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Preface

DOCKING SURVEY

This document describes the general background of a "Docking Survey," which has an important role in a classification survey, and is meant to be used as a reference for surveyors before they carry out field inspections. This document was prepared by Ichiro Ishikawa, former Chief Surveyor, and is based on the prere uisites described below.

1-1. Underwater inspection


!n underwater inspection that replaces a docking or slipway inspection which is carried out by a company approved by the Classification Society. The bottom shell, rudder and propeller should be inspected indirectly by observing the television images transmitted by an underwater camera used by a diver. Detection of abnormalities should fundamentally conform to the contents of this document" therefore,details of underwater inspection are not specially described here.

1-2.Method of repairing damage


#arious types of damage, such as damage due to stranding and contact with the bottom shell, may be detected during a docking survey. Such damage is usually repaired by the shipowner under insurance, but in this document details of repairing methods will not be described. These tems will be introduced in the separate home page describing "Damage and $epair" in futuer.

1-3. Propeller

The propeller and propeller shaft are inspected at the same time as a bottom inspection. %owever, shafts need not necessarily be inspected during a Docking Survey because "&ropeller Shaft and Stern Tube Shaft Surveys" are independent from the Docking Survey under the responsibility of machinery surveyor but brief e'planation is entered in this document.

1-4. Anchor and Chain Cable

!n inspection of the anchors and anchor chains is not a re uirement of a Docking Survey" these items fall under the purview of a Special Survey. %owever, as it is customary to inspect these items during a Docking Survey, they are covered in this document.

1-5. amages in !ottom


('cept for defects that occur because of stranding and contact with ob)ects or the sea bed, defects in the bottom shell, such as deformation and corrosion almost never occur une'pectedly" they occur gradually over a long period. *ecause the

most repairs to the bottom shell involve repairs to double bottom tanks, considering that the tank should be emptied and cleaned before starting repairs and hydrostatic tests carried out after repairs, the period for repairs should be estimated apro'imately. Therefore, the data below should be collected before performing a bottom survey.

1-". #t$d% the histor% of the ship

*efore carrying out an inspection, have a look the survey report file submitted together with the survey re uest application, and check the recommendations and the precautionary items if any .!nd read old survey reports as far back as possible, at least until the previous bottom inspection. Dents in the bottom shell may be under+ or over+estimated, or overlooked depending on the position to be inspected, increase or decrease in the intensity of light rays, and arrangement of blocks. Dents that have not appeared in reports in the last few years, may have been reported already in the past. There have been instances

1-&. 'or(ing #ched$le

The schedule for docking , undocking and sailing dates are determined by the shipowner,s sailing schedule and the shipyard,s docking schedule" therefore, these informations should be obtained for reference. If the docking period is as short as two or three days, both shipowner and shipyard are unlikely to carry out the big repairs to the bottom or side shell unless the shell is heavily damaged. The docking period gives you an appro'imate idea of the e'tent of the bottom shell works that is likely to be carried out. Information such as the time the ship will be docked-undocked , how many hours does it take the dock will be dry, and capacity of discharge pumps of the dock should be obtained for reference.

1-). Marine cas$alties

!fter the previous docking, instances where the ship hits the uay, or the bottom shell came in contact with the sea bed or floating ob)ects, should be correctly entered in the log book. It is recommended to ask the superintendent or the .aster about the instances of marine casualties before starting inspection . If there are any report of bottom contact, the bottom inspection should be carried out with special care" sometimes , In this case the ma)or repairs to the bottom shell may be necessary. !nother method of collecting data is to be re uest shipyard supervisor to show the specifications for repairs carried out to the ship, if possible.

&hoto /+/ 01CC in Dry Dock 2ne of the world largest ship, &iere 3uillaumat in 1IS4!#( .argueira 5ard in /678 Dimensions 1pp 9:/./: ' * ;<.:/ ' <=.6> m, D? ===,:</t *uilt at the San 4a@aire Ship 5ard in Arance *# Class It takes more than < hours to carry out the bottom Survey.

2. oc(ing #$r*e%

!docking survey is also called a bottom survey. !ccording to the "&rotocol of /688 relating to the International Convention for the Safety of 1ife at Sea, /679", a bottom inspection is defined by a lengthy e'pressionB thst is, "Inspections of the outside of the ship,s bottom". !rea of the hull under the water+line are always immersed in water " therefore, the condition of damage in the event of the stranding or bottom contact can not be observed. The ob)ective of periodical docking is to inspect the area of hull beneath the water+ line. 2ffshore structures in conrtast to a ship, do not sail throughout the world and suffer neither from stranding nor contacting with other ob)ect. Conversely, docking an offshore structure is very difficult" therefore,underwater inspectionbyan underwater camara inspection instead of docking is )ustifiable. There is no word corresponding to docking survey in the S21!S Convention. *ut the Classification Sosieties re uest the periodical docking survey to the shipownes. !ccording to their re uirements ships must be in dry dock twice in =years as shown in the following figure.

*efore /6;9 the docking survey was re uested every year, because at the !nnual survey, docking was re uested. Some shipowners put their ships twice in the year. *ut now the docking is only >timesin =years. The reasonof this rela'ation was the improvement of paint. !t that time the effectiveness of paints continued only one year or less. If the ship was not docked for more than one year, the paint would peel off and alrae and shellfishes would stick to the hull under the water line, resulting in a drop of the ship,s speed . Aor the shipowners at that time decreased speed was bigger problem than the e'pence of docking.

3. +he #$r*e% ,tem


*ottom survey should be carried out after the bottom shell is cleaned after removal of the barnacles ,algae and shell+fishes and with the bottom shell is in the dry condition. %owever when the dmamge to the bottom is suspected after any accident in the previous sailing, It should be inspected immediately after the water in dock is discharged, then, the repair methods and the scope of repair should be decided as soon as possible. the scratch or small indents in the bottom shell are re+inspected after the bottom shell is dry and cleaned. /C Side and bottom shell >C *ilge keel <C Stem and Stern frame 9C $udder Dmeasurement of bearing clearanceC =C 2penings Dsea chest, side portC ;C Scuppers, discharge ports and their valves 7C Stern bearing Dmeasurement of clearance in stern bush or wear down of propeller shaftC 8C Stern seal 6C &ropeller Ddye penetration test for blades if deemed necessaryC /:C Sea valves Dboth in dock and also in engine roomC

4. +%pe of r% oc(
To inspect the bottom of a ship, the ship may be transferred to land or the bottom may be inspected through images on T# screens transmitted from underwater cameras used by divers. 0nderwater inspection entails various conditions" all parts of the bottoms of large ships with lengths and breadths in the order of >:: m and <: rn respectively, cannot be inspected in detail using underwater cameras with restricted vision. In practice, it is difficult to determine which part of the hull is being displayed on the television screen on board the ship. Conse uently, inspection in the dock is decisive and final. .ethods of transferring the ship to the land include the followingB

4-1 #lipwa%
This method is adopted mainly for small craft such as the fishing boats. The hull is placed on trolleys and pulled ashore on the inclined surface using winches.

Aig. 9./ Slipway

!lmost all ships are inspected in the dry dock, inspections on slipways are only small ships such as fishing boat.

4-2 r% oc( -.ra*ing oc(/


This is a dock built by e'cavating a large portion of the sea side and at the sea side end there provides a dock gate" this is the most common form of dry dock. There are three types of dock gates. the most popular is a removable pontoon gate, others are side hinged gate similar to the ordinary doors, and another is a bottom hinged gate.

1IS4!#( .argueira 5ard in &ortugal in /678

?ooden Dock Todd Shipyard in *rooklin 4ew 5ork, /6;=E

9+< Aloating Dock


This is a pontoon with length and width suitable for accommodating a specific si@e of ship. The pontoon is immersed into the sea deeper than the ship,s draft, and the

ship is transferred to the pontoon" the ballast in the pontoon is discharged so that the pontoon rises to the surface together with the ship on the pontoon. Depending on the construction, there are three types of floating dock as shown below. The 1+ type floating dock is not popular.

1+type

&ontton Type The bottom onsists of several pontoon.

2rdinary Aloating Dock

4-4 #incro 0ift


! floating dock makes use of the buoyant force of the pontoon, but in the Syncrolift, the ship is transferred onto a platform placed on the bed of the e'cavation, and both ship and platform are heaved up on to land by winches installed on either side of the platform. The syncrolift has been installed in Ishii Shipbuilding Co., 1td., at Auttsu, Chiba &refecture and the other one is in .itsubishi %eavy Industries 1td., Fobe Shipyard G .achinery ?orks in )apan for submarine, These are the only Syncrolift in operation in Hapan, but the Syncrolift is not a rare in other countries. The winches are designed such that they can heave up the platform at a constant rate according to the weight distribution of the ship. !fter being heaved up tonthe land level, a ship is shifted transversely or longitudinally on trolleys" therefore, if there is a large area, many ships can be simultaneously inspected and repaired. The photograph above shows a view of the Syncrolift at !STIC!4 Shipbuilding Company, 1as &almas, Spain which is well known for the biggest Syncrolift in the world and is capable of accommodating ships of up to <;,::: dwt. ?hen the ship is heaved up on land, it is shifted to the traverser in the foreground. The ship can be moved transversely to any position from D/C to D7C shown in Aig. by the traverser.

