60 2 57 9 52 17 0 4 1 11 5 19 19 29 23 0 5 16 30 2 22 55 54 0 5 18 47 69 64 2 0 63 8 3 60 2 16 10 57 7 25 20 53 17 32 33 2 11 28 52 82 63 60 57 55 51 9 18 27 34 45 4 9 24 34 42 13 27 56 84 117 62 59 57 54 50 38 41 43 40 29

0 5 18 28

5 20 32 39 40

1 6 5 25 17 54 35 92 43 111

64 60 3 0 59 1 13 5 56 9 22 16 51 13 26 22

20 36 48 48 38

58 79 113 143 121

62 61 59 56 52

136 487 423 311 276 42 17 22 81 46 255 31 9 14 54 42 243 22 3 6 31 38 249 10 0 1 11 34 228 2 2 29 166

353 301 262 248 234 213 200 158 108 57

350 413 301 286 263 241 222 201 135 80

839 1201 986 845 773 709 665 608 471 303

69 67 62 57 52 47 42 38 34 29 79 23 32 134 24 33 8 10 51 20 13 3 7 23 15 7 2 0 9 11 1 0 0 1 6 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 -3

79
41 18 5 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 24 28 9 20 9 4 15 5 1 11 3 1 5 0 0

50/54 45/49 40/44 35/39 30/34

34 38 41 113 47 17 36 33 86 47 21 34 45 30 42 117 42 29 44 41 114 42 25 42 44 20 30 94 38 39 44 53 136 38 36 38 35 9 16 60 33 55 29 37 121 34 46 37 20 4 7 31 29 43 19 25 87 29 45 18

25/29 20/24 15/19 10/14 5/9

8 3 1 0 0

1 0 0 0 0

3 0 1 0

12 3 2 0 0

25 23 21 13 14 3 10 2 6 0

7 2 1 1 0

11 3 1 0 0

0/4 -5/-1

Miscellaneous

Cooling and Dehumidification Design Conditions for Georgia


Evaporation WB/MDB 0.4% 1% 2% Dehumidification DP/MDB/HR 0.4% 1% 2%
Range of DB DP 75 73 72 74 77 74 75 132 82 73 130 81 76 88 78 87 78 88 75 134 83 77 139 84 77 144 83 74 130 83 76 135 83 76 139 82 HR 133 125 124 127 141 130 MDB 81 80 80 82 84 81 19.8 18.4 17.3 20.2 14.4 18.0 74 129 82 19.3 72 123 79 17.1 73 127 83 20.7 75 132 82 17.5 76 136 82 19.4 74 127 83 20.3

Location

Cooling DB/MWB 0.4% 1% 2%

DB MWB DB MWB DB MWB 96 76 95 76 93 75 94 75 92 75 90 74 93 75 91 74 88 73 96 76 94 76 92 75 93 78 91 79 88 78 95 76 93 75 91 75 92 75 89 74 91 74 91 76 92 76 78 79 80 90 90 90 77 78 79 89 89 89 79 77 91 88 78 76 89 87 77 88 75 86 76 136 83 74 134 82

96 94

76 74

94 91

75 74

Albany Athens Atlanta Augusta Brunswick Columbus, Metro Airport Macon Marietta, Dobbins AFB Rome Savannah Valdosta, Regional Airport Waycross 93 75 78 91 78 90 77 89 75 134 84

96 95 95

74 77 77

94 93 94

74 76 76

96

76

94

76

Miscellaneous
WB MDB WB 79 90 78 78 89 77 77 88 76 79 91 78 81 89 80 79 89 78 MDB 89 87 87 89 88 88 WB 78 76 75 77 79 77 MDB 88 86 85 88 87 87 DP 77 75 74 76 78 76 HR 141 133 133 135 147 139 MDB 83 82 82 84 86 82 DP 76 74 73 75 78 75 HR 136 129 128 130 144 134 MDB 82 81 81 83 85 82 75 130 83

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Typical Weather Data for Metro Atlanta Area


January February March April May June July August September October November December YEAR Average Temp. 42 45 52 62 69 76 79 78 73 62 52 44 61 Heating Degree Days 716 563 400 133 37 5 0 0 7 130 394 636 3021 Heating % Use 24 19 13 3 1 0 0 0 0 4 13 22 100 Cooling Degree Days (65F) 0 0 12 37 170 329 422 409 247 44 0 0 1670 Cooling % Use 0 0 1 2 10 20 25 25 15 2 0 0 100

WINTER
City ALMA BRUNSWICK MACON ROME Heating Degree Days 1835 1611 2279 3122

SUMMER
Cooling Degree Days (65F) 2289 2487 2217 1601

For more detail on climatic data for selected Georgia cities, refer to Climatic Data Base published by the Cooperative Committee of GAAIA/Georgia Power Company.

Wind Effect on Temperature*


Wind Speed (mph)
calm 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

ACTUAL THERMOMETER READING (F.)


