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Exactly your chemistry.

Exactly your chemistry.


Contact Research & Development Clariant GmbH Division Functional Chemicals BU III Mining Chemicals D-65926 Frankfurt am Main Tel.: ++49 (69) 305 - 50 22/ 68 51 Fax: ++49 (69) 30 32 99 Marketing Clariant GmbH Division Functional Chemicals BU III Mining Chemicals Am Unisys-Park 1 D-65840 Sulzbach am Taunus Tel.: ++49 (6196) 757-78 49 Fax: ++49 (6196) 757-89 66 Internet www.clariant-surfactants.com Clariant (Australia) Pty. Ltd. Functional Chemicals Division / Mining 675-685 Warrigal Road Chadstone Vic 3148 Tel.: ++61 (3) 92 54 10 92 Fax: ++61 (3) 92 54 10 11 Clariant (Southern Africa) Pty Ltd. Functional Chemicals Division / Mining DURBAN 4001 South Africa Tel.: ++27 (31) 33 22 090 Fax: ++27 (31) 33 22 084 Clariant (Canada) Inc. Functional Chemicals Division / Mining 4600 rue Cousens St. Laurent. Quebec, Canada H4S 1X3 Tel.: ++1 (514) 832 25 51 Fax: ++1 (514) 334 62 32
EBR 5158 E 04.2000

Clariant (Brasil) S.A. Dept. Functional Chemicals / Mining Av. das Nacoes Unidas, 18.001 BR 04795-900 Sao Paulo, BRAZIL Tel.: ++55 (11) 525 -76 24 Fax: ++55 (11) 525 -76 94 Clariant Colorquimica (Chile) Ltda. Functional Chemicals Division / Mining Camino a Melipilla 15170 Maipu P.O. Box Casilla 9096 Correo 21 Santiago Santiago de Chile Tel.: ++56 (23) 73 41 50 Fax: ++56 (23) 73 41 20

Functional Chemicals Division

Mining Chemicals

254 Point Road

o Cmmserv, Frankfurt am Main

Product Information

Introduction................................................. 04

Table of Contents
Collectors.....................................................06 COLLECTORS FOR SULPHIDE AND METALLIC ORES Xanthates......................................................09 Aliphatic and Aromatic Dithiophosphates.........................................11 Mercaptobenzthiazole Formulations.........11 Thiocarbamic Acid Esters (Thio-or Thionocarbamates).......................11 Mercaptobenzthiazole.................................11 Polypropylene Glycol...................................17 COLLECTORS FOR NON-SULPHIDE AND NON-METALLIC ORES Fatty Acids....................................................13 Sodium Alkylsulphate..................................13 Mono/Di Phosphoric Acid Esters...............13 Alkyl Polypropylene Glycol Ether...................................................19 Alkyl Polyglycol Ether Formulations.......................................19 Aliphatic Alcohols........................................19 Alicyclic Alcohols/ OTHER COLLECTORS FOR NON-METALLIC ORES Products and Brands...................................13 Pine Oils........................................................19 Extractants and Other Specialities........................................22 Tertiary Amines for Solvent Extraction after Leaching............................ 23 Sulpho Succinic Acid Ester/ CATIONIC COLLECTORS/AMINES Primary Amines............................................15 Fatty Alkyl Propylene Diamines..................15 Alkyl Ether Propylene Amine......................15 Alkyl Ether Propylene Diamine...................15 Quaternary Ammonium Chloride................15 Imidazolines..................................................15 Filter Aid......................................................... 23 Anticaking and Antidusting Reagents for Fertilizer and Potassium Salts............................................23 Depressants and Dispersants...........................................20 Frothers........................................................ 16 International Dictionary for the Mineral Processing Engineer................................... 25 How to calculate the flotation results..................................... 31 Mining Chemicals Products, Brands and Applications in Overview...................................................32 Appendix...................................................... 24

NON-IONIC COLLECTORS AND EMULSIFIERS Alkyl Phenol Polyglycol Ether.....................15 Fatty Acid Polyglycol Esters.......................15

02 -15

16 - 19

20 -23

24 -35

CLARIANT MINING ACTIVITIES

is backed up by technical service and expertise. Clariant offers a virtually com-

be contacted either for information on these products or indeed for general inquiries regarding any flotation problem. A great number of products can also be manufactured with a variety of chain lengths and chemical constitutions. Product leaflets, safety data sheets and process descriptions are available on request. Centers of competence for Clariant Mining Chemicals are Germany, Brazil, Chile and Australia. In addition, Clariant representatives can be contacted worldwide in more than 60 countries.

minerals which can be treated with an equally wide range of reagents. In the flotation process, mineral selectivity can be achieved by the addition of various chemicals which control the wettability of a particular mineral in the flotation pulp. These chemicals can be broadly classified into a few basic categories, namely collectors, frothers, depressants, activators and modifiers. In addition to flotation, the leaching process followed by liquid-liquid extraction is gaining importance.

bubble. The hydrophobic tail is usually a hydrocarbon. Collectors can be divided into a number of varieties based on the functional group involved and on the type of mineral collected.

can be used to depress talcous and other siliceous minerals.

Our mining department has helped to pioneer flotation reagents, which have featured in the company's sales range for more than 60 years. Oils of varying and generally unknown composition which were used in the early stages of industrial flotation were gradually replaced by chemicals with defined composition and properties acting as collectors. We delivered the first of these substances !-naphthylamine followed by the so-called XY (!-naphthylamine and xylidene) and TT mixtures (!-naphthylamine and toluidine) all historic products which are long since forgotten. In 1926 we started the manufacturing of xanthates on a large scale. This was closely followed by the production of aromatic dithiophosphoric acid esters. Over the years we have added a considerable range of other chemicals to this list. Flotation remains the accepted process for separating fine particles. Clariant provides an excellent quality of product which

plete range of collectors, frothers and modifying agents for all flotation operations and assists in solving problems in ore and industrial mineral dressing and coal preparation. For special flotation problems, Clariant is constantly developing new reagents which are available for test work in laboratories, pilot plants and full scale operation. In addition to the products available for general flotation applications, Clariant is also active in developing reagents i.e. for leaching of ores, recycling or cleaning of waste-ground material, waste water, plastics and others. This brochure is intended to give you an overview of the Clariant range of products that can be used to separate most minerals in any flotation process. Specific problems may require individual solutions. Clariant technical staff should

Activators and Modifiers Activators are essentially inorganic compounds which enhance collector attach-

Frothers Frothers are surface active chemicals whose function is to provide a large air-water interface of sufficient stability to ensure removal of the hydrophobic particles from the flotation pulp. Unlike collectors, it is difficult to associate a certain type of frother with any particular mineral system.

ment to the valuable mineral, which would not take place effectively without their presence. The best example of this is the activation of sphalerite by copper sulphate and the sulphidization of oxidic ores. Modifiers are used to modulate the flotation environment, principally the pH value. In general, consumption of these reagents such as lime can be a reasonable cost factor related to the chemicals which are used in a flotation process.

Collectors MINERAL SEPARATION AND FLOTATION Collectors are the reagents that render mainly the valuable minerals hydrophobic. Mineral separation may be effected by a number of different processes such as electrostatic or magnetic separation, heavy media etc. In order to separate finely disseminated ores, froth flotation provides the only economically viable process treatment route. The other processes are either applicable to particular minerals or restricted to a number of mineral combinations. Flotation can utilize a wide range In cases of reverse flotation the waste minerals are rendered hydrophobic. Collectors are surface active organic chemicals that adsorb at the surface of the mineral. They comprise a polar functional group, hydrophilic in nature, through which they become attached to the mineral, and a nonpolar group, which is hydrophobic, through which they become attached to an air

Frothers can also be classified into groups depending upon their molecular type.

Depressants Depressants can be organic or inorganic substances which can prevent the adsorption of the collector onto the mineral surface or prevent attachment of the air bubbles to a mineral surface. Examples of these reagents are cyanide salts, sodium sulphide/hydrosulphide and sulphites which depress sulphides. Waterglass and polysaccharides such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose and natural gums Extractants After the leaching of ores, metal ions in aqueous solution can be accumulated in an organic phase by using an extractant. The metals are obtained from the organic phase by stripping and precipitation.