!STIC!4 Ship 5ard in 3ran Canaria, Spain /67=

Ship on the traverser which shifts right or left.

Cyncro+lift winch

5. #afet% in oc(
&oints for ensuring safety during inspection are listed in the other "3uidelines for &reventing !ccidents for Surveyors." Some of these points are repeated here to emphasi@e the precautions and to ensure that you do not suffer from an accidents during inspection. D/C (nter the dock only after the water has been completely pumped out and after confirming safety. If you enter the dock when almost all the water has been pumped out, there is a chance that the sea water might gush back temporarily if dirt or plastics etc. have clogged the pump strainer Dfor filtering dirtC" this is dangerous because the sea water might gush into the dock with tremendous pressure and force. D>C ?atch carefully for ob)ects falling from above when you are close to the side shell or close to the dock wall. !n instance has been reported in which a lifeboat fell on a surveyor inspecting a ship, causing immediate death.

<C 3utters are provided on the dock bed. These are usually covered, but sometimes are not, in which case, ensure that your feet are clear of them. 9C ?hen a fine ship is docked, logs are usually installed between the hull and the dock wall to support the ship and to prevent it from toppling. These supports are called dock shores or side shores, and are lashed firmly by ropes. In normal circumstances, the shores will not fall down, but bear in mind that there is a possibility that they could fall down on you. =C The method of cleaning the shell to remove foreign substances such as algae or

barnacles using a high pressure water )et is widely used. Direct impact of this high pressure water )et on the body is dangerous. you shout re uesting the )et to be turned off.

Cleaning with high pressure water )et

;C ?hile lowering the anchor and chain cable, sometimes they slip off suddenly.

&hoto ;.> 5ou should be carefull under the anchor and chain cable. &oto ;.< Staging ?hilethe stagings are erecting around the rudder or propeller, sometimes staging board is not yet binded. During erecting staging we should be careful. 8C In the floating dock there are no hand rails on both ends.

6C Suspded stage

". Proced$re for !ottom #$r*e%


Similar to other inspections, a bottom survey is a kind of visual inspection. Tools used during a bottom srvey are a test hammer, light, measuring tape, and a stretched string for measuring the depth of dents. ! large hole or indent in bottom shell can be detected easily by anybody, but it is very difficult to find any small indent or cracks while walking around the dock. The bottom area of the world,s largest tanker, "5ahre #iking," has an area of appro'imately <:,::: s uare meters, which is about three times the area of a football ground. The bottom survey is hard work" if we get tired, we are likely to overlook large dents. &rocedures for detecting defects in the hull when the ship is docked are described below. ;.1 ,nspection of !ottom #hell in r% Condition If we inspect the shell immediately after water is discharged from the dock and when the hull is still wet, we cannot see the water on the shell if there is a leakage of ballast water through fine cracks in shell plate or remaining water. In the same way a bottom inspection is e'tremely difficult during the rainy season and on damp days because a large amount of dew remains on the shell plate due to the difference between ambient and shell temperatures. If ma)or damage due to stranding or contact is known beforehand, even if the shell plate is

still wet and uncleaned, we should inspect damage as soon as possible to decide repair method and e'tent. In this case the bottom should be inspected again after the shell plate is dry and cleaned. ".2 ,nspection before Painting Shell plating is to be inspected before re+ painting. *ecause in a wet painted condition we cannot detect fine cracks. If you refuse bottom inspection on holidays or weekends, and carry out the inspection on the following working day, there is a possibility that painting will have already commenced and small cracks will be covered with paint. ".3 #%mmetrical 12amination 4otwithstanding the bottom survey, the hull structure is generally symmetrical about the centreline. ?ith the e'ception of local damage, such as dents due to contact and cracks, if we find a crack on the starboard side of the hull, there is a high probability of finding a similar crack on the port side at the same location, although there are e'ceptions to this case. ?e need to check both port and starboard sides paying attention to both sides. ".4 irt% #pots 2n both bottom and side shells, if we find spots that are dirtier than the surroundings, there is a possibility of a flaw in the vicinity. The area where the paint has peeled off due to abrasion must be carefully e'amined. 3enerally, such an area will be badly corroded. ".5 'et 0ocations If we find partly wet spots in a dry shell area, small cracks may be concealed. !fter cleaning the shell plate, sometimes algae or barnacles remain at wet areas. Such locations often develop cracks. Arom this point of view, the bottom inspection should be carried out when the shell is completely dry. "." 3ow to etect ents 1arge local dents can be easily detected but it is easy to overlook a dent that e'tends over a wide area. In particular, dents in the curved shell plate in the bilge, fore and aft peak parts are difficult to identify. If the side shell plate is viewed directly from the dock side, dents can be overlooked easily because of the effect of light rays striking the plate at this area. There was an instance of a large dent being detected in the side shell plate after all inspections and repairs were completed and the ship was )ust about to sail. 1/ #ide shell plate If the side shell plate is inspected by looking at it from various angles or by looking up from the dock , dents can be detected easily. 1ocations that are suspect may be observed later by looking down and inspecting the shell plate from the deck. ! dent in the plate can be overlooked if the shell plate is e'amined from position !. The

plate must also be viewed from position * to check for dents.

! dent in the plate can be overlooked if the shell plate is e'amined from position "!". The plate must also be viewed from position "*" . %ave a look the side shell plate in the vertical and fore+aft directions. 2/ !ottom shell Small dents in the bottom shell plate can be detected easily if we bend our waist and look backwards to view the bottom shell between legs, thereby lowering your line of vision. ?hen the beam of light is pro)ected parallel to the bottom, a dent, if present, can be detected as it will appear dark. %owever, in a ship of riveted construction, the lapped parts of the bottom shell appear shaded and are likely to be mistaken for dents. If we find a clearance between the keel block and the keel, a dent is likely to e'ist in the keel. ?hen the big and widly repairs works to the bottom are carried out , in the ne't docking widly dent may appear in the same area. In case the floating dock , the dock itself may deform as the same as bottom. In this case a clearance between keel blok and keel may not be appeared.

Aig.;./ ('aminationof *ottom Shell D/C 1ower our line of vision, If we inspect the side shell by looking down from the deck,we can easily detect dents .

Aig. ;.> ('amination of *ottom Shell D>C point the light parallel to the shel l ".& Meas$ring and 4ecording of ents If the dent is minor and repair is not necessary at that time , it may be recorded in the survey report without outstanding recommendation. !t the ne't docking survey the same atra should be re+ measured. if the si@e of the dent is increased, repairs should be recommended. ".&.1 3ow to Meas$re ents .easurement using a stretched string is easier. 0se two magnets for securing both ends of the string to the bottom shell, and measure the dent using a scale. This measure+ment can be performed single+hand. The measurement using transit is also useful,

".&.2 Preca$tions d$ring Meas$rement *ecause the measurement is to be carried out to determine whether a dent has increased in depth by measuring the same location again during the ne't docking, care should be taken to record the measurement points and the reference points for measurements correctly, so that the dent can be measured at the same location and compared to the previous measurement. !s shown in the figure below, ! and C are taken as reference points, and the depth of the dent is recorded as &$. During the ne't measurement, if ! and * are taken as reference points and the depth of the dent is taken as &I, it indicates that the dent has reduced. The fwd+aft position and position in the breadth direction of the reference points should be recorded for future reference, as shown in the figure below. The reference points should preferably be taken at bulkheads or other locations where movement is considered to be minimal. In the case of a double bottom, record whether the tank is empty or full during the measurement.

Aig.;.9 Deformation of bottom shell

Aig.;.= .easurement of Dent D/C

Aig.;.; .easurement of Dent D C ".) !end in !ilge 5eel !lthough no re uirements for bilge keels are prescribed in classification rules, if bilge keels are fitted, they should be inspected. *ilge keels might bend because of contact with the sea bed or contact with floating ob)ects.

If we view the bilge keel from end to end, we can easily detect a bend.

Aig. ;.7Damage in bilge keel ".6 amage to ,nternal Members (ven a minor dent of bottom shell plating it may accompany a damage of internal members such as frame, bulkhead or floor. In this case not only e'ternal inspection in the dock but also internal inspection in that tank or hold should be re uested. If a minor dent is located in the fuel oil tank, the remaining fuel oil must be shifted to other tanks to carry out the internal inspection. In winter, sometimes transferring fuel oil is very difficult because of its low viscosity, so we should negotiate with the shipownwers to carry out the internal inspection at the ne't docking depends on the condition of damage.

&hoto.;./Slight Dent

&hoto. ;.>Inside the Double *ottom Tank in !rea fo a slight Dent ".17 #hell Plate +erminolog% and #hell 12pansionPlan $efer to the Shell ('pansion &lan when we want to check the si@e, type and thickness of a shell plate in which damage has occurred. The Shell ('pansion &lan shows the bottom shell and side shell on one sheet of drawing with a /B> scale for units in the longitudinal and transverse DverticalC directions. That is, if the scale in the length direction is /B/::, the scale in the width direction is /B=:. In addition to shell data, the positions of holds and tanks, frame spacing and dimensions of all frames are also shown in this drawing. &lates on the shell are named as followsB F for keel plate" plates ad)acent to the keel starting from the garboard strake are named se uentially as !, *, C, D, (, A, 3, %, H, 1 Dnot F as "F" is used for the keel plate" not "I" as it is likely to be misunderstood for some other symbolC. The topmost strake Dsheer strakeC is named S Dusing the initial letter of sheer strakeC. Aor the same strake Dsay %+strakeC, the plates are numbered /, >, <, and so on, starting from aft and proceeding forward. The fore and aft parts of the hull are slender, and the plates are narrow" therefore, at the stern, the plates ad)acent to the C strake and nearer to the centre are divided into two strakes, C and D, while at the bow, the C and D strakes are combined to form the C strake. The tank top

and bulkheads that fall on the side shell are indicated by broken lines" the frames are indicated by single dot and dash lines. The number above mark is the plate thickness to distinguish it from other values. Class D, Class (, etc. indicating the kinds of stee,such as D class steel etc. The mark DJC shows a )oint in the breadth direction of the plate" a long S shows a )oint in the length direction or a block )oint.