30 30 27 16 9 4 0 -2 -4 -6 20 20 16 4 -5 -10 -15 -18 -20 -21 10 10 6 -9 -18 -25 -29 -33 -35 -37 0 0 -5 -21 -36 -39 -44 -48 -49 -53 -10 -10 -15 -33 -45 -53 -59 -63 -67 -69 -20 -20 -26 -46 -58 -67 -74 -79 -82 -85 -30 -30 -36 -58 -72 -82 -88 -94 -98 -100 -40 -40 -47 -70 -85 -96 -104 -109 -113 -116

EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE WITH WIND

*Per Army Medical Research

81

Miscellaneous

Climatic Conditions for Georgia Cities

Formulae

Formulae
82

Geometric Formulae
PLANE SOLID

Triangle Area A = 1/2bh Sum of Angle Measures A + B + C = 180

Cube Volume: V = s3

Right Triangle Pythogorean Theorem a2 + b2 = c2

Parallelogram Area A = bh

Right Circular Cylinder Volume: V = r2h Lateral Surface Area: L = 2rh Total Surface Area: S = 2rh + 2r2

Trapezoid Area A = 1/2h(a + b)

Circle Area A = r2 Circumference C = D or 2r (22/7 and 3.14 are different approximations for )

Sphere Volume V = 4/3 r 2 Surface Area S = 4r 2

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Formulae

Right Circular Cone Volume: V = 1/3r2h Lateral Surface Area: L = rs Slant Height: S = r2 + h2

Formulae for Solving Right Triangles

Formulae
84

Curve Formulae

85

Formulae

Unit Conversions
Metric and English Measures
Linear Measure
1 centimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3937 inch 1 inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.54 centimeters 1 foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.048 decimeters 1 yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9144 meter 1 meter. . . . . . . . . . . . 39.37 in. 1.0936 yds. 1 kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.62137 mile 1 mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6093 kilometers

Measure of Volume
1 cu. centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.061 cu. in. 1 cu. in. . . . . . . . . . . . 16.39 cu. centimeters 1 cu. ft. . . . . . . . . . . . 28.317 cu. decimeters 1 cu. meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.308 cu. yards 1 cu. yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.7646 cu. meter 1 liter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0567 qts. liquid 1 qt. liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9463 liter 1 gallon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.785 liters

Square Measure
1 sq. centimeter . . . . . . . . . 0.1550 sq. inch 1 sq. inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.452 centimeters 1 sq. ft. . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2903 sq. decimeters 1 sq. meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.196 sq. yds. 1 sq. yd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8361 sq. meter 1 acre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4840 sq. yds. 1 sq. kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.386 mile 1 sq. mile . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.59 sq. kilometers

Weights
1 gram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.03527 ounce 1 ounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.35 grams 1 kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2046 pounds 1 pound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.4536 kilogram 1 metric ton . . . . . . . . . 1.1023 English tons 1 English ton . . . . . . . . . . 0.9072 metric ton

Approximate Metric Equivalents


1 liter . . . . . . . . . 1.06 qts. liquid, 0.9 qt. dry 1 meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 yards 1 kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5/8 of a mile 1 kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1.5 lbs. 1 metric ton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 pounds

Miscellaneous Data
1 Ton Refrigeration. . . . . . . . 1 Btu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Grain (water) . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Pound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Pound (air) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 lb./sq. in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 watt hour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 kilowatt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Horsepower . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Boiler H. P.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Gallon (US) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Cu. Ft. (water). . . . . . . . . . . = = = = = = = = = = = = = 12,000 Btu/hr.; 200 Btu/min. 6.65 grains (latent heat water vapor); 0.293 watt hours 0.15 Btu (latent heat) 7,000 grains .24 Btu; sensible heat per (F.); 2.0416" Hg (64F.) 2.309" Hg (64F.) 14.7 lbs./sq. in. 3.415 Btu 1.34 horsepower; 56.92 Btu/min. 0.746 kilowatts; 42.44 Btu/min. 33,523 Btu/hr.; 10 kW; 34.5 lbs./hr. 231 cu. in.; 8.34 lbs. (water 60F.) 62.37 lbs.

Conversions

86

Pressure
1 oz. per sq. in. = 1.73 in. water 1 in. mercury = 7.85 oz. per sq. in. 1 in. mercury = 13.6 in. water 1 in. water column = 0.578 oz. per sq. in. 1 oz. per sq. in. - 0.127 in. mercury 1 in. water = 0.0735 in. mercury 1 lb. per sq. in. = 16 oz. per sq. in. = 2.036 in. mercury = 27.7 in. water 1 atmosphere = 14.7 lbs. per sq. in. = 760 mm mercury = 2992 in. mercury