Introduction

of surface chemical differences among

Contact Research & Development Clariant GmbH Division Functional Chemicals BU III Mining Chemicals D-65926 Frankfurt am Main Tel.: ++49 (69) 305 - 50 22/ 68 51 Fax: ++49 (69) 30 32 99 Marketing Clariant GmbH Division Functional Chemicals BU III Mining Chemicals Am Unisys-Park 1 D-65840 Sulzbach am Taunus Tel.: ++49 (6196) 757-78 49 Fax: ++49 (6196) 757-89 66 Internet

Clariant (Brasil) S.A. Dept. Functional Chemicals / Mining Av. das Nacoes Unidas, 18.001 BR 04795-900 Sao Paulo, BRAZIL Tel.: ++55 (11) 525 -76 24 Fax: ++55 (11) 525 -76 94 Clariant Colorquimica (Chile) Ltda. Functional Chemicals Division / Mining Camino a Melipilla 15170 Maipu P.O. Box Casilla 9096 Correo 21 Santiago Santiago de Chile Tel.: ++56 (23) 73 41 50 Fax: ++56 (23) 73 41 20 Clariant (Australia) Pty. Ltd. Functional Chemicals Division / Mining 675-685 Warrigal Road Chadstone Vic 3148 Tel.: ++61 (3) 92 54 10 92 Fax: ++61 (3) 92 54 10 11

Clariant (Southern Africa) Pty Ltd. Functional Chemicals Division / Mining 254 Point Road DURBAN 4001 South Africa Tel.: ++27 (31) 33 22 090 Fax: ++27 (31) 33 22 084 Clariant (Canada) Inc. Functional Chemicals Division / Mining 4600 rue Cousens St. Laurent. Quebec, Canada H4S 1X3 Tel.: ++1 (514) 832 25 51 Fax: ++1 (514) 334 62 32

04 05

www.clariant-surfactants.com

P Y R I T E - C O P P E R

O R E

Collectors

06 07

Collectors for Sulphide and Metallic Ores


These collectors are used almost exclusively for the flotation of sulphide minerals, sulphidized oxide minerals and precious metals. They are characterised by the functional -SH group bonded to a carbon or phosphorus atom. The nonpolar radicals of these collectors are generally short chain aliphatic hydrocarbons. The wide range of collectors for sulphide and metallic ores consists of high quality xanthates and dithiophosphates. Application Xanthates are used for the flotation of sulphide and sulphidized oxide ores (sulphidizer: sodium sulphide Na2S or hydrosulphide NaHS). The activity of the xanthates increases with increasing chain length of the alkyl group R; the selectivity decreases in accordance with increased chain length. Xanthates are often used in combination with other reagents such
87

XANTHATES Product name Xanthate

S
Chemical formula Me is either Na or K
+ + +

ROC S-Me+

as dithiophosphates or thiocarbamates, often added to the scavenger circuit to improve the total recovery. They are normally used in aqueous solutions.
67 62 % %

80

le ang ] tact Con lena [ a g on

74

Xanthates undergo hydrolysis in the acid pH range, and are therefore preferred for flotation in alkaline pulp streams. The flotation results can be improved by simultaneous use of xanthates together with dithiophosphates (see page 10/11).

68

56

60

37 %

st n te ena l atio Flot pure ga thate, h a t X n %] wi t / g 10 y [ and recover lead

50

23

% am he yl -x an th xy at l-x

Xanthates are available as powder or in


bu op yl -x an ty an

10

pellet form and with an active matter


th at e

% et me th yl -x hy l-x

pr an

l-x

an

content of 90% (SIPX and SIBX with 90% and 84% active matter). Range of products

th

an

th

th

at

th

at

at

at

I PEX I SEX I SIPX I SIBX I PAX

Potassium ethyl xanthate Sodium ethyl xanthate Sodium isopropyl xanthate Sodium isobutyl xanthate Potassium amyl xanthate Potassium hexyl xanthate

C O R R E L AT I O N O F A Q U E O U S

O F

R E C O V E R Y

A N D

C O N TA C T O N

A N G L E G A L E N A

I PHX

X A N T H AT E

S O L U T I O N S

E . G .

P U R E

08 09

ALIPHATIC AND AROMATIC DITHIOPHOSPHATES Brands


The simultaneous use of xanthates and dithiophosphates for the flotation of copper/zinc ores leads to synergistic effects: The copper recovery and the zinc recovery in the copper concentrates are significantly improved.

Range of products

as of native noble metals such as Cu, Dithiophosphoric acid diethylester Bi, Ag, Au, and platinum group metals. It is used especially in the flotation of auriferous pyrite, pentlandite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite in acid circuits (pH 4-5). The product is also recommended to float partially oxidised sulphides of lead and copper. The addition of frothers is required.

I Hostaflot LET I Hostaflot LIP I Hostaflot LSB

Hostaflot

L grades (dialkyl derivatives) grades (diaryl derivatives)

Dithiophosphoric acid diisopropyl ester Dithiophosphoric acid disecondary butyl ester

Phosokresol

Chemical formula Me means Na or K


+ + +

R1 O P R2 O

S S-Me+

I Hostaflot LIB I Hostaflot LAM

Dithiophosphoric acid diisobutyl ester Dithiophosphoric acid diamyl ester THIOCARBAMIC ACID ESTERS (THIO- OR THIONOCARBAMATES) Brands Hostaflot X-23 and Hostaflot X-231

Application Dithiophosphates are, like xanthates, gen0% at 2 per very he cop eco t Cu r ade in of ]. r % [ g tes Cu rate age ra hatecen con ant dos ophosp hi st Con ate/dit th xan res. u t mix very r eco Zn r coppe e [%] h in t ntrate 57 e c % n co

erally used in the flotation of sulphide ores or sulphidized oxide minerals. In combination with xanthates, dithiophosphates can provide remarkable advantages in grade and recovery of the concentrates. As with xanthates, increasing chain length of the radical R will increase

89

91 .7

.6

87 %

.8

% 90

82

74

.3

66

.4

% .8 %

I Phosokresol B Aromatic dithiophosphoric acid diester (100% free acid ester)

66

Chemical formula R1 = ethyl R2 = isopropyl

R1 N-C H

S OR2

.4

% 65 65 53 48 40 .9 .5 % %

I Phosokresol F

Aromatic dithiophosphoric acid diester (50% acid ester NH4 salt as aqueous solution)
+

N-ethyl-O-isopropyl thiocarbamate

.8

% 39 % 0. 0.

the activity of the Hostaflot L types whilst decreasing selectivity. An advantage


00

Application These reagents are oily collectors. Hostaflot X-23 is not soluble in water. Hostaflot X-231 is a water-emulsifiable formulation of Hostaflot X-23. Both types are selective collectors for copper sulphide, metallic copper or copper-activated zinc over pyrite. Hostaflot X types are generally used in combination with xanthates or dithiophosphates. The thiocarbamates are stable in acid solutions and are used in

% 20

of dithiophosphates in comparison to
Xan te tha

The liquid products are generally available as 50% active products; however, some can be offered as 70% active formulations. Dithiophosphates do not develop a lot of froth, and require the use of a conventional frother. When high dosages of dithiophosphates are required, froth development will be improved by using the frother
Flotanol

22

% 0. 1.
ate/

0. 0. 80 60

xanthates is their application in acid pH ranges. Their stability is much higher, particularly in the region of pH 4. In the flotation of noble metals the shorterchained compounds are preferred. These are generally more selective than xanthates in preventing the flotation of iron sulphides. For the flotation of free gold the short chained ethyl, isopropyl or even secondary butyl dithiophosphates may be used alone or in combination with each other.

40

00

h osp ioph io e dith ate rat hat th osp xan oph i h t di

C-7.

MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE (MBT) FORMULATIONS Brand Hostaflot M-91

a broad pH range. Hostaflot X-23/X-231 do not develop a lot of froth and require the use of a conventional frother. Suitable frothers are our Flotol and Flotanol grades.

T H E O F

S I M U LTA N E O U S A N D

U S E

One additional application for Hostaflot L types is the use in the precipitation of cadmium from hot concentrated phosphoric acid solutions. The aromatic Phosokresol grades are preferably applied in the flotation of lead minerals, which often contain silver.

X A N T H AT E S

D I T H I O P H O S P H AT E S

Chemical formula Blend of MBT with dithiophosphate

Thiocarbamates with other alkyl groups

S N

C-S-Me+

R1 and R2 are available upon request.