Aig.;.8 Shell ('pansion D/C Aig ;.6 Shell e'pansion

Aig.;./: Shell ('pansion D<C *+/7 and C+/7 plate,both/;mm in thickness and C+/7plate is D grade steel. "-11 4epair s%mbol mar( There are = international repair marks. The origin is unknown. $emove , fair and refit B This work is for rivetted ship. Crop, fair and refit B this work is for rivetted ship Aair in placeB to recover the dent by heating and water cooling

&artly renewB 2nly deformed part

$enew B all plate renew Aig.;+// $epair symbol mark

Aig.;+/> ('ample of repair mark S+/= $enew ,S+/;&artly renew4+/= and 4+/;BAair in place, S+/= >; D(C means B >; is the thickness of plate and D(C is the grade of steel. D(+grade steelC, D*C is *+grade steel "-12 3ow to Predict efecti*e 0ocations If defects such as dents are found in the side shell plate or the bottom plate, the location of the part where the defect has occurred should be recorded. %owever, a hold or tank with a dent cannot be identified from the outside. This has to be )udged later by observing the Shell ('pansion &lan, but the methods described below may be used to confirm the appro'imate position of the defect.

Aig.;./> Identification of hold from outside Dmast or bottom plugC I D/C Hudging the position of dent by the mast or crane post If the dock is wide, move the dock side so thatwe can see the mast or crane post on the deck. These are usually installed on a bulkhead. Aor instance, you can )udge whether the dent is between 4o. > %old and the 4o. < %old. %owever, if the width of the ship covers almost the entire width of the dock, this method cannot be applied. D>C Hudging the position of the dent looking for the bottom plugs In double bottom tanks, bottom plugs are installed at the aft end of the tanks near the centreline of the ship for draining residual bilge in the tanks when the ship is docked. These plugs are coveredwith cement" therefore, if you observe a raised part similar to a small dish, it is a bottom plug. Arom the bottom plugs, you can aee the appro'imate position of the aft end of each tank and estimate the position of the damage.

Aig. ;./< Identification of double bottom tank

&. Co$rse in oc(


There is no specific procedure for inspecting the hull under the water line for ships of a specific si@e and an arrangements of keel blocks" however ,the followings are an e'ample of a course for walking around the dock and inspecting the bottom damage so that defects are not overlooked. Docks are usually perpendicular to the coast +line. The customary practice is to start from bow and walk towards the stern on & or S side" This is the procedure recommended .

4umbers in the circle corresponds to the followings. Aig. 7./ course of Docking Survey

CheckEpoints at each position are as followsB /C 8ront *iew D/C ! bend in the stem by comparing the port and starboard sides, or a bend due to contact of the stem with some ob)ect can be detected only when viewing the ship from the front. D>C Dents in the shell plate at the bow and corrosion due to the anchor chain rubbing D<C Shell plate near the bell mouth Dent in the shell plate where the anchor fluke strikes around the shell plate. D9C Is the hull resting correctly on the blocksE !lthough this point is not related to the Docking Survey, you can )udge the Dock .aster,s skill in docking work. If the hull is offset e'cessively to one side, the keel might be damaged. 2/ 9bli:$e forwd part The bow of the hull is as shown in the figure. Stand in obli ue forward position and e'amine the locations listed below. /C Condition of side shell at the forward region Check for dents in the shell from this position. Dents fre uently occur in the fore flat portion of the hull at the bow when the ship comes in contact with the uay while berthing. >C !rea of shell chafed by chain Carefully observe corrosion due to chafing with chain . 0se a ladder for inspection, if necessary. Corrosion mainly occurs in the hatched areas shown in the figure below" instances of grooved corrosion have been fre uently observed. If corrosion is severe, these area should be gouge the welded beads and re+weld. If the ship is to operate in coastal water routes and is likely to anchor fre uently, a half+round steel bar fitted near to the seam will prevent chafing of the welded beads.

Aig.7.> Aront #iew

Aig.7.< !rea caffled by chain cable

<C Contact with anchor fluke ('amine the area around the bell+mouth from this position. ?eather three points, that is, both anchor fluke ends and crown, are well fit to the shell plate E If one is not contact to the shell plate, the clearnce is to be filled up providing a doubling plate. 9C Aorward end of the keel Confirm that the keel is sitting correctly on the keel blocks. If there is clearance

between keel and blockl, the forward bottom may be lifted or the top surface of keel block is not correct. -3/ 8orward bottom /C Carefully Inspect for dents that might occur in the keel or ! strake because of panting.

&hoto.7./ 1ifting forward bottom

Aig.7.= !nchor position D/C

Aig.7.; Damage due to anchor pea

&hoto. 7.> !nchor position D>C Aluke end does not contact to the shell plate

Aig. 7.7 Chafed welded beads !. Chain rubs against the shell plate and peels off paint on the welded beads

*. The portion of the beads where paint has peeled off and sub)ected to be corroded. C. Corrosion progersses D. !ppearance of grooved corrosion

&hoto. 7.8 %alf round bar protects the corrosion of welded beads >C ?atch the area between keel blocks where the keel plate will be corroded. *ecause during previous drydocking top of blocks ware not painted The welded )oints of the keel are likely to corrode easily. -4/ !ilge (eel fore end !ftre walking under the bottom shell, go to the sip side, and look through the all bilge keel from fore end to the aft end. ?e can easily find out the deformation of bige keel . /C Simultaneously check the fore end of the bilge keel. Sometimes the crack appears at the fore end. (nsure that the crack Dif it e'istsC does not e'tend to the bige strske. !lso check for corrosion, because corrosion fre uently occurs at the front of the bilge keel. >C Inspect the side shell in this area. Sometimes the crack of bilge keel propagates to the side shell. <C Cracks often happen at the local )oints of the bilge keel and e'tend to the side shell. The bilge strake above the bilge keel is often corroded e'cessively. -5/ Midship Part ?e have to continue the inspection of the bottom. The main points of the hull midE

body are listed below. /C Condition of shell amidships ?hen the ship has the side ports, as in a refrigerated cargo ship, check at the four corners carefully. Cracks happen at the corner because of shearing force. >C Check the freeboard mark, The mark might have been disappered or there might be a mistake in the characters. !lso check the draft marks.

Aig 7+8 Side Shell to be carefully e'amined.

Aig. 8.7 Corrosion of *ilge strake <C Check for abnormal corrosion in the bilge strake. Corrosion occurs in the side shell of a ship that has been moored for a long period at a uay, because of the electric potential difference between the uay and the hull corrosion fre uently occurs in the bilge strake. DSee CD 9C

9C Inspect the deck scupper opening. =C (ngine room area In case of the ship with midship engine, the followings are to be e'amined. /CSometimes crack appears at the corner of sea chest and valves. These items are carefully e'amine after erecting of stagings and cleaned. and also look into the inside of the distance peaces. >C Corrosion often appears in the shel plate behind the boiler blow +off opening. -"/ and -&/ 9bli:$e stern part 1/ Aft end of bilge (eeel the same as D9C 2/ #hell plate Inspect the shell in the aft region. The thickness of the shell plate in this region is less than the midship region. In aged ships samall holes appeares because of wear and tear. 3/ 1ngine room &lease refer to .idship part. D8C #tern part 4ot only hull constructio we have to e'amine the rudder and propeller. // +he clearance between the (eel bloc(s and the (eel e'amine the clearance carefully. The stern frame might be raised because of hitting the bottom or impact with other ob)ects. Details of the stern frame damage and repair works will be introduced in the other home page in future. 2/ Propeller and r$dder !lthough the propeller falls under the responsibility of the .achinery Surveyor, but the %ull Surveyor has to inspect the propeller during bottom survey. The .achinery Surveyor starts his inspection after the sea chest cover is removed and staging have been erected around the propel for inspection. Thus the inspection by the .achinery Surveyor might be a few days later than the inspection by %ull Surveyor. .a)or damage to the propeller blade or the guard ring can be easily detected" observe the conditions of the propeller and guard ring and if we find abnormalities, report them to the .achinery Surveyor after the *ottom Survey. *ecause the date of undocking of a ship is fi'ed, if repairs to the propeller are re uired, they should be carried out at an early stage. The following points including propeller should be e'amined. /C Is the shoe piece raised E >C Is there an abnormality in the stern frame E <C Is part of a propeller blade missing E !re the blades deformed E 9C %as a guard ring been fitted E Inspectons of stern frame and rudder are described in the following sections. DSee Cip. C

Aig.7+6 Check point for stern part D6C Aft ;iew Inspect the stern and the rudder from this position. /C ?hether the rudder is amidship position E >C Is the rudder centred E <C ?hetherthe shoe piece is not twisted E 9C !re the propeller blades normal E

Aig. 7+/: !ft view !fter completion of the starbord survey we continue the portside )ust the same as S+side.