87

Conversions

Definitions
A.F.U.E.Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency. The annual seasonal efficiency which accounts for part load operation, cyclic operation, standby and flue losses in a fossil fuel heating system. AMPACITYThe current carrying capacity of a conductor. BTU(British Thermal Unit). The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water, one degree fahrenheit. BTUH HEAT LOSSthe amount of heat that escapes, from warmer to colder areas, through walls, ceilings, floors, windows, doors and by infiltration in one hours time. CIRCUITA conductor or a system of conductors through which an electric current flows. CIRCUIT BREAKER or FUSEA load limiting device that automatically interrupts an electric circuit if an overload condition occurs. COOLING TONA measure of cooling capacity equal to 12,000 BTU per hour. C.O.P.(Coefficient of Performance). The ratio of the rate of heat delivered versus the rate of energy input, in consistent units, of a complete, operating heat pump system under designated operating conditions. CYCLEFrequency of alternating current expressed in hertz. 60 cycles per second = 60 hertz. DEGREE DAYA unit that represents one degree of declination from a given point (as 65F) in the mean outdoor temperature of one day and is often used in estimating fuel requirements of buildings. E.E.R.Energy Efficiency Ratio. Used in the efficiency rating of room and central air conditioners. E.E.R. = BTU watts.
88

Definitions

HEAT PUMPA space conditioning unit that provides both heating and cooling. By means of a compressor and reversing valve system, a heat transfer liquid is pumped between the indoor and outdoor units, moving that heat into a building during cold weather and out of it during warm weather. HERTZThe number of cycles of alternating current per second, such as 60Hz. KILOWATTA unit of electrical power equal to 1,000 watts. KILOWATT HOURRepresents the use of 1,000 watts of electricity for one full hour. LOAD FACTORThe ratio of the average load in kilowatts supplied, during a designated period, to the peak load occurring during that period. Load Factor = kWh supplied in period Peak kW in period x hours in period Load factor is a measure of efficiency. 100% efficiency would require the continuous use of a given amount of load for every hour of the month. OHMs LAWIn a given circuit, the amount of current in amperes is equal to the pressure in volts divided by the resistance in ohms. Current = (Pressure) Volts or I = E (Resistance) Ohms R POWER FACTORIt is the ratio of actual power being used in a circuit, expressed in watts or kilowatts (kw), to the power which is apparently being drawn from the line, expressed in voltamperes or kilovoltamperes.

89

Definitions

E.F.L.H.Equivalent Full Load Hours. Annual hours used to estimate energy consumption of end use equipment.

What does this mean in the practice of effective energy management and energy cost control? With both values being equal (kW = kVA) a ration of 1 could exist or a power factor of 100%. But if a load demands 2kVA while the actual productive power potential is 1kW, the power factor would be 50%. This means that in using only half of the power supplied to you, the utility still must supply the other half which you are using but not directly paying forto supply what is known as wattless power or reactive power which is expressed in vars or kilovars (kvar). Low power factor penalties may be a part of rate schedules. RELATIVE HUMIDITYThe ratio between the actual water vapor content and the total amount of water vapor content possible under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. S.E.E.R.Seasonal Energy Efficient Ratio. The total cooling of a central air conditioner BTUs during its normal usage period for cooling (not to exceed 12 months) divided by the total electric energy input in watt-hours during the same period. S.P.F.Seasonal Performance Factor. The ratio of seasonal kWhs used by heat pumps versus the seasonal kWhs used by resistance electric heat for the same space under the same conditions. SINGLE PHASEA circuit energized by a single alternating voltage. THERMA measurement of gas containing 100,000 BTU. As there are approximately 1,000 BTU per cubic foot, there are approximately 100 cubic feet of gas per therm. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY VALUES U FactorThe rate of heat flow through one square foot of completed structural sections, such as wall, glass, ceiling, etc. in one hour with a temperature difference of one degree between the inside and outside surfaces.

Definitions

90

K FactorThe rate of heat flow in Btuh through one square feet of building material, one-inch thick, in one hour with a temperature difference of one degree between the two surfaces. C FactorThe definition is the same as for K Factor except that C Factors are used for materials other than those that are one-inch thick, such as one-half inch gypsum board or eight-inch concrete block. R FactorThe rate at which insulation, building material or a building structure resists the passage of heat in any direction. Note: The U, K, and C Factors should be kept as low as possible and the R factor as high as possible. THREE PHASEThree separate sources of alternating current arranged so that the peaks of voltage follow each other in a regular repeating pattern. VOLTThe push that moves electrical current through a conductor. WATTThe rate of flow of electrical energy. One watt equals the flow of one ampere at a pressure of one volts. (Watts = Volts x Amperes).
* Graph instructions for Page 6:

91

Definitions

Note: To convert to watts/sq. ft. (W) W = U Factor x Temperature Difference 3.413

Useful Web Addresses


Georgia Power Company, A&E Site http://www.georgiapower.com/AandE Georgia Power http://www.georgiapower.com Southern Company http://www.southerncompany.com Georgia Public Service Commission http://www.psc.state.ga.us/ U.S. Green Building Council (LEED) http://www.usgbc.org/ U.S. Dept. of Energy (EREN) http://www.eren.doe.gov/ ASHRAE http://www.ashrae.org Illuminating Engineers Society http://www.iesna.org AIA, Georgia Chapter http://www.aiaga.org Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute http://www.ari.org American Council of Engineering Companies, Georgia http://www.acecga.org The Georgia Engineer http://www.thegeorgiaengineer.org
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Useful Web Addresses