Application Hostaflot M-91 is a very vigorous all-round collector for all sulphide minerals of Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Bi, Sb, As, Ni, Co, Mo, Fe as well

10 11

Collectors for Non-Sulphide and Non-Metallic Ores


These collectors are non-thio compounds, the functional group is the hydroxy group (-OH) which becomes anionic by dissociation. They are used to collect a wide range of oxides, silicates and other minerals, being adsorbed to their surface by chemical reaction. These collectors are strong surface active agents and tend to exhibit strong frothing properties. The most effective and efficient allround collectors with universal application are fatty acids of which there are a large variety of products available. The most notable are oleic acid and tall oil fatty acid. The anionic collectors are listed under the trade name Flotinor.

FATTY ACIDS Brand Flotinor FS-2

SODIUM ALKYLSULPHATE Brand Flotinor S-72

Application Flotinor SM-15 is used primarily for the flotation of iron and titanium containing

O
Chemical formula

O
Chemical formula

heavy minerals and biotite from glass sands. It is possible to use Flotinor SM-15 in combination with a fatty acid such as Flotinor FS-2. Other uses for this product group is the flotation of carbonates such as calcite, dolomite and magnesite when the gangue material is in the silicate form. Flotinor SM-15 may also be used in the reverse flotation of phosphorite in combination with a silicate collector such as fatty alkyl etherpropylene diamines. Other phosphoric acid esters of a variety of chain lengths and chemical constitution are available on request. It is

RC OH

RO S ONa O

Application Fatty acids are good all-round collectors for industrial minerals. They are very often used as co-collectors in heavy mineral and feldspar flotation, but also in the flotation of apatite. The fatty acids can be dosed as supplied or in their alkaline form as Na-salts in aqueous solution/dispersion. Often they are combined with nonionic emulsifiers. They tend not to be selective and are not used on difficult-to-float ores. Therefore more specific reagents are required.

Application Flotinor S-72 is especially recommended for the flotation of baryte when it is found together with fluorspar and calcite. Flotinor S-72 can also be used for the flotation of celestite, gypsum, kainite, anhydrite and anglesite. If especially necessary, a frother is used to assist flotation. Products such as Flotol B or Flotol 1638 are recommended.

MONO/DIPHOSPHORIC ACID ESTERS Brands Flotinor SM-15,


Hostaphat

possible to use blends of these products with other collectors such as fatty acids.

grades

Chemical formula

RO P HO

O
and

RO P RO

O OH

OH

R O U G H E R

F L O TAT I O N

O F

F L U O R S PA R

Other Collectors for Non-Metallic Ores


For ores which are difficult to float like apatite and fluorspar, Clariant has more sophisticated collectors in its range. These specialties are available in many variations depending on project.

Products (examples) and brands Sarcosides


Arkomon

Alkenyl succinic acid half ester Flotinor V 4085-1

Alkyl sulpho succinates

R1 ROOC CH2 CH COOH

Flotinor SM-35

SO3Na R CH2 CH COOH

SO

R C N (CH2 )X COOH O CH3

Alkyl sulpho succinamate Flotinor V 2875

SO3Na

CH2 CH R NH C COONa O

12 13

Cationic Collectors/Amines
Amines are considered as cationic collectors which will attach to all silicate mineral surfaces. They are therefore only rarely specific in their action and selectivity. For this reason they are often used in combination with modifiers and depressants. Both amines and amine derivatives can be provided with several chain lengths for solving specific flotation problems.

PRIMARY AMINES Brands


Flotigam, Genamin

It is used as an aqueous solution after neutralization with acetic or hydrochloric grades acid. Flotigam DAT and Flotigam V 4343 are amine salts and can be applied in aqueous

both collector and sulphidizer in staged additions. Ether diamines can also be used to remove silicates from phosphorite by reverse flotation. Several products with various chain lengths are available on request.

Chemical formula

R NH2
R = mainly C16/18

solutions without any treatment.

Application The most important area for primary amines is that of the flotation of potash (KCl) from brine solutions. Another application for these products is the flotation of mica in the alkaline pH range. Hoe F 3305, a short chain amine, is in use for the flotation of kaolinite (China clay). Short chain amines are liquid, whilst long chain amines are solid waxy products. The stearyl amine Flotigam S is also available as a powder. Primary amines are generally used after neutralization with acetic acid or hydrochloric acid as amine salts in aqueous solution.

ALKYL ETHER PROPYLENE AMINE Brand Flotigam EDA

QUATERNARY AMMONIUM CHLORIDE Brand Flotigam K2C

R1
Chemical formula

R O (CH2)3 NH2

Chemical formula

R2 N R4 R3

CI-

Application Ether amines are used in the reverse flotation of silica from iron ores. They are also applied to float muscovite in acid pH range. Flotigam EDA is neutralized with acetic acid. Therefore this liquid formulation is water soluble and can be used as supplied.

Application This reagent is used for the reverse flotation of silicates from calcite and for the flotation of wollastonite (calcium silicate). In many cases the activity of the product can be increased by using a frother, i.e. our Flotol grades. Flotigam K2C is a liquid water-soluble formulation.

ALKYL ETHER PROPYLENE DIAMINE Brands IMIDAZOLINES Brand Flotigam ITU Chemical formula

FATTY ALKYL PROPYLENE DIAMINES Brands Genamin TAP 100, Flotigam DAT and Flotigam V 4343

Flotigam V grades

N CH2 RC N CH2 CH2 CH2 NH2

R O (CH2)3 NH (CH2)3 NH2 R NH (CH2)3 NH2


R = mainly C16/18 Application Ether diamines are highly recommended for the flotation of the oxide ores of zinc, in particular calamine. These products are used once the zinc mineral has been sulphidized (Na2S). It is preferable to add

Chemical formula

Non-Ionic Collectors and Emulsifiers


In the early days of flotation, the basic chemicals in use were nonionic, nonpolar crude oils. They were effective but unselective collectors. They are still applied today, often combined with a nonionic emulsifier in the flotation of easy-tofloat minerals, e.g. coal and sulphur. These surfactants are capable of acting as both a dispersant for fine particles and as an emulsifier. The emulsifying properties can be utilized for a better dispersion of the water-insoluble collectors (e.g. fatty acids etc.) in the pulp.

Chemical formula

Application This product has found application in the flotation of pyrochlore. It also is a collector in the reverse flotation of silicates from calcite when the calcite is used as a filler in the plastic industry.

Application Alkyl propylene diamines are used in the flotation of feldspar and pyrochlore. Genamin TAP 100 is a solid waxy product.

ALKYL PHENOL POLYGLYCOL ETHER Brands


Arkopal

Application This group of products has been used as

Chemical formula

O O (CH2 CH2 O)n H

RC

grades

dispersants in the flotation of fluorspar, magnesite and phosphates together with a Application

Chemical formula

suitable collector, such as with succinic

Genagen grades act as dispersants for fine slimes and promote the activity of the collector. For example they are used as

O (CH2 CH2 O)n H

acid esters or fatty acids.

FATTY ACID POLYGLYCOL ESTERS Brands


Genagen

co-collectors in the flotation of pyrochlore and fluorspar with alkyl ether diamines.

grades

14 15

Frothers
These reagents are surface-active chemicals, capable of being adsorbed on the air-water interface. Frothers are generally
B U B B L E S I N G A L E N A F L O TAT I O N

POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL Brand Flotanol C-7

hetero-polar substances. They consist of a nonionic polar group exhibiting a hydrophilic nature coupled with a nonpolar hydrophobic alkyl group, the tendency being to force the latter into the air phase. Collectors for non-metallic ores, as well as amines, usually generate sufficient froth, which in most cases render the use of frothers unnecessary. When using sulphide collectors, the addition of a frother is necessary, for yielding sufficient frothing properties. There are three main chemical groups of frothers: polypropylene glycol ethers, polypropylene glycols and alcohols. Clariant has an extensive range of these frothers. Application Flotanol C-7 has outstanding properties for coarse particle flotation. The polyglycol frothers tend to form fine froths that are quite selective. However, due to their high activity, overdosing must be avoided as froth persistency can be a problem. This frother is especially useful when processing streams (flotation pulps) have high salt or electrolytic content. This is an application where many other frother types fail. Polypropylene glycol is ideal when collectors such as xanthic acid esters or mercaptans are used, as these collectors tend to hinder froth development. Chemical formula

H O CH2 CH O (CH2 CH O)n H CH3 CH3

16 17

ALKYL POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL ETHER Brands Flotanol D grades, Flotanol F


Frothers Flotanol C-7 Flotol B Flotol 1638 Flotanol D-16 Flotanol H-54 Frothing activity decreases Flotanol H-53 Flotanol F Flotanol D-14 Montanol 531 Flotanol D-13 Montanol 551 Montanol 505 Montanol 200 Montanol 800 Flotanol M Coal Graphite Sulphide ores Nonsulphide ores

Due to its more limited solubility in water, these products require slightly longer conditioning times. Flotanol H 54 is a relatively strong frother that produces a

Chemical formula

CH3 CH CH2 CH CH3 OH


Application This frother produces fine-textured fairly selective froth that is brittle and not very persistent. It has limited solubility in water but is easily dispersed and can also be pre-blended with collectors. MIBC

CH3

Methyl isobutyl carbinol

Chemical formula

somewhat more stable (stiffer) froth than its more water-soluble counterparts. As a special service, Clariant offers on-site optimization of frother systems to improve cost performance.