). #hell efects
). #hell Plating !t the renewal of the cracked or weared out plates, it is necessary to see the "Shell ('pansion &lan" . *ecause there are many kind of steel plate such as mild stee platel, hightensile steel plate etc. !mong them there are many kind of steel such as !+grade, *+grade,C+grade etc. ?hen renew the shell plate, the same steel should be used. Typical defects found in the bottom and the side shell are as follows. ).1 !ottom #hell -1/ !ottom scratches and ents .ost damage to the bottom shell is due to contact with ob)ects on the seabed. *ottom scratches are slight damages. Such damage happens when the ship operates in shallow waters such as the .ississippi river, near the coastline, etc. In many instances, bottom damage due to contact starts from the forward part and disappears around midship. *ecause of scratches, the bottom paint has peeled off and corrosion occurs. In this case, remaining paint and rust should be cleaned by shot blasting and properly re+ painted . ?hen the bottom has had contact with a coral reef or rocky seabed, large dents and-or holes appear with scratches. In this case, as a matter of fact, fractured shell plate should be cropped and renewed with damaged internal members. If the dents are relatively small, they may be left as they are with some effective internal reinforcement. If we find a large fractured opening during the bottom inspection, naturally we should recommend repairs. %owever, there have been many instances where the shipowner has believed that there were no abnormalities and dents were found during the bottom inspection, which naturally gives the shipowner a headache. The shipowner usually decided sailing schedule beforehand, they hate prolonging docking period because of ma)or repairs, they persists in putting off ma)or repairs, and try to carry out simple repairs within the drydocking period. That is why sparks usually fly between the Surveyor and the shipowner,s representative. $egardless of e'perience of bottom inspection, the surveyor always feels uneasy before docking survey.

Aig.8+/ Damage in bottom shell

-2/ ents d$e to panting ?hen the ship sails in rough weather without reducing speed, dents might occur in the keel and ! strake starting from the fore peak tank to the middle part of 4o./ ?ater *allast Tank , because of the relation between ship speed and curvature of the forward bottom. In the worst case, the floors in the tank and bottom stiffeners buckled. 4aturally, the Surveyor should recommend repairs to the shell, as well as the internal members. -3/ Corrosion of (eel and ad<$sent A stra(e $e+painting of the area on the keel block is impossible. So after undocking and also long boyage, these unpainted area is much more corrosive than painted area. the corrosion of welded beads is more heavy than the plate itself. !t the bottom survey previous un+painted area which we can find easily because of much rust should be carafully e'amined espacially welded beads. ?hen the beads is e'cessively corroded, rust should be removed and it is necessary to re+ weld and after well painted. -4/ Corrosion of beads 3rooved corrosion, which at first glance looks like cracking often occurs in heat affected @ones of seam and butt weld. It means the both side of beads. The corroded beads should be gouged and re+welded. -5/ 'rin(led corrosion Small craft and ships adopting the transverse system of framing might develop wrinkles in the transverse direction in the midship area of the bottom shell. These wrinkles are considered to occur because of buckling. If possible, it is better to fit the transverse carlings in the double bottom tank to prevent buckling. -"/ #ea chest !fter removing the grating of the sea chest in way of the engine room or the pump room, climb onto the staging and inspect the internal parts of the sea chest. The sea chest forms a discontinuity with the rest of the bottom shell" therefore, cracs might apears at fillet welds of girders and floor plates.

Aig.8+> Cracks in Sea Chest

&hoto 8./ Corrosion of Feel and ! strake in way of forward bottom

&hoto. 8.> Ship with Aalse Feel ?hen the ship with a fales keelis seated on the ordinary keel blocks, fales keel and center girder may be heavily damaged.

i &hoto. 8+<*ig damage in bottom D/C *allast water comes out from the double bottom tank.

&hoto 8+9 *ig damage in bottom D>C *ig damage can be detected by anybody

&hoto 8+= Slight Dent ! slight dent in a curved plate is difficult to detect

&hoto 8+; Corrosion of welded *ead D/C Corrosion in a welded bead of a bottom shell plate looks like a crack, but is not a crack. !s shown in the macro etching, this corrosion appears in a heat+affected @one.

&hoto 8.7 Corrosion of *eads D>C .acro (tching

&hoto 8+8 $eed Screen *ottom &late Corrosion Stress corrosion due to buckling in the midship region of the bottom plate in a transversely+ framed construction" the dent itself is small. $einforcement by fitting a carling inside the tank is recommended.

6.2 !ilge 5eel In large tankers with the midship coefficient approaching /.:, the bilge keel may not be fitted when the ship is newly built. If bilge keels have not been provided on both sides during the bottom inspection, check whether the ship had no bilge keels when the ship was constructed or whether they have been ripped off during a marine casualty. If there are traces of welded beads on the bilge strake, we may conclude that the bilge keels have been ripped off during a marine casualty. Damage to the bilge keel is as follows" D/C *ilge keel dropped off, a part of bilge keel ripped off, kinks in bilge keel The bilge keel is a member that does not need to conform to classification society rules. %owever, if it is damaged, it is normal to repair the bilge keel, usually under insurance. D>C Cracks at ends !ged ships which constructed with rivet not weld. $ivets at the ends of the bilge keels often worked loose. In a welded ship, the welds at the both ends are provided with large leg lengths, but sometimes cracks are found at the ends. D<C 1ocal )oints of the bilge keel The block butt in the hull becomes a local )oint in the bilge keel. If welding at this location is defective, cracks appear in the )oint. If the crack progresses and reaches the bilge strake, water penetrates into the hull. In case of tankers, this defect leads to marine pollution. During a bottom survey, check the side shell plates at the location of the bilge keel)oin. D9C *o'+type bilge keel In fine and high speed ships, bo'+type bilge keels are fre uently used. The bo' structure is watertight, but water sometimes penetrates into the bo' through small cracks in the welds of local )oints. If the local )oint is wet, there is a possibility that water has penetrated into the bo'. In such cases, carry out the air test, find locations where leaks start and recommend welding repairs. D=C Corrosion of the bilge strake !lthough not directly related to the bilge keel, when we inspect the bilge keel, check for corrosion of the bilge strake above it. *ige strake above the bilge keel is corrosive than other strake.

&hoto 8+6 Drformationof bilge keel

&hoto 8./: Corrosion of the *ilge Strake above the bilge keel The bilge keel is not directly welded to the shell" it is generally connected to the shell through a flat bar. If it is welded directly to the shell, there is a strong possibility that cracks might develop in the bilge strake when the bilge keel suffers damage.

Aig. 8+< ('ample of *ilge Feel

Aig. 8+9 Crack at *ilge Feel (nd D/C

Aig. 8.= Crack at *ilge Feel (nd and )oint of bilge keel Cracks tat the )oints of the bilge keel might develop, causing cracks in the bilge strake.

Aig. 8+; ('ample of *o'+type *ilge Feel

).3 #ide shell The followings are the e'ample of the defects in the side shell. /C Corrosion >C Dents and fracture due to contact with uays or floating ob)ects <C Cracks in the longitudinal or transverse direction as a result of development of cracks in the internal members 9C ?ear to the shell due to internal corrosion in addition to the above defects =C Cracks migh occur in the side shell due to shearing force caused by inappropriate )umping loads. however, no cases of damage to a side shell due to shear caused by loads in the longitudinal direction have been reported.

Aig. 8+7 Corrosion of the side shell

Aig. 8.8 Damage due to Contact 4umber in the circle corresponds to the followings The side shell at the bow and the stern is thinner than the shell in midship part. That is why corrosion of the side shell progresses in the region between the fore peak tank and the end of 4o. / hold, and between the aft peak tank and the engine room. In aged ships the fracture openings sppears in way of the engine room. ?hen the shell plate has the e'cessive rust, the plate thickness should be measured. -2/ ents and fract$re d$e to contact /C *oth forward and aft ends of flat parts Dents and fractured openings are likely to appear in these parts when the ship comes into contact with the uay when berthing. These defects are often observed

in car carriersand ships operating in narrow waterways, such as the St. 1awrence waterway are also observed to have dents at these area. >C Aore and aft body near the waterline Dents appear in these area when the ship is pushed by a powerful tug boat while berthing. <C Stern Deformation apperas at the stem when the ship hits floating ob)ects. Sometimes it is difficult to find such a derormation )ust looking frome side. It is better to e'amine from )ust in front of the ship. Indent of the shell is difficult to distinguish so sometimes it is better to e'amin from the deck looking dowawards . 9C 4ear the bell+mouth Dents and fractured openings are caused when the anchor fluke fre uently hits the side shell. =C $ange of abrasion by chain 3rooved corrosion due to chafing by chain appears in this area. cf 8+D>C+> ;C 4ear the hatch openings In ships that load-unload cargo from-to barges, dents are often caused when the barge or the cargo comes into contact with the ship. 7C &ropeller and rudder The propeller and rudder might hit floating ob)ects, get fouled in fishing nets, propeller blades might be bent, guard ring might fall off, and the portable bo' for the rudder sometimes drops off. 8C *ilge keel Instances have been reported of a part of or the entire bilge keel dropping off after a ship hit a floating ob)ect. The dmage of the bilge keel have been observed fre uently. Carefully check the deformation of billge keel lookimg through from fore end to aft end. -3/ Crac(s Cracks in the shell plate mostly develop from cracks of the internal members and they spread to the shell plate. Cracks might occur in the transverse or longitudinal direction" some cracks appears in the shape of a star. 1/ Aft end of collision b$l(head ! large number of internal members, such as frames and stringers, are provided in a relatively small area of the fore peak tank. It means that the fore peak tank is a rigid constructioncollision. ?hile the hold ad)acent to the fore peak tank is a large, broad space with a small numbers of internal members per unit volume. .oreover, this region is often sub)ect to large wave impacts, which cause cracks in 4o. / hold.

