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CHAPTER 6
PIPE FLOW
Reynolds number
In a pipe flow, there are 2 types of forces which become important:
Inertia force
The inertia force is a destabilizing type of force. Because it
shows that velocity is changing in a flow.
Viscous force
Viscous force is a stabilizing type of force.
Their ratio gives the Reynolds Number:
A F
w vis
t =
x i
ma F =
v
VL VL
force Viscous
force Inertia
R
e
= = =
2
Reynolds number
where
V=characteristic velocity
L= characteristic lengthL=D (diameter for a pipe)
=dynamic viscosity
v= kinematic viscosity
In a pipe flow, two types of flow occurs depending on whether the
inertia force dominating or viscous force dominating. Therefore
depending on the magnitude of Reynolds number there are two
main types of flow:
1. Turbulent flow (R
e
is large)
2. Laminar flow (R
e
is small)
v
VL VL
force Viscous
force Inertia
R
e
= = =
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Turbulent flow is an irregular condition of flow in which various
quantities such as velocity and pressure show random variations
with time and space coordinates.
It is a flow that inertia forces dominate the viscous forces.
The physical quantities are often described by statistical averages.
In this sense we can define a steady turbulent flow: a flow in
which the time-averaged physical quantities do not change with
time.
A dye injected into a turbulent flow would mix immediately by
the action of the randomly moving fluid particle; it would quickly
lose its identity in this diffusion process.
v
VL VL
force Viscous
force Inertia
R
e
= = =
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Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Laminar flowis an orderly state of flow in which viscous forces
dominates
Flow takes place as if fluid particles slide over each other without
significant mixing of neigboring fluid particles.
If a dye is injected into the flow, it will not mix with the
neighboring fluid except by molecular activity; and the dye will
retain its identity for a relatively long period of time.
v
VL VL
force Viscous
force Inertia
R
e
= = =
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
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Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Characteristics of Turbulent Flow
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Characteristics of Turbulent Flow
Velocity components in a turbulent pipe flow:
(a) x-component of velocity;
(b) y-component of velocity;
(c) z-component of velocity.
Characteristics of Turbulent Flow
v
VL VL
R
e
= =
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Flow development and Entrance Region
Flow development and Entrance Region
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Flow development and Entrance Region
Flow development and Entrance Region
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Flow development and Entrance Region
Flow development and Entrance Region
Entrance Length:
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Laminar Flow in Pipes
Assumptions:
Fluid is incompressible and Newtonian.
Flow is steady and fully developed, parallel and, symmetric with
respect to pipe axis.
Pipe is straight pipe and has a constant diameter.
Laminar Flow in Pipes
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Laminar Flow in Pipes
Laminar Flow in Pipes
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Laminar Flow in Pipes
Laminar Flow in Pipes
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Turbulent Flow in Pipes
Comparison of laminar and turbulent flows
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Comparison of laminar and turbulent flows
Comparison of laminar and turbulent flows
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Derivation of Darcy Weisbach Equation
Derivation of Darcy Weisbach Equation
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Derivation of Darcy Weisbach Equation
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 0
2 2
2
2
2
1
g
V
g
V
Derivation of Darcy Weisbach Equation
The wall shear stress is expressed as follows:
where C
f
is a friction coefficient.
Let f=4C
f
Darcy-Weisbach Equation:
h
f
= friction loss
f =Darcy-Weisbach friction factor
2
2
1
V C
f w
t =
D
L
V C
D
L
h
f
w
f

t
|
.
|

\
|
= =
2
2
1
4
4
g
V
D
L
f h
f
2
2
=
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Darcy Weisbach Friction Factor
Therefore, in laminar flow: ( )
e
R f f =
For hydraulically smooth walls, no effect of roughness on friction
For transitional roughness
For fully rough flow
Darcy Weisbach Friction Factor
( )
e
R f f =
Turbulent flow:
|
.
|

\
|
=
D
R f f
e
c
,
|
.
|

\
|
=
D
f f
c
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Darcy Weisbach Friction Factor
Turbulent flow:
( ) 8 . 0 log 2
1
= f R
f
e
OR
(Prandtl 1935)
(Moody Chart)
The Moody Chart
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The Moody Chart
Darcy Weisbach Friction Factor
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Problem types:
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Head Loss Problem (Type 1)
2 1
H h H
L
=
f L
h h =
(Swamee-Jain Eqn.)
Velocity or Discharge Problem (Type 2)
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Velocity or Discharge Problem (Type 2)
(Swamee-Jain Eqn.)
Assume f
(0)
=0.02
Velocity or Discharge Problem (Type 2)
Iteration Table for Velocity (Discharge) Problems:
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Determination of Diameter (Type 3)
(Swamee-Jain Eqn.)
Iteration Table for Diameter Problems:
Determination of Diameter (Type 3)
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K
m
K
m
K
m
K
m
K
m
=10
K
m
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2
2
2 gA
Q
K h
m m
=
OR
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Sudden Enlargement
Sudden Enlargement
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FLOWMETERS
FLOWMETERS
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Orifice Meter
Orifice Meter
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Venturi Meter
Venturi Meter
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Venturi Meter
PIPELINE SYSTEMS
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PIPELINE SYSTEMS