R O (CH2 CH O)n H CH3


R = methyl or cyclohexyl

Application Flotanol D grades are methyl ethers of polypropylene glycols. They are available in a range of different molecular weights and are soluble or readily dispersible in the aqueous phase. They are used over a wide pH range, principally for the flotation of sulphide minerals, e.g. copper, lead, zinc and iron sulphides etc. Flotanol F is used in the flotation of potash (KCl). In strongly electrolytic salt flotation pulps, this reagent exhibits Application Montanol grades are suitable for nearly all types of froth flotation. The principal areas for Montanol frothers are: Chemical formula Blends of alcohols, ethers, esters, acetals etc. ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS Brands
Montanol

is probably the most common frother in use today as it is suitable for a large range

grades

of mineral types, mainly sulphide ores.

ALICYCLIC ALCOHOLS/PINE OILS Brands Flotol B, Flotol 1638

CH3

Chemical formula

CH3 C OH CH3

Application

F R O T H E R S A S A

F R O T H I N G

A C T I V I T Y

A N D

T Y P I C A L O F F E R S

F I E L D S O N - S I T E

O F

A P P L I C AT I O N .

strong frothing characteristics and has good carrier capacity for the coarse particles.

The active frothing ingredient of pine oils is terpene alcohol, typically !-terpineol, which is present in varying degrees in the products offered. Flotol B represents the highest quality of pine oil containing over 90% terpene alcohol; Flotol 1638 contains slightly less, around 85%. The pine oils are relatively strong but unselective frothers. These products exhibit a relatively tenacious and persistent froth, which however collapses easily in the launders or pump sumps. The Flotol series are primarily used for the flotation of graphite, sulfur or other similar easyto-float minerals but may also be used for feldspar, galena, sphalerite and potassium salts.

S P E C I A L O F

S E R V I C E ,

C L A R I A N T T O

O P T I M I Z AT I O N

I Montanol 88 was specifically developed


for flotation of graphite and talc.

F R O T H E R

S Y S T E M S

I M P R O V E

C O S T

P E R F O R M A N C E .

I Montanol 200 has shown outstanding


ALKYL POLYGLYCOL ETHER FORMULATIONS Brands Flotanol H-54, Flotanol H-53 tailor-made blends with alcohols results on the flotation of aged coal reclaimed from old tailing ponds and coal dumps. Montanol 200 has been developed especially for the usage in pneumatic flotation cells.

I Montanol 531 and 551 are proven


Application The main application of these blends is the flotation of base metals and copper ores. This does not preclude them from being used with anionic or cationic collectors. products for coal floation. They have been applied for many years in European coal processing plants.

I Montanol 800 may be used in the flotation


of easy-to-float minerals such as talc, graphite and coal, but has also found some use in the flotation of copper sulphides and apatite.

Brand Flotanol M (MIBC)

18 19

Depressants and Dispersants


Brands
Tylose

Brand grades
Dispersogen

D E P E N D A B L E

D O S A G E

O F

R E A G E N T S

W I T H

C U P

F E E D E R

Chemical formula

Chemical formula Anionic condensation product

H C H O C H H C OH

OH C H H C OH O n
Application Depressant for carbonates in the flotation of oxide minerals such as phosphates. Dispersogen A has also found some application as a depressant for graphite or carbonaceous shales, as well as in flotation of sulphide minerals in salt water with large mineral surfaces.

CH2OCH2COONa
Carboxymethyl cellulose ethers (CMC)

Application Carboxymethyl cellulose ethers (CMC) have been widely used in mineral processing as a depressant for talc or other magnesium silicates, especially in copper/ nickel mines. Clariant has a large range of CMC's suitable for the depression of naturally floating minerals.

20 21

Extractants and Other Specialties


TERTIARY AMINES FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION AFTER LEACHING The solvent extraction process is based on amines whose salts can enter into an ionexchange reaction with those metals that are present in the form of anionic compleV A C U U M R E D U C E D R U M T H E F I LT E R C L A R I A N T R E M A I N I N G F I LT E R I N T H E A I D S H E L P T O

SULPHO SUCCINIC ACID ESTER/ FILTER AID


Filter

Aid B-70 is a strongly surface-active

agent used to reduce the moisture content of filter cake of mineral substances. It acts by greatly lowering the surface tension of water, thus enabling the firmly bound capillary water to drain away.

xes. Examples of anionic metal complexes are molybdates MoO4 , wolframates/ tungstenates WO4 , vanadates VO3 and chromates Cr2O7 . Brands
Hostarex
2 2 2

M O I S T U R E

F I LT E R

C A K E

ANTICAKING AND ANTIDUSTING REAGENTS FOR FERTILIZER

A 324 and Hostarex A 327

AND POTASSIUM SALTS For this application, Clariant has a full range

Chemical formula R = isooctyl (A 324) or R = n-octyl/n-decyl (A327)

R RNR

of Flotigam and Genamin types which are not covered in this brochure. Please refer to our technical bulletin Fertilizer finishing with anticaking agents for more

Application Hostarex A 324 can be used to separate cobalt and nickel. Hostarex A 327 is used extensively in the uranium processing industry. It can also be used for the extraction of W, Mo and Re.

information.

22 23

International Dictionary for the Mineral Processing Engineer


The following dictionary is compiled from terms that appear most commonly in mill flowsheets and in international literature on milling. It consists of a selection of useful words and terms rather than a comprehensive collection of all the elements, minerals, equipment and processes that might be included.

COMMON MINERALS / MINERALES USUALES / MINERAIS COURANTS / GEBRUCHLICHE MINERALE English


A actinolite amphibole andesite anorthite apatite argentite arsenopyrite autunite azurite TA I L I N G S U S E D T O D U M P F R O M T H E P O TA S H F R O M F L O TAT I O N H A L I T E F L O T I G A M K A L I T Y P E S A R E B barite bauxite bentonite beryl biotite borax bornite C calamine calcite carnotite cassiterite cerussite chalcedony chalcosite chalcopyrite chert chromite chrysocolla cinnabar clays cobaltite colemanite covellite cuprite D diopside dolomite E enargite epidote F feldspar fluorite G galena garnierite granite gypsum H halite hematite hornblende I ilmenite

Spanish
actinolita anfbol andesita anortita apatita argentita arsenopirita autunita azurita barita bauxita bentonita berilio biotita brax bornita calamina calcita carnotita casiterita cerusita calcedonio calcosita calcopirita pedernal, slex cromita crisocola cinabrio arcillas cobaltina colemanita covellina cuprita dipsida dolomita enargita epidota feldespato fluorita galena garnierita granito yeso halita hematita hornblenda ilmenita

French
actinolite amphibole andsite anorthite apatite argentite arsnopyrite autunite azurite barytine bauxite bentonite bryl biotite borax bornite calamine calcite carnotite cassitrite crusite calcdoine chalcosite chalcopyrite chert chromite chrysocole cinabre argiles cobaltine colmanite covelline cuprite diopside dolomite nargite pidote feldspath fluorine galne garnirite granite gypse halite hmatite hornblende ilmnite

German
Strahlstein Amphibol Andesit Anorthit Apatit Silberglanz Arsenkies Autunit Azurit Schwerspat Bauxit Bentonit Beryll Biotit Borax Buntkupfererz Galmei Kalkspat Carnotit Zinnstein Cerussit Chalcedon Chalcosit Kupferkies Hornstein Chromit Chrysokoll Zinnober Ton Glanzkobalt Colemanit Covellin Rotkupfererz Diopsid Dolomit Enargit Epidot Feldspat Flusspat Bleiglanz Garnierit Granit Gips Halit Hmatit Hornblende Ilmenit

English
K kainite L limonite M magnesite magnetite malachite marcasite mica molybdenite monzonite monazite O olivine orpiment orthoclase P pyrite pyrolusite pyrrhotite Q quartz R realgar rhodochrosite rhodenite S scheelite serpentine shale siderite sphalerite stibnite sulphur sylvanite