!s the reinforcement against panting, classification rules re uest side stringers or brackets in the region between the collision bulkhead and :./=1 from the bow. *ut at the end of these members crack appears and develop to the side shell. Therefore, the vicinity of the ends of these members should be carefully inspected . Initial cracks appear in the vertical direction and have a length of =: mm to /:: mm.

Aig.8+6 ('tension of internal crack to shell plate D/C

Aig. 8+/: ('tension of internal cracks to shell plate D>C

Aig.8+// Crack near the bulkhead 3/ !ilge (eel #ee #ection 6.2. 4/ =-5/ Crac(s in the sheer stra(e at the ends of s$perstr$ct$res Cracks sometimes appear at the sheer strake at the fore and aft ends of the superstructure D*ridgeC of "Three Islander" ship and long &oop or long A,cle ships because of hoging and sagging. Sheer strake at the break of the superstructure should be carefully e'amined

Aig.8./> Crack at the sheer strake. -"/ #hell plate in wa% of the the aft pea( tan( In ships with a long aft peak tank such as ocean tugs boats or some car carriers, aft peak above the rudder is flat and wide. sometimes crack because of stern vibration appears in the !&T and may propagate to shell plate. Care should be

taken. -&/ !ilge part Cracks at the lower ends of frames in cargo holds sometimes e'tend to the shell plate. Cracks in the shell plate appear in the hori@ontal direction . -)/ ;icinit% of b$l(heads Cracks may also occur in the vertical direction along the bulkhead due to the difference in rigidity of the frame and the bulkhead. these cracks propagete to shell plate. This situation is shown in the figures below. Shell plate In the vicinity of bulkhead should be carefully e'amined not only outside but in the hold side. especially in aged ships -6/ Crac( in r$dder plate > &lease refer to the $udder section. 4/ Corrosion The shell plate is generally painted when the ship is in drydock but in the hold it is not well painted. In the following area shell plate is thinner than other area. If necessary the tickness should be measured in aged ships. 1ocations to be checked carefully are shown in the figure below.

Aig.8+/< Corrosion from inside 4umber in the circle corresponds th he folowings. . -1/ Chain loc(er bottom #entilation of the chain locker is not enough and bilge water accumulates in the bottom, resulting in the rapid onset of corrosion. In large ships, the chain locker is isolated from the shell plate, corrosion does not appear in the shell plate. %owever, in hte normal ships, the shell plate forms a part of the chain locker, side shell plate corresponding to chain locker bottom shoul be carefully e'amined.

Aig. 8+/9 Chain locker bottom -2/ +an( top Corrosion at the sides of the tank top plate proceeds faster than other area, but it is not faster than in chain locker. If corrosion at the sides of the tank top plate in the aged ships is neglected, it e'tends to the shell plate and sometimes it leads to corroded openings appear in the shell plate. In ships where the sides are raised, such as bulk carriers, this problem does not occur. -3/ Aft end of ?tween dec( In ships with a ,tween deck, bilge water generally accumulates at the aft end of the deck and causes corrosion that e'tends to the shell plate. This is not a ma)or problem, e'cept in aged ships. -4/ @ear the forecastle aft b$l(head *ilge water in the forecastle accumulates at the aft end on both side. Therefore, forecastle end wall on both lowest corners to be carefully e@amined . -5/ Corrosion below side sc$ttles Starting with Special Survey 4o. >, it is mandatory to measure the thickness of the shell plate below side scuttles. $ules prescribe inspections of the condition of the shell plate below side scuttles after removing the lining during Special Survey 4o. <. In practice, the space below the side scuttle is narrow and is covered with lining boards. Sea water often enters through open side scuttles" the humidity is so high, and corroded fracture openings gradually appear in the shell plate. *ecause this area is above the waterline, we need not be e'cessively concerned about the danger of water flooding into the ship immediately. %owever, in the past, the "0megaka .aru" owned by 4F capsi@ed because of water flooding the ship through side scuttles" therefore, when we enterin the dock, check the plate below the scuttles on the super+structure from the dock floor or dock sides and compare the condition with

the surrounding shell plate. If rusting is e'cessive, enter the cabin after completion of the bottom inspection and ask to remove the lining and e'amine the state of corrosion in the superstructure side plate. $ef. The Classification $ules In the Special Survey 4:.< re uest as follows B "The lining in way of the side scuttles is to be removed as re uired by the surveyor, and the shell plating should be e'amined."

Aig.8+/= &ay attention to the area below the side scuttles

&hoto 6.// !ttention to the lower area of side scuttle -"/ 8orward and aft of b$l(heads #ee -)/ D7C 0pper edge of bilge strakeSee =C of Section 6.> for e'ternal corrosion of the bilge strake. ,Section4o.

#tern 8rame
('cept the rudder bearing, the propeller shaft and the boss, stern frames in most ships today are fabricated from steel plates. It is called as built up stern frame. In the past, they were made of cast steel" however, due to the complicated shape of the stern frame, casting and heat treatment were difficult, blow holes were sometimes detected at the connection of propeller post and shoe piece, and repairs were not easy. These problems do not e'ist today. Serious damage does not appear in the stern frame unless the ship is stranded or the stern frame hits an ob)ects in the bottom. The stern frame today is hte most safe member of the ship. %owever, recently it is not totally free from any damages. Sometimes crack is repotred in the .ariner type stern frame. !t the connection of rudder horn to stern shell plate the cracks are reported. The figures below show e'amples of the construction of stern frames.

Aig.6+/ 2+type Stern Arame &ractically we can not see in these days. This type has a propeller post on the fore side and a rudder post aft side with several gudgeons. In large ships both posts were rivetted.

fig.6+> 3+type Stern Arame 0ntill around /6;=, stern frames were mostly made of cast steel. They were )ointed to the shell plate by rivetting or welding.

Aig.6+< C+type stern frame In these days stern frames are mostlyfablicated from steel plate. This is C+type Stern Arame for a small ships. In other word it is called a built up stern frame.

Aig.6+9 .ariner type Stern Arame

Aig.6+= .ariner typt Stern Arame D&erspectiveC

6.1 #tern 8rame amage

Damage to stern frame has two typesB minor damage is the cracks and slight bends in the shoe piece and big damage is fracture, twist, and bending of shoe piece due to stranding or touching bottom.

17.2 3ow to find the defects in #tern 8rame


If the clearance between rudder and shoe piece is less than the re uired distance in the drawing, for instance >=mm<:mm, the shoe piece is probably lifted up or rudder comes down. If the clearances on both sides of the shoe piece are different when viewed directly from behind the ship, the shoe piece is twisted.

Aig.6+; Clearances between rudder and shoe piece D/C If the clearance a and b are different or @ero, the shoe piece is probably lifted. these clearances are generally >=mm or <:mm.

Aig.6+7 Clearances between rudder and shoe piece D>C If the value c and d are different, the shoe piece is twisted. Kinc anodes for preventing corrosion are fitted to the stern frame and the rudder. Steel members in the vicinity of the stern frame are likely to corrode because the propeller, which is located nearby, is made of copper alloy. If @inc anodes are fitted, they corrode instead of the steel members. !lthough @inc anodes are not a rule re uirement, but if they are worn out, replacement with new @inc anodes should be recommended.

6.3 Minor amege


-1/ #hoe piece and propeller post Connecting brac(et ! thick bracket is generally fitted connecting propeller post and shoe piece. If a crack is found in this bracket, replacement of bracekt rather than re+welding is recommended, depending on the si@e of the crack.

Aig.6+8 Crack in bracket -2/ 4$dder horn connection In mariner type stern frame rudder horn is )ust hanging from stern. therefore Sometimes cracks appear at upper end. These cracks occur at the welding part of thicker horn plate to thinner shinner stern shell plate. These welding is a little difficult. The cause of cracks seem the defective welding at the new building.

Aig.6+6 Crack at the rudder horn

Aig.6+/: ('ample of crack at the section !+! (ither the defective weld should be repaired by re+welding it after ade uit edge preparation or the structure should be reinforced if there is a structual discontinuity.

Aig.6+// ('ample of crack at the section *+* -3/ Crac( in slot weld of shoe piece Similar to the rudder, cracks sometimes appear at the slot welds of the cover plate of the shoe piece and water enters into the shoe piece. (ven if water enters into the shoe, the plate is very thick and the internal corrosion is not big problem, %owever, it is better to re+welded after discharging of water in the shoe piece.

&hoto. 6+/ Crack of slot weld in the bottom of shoe piece 6.9 .a)or Damage due to Stranding .a)or damage to the stern frame includes the damage due to stranding and touching the bottom" ma)or damage is very rare with a probability of appro'imately :.>L, or / in =:: ships. !lthough many ships are stranded or suffer from touching with the bottom, the damage generally occurs in the double bottom but infortunally at the same time the lower part of stern frame such as shoe piece suffers the big damage.The e'ample of big damage of shoe is as followsB in this case lboth rudder and propeller are also damaged.

&hoto.6+> Damage to built up stern frame Two dimensions Dshoe piece is bent and twistC, The shoe piece is offset to starboard by <8:mm and the propeller blades partly lost. The rudder has also sustained damage and removed for repairing.

&hoto.6+< Damage of stern frame Dthree dimensional damageC Shoe piece is bent to the starboard side by 8:mm, lifted by >:=mm and twisted counter+clockwise by /= degrees. -1/ !rea(ing of shoe piece If the shoe piece breaks, a new shoe piece can be manufactured and re+fitted. ?hile repairing, it means welding or local heating, displacements in the vertical, longitudinal and transverse directions ans also twisting should always be measured while. the gudgeon hole should be bored on site. -2/ !ending of shoe piece If the shoe piece bends in the vertical and transverse directions, the bend is a three+dimensional bend. 4aturally, some damage would also have occurred to the rudder. Depending on the e'tent of damage, the bend should be heated by setting up aprovisional heating furnace around the bent shoe piece, and the shoe piece faired by using oil )ack . !fter fairing up the shoe piece, the center of rudder should be re+aligned. In some cases, the pintle si@e might need to be increased, the gudgeon hole filled up by welding, and re+boring carried out. Temperature control when fairing the bend is difficult. This work should be performed by a shipyard,s e'perienced in such work. If e'cessive bending has occurred, it is easier to cut the bent portion and replace it with a new shoe piece. -3/ +wisting of shoe piece

The twist in the shoe piece might be local or e'tend over the entire length of the shoe piece. Aairing a twist is very difficult. %owever, depending on the e'tent of damage, the twist can be faired by a similar procedure as the shoe piece. If the twist is minor, and the gudgeon thickness allows, It can be repaired by re+boring of gudgeon and fitting a thicker new bush

Aig.6+/> !d)ustment of rudder center D/C If the thickness of the gudgeon is greater than <=L of the diameter of the pintle, the hole may be enlarged by boring and a larger bush may be installed. D>C If the bend is such that the thickness mentioned above cannot be obtained, filling can be carried out by welding, followed by boring.

Aig.6+/< Aair in place of shoe piece D>C $epair work of the shoe piese which lifted >:=mm upwards

&hoto.6+9 Aair in place of heavily damaged shoe piece

Aig.6+/9 Aair in place of shoe piece The furnace is under the propeller boss. 2n the S+side there are oil )acks and on the &+side there is a strong support between dock wall and the fore end of the shoe piece. The heat treatment after the repair work is most important. This repair work was carried out at the !(S!, 2laveaga, Spain.

17. 4$dder
The rudder is the most important part of the ship. If the rudder becomes defective, the ship can no longer operate, even though the condition of the hull and machinery is satisfactory. Similar to the propeller, the rudder is normally immersed under water, therefore, details of its condition can be observed only during a bottom inspection when the ship is docked. Inspection of the rudder also includes inspection of deformation, checking for cracks and the condition of rudder bearing wear down. 17-1 +%pe of r$dder There are many types in rudder. The followings are the typical e'amples .

Aig./:+/ hanging ridder

Aig./:+> Symple' rudder

Aig./:+< $udder with one pintle

Aig./:+9 .ariner rudder

Aig./:+= T+Type rudder with > pintles

Aig./:+; .ariner rudder with > pintles,

Colt no@@le rudder

!ctive rudder

Aig./:+= 2ld type $udder with many pintles DSingle plate rudderC

Santa .aria

Cutty Sark D/C

Cutty Sark D>C Alap rudder , Aig. missing Aig.//+; Special rudders Aig. missing

4elson,s AlagShip#ICT2$5

17.2 0ifting and 4emo*ing 4$dder !t first the rudder bearing clearance D*etween inner diameter of bush and rudder stock or pintleC should be measured when inspecting the condition of the bearing. If an abnormality is found, the rudder should be lifted or removed, depending on its construction. In conventional rudders with upper and lower pintles or lower pintle only, the rudder has to be lifted. %owever, for a hanging rudder or a .ariner type rudder, the rudder should be lowered" for a Simple' rudder, the rudder post should be removed. In any case, the tiller of the steering gear should be overhauled and removed, in such a way that the rudder and steering gear should be disconnected, and the )umping stopper removed. !n e'ample of the se uence for lifting the rudder is shown in Aig. /:+; " If the rudder is lifted by a )ack, the )ack should be positioned under the vertical frame of the rudder, otherwise it might dent the bottom plate of the rudder. If the se uence is not followed correctly, the rudder might drop and break the shoe piece" therefore, work should be carried out with

much care.

D>C Step > D<C Step <D1iftedC D/C Step /D*efore liftC Aig./:+; &rocedurefor lifting rudder from step / to step< D1iftedC 17.3 0ost of 4$dder Instances where the rudder did not respond when the ship was underway because the rudder had dropped into the sea bottom are e'tremely rare, case although not impossible. 3enerally, in this case, the rudder stock and the upper rudder plate remain. The rudder stock and the pintle are made of forged steel, the rudder body made by welding steel plates, and pintle bearings are castings. In general, rudder loss occurs because of welding defects in the part

connecting a casting in the rudder and the rudder plate. cf. Aig. /:+7

Aig./:+7 $udder partly lost If the cracks is found in the hori@ontal direction at the upper part of the rudder , carefully check the cracks after the stagings are erected. 17.4 4$dder #toc( 8ail$re $udder stock failure is very rare, but in the past, there was an incident when a whale in a dying condition hit the rudder of a whale catcher boat operating in the !ntarctic 2cean, the rudder broke and dropped into the sea. 0nfortinately the rudder was a hanging rudder without shoe piece.

Aig./:+8 %anging rudder will drop when rudder stock is broken 3enellary no such incidents have happened. *ut in /6;:, a tanker of <:,::: gross tons, )ust built and handed over to the owner, was underway heading for the &ersian 3ulf .The captain reported that when an impact was felt at the stern and the ship suddenly turned to portside. The main engine was stopped immediately. !fter inspection, it was discovered that the rudder stock of diameter 9=: mm was cut completely at the position shown in Aig./:+7 and had swung to port. !s a contingency measure, the rudder was lashed by wire rope" the rudder was swung using the mooring winch until the ship reached Farachi &ort. !t this port, rudder stock was )oined by welding after edge preparation to a depth of =: mm all around and a doubler was provided. Thereafter, the ship sailed under its own power to Hapan.!fter investigation of the history when the rudder stock was manufactured, It was found that the rudder stock had a slight bend at the location where the damage happened. Then rectified by locallly heating in the furnace and faired using a press. The fairing by a press had caused large residual stress, and the material strength had degraded when it was heated, Sometimes these processes will cause the breaking of rudder stock.

&hoto./:+ *roken surface Aig./:+ Temporaly repair 17-5 Crac( in r$dder plate D/C !t the slot weld The rudder plate and rudder frame can be welded directly on one side of the rudder, but the cover plate on the other side can not weld directly. So these members are )oined by slot welding. If assembly accuracy is poor, slot welding is incomplete and cracks occur. Conse uently, cracks appear in the rudder plate only on one side.

Crack appears Cracl at the slot weld holo@ontally &hoto. /:+/ Crack in the rudder plate at the slot weld -2/ !oth ends Sometimes cracks are found at the front edge and-or aft end.

#ertical crack at front end Suddenly ship,s speed dropped. ,

Crack appears at the end 17.5.1 etecting ingress of water into r$dde r If we find some wet area in the rudder platet, it is likely that cracks have occurred in the rudder plate and sea water has ingressed. (ven if water has entered into the rudder, only the buoyancy of the rudder is lost and no ma)or casualty will occur. %owever, internal parts of the rudder might corrode, therefore, the plug in the bottom plate of the rudder should be opened and water should be drained out. If we strike the rudder plate with a test hammer, we can detect the ingress of water from the sound. In large ships, the rudder is high above the dock floor" if we cannot strike it with a test hammer, pick up a stone or something in the dry dock and throw it agsinst the rudder. ?e can find the ingress of water from the sound made by the stone hitting the rudder.

Aig./:+8 ('amination of Ingress of sea water throwing stone or something in the dry dock 17.5.2 Meas$res when crac(s are detected D/C 2pen the plug at the bottom of rudder plate and drain the sea water from the rudder. D>C !fter close the plug fill the rudder with air to perform the air test and check the cracks. D<C $e+weld the crack. D9C !fter welding, carry out the air test again to confirm that the repair has been completed correctly. 17." 0oss of Portable !o2 The portable bo' is installed above or below the gudgeon so that it can be removed when raising or lowering the rudder for mesurement of the clearance between pintle bush and sleeve. The portable bo' is fitted with only one side welding for easly take off. If the welding is poor or if the rudder hits a floating ob)ect, the bo' is easily broken and drop into the sea. 1oss of the bo' is not a ma)or problem" however, the area of the rudder decreases and the rudder response becomes a little poor, therefore, when no portable bo' is found, new bo' should be made and fitted. If the clearance above or below the gudgeon is large,

we may conclude that the portable bo' has been lost.