Spanish
cainita limonita magnesita magnetita malaquita marcasita mica molibdenita monzonita monacita olivino oropimente feldespato potsico pirita de hierro pirolusita pirrotina, pirrotita cuarzo rejalgar rodocrosita rodonita scheelita serpentina pizarra espato de hierro, siderita esfalerita, blenda antimonita, estibina azufre teluro grfico, silvanita esteatita, jaboncillo tetraedrita turmalina tremolita wolframita ceolita circonio

French
kanite limonite magnsite magntite malachite marcasite mica molybdnite monzonite monacite olivine orpiment orthose pyrite de fer pyrolusite pyrrhotine quartz ralgar dialogite rhodonite scheelite serpentine schiste argileux sidrose sphalrite, blende stibine soufre sylvanite

German
Kainit Brauneisenerz Magnesit Magneteisenerz Malachit Markasit Glimmer Molybdnglanz Monzonit Monazit Olivin Rauschgelb Kalifeldspat Schwefelkies Pyrolusit Magnetkies Quarz Rauschrot Manganspat Rhodonit Scheelit Serpentin Tonschiefer Spateisenstein Zinkblende Grauspiessglanz Schwefel Schrifttellur

S E PA R AT E

P O TA S H

( P H O T O :

U N D

S A L Z )

Appendix

T talc tetrahedrite tourmaline tremolite W wolframite Z zeolite zircon

talc panabase tourmaline trmolite wolframite zolite zircon

Speckstein Tetraedrit Turmalin Tremolit Wolframit Zeolith Zirkon

24 25

THE ELEMENTS / LOS ELEMENTOS / LES ELEMENTS / DIE ELEMENTE English


A actinium, Ac aluminium, Al antimony, Sb arsenic, As B barium, Ba beryllium, Be bismuth, Bi boron, B C cadmium, Cd. calcium, Ca cerium, Ce cesium, Cs chromium, Cr cobalt, Co columbium, Cb copper, Cu D dysprosium, Dy E erbium, Er europium, Eu F francium, Fr G gadolinium, Gd gallium, Ga germanium, Ge gold, Au H hafnium, Hf holmium, Ho I indium, In iridium, Ir iron, Fe L lanthanum, La lead, Pb lithium, Li lutetium, Lu M magnesium, Mg manganese, Mn mercury, Hg molybdenum, Mo

BENEFICIATION EQUIPMENT / APARATOS DE TRATAMIENTO / APPAREILS DE TRAITEMENT / AUFBEREITUNGSMASCHINEN English


N neodymium, Nd neptunium, Np nickel, Ni O osmium, Os

Spanish
actinio aluminio antimonio arsenico bario berilio bismuto boro cadmio calcio cerio cesio cromo cobalto columbio cobre disprosio erbio europio francio gadolinio galio germanio oro hafnio holmio indio iridio hierro lantano plomo litio lutecio magnesio manganeso mercurio molibdeno

French
actinium aluminium antimoine arsenic baryum bryllium bismuth bore cadmium calcium crium csium chrome cobalt columbium, niobium cuivre dysprosium erbium europium francium gadolinium gallium germanium or hafnium holmium indium iridium fer lanthane plomb lithium luttium magnsium manganse mercure molybdne

German
Aktinium Aluminium Antimon Arsen Barium Beryllium Wismut Bor Kadmium Kalzium Cerit Zsium Chrom Kobalt Niob Kupfer Dysprosium Erbium Europium Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Holmium Indium Iridium Eisen Lanthan Blei Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Mangan Quecksilber Molybdn

Spanish
neodimio neptunio niquel osmio paladio platino plutonio polonio potasio praseodimino prometio protactinio radio renio rodio rubidio rutenio samario escandio selenio silicio plata sodio estroncio azufre tntalo tecnecio telurio terbio talio torio tulio estao titanio wolframio, tungsteno uranio vanadio iterbio itrio cinc circonio

French
nodyme neptunium nickel osmium palladium platine plutonium polonium potassium prasodyme promthium protactinium radium rhnium rhodium rubidium ruthnium samarium scandium slnium silicium argent sodium strontium soufre tantale techntium tellurium terbium thallium thorium thulium tain titane tungstne uranium vanadium ytterbium yttrium zinc zirconium

German
Neodym Neptunium Nickel Osmium Palladium Platin Plutonium Polonium Kalium Praseodym Promethium Protaktinium Radium Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Skandium Selen Silizium Silber Natrium Strontium Schwefel Tantal Technetium Tellur Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Zinn Titan Wolfram Uran Vanadium Ytterbium Yttrium Zink Zirkonium

English
A agitator amalgamation autoclave B balling drum bin bin, circular bin, coarse-ore bin, fine-ore

Spanish
agitador amalgamacin autoclave tambor para formacin de bolas tolva tolva circular tolva para mineral grueso tolva para mineral fino clula acabadora clula desbastadora clula apuradora circuito tanque de clarificacin clasificador clasificadora de vasija clasificador conico clasificador hidraulico clasificadora de rastrillos clasificadora espiral relacin de concentracion tanque para acondicionar pulpa transportador de cinta transportador de cangilones transportador de banda articulada transportador de tornillo sin fin transportador de cinta con descargador automatico trituradora trituradora de conos trituradora de discos trituradora giratoria trituradora de mandbulas trituradora primaria trituradora secundaria trituracin cristalizador cianuracin cicln elutriar secador rotativo desecacion elevador de cangilones alimentador alimentador de banda alimentador de placa oscilante alimentador rotativo alimentador de rosca alimentador sacudidor filtro filtro de discos filtro de tambor filtro de presin flotacin

French
agitateur amalgamation autoclave tambour pour fabriquer boulets poche poche circulaire poche minerai gros poche minerai fin

German
Rhrwerk Amalgamierung Autoklav Pelletiertrommel Bunker kreisfrmiger Bunker Bunker fr Groberz Bunker fr Feinerz

English
flotation machine flotation machine, mechanical flotation machine, pneumatic flowsheet, plant

Spanish
aparato de flotacin aparato de flotacin mecanico aparato neumtico de flotacin diagrama de la planta molienda criba criba de barras criba de cadena criba sacudidora hidroseparador hidrocalibrador criba pulsante criba hidraulica criba mecanica

French
appareil de flottation appareil de flottation mcanique appareil de flottation pneumatique diagramme du site

German
Flotationsmaschine RhrwerksFlotationsmaschine pneumatische Flotationsmaschine Anlagenstammbaum

P palladium, Pd platinum, Pt plutonium, Pu polonium, Po potassium, K praseodymium, Pr promethium, Pm protactinium, Pa R radium, Ra rhenium, Re rhodium, Rh rubidium, Rb ruthenium, Ru S samarium, Sm scandium, Sc selenium, Se silicon, Si silver, Ag sodium, Na strontium, Sr sulphur, S T tantalum, Ta technetium, Tc tellurium, Te terbium, Tb thallium, Tl thorium, Th thulium, Tm tin, Sn titanium, Ti tungsten, W U uranium, U V vanadium, V Y ytterbium, Yb yttrium, Y Z zinc, Zn zirconium, Zr

G grinding grizzly grizzly, bar grizzly, chain grizzly, shaking H hydroseparator hydrosizer J jig jig, hydraulic jig, mechanical

pulvrisation grille grille barres grille chane grille secousses hydrosparateur hydrocalibrateur crible secousses crible hydraulique crible mcanique

Mahlung Rost Stangenrost Kettenrost Schttelrost Hydroseparator Hydroklassierer Setzmaschine hydraulische Setzmaschine mechanische Setzmaschine Laugungstank

C cell, cleaner cell, rougher cell, scavenger circuit clarifier classifier classifier, bowl classifier, cone classifier, hydraulic classifier, rake classifier, spiral concentration, ratio of conditioner conveyor, belt conveyor, bucket conveyor, pan conveyor, screw conveyor, tripper

cellule finisseuse dgrossisseuse cellule balayeur circuit bassin de clarification appareil de classement appareil de classement coupe appareil de classement conique appareil de classement hydraulique appareil de classement racle appareil de classement hlicodal relation de concentration bassin pour conditionner pulpe transport bande transporteur godets transporteur bande articule transporteur vis transporteur dchargeur automatique concasseur concasseur cne concasseur plateau concasseur giratoire concasseur machoires concasseur primaire concasseur secondaire broyage cristallisateur cyanuration cyclone dschlammer scheur rotatif schage lvateur godets