!fter removal for lifting rudder Aig./:+6 &rtable bo'

2rdinaly &ortable bo'

17-& Pintle If we consider the rudder is a hinged door, the pintle is analogous to the vertical pin in the door hinge. Conse uently, if the pin is damaged, the door cannot be opened or closed. Similarly, when the pintle damaged, the rudder loses its freedom of movement and the ship is unable to sail under its own power. !lthough the pintle is a small component, it plays a very important role. Depending on rudder type there are one or two pintles in the rudder. 17-&-1 Pintle constr$ction The bearing surface of pintle is covered with a copper alloy sleeve. !fter a tapered part as shown in Aig. /:+/:, the end of the pintle has threads cut into it. The pintle is secured with a nut. If the nut loosens and comes off, the pintle will drop" therefore, the nut is kept with nut stopper. The shrink+fitted sleeve is only cylinder or with bottom. In small ships, a removable heel disk is often fitted to the bottom of the pintle" this heel disk support the weight

of the rudder.

Closed sleeve Aig./:+/: Construction of pintle

Cyrindorical sleeve

17-&-2 amage to pintle *ecause the pintle is short, it does not bend. The damages to the pintle are as follows. D/C Aracture D>C Sleeve drops off D<C Corrosion D9C ?ear to sleeve and bush De'cessive bearing clearanceC D=C Sleeve slack D;C 1oss of nut D7C ?ear to nut stopper and bush stopper 17-&-3 !rea(age of pintle and pintle lost !fter Columbus sailed from the port of Cadi@, on "Santa .aria", the ship,s rudder sustained damage. "Cutty Sark," a tea clipper, lost its rudder off the east coast of !frica while competitng with "Thermopylae." The causes of damage in the above cases were attributed to a fracture of the pintle. Today, however, the pintles have ade uate strength and there are no instances of fracture or lost.

Aig./:+// 4ut above D2rdinary rudderC ?hen the nut is loose or lostand at the same time portable bo' is lost, pintle will fall down into the sea and also, if the nut secuing device is out of order, pintle drops off. *ut this case is very rare. *ecause in almost case, the nut is fitted on the top of the pintle. The nut securing device is provided with means to prevent it from working loose. During inspection, the securing device should be carefully checked. To prevent the nut from rotating, steel pieces are welded as shown in the Aig./:+/> . This welded nut stopper is not thick about =mm. ?hen the nut stopper is e'cessively corroded, the stopper should be renewed. Some ship has a split pin through the nut and pintle head. *ut pin is very thin and easily corroded. The split pin is not prefarable. In most case, the nut does not become loose but it should be checked by tapping it with a test hammer .

Aig./:+/> 4ut below D.ariner rudderC (ven if the nut is heavely corroded or disappeared, the pintle does not drop off.

Aig./:+/< 4ut stopper D/C

Aig./:+/9 4ut stopper D>C

Aig./:+/= Cement cover Aor prevention from corrosion generally the nut is covered with cement. If the cement is defective, it should be renewed.

Aig./:+/; &intle lost ?hen the nut is lost, pintle will fall down into the sea. 17.&.4 Meas$rement and allowable *al$es of bearing clearance .easurement of clearances of all bearings are to be carried out during rudder inspection. Therefore, clearances of the sleeve and the bush in the longitudinal direction DA !C and the transverse direction D& SC of the rudder should be measured. The two methods described below may be used for measurement. 1/ !% lifting the r$dder !fter lifting the rudder we can see the both pintle and the bush as shown in Aig./:+ /7. The outside diameter of pintle Doutside diameter of pintle sleeveC using e'ternal calliper and the internal diameter of bush using internal calliper have to be measured in the three sections ie. top, middle and bottom. Thedifference of two values is the clearance and the mean value is the clearance between pintle and bush. !n e'ample of the results of clearance measurement is shown below.

Aig./:+/7 .easurement of pintle clearance

2/ 'itho$t lifting the r$dder ?ithout lifting the rudder,we can measure the clearance using a feeler gauge inserting between the bush and the sleeve. The method of measuring clearances using a feeler gauge is shown in the Aig./:+/6. The measurement is the same as above ie. fore+aft and & and S side. *ut in this case we can not measure the clearance at the middle section.

Aig./:+/8 Aeeler gauge The feeler gauge is a collection of thin metal plates of various thickness.

.easure from bottom

.easure from top

Aig./:+/6 .easuring pintle clearance Clearances in the longitudinal Dfore and aftC and transverse directions D& and SC should be measured in the similar way as before mentioned. 2-1/ 8alse clearance ?hen measuring the pintle clearance using a feeler gauge, the measurement of clearance at the end of the bush sometimes shows a smaller value while the actual value of the clearance is bigger. !s shown in Aig. /:.>: and >/, the end of the bush should be chipped off and the clearance should be measured accurately.

Aig./:+>: Aales clearance

Aig./:+>/ ('ample of actual measurement

1eft B 4ew bush $ight B ?eared bush, 2nly lower end is normal.

2-3/ #tandard Clearance i/ Pintle Aor a newly built ship, the standard clearance is /.= mm. Aor a ship in service, Ma2im$m allowable clearances between pintle and b$sh is " mm. IA the actual clearance e'ceeeds ;mm, the bush should be renewed. 3/ @ec( bearing Clearance in the neck bearing can be measured after the rudder is overhauled. 0nless other wise the measurement is carried out using a feeler gauge.The standard clearance is 9.: mm, If the clearance e'ceeds =.:mm, the bush should be replaced. !ctually the wear down of the neck bearing bush is smaller than the pintle. 4/ 12amination of the #$r*e% 4eport in pre*io$s s$r*e% If the clearance of the pintle is =.= mm, e'amine the past measurement results in the survey report. Aor instance, if the clearance at the previous inspection was <.: mm, the clearance increased by >.= mm. Then the clearance in the ne't survey will be increased up to 8.:mm. so the renewal of the bush should be strongly recommended. If the clearance is =.: mm in the previous survey, In this case the wearing is only :.=mm. renewal may be deferred until the ne't inspection. There are no clearly+defined standards for carrier+bearing clearances" however,e'amples of past measurements of various bearings are given below. The " " mark indicates that bush renewal was recommended" The "!" mark indicates that renewal was deferred until the ne't inspection.

Aig./:+><Clearance of neck bearing

Aig./:+>9Clearance of carrier bearing

Aig./:+>= Intermediatebearing 17-&-5 'ear of b$sh The bearing cannot be oil lubricated because the pintle is always in the water. Conse uently, very hard wood from tropical !merican trees, called lignumvitae, which is a suitable material for water lubricated bearings, was used in the past. *ecause this wood is a natural material and its uality varies" if lignumvitae of a soft uality is used, wear is faster. Arom /6;: onwards, synthetic resins such as Teflon rubber and phenol resins were used e'perimentally. &henol resins were found to make e'cellent water lubricated bushes" there is no variation of uality as in lignumvitae and with a ma'imum allowable pressure of <=: kg-cm>, twice that of lignumvitae and good wear characteristics, almost all bushes today are of phenol resin.

&hoto./:+> 1ignumvitae *ut in case of phenol resin, in some ships the wear to the bush is relatively fast. This is because of the misalignment of rudder center line. !fter the rudder is removed and the rudder center is re+ aligned , further abnormal wear to the bush will be eliminated. %owever, it takes considerable time and money to align the rudder center, therefore, some shipowners prefer to economi@e by renewing the bush at every docking survey rather than aligning the rudder center. &henol resin or copper alloy is used in the bush of the neck bearing and copper alloy is used in the carrier bearing. The material used in the bush is always softer than the material used in the sleeve, so the bush wears out faster than the sleeve. The advantage is that the bush can be easily replaced when it wears out. 17.&." #lac( of slee*e The cylindrical sleeve is e'panded by heating, and when the inner diameter becomes large, the pintle is inserted by shrinkage+fitting. The two members are only held against each other physically" therefore, the sleeve might become slack due to vibrations or ingress of sea water between the members. If the slack is e'cessive, the sleeve drops. ?hen the rudder is lifted, strike the sleeve with a test hammer and check for slack. If we press the sleeve lightly with a finger while striking it with a test hammer, we might feel a slack of sleeve. If we find some slack, strike all around the sleeve with the hammer and record the slacked locations. If the slack is found over >-< rd of all surface , the sleeve should be replaced.

Aig./:+:: Aalse clearance !ctual clearance D1eft sideC is much bigger than the value measured with filler gauge.

Aig./:+:: ('amination of actual measurement

Aig./:+:: ('aninination of sleeve sluck with test hammer, If the sleeve is sluck, the finger feels somthing like vacant.

Aig./:+:: Sketch showing sleeve sluck Slack is bigger in both & and S side 17-&-& Corrosion of b$sh retainer or s$pport The bush retainer and support are a comparatively thiner welded rings made of steel plate. If some part of this ring is corroded, bush might work loose and fall off. ?hen they become e'cessively thin, the bush retainer or support should be replaced, If the bush has been shrinkage+fitted into the shoe piece, it will not fall off" however, there are instances of the bush disappered. The worn bush turned into a fine pieces, which in turn found its way between the pintle and the shoe piece then disappeared.