Reinigerflotationszelle Hauptflotationszelle Kontrollflotationszelle Kreislauf Klranlage Klassierer Schsselklassierer konischer Klassierer Wasserstromklassierer Rechenklassierer Spiralklassierer Konzentrationsvergleich Konditioniertank Frderband Becherfrderer Gliedertransportband Schneckenfrderer Frderband mit automatischen Auslader Brecher Kegelbrecher Tellerbrecher Kreiselbrecher Backenbrecher primr Brecher sekundr Brecher Zerkleinerung Kristallisierer Cyanlaugung Zyklon Entschlmmung Drehtrockner Trocknung Becherwerk

L leach tank

tanque para lixivacin separador magnetico malla molino molino tipo Aerofall molino de bolas molino cnico de bolas trituradora de martillos molino de rodillos molino de tubos controlador de pH maquina para producir bolas precipitacin precipitador bomba centrifuga bomba de diafragma bomba de arena purificacin repulpador calcinacin cilindros de trituradora sacador de muestras criba secudidora criba vibratoria separacin electrostatica separacin magnetica proceso de flotacin y sedimentacin aglutinacin espiral de concentracin mesa de concentracin concentracin en mesas espesador criba giratoria vanner

tank pour lixivation

M magnetic separator mesh mill mill, Aerofall mill, ball mill, concal ball mill, hammer mill, rod mill, tube P pH controller pelletizing machine precipitation precipitation tank pump, centrifugal pump, diaphragm pump, sand purification R repulper roasting rolls

sparateur magntique maille moulin moulin type Aerofall moulin boulets moulin conique boulets moulin marteaux moulin barres moulin tube appareil pour contrle pH appareil fabriquer boulets prcipitation prcipiteur pompe centrifuge pompe diaphragme pompe sable purification repulpeteur calcination cylindres broyeurs

Magnetscheider Masche Mhle Aerofallmhle Kugelmhle konische Kugelmhle Hammermhle Stabmhle Rohrmhle pH Megert Pelletiermaschine Niederschlag Ausfellungstank Kreiselpumpe Membranpumpe Sandpumpe Reinigung Anrhrgef Abrstung Brechwalzen

crusher crusher, cone crusher, disk crusher, gyratory crusher, jaw crusher, primary crusher, secondary

TECHNICAL TERMS / DENOMINACION DE LOS PRODUCTOS / NOMS DES PRODUITS / PRODUKTBEZEICHNUNGEN English
C calcine collector concentrate cyanide D depressant dust E effluent F filter cake filtrate frother M middling mine-run ore O overflow oversize P pulp density R reagents residue

Spanish
calcina colector concentrado cianuro depresor polvo efluente torta de filtro filtrado reactivo espumante mixto mineral todo uno desbordamiento sobretamao densidad de pulpa reactivos residuo

French
calcine ractif collecteur minerai concentr cyanure ractif dprimeur poussire effluent gteau de filtre filtrat ractif moussant mixtes minerai tout-venant dbordement refus densit de pulpe ractifs rsidu

German
Rostgut Sammler Konzentrat Cyanid Niederdrcker Staub Abfluss

English
S sample sand slime slurry solution solution, barren solution, pregnant

Spanish
muestra arena lodo lodo solucin solucin estril solucin llena

French
chantillon sables limon schlamm solution solution strile solution gros

German
Probe Sand Schlamm Suspension Lsung metallfreie Lsung metalltragende Lsung Abgnge, Berge Unterlauf Unterkorn Mahlwasser Zinkstaub

crushing crystallizer cyanidation cyclone D desliming dryer, rotary drying E elevator, bucket

S sampler screen, shaking screen, vibrating separation electrostatic separation magnetic sink-float process sintering spiral, concentrating

chantillonneur tamis secousses tamis vibratoire sparation lectrostatique sparation magntique mthode liquide dense agglutination concentrateur hliocodal table de concentration concentration sur tables paissiseur crible rotatif vanner

Probenehmer Schttelsieb Vibrationssieb Elektrostatikscheidung Magnetscheidung Schwimm- und Sinkverfahren Sinterung Spiralscheider

T tailings Filterkuchen Filtrat Schumer Mittelgut Frdererz berlauf berkorn Trbedichte Reagenzien Rckstand U underflow undersize W water, mill Z zinc dust

desechos subcorriente subtamao agua de molino polvo de cinc

produits de queue sub-coulement dclass eau de moulin poussire de zinc

F feeder feeder, belt feeder, reciprocating plate feeder, rotary feeder, screw feeder, shaking filter filter, disk filter, drum filter, pressure flotation

alimenteur alimenteur bande alimenteur plaque oscillante alimenteur rotatif tourillon dalimentation alimenteur secousses filtre filtre disque filtre tambour filtre pousse flottation

Frderer Bandfrderer Schwingplattenfrderer Drehfrderer Schneckenfrderer Schttelfrderer Filter Scheibenfilter Trommelfilter Druckfilter Schwimmaufbereitung, Flotation

T table, concentrating tabling thickener trommel, revolving V vanner

Herd Herdarbeit Eindicker Trommelsieb Planstossherd

26 27

METHODS OF TREATMENT / METODOS DE TRATAMIENTOS / METHODES DE TRAITEMENT / AUFBEREITUNGSMETHODEN In the following table each mineral is followed by the more common methods of treatment. English
A Al/Zn ores; caustic, CO2 treatment/acid B barite, BaSO4; flotation

Spanish
menas Al/Zn; caustico, tratamiento CO2/acido barita; flotacin

French
minerais Al/Zn; caustique, traitement CO2/acide barytine; flottation

German
Al/Zn Erze; kaustisch, CO2 Behandlung/ Sure Schwerspat; Flotation

English
columbite, Fe(Cb-TaO2)2; gravity, caustic fusion, then HCI, then KF copper ores; flotation and leaching, smelting or electrolysis

Spanish
columbita; gravedad, fusin caustica, luego HCI, KF menas de cobre; flotacin y lixiviacin, fusion o electrolisis

French
columbite; gravit, fusion caustique, puis HCI, KF minerais de cuivre; flottation et lixivation, fusion ou lectrolyse

German
Columbit; Schwerkraft, kaustisches Schmelzen, dann HCI, KF Kupfererze; Flotation und Laugung, Schmelzen oder Elektrolyse

English
I iron ores; gravity, flotation, blast furnance L lead ores; flotation and gravity, smelting

Spanish
menas de hierro; gravedad o flotacin, alto horno menas de plomo; flotacin y gravedad, fusin

French
minerais de fer; gravit, flottation, haut fourneau minerais de plomb; flottation et gravit, fusion

German
Eisenerze; Schwerkraft, Flotation, Hochofen Bleierze; Flotation und Schwerkraft, Schmelzen Lepidolith; Handscheidung, Behandlung mit Schwefelsure Kaklkstein; Abrstung Manganerze; Flotation und Schwerkraft, Abrstung in Reduktionsatmosphre

English
spodumene, Li2O.Al2O3.-SiO2; flotation, acid roasting stibnite, Sb2S3; liquation sylvite, KCI; flotation and gravity T tantalite, Fe(CbTaO3)2; gravity, caustic fusion, then HCI, then KF thortveitite, (Sc, Y)2Si2O7; roasting with carbon tungsten ores, gravity and flotation, caustic fusion U uranium ores; flotation and leaching, acid or alkali leaching Z zinc ores; flotation, acid roasting zircon, ZrO3.-SiO2; gravity methods, acid or alkali

Spanish
espodumena; flotacin, calcinacin acida antimonita, estibina; licuacin silvina; flotacin y gravidad tantalita; gravedad, fusin caustica, luego HCI, KF torveitita; calcinacin con carbon menas de tungsteno; gravedad y flotacin, fusin caustica menas de uranio; flotacin y lixiviacin, lixiviacin cida o alcalina menas de cinc; flotacin, calcinacin acida circonio; mtodos de gravedad, acido o lcali

French
spodumne; flottation, calcination acide stibine; liquation sylvine; flottation et gravit tantalite; gravit, fusion caustique, puis HCI, KF thortveitite; calcination par carbone minerais de tungstne; gravit et flottation, fusion caustique minerais duranium; flottation et lixivation, lixivation acide ou alcali minerais de zinc; flottation, calcination acide zircon; mthodes de gravit, acide ou alcali

German
Spodumen; Flotation, saure Abrstung

Grauspiesglanz; Seigerung Sylivin; Schwimmaufbereitung und Schwerkraft Tantalit; Schwerkraft, kaustisches Schmelzen, dann HCI, KF Thorveitit; Abrstung mit Kohle Wolframerze; Schwerkraft und Flotation, kaustisches Schmelzen Uranerze; Flotation und Laugung, saure oder alkalische Laugung Zinkerze; Flotation, saure Abrstung

bauxite, Al2O3; caustic (Bayer process) beryl, 3BeO.Al2O2.6SiO2; hand cobbing, leaching borax, Na2B4O7.10H2O; evaporation Ccarnotite, K2O.2UO3.V2O; leaching, roasting with salt cassiterite, SnO2; gravity and flotation, reverberatory furnace celestite, SrSo4; digestion with soda ash chalcopyrite, CuFeS2; flotation, roasting, electrolytic refining chromite, FeO.-Cr2O3; gravity methods, electric furnace treatment cinnabar, HgS; sorting and screening, roasting cobalt or nickel ores; flotation and leaching, acid roasting or smelting

bauxita; caustico

bauxite, caustique

Bauxite; kaustisch

lepidolite; hand cobbing, sulphuric acid treatment

berilio; separacin manual, lixiviacin borax; evaporacin carnotita; lixiviacin, calcinacin con sal casiterita; gravedad y flotacin, horno de reverbero celestina; digestion con sosa calcinada calcopirita; flotacin, calcinacin, refinacin electrolitica cromita; mtodos de gravedad, tratamiento en horno electrico cinabrio; clasificacin y cribado menas de cobalto o nquel; flotacin y lixiviacin, calcinacin acida o fusion

bryl; scheidage main, lixivation borax; vaporation carnotite; lixivation, calcination par sel cassitrite; gravit et flottation, four rverbre clestine; digestion par soude calcine chalcopyrite; flottation, calcination, affinage lectrolytique chromite; mthodes de gravit, traitement four lectrique cinabre; triage et criblage, calcination cobalt ou minerais de nickel; flottation et lixivation, calcination acide ou fusion

Beryll; Handscheidung, Laugung Borax; Verdampfung Carnotit; Laugung, Abrstung mit Salz Zinnstein; Schwerkraft und Flotation, Flammofen Clestin; Laugung mit Sodaasche Kupferkies; Flotation, Abrstung elektrolytische Raffination Chromit; Schwerkraftverfahren, Behandlung im elektrischen Schmelzofen Zinnober; Scheidung und Siebung, Abrstung Kobalt oder Nickelerze; Flotation und Laugung, saure Abrstung oder Schmelzen

CuNi sulphide ores; flotation roasting, extraction, electrolytic refining

menas de sulfuro de cobre y nquel; flotacin, calcinacin, extraccin, refinacin electrolitica forma elemental; gravedad, flotacin, lixiviacin, cianuracin o fusin

minerais sulfures de cuivre et nickel; flottation, calcination, extraction, affinage lectrolytique forme lmentaire; gravit, flottation, lixivation, cyanuration ou fusion galne; gravit ou flottation, haut fourneau halite; flottation lixivation

sulfidische Kupfer und Nickelerze; Flotation, Abrstung, Extraktion, elektrolytische Raffination

lepidolita; separacin manual, tratamiento con cido sulfrico caliza; calcinacin menas de manganeso; flotacin y gravedad, calcinacin en atmsfera reductora

lpidolite; scheidage main, traitement par acide sulfureux

limestone, CaCO3; calcination M manganese ores; flotation and gravity, roasting in reducing atmosphere

calcaire; calcination minerais de manganse; flottation et gravit, calcination dans atmosphre rductrice molybdnite; flottation, calcination monacite; gravit, traitement par acide sulfureux minerais de nickel; flottation et lixivation, calcination et lixivation minerais non ferreux; gravit ou flottation, haut fourneau

E elemental form; gravity flotation, leaching, cyanide or smelting

Elementare Form; Schwerkraft, Flotation, Laugung oder Schmelzen

G galena, PbS; gravity or flotation, blast furnance H halite, NaCL; flotation, leaching

galena; gravedad o flotacin, alto horno halita, flotacin lixiviacin

Bleiglanz; Schwerkraft oder Flotation, Hochofen

molybdenite, MoS2; flotation, roasting monazite; gravity, sulphuric acid treatment N nickel ores; flotation and leaching, roasting and leaching nonferrous ores; gravity or flotation, blast furnace

molibdenita; flotacin, calcinacin monacita; gravedad, tratamiento con acido sulfrico menas de niquel; flotacin y lixiviacin, calcinacin y lixiviacin menas no ferrosas; gravedad o flotacin, alto horno

Molybdnglanz; Flotation, Abrstung Monazit; Schwerkraft, Behandlung mit Schwefelsure Nickelerze; Flotation und Laugung, Abrstung und Laugung Nichteisenerze; Schwerkraft oder Flotation, Hochofen Uranit; Schwerkraft, Flotation, saure Laugung Rutil, Ilmenit; Schwerkraft, Chlorierung Seewasser; Kalkschlamm Kiesel; Flotation und Schwerkraft, Schmelzen Zinkblende; Abrstung und Sintern, Laugung des Rauchkanalstaubs

Steinsalz; Flotation, Laugung

Zirkon; Schwerkraftverfahren, sauer oder alkalisch

P pithblende; gravity, flotation, acid digestion R Rutile, TiO2, ilmenite; gravity and electrical, chlorination S seawater; lime slurry silica, SiO2; flotation and gravity, smelting

uranita; gravedad, flotacin, digestin cida rutilo, ilmenita; gravedad y elctrico, cloracin agua de mar; lodos de cal silice; flotacin y gravedad, fusin

uranite; gravit, flottation, digestion acide rutile, ilmnite; gravit et lectrique, chloruration eau de mer; chaux schlammeuse silice; flottation et gravit, fusion

sphalerite, ZnS; roasting and sintering, leaching of flue dust

esfalerita, blenda; calcinacin y aglutinacin, lixiviacin de humo de conductos de humo

sphalrite, blende; calcination et agglutination, lixivation de poussire de conduits

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How to calculate the Flotation Results


Qa = Weight of feed, in tons Qb = Weight of tailings, in tons Qc = Weight of concentrate, in tons a = Metal content of feed in % b = Metal content of tailings in % c = Metal content of concentrate in % r = Metal content of pure mineral in % m = Metal recovery in % v = Weight recovery in % 5. PURE MINERAL CONTENT Metal content of feed in tons =
Qa a 100 Qb b 100 a r c r b r

3. ENRICHMENT i=
c a

7. METAL RECOVERY mA = mB =
c1 vA a1 c2 vB a2

expresses the rate

of concentration.

4. CONCENTRATION n=
Qa Qc

express the percentage by weight of or


c-b a -b

or

100 v

metal A recovered in concentrate A and of metal B recovered in concentrate B. Equations 1 7 permit the determination of the results for m, v, i and n without knowing the weights Qa, Qb, Qc, when only the contents a, b, c are known. If the weights are known, they must be

expresses the number of tons of feed required to produce one ton of concentrate.

100% in the feed,

Metal content of tailings in tons =

100% in the concentrate,

used to check the results. In order to test whether sampling and weighing are

Metal content of concentrate in tons =


Qc c 100

100% in the tailings express the

correct, the metal balance is applied in the form of the following equation: Metal content of feed = metal content of concentrate + metal content of tailings. As industrial scales may have tolerances of up to 2%, the above equation will probably not be realized and deviations of 2% are observed even in plants that are well checked and supervised. Higher deviations are due to errors in sampling or weighing.

percentage by weight of pure mineral contained in the feed, the concentrate and

1. METAL RECOVERY m=
Qc c Qa a c v% a

the tailings, respectively.


c(a - b) a(c - b)

100% or

100%

If a feed contains two metals, A and B, and if these are weighed separately,

or

expresses the percentage

the following formula can be employed: a1 = metal A content in feed in % a2 = metal B content in feed in % c1 = metal A content in concentrate A in % c2 = metal A content in concentrate B in %

by weight of metal feed that is recovered


S U L P H I D E O R E F L O TAT I O N W I T H C L A R I A N T M I N I N G R E A G E N T S

in the concentrate.