Aig./:+</ *ush stopper 17-&-) Corrosion of pintle The copper alloy sleeve is shrinkage+fitted on the bearing surface of the forged steel pintle, therefore, the ends of the sleeve are likely to be sub)ected to galvanic action. Sometimes the tapered end of the pintle corrodes circumferentially and its thickness is reduced only at the corroded part. .oreover, the tapered part of the pintle is in metallic contact with the cast parts of the pintle. If the sea water enters into the small clearance, the tapered part corrodes" therefore, :+rings are generally fitted at both ends of the sleeve. If :+rings are not fitted, or no longer e'ist, the tapered part gradually corrodes due to the effects of the sea water, and finally, the hair crack appears around the taper end of the pintle. Dering long years the crack increase and the pintle will broken. This defect cannot be detected unless the pintle is removed. There have been instances where the pintle was removed because it had become loose, and it was found that the tapered part had corroded e'cessively. If the sea water has enteres into this clearance between the sleeve and the pintle itself, the shrinkagr+fitted sleeve becomes slack because of pintle corrosion" if this situation is not rectified for a long period, the sleeve will work loose and fall off. ?e have found initial corrosion in the pintl occuring circumferentially in the tapered part and then after thehair+cracks will appeare at this location. the ne't stage is corrosion due to sleeve slack, followed by corrosion in the tapered part.

Aig./:+<> Corrosion of pintle D/C

D/C &intle corrosion D>C &intle corrosion and sleeve slack D<C Corroded bush support D9C Corroded bush Dlarge clearanceC Aig./:+<< Corrosion of pimtle D>C

Aig./:+<9 Corrosion of pintle D<C 17-&-6 4epairing corroded pintle !n e'cessively corroded pintle should be replaced, but if the corrosion is not heavy, the pintle can be repaired by welding depending on the material. -1/ Pintle material In principle, welding repairs should not be carried out on forged steel pintle. %owever, if the carbon content of forged steel is less than :.><L , welding repairs may be carried out. Therefore, the carbon content should be confirmed before carrying out welding repairs" if it is greater than :.><L, welding repairs should not

be carried out. -2/ Proced$re for welding repairs Aig. /:+<< is a flow chart for welding repairs for forged steel materials. !tfirstly, the carbon content is checked and if the carbon content is less than :.><L, the rust is de+scaled. #ery small flaws are checked by ultrasonic testing. If cracks are found, they are chipped off. 4e't, the defective surface is welded all around. !fter heat treatment, the surface is machined up. !fter machining, a dye penetration test may be carried out as the final check. Then newsleeve after hydraulic test is shrinkagefitted.

Aig./:+<< &rocedure for repairing of corroded pintle

&hoto./:+< Corroded pintle 17-) 0ifting and 0owering 4$dder The rudder weight is supported at the top or the bottom. It is suspended from a thrust bearing in the rudder carrier in the steering gear room. %owever, in small ships, the rudder is supported with a heel disk below the rudder. If the thrust disk or the heel disk wears out, the rudder itself comes down. If the rudder comes down e'cessively, its connection with the steering gear becomes defective" therefore, the clearance between the shoe piece and the rudder should be checked carefully during a bottom inspection. 3enerally, the designd clearance between rudder bottom andshue piece is >: mm to <: mm. If the clearance is between : and /: mm, the heel disk should be renewed, or the rudder carrier should be opened up and the surface of bearing disk should be e'amined. 17-)-1 'ear to heel dis( 3enerally two hard, semi+circular steel disk is fitted in the shoe piece and the bottom of pintle, one above the other so that a point contact is obtained" however, the upper heel disk is sometimes part of the pintle. In this case, the lower part of the pintle is semi+circular. This heel disk rotates together with the rudder and has a bo'+shaped spigot. The semi+circular shape of the heel disk becomes flat when it wears out, causing the rudder comimg downwards. If the heel disk becomes thin due to wear, it should be renewed.

Aig./:+<= Support of rudder weight Dleft B *ottom support, right Btop support DhangaingC

Aig./:+<; Clearance between ruddershoe piece

Aig./:+<7 %eel disk 17-)-2 +hr$st dis( The thrust disk is a copper alloy disk with etched oil grooves. *ecause the area of the disk is large, the bearing pressure acting on the disk is small. Conse uently, the disk does not wear out easily. %owever, ma)or abrasive scratches appear on the disk when oil lubrication is insufficient. In case of the aged ships, the surface of disk has been found to badly scratched and the thickness has been considerably thin. If the rudder comes down and its base is likely to touch the upper surface of the shoe piece, In this case the thrust disk should be replaced. Thrust disks in large ships are very big so replacing such disk involves considerable labour, therefore, the recommended renewalwork is usually carried at the ne't dry dock.

Aig./:+ <8 $udder carrier

Aig./:+<6 $udder lift up after the )umping stopper overhauled

&hoto./:+9 Scratched thrust disk

&hoto./:+9: Combined thrust disk and bush Thrust disk with integral bush is not recommended because when the disk is renewed the sound bush also renewed. 17-)-3 A$mping stopper If the rudder is lifted when underway due to the wave impact or the contact with floating ob)ects, and or bottom contact, the steering gear may be damaged. To prevent such damage, a )umping stopper is provided.The )umping stopper, as shown in Aigure , may be fitted over the gudgeon or assembled in the rudder carrier. the designed clearance is >.: mm ma'imum. There are no instances of damage or corrosion to the )umping stopper itself. %owever, if the clearance measured is found to be large, it can be concluded that the rudder has moved down. *ecause a hanging rudder does not have a shoe piece, one does not know whether the rudder has moved down or not" therefore, we recommend that you enter the rudder trunk and measure the clearance between the base of rudder carrier and the )umping stopper.

Aig./:+9/ Humping stopper on the gudgeon

Aig./:+9>Humping stopped under rudder carrier

Aig./:+9< .easuring of the clearance between )unping stopper and the base of rudder carrer in the rudder trunk

17-6 4$dder Corrosion 17-6-1 Corrosion of r$dder plate In old ships, the rudder plate corrodes and its thickness decreases, similar to wear to the shell plate. %owever, the rate of wear of the rudder plate is gradual and is much smaller than that of the shell plate" instances where the worn rudder plate has been cut out and replaced after measurement with a thickness gauge are very rare. This is attributed to the large number of @inc anodes fitted for preventing corrosion of the rudder plate. If the worn rudder plate is cut out for replacement, or a large thick double plate has to be provided. 0nlike the hull structure, centring of the rudder is likely to be adversely affected because of welding the deformation. Therefore, the rudder plate should be removed, placed on a level block, and welding work carried out while the centring of the rudder is checked.

Aig./:+99 Centering of rudder DAore + !ft and & +S sideC

Aig./:+9 Aabrication of rudder

&hotp./:+= Centering of rudder on a level block The rudder plate is placed on a level block and measured the center line. 1IS4!#( $ocha, &2$T03!1 17.6.2 Corrosion d$e to erosion Irrespective of the age of ships, the upper, middle, and lower parts of the rudder plate and the gudgeon in fine high+speed ships sometimes suffer from e'cessive spongi form corrosion. This phenomenon is called erosion. The water flow generated by propeller rotation generates air bubbles in the flow at local locations

where flow rate is high. ?hen these bubbles impinge on the rudder, they burst and disappear, but cause microscopically large impacts on the rudder resulting in local corrosion of the rudder plate.

Aig./:+9= (rosion of rudder If the surface is eroded, and there is continuous flow of water over this surface, corrosion advances further. There are no fool+proof measures against corrosion" the rudder plate is sometimes built up by welding, and forged parts such as the gudgeon are sometimes covered with cement or Devcon, but at the ne't drydocking, similar corrosion can also be found in the cement" therefore, effective repair methods have not yet been discovered. %owever, as corrosion is localised, the strength of the rudder is not affected significantly, provided there is no hole in the rudder through which water can enter" therefore, this form of corrosion should not be of much concern. 17-17 +wist in 4$dder #toc( !mong the damages of rudder the most troublesome damage is twisting of the rudder stock. In furthermore, In most cases twisting is accompanied with by bend of the rudder stock. !s mentioned in D6C of Section 8., ?hen we watch the rudder )ust aft in the dry dock and the rudder is found to have swung to any & or S side, then the rudder stock is likely to have twisted. *ecause when the ship is in dry dock always the rudder is kept )ust midship. Twisting is caused due to the e'ternal force to the rudder plate in case of grounding, touching with mud, rock or floating ob)ects. ?ithout knowing that the rudder is fi'ed, when the rudder is taken by force of steering gear the rudder stock will be twisted. ?hile sailing , if the rudder suddenly responds strangely and becomes heavier than usual, the rudder stock has probably twisted. %owever, if the angle of twist is small, there is practically no effect on steering"

?hen the twisting angle is less than two degrees, there is no problem. *ut when the ship heavily stranded, the twisting combined with bending of rudder stock. 17-17-1 Position of twist 4ot the same as dents and cracks, It is very difficult to find the position of twist . The rudder stock above the neck bearing is slender, so the most cases it may be assumed that this part of the rudder stock will be twisted, *ut it is very difficult to check a position correctly. The twisting angle is measured after the rudder stock is oberhauled and placed on the level block. The difference of the position of key way on the top of rudder stock and the position of rudder flange. In this case only we recogni@e the twisting angle but we can not find the position of twisted area becaus there is no reference longitudinal line on the rudder stock. The