2. WEIGHT RECOVERY v=
Qc Qa

100% or

a-b c-b

100%

k1 = metal B content in concentrate A in % k2 = metal B content in concentrate B in % b1 = metal A content in tailings in % b2 = metal B content in tailings in % 6. WEIGHT RECOVERY vA = vB =
100 (a1 - b1) (k2 - b2) (a2 - b2) (k1 - b1) (c1 - b1) (k2 - b2) (c2 - b2) (k1 - b1) 100 (c1 - b1) (a2 - b2) (a1 - b1) (c2 - b2) (c1 - b1) (k2 - b2) (c2 - b2) (k1 - b1)

expresses the percentage by weight of the feed that is recovered in the concentrate. The so-called optimum weight recovery v opt. =
a r

8. SELECTIVITY FACTOR (E. Gock, Erzmetall 38/1985, Nr. 2) Cr c a = = =


(c - a) m (cmax - a) 100

100% expresses the

Metal content in concentrate in % Metal content in feed in % max. possible metal content in % Metal recovery in %

percentage by weight of the feed that can be recovered in the concentrate under optimum conditions, m being 100%, and the concentrate being composed of the pure mineral (e.g. only PbS, or only ZnS).

% %

Cmax = m =

The equations express the percentages by weight of concentrate A and concentrate B that have been recovered from the feed.

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Mining Chemicals Products, Brands and Applications in Overview


CLARIANT FLOTATION COLLECTORS Collectors for Sulphide and Metallic Ores Chemical Constitution/Reagent Use Can be combined with Recommended Frother Collectors for Non-Sulphide and Non-Metallic Ores Chemical Constitution/Reagent Use Can be combined with Recommended Frother

I Xanthates
Potassium ethyl xanthate Sodium ethyl xanthate Sodium isopropyl xanthate Sodium isobutyl xanthate Potassium amyl xanthate Potassium hexyl xanthate [PEX] [SEX] [SIPX] [SIBX] [PAX] [PHX] Collector for sulphides of non ferrous metals (oxidic ores after sulphidizing) Hostaflot L- grades Hostaflot X-23 Hostaflot X-231 Flotanol D-14 Flotanol C-7 Flotanol H-grades Flotol grades tailor-made blends

I Fatty acid
Flotinor FS-2 All-round collector for the flotation of industrial minerals, i.e. scheelite, heavy mineral oxides, feldspar, phosphates etc. Flotinor V 2875 Flotinor SM-15 Flotinor SM-35 nonionic emulsifier Flotol B Flotol 1638

I Sodium alkylsulphates
Flotinor S-72 Collector for baryte; celestite; anglesite Flotinor FS-2 Flotol B Flotol 1638

I Aliphatic dithiophosphates
Hostaflot LET Hostaflot LIB Hostaflot LIP Hostaflot LSB Collector for sulphide copper minerals, sulphide copper/ molybdenum minerals; sulphide zinc minerals; minerals containing noble metals; does not collect ferrous minerals; pH range >3.5 Xanthates Hostaflot X-23 Hostaflot X-231 Hostaflot M-91 Flotanol D-grades Flotanol C-7 Flotanol H-grades Flotol grades tailor-made blends

I Mono/Di phosphoric acid esters


Flotinor SM-15 Hostaphat grades Collector for biotite; heavy mineral oxides, esp. titanium and iron bearing ores out of glass sand; fluorspar, magnesite; rev. flotation of phosphorite Flotinor FS-2 Flotinor SM-35 None

I Aromatic dithiophosphates
Phosokresol B Phosokresol F Especially for sulphide lead minerals Xanthates Hostaflot L-grades Flotanol D-grades Flotanol C-7 Flotanol H-grades Flotol grades tailor-made blends

I Sarcosides
Arkomon SO Collector for apatite; fluorspar; scheelite Flotinor FS-2 None

I Alkenyl succinic acid half ester


Flotinor V 4085-1 Collector for apatite; fluorspar; scheelite Flotinor FS-2 None

I Mercaptobenzthiazole formulation
Hostaflot M-91 Collector for all sulphide minerals, especially for native noble metals. At pH 4-5: gold containing pyrite and arsenopyrite; bulk flotation of sulphide minerals. At pH > 8: gold containing porphyric copper minerals, galena; non-sulphide lead minerals after prior sulphidization Xanthates Hostaflot L-grades Flotanol D-grades Flotanol C-7 Flotanol H-grades Flotol grades tailor-made blends

I Alkyl sulpho succinates


Flotinor SM-35 Collector for apatite; iron bearing heavy mineral oxides in glass sand flotation Flotinor V 4085-1 Flotinor FS-2 Flotinor SM-15 None

I Alkyl sulpho succinamate


Flotinor V 2875 Collector for apatite; iron bearing heavy mineral oxides in glass sand flotation Flotinor V 4085-1 Flotinor FS-2 Flotinor SM-15 None

I Thiocarbamic acid esters (Thiocarbamates)


Hostaflot X-23 Hostaflot X-231 Oily collector for copper minerals (in combination with xanthates or dithiophosphates) and for zinc ores (in combination with xanthates); reduction in specific consumption Xanthates Hostaflot L-grades Hostaflot M-91 Flotanol D-grades Flotanol C-7 Flotanol H-grades Flotol grades tailor-made blends

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CLARIANT FLOTATION COLLECTORS Cationic Collectors Chemical Constitution/Reagent Use Can be combined with Recommended Frother

CLARIANT FROTHERS Chemical Constitution/Reagent Use

I Polypropylene glycol
Flotanol C-7 Frother for the sulphide flotation; especially for coarse particles and for pulps with high electrolyte content.

I Primary amines
Flotigam T Flotigam S Genamin CC 100 Amine 3305 Collector for potash Collector for potash; biotite Collector for muscovite; feldspar Collector for kaolinite (china clay) Flotigam S Flotigam T Flotinor FS-2 Flotol grades, Flotanol F Flotol grades, Flotanol F

I Alkyl polypropylene glycol ether


Flotanol D-13, D-14, D-16 Flotanol F Frother for the sulphide flotation Frother for potash flotation in strongly electrolytic salt flotation pulps

I Fatty alkyl propylene diamines


Genamin TAP 100 Flotigam DAT Flotigam V 4343 Collector for feldspar; pyrochlor Collector for feldspar Collector for feldspar Genagen grades Flotinor FS-2 None

I Alkyl polyglycol ether formulations


Flotanol H-53 Flotanol H-54 tailor made blends Frother for the flotation of non-ferrous ores, especially for copper sulphides

I Alkyl ether propylene amine


Flotigam EDA Collector for silicates for the reverse iron ore flotation and for muscovite flotation None None

I Aliphatic alcohols
Montanol grades Flotanol M (MIBC) Frother mainly used for coal flotation, sulphide and apatite flotation Very selective frother for sulphide complex ores

I Alicyclic alcohols / Pine oils


Flotol B Very strong frother for the flotation of feldspar, graphite, galena, sphalerite, scheelite and potash Xanthates None Flotol 1638

I Alkyl ether propylene diamine


Flotigam grades Collector for calamine

I Quaternary ammonium chloride


Flotigam K2C Collector for silicates for the reverse calcite flotation and for wollastonite flotation None Flotol B Flotol 1638 CLARIANT DEPRESSANTS AND DISPERSANTS Chemical Constitution/Reagent Use

I Imidazolines
Flotigam ITU Collector for pyrochlore and for silicates for the reverse flotation of calcite None None

I Carboxy methyl cellulose ethers (CMC)


Tylose grades Depressant for talc or other magnesium silicates, especially in copper/nickel flotation

I Anionic condensation product


Dispersogen A Depressant for graphite and for carbonates in the flotation of oxide minerals

Non-Ionic Collectors and Emulsifiers Chemical Constitution/Reagent Use Can be combined with Recommended Frother CLARIANT EXTRACTANTS AND OTHER SPECIALITIES Chemical Constitution/Reagent Emulsifiers for the flotation of fluorspar, magnesite and phosphates Flotinor FS-2 Arkomon SO None Use

I Alkyl phenol polyglycol ether


Arkopal grades

I Tertiary amine
Hostarex A-324 Hostarex A-327 Extractant for the liquid/liquid extraction of Ni, Co, U, V, W, Re after leaching

I Fatty acid polyglycol esters


Genagen grades Dispersant for slimes in the flotation of pyrochlore and fluorspar Flotinor V 2875 Genamin TAP 100 None

I Sulpho succinic acid ester


Filter Aid B-70 Filter Aid B-70 reduces moisture content of filter cakes

The information of this brochure is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be construed as guaranteeing specific properties of the products described or their suitability for a particular application. Any existing industrial property rights must be observed. The quality of our products is guaranteed under our General Conditions of Sale. Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany April 2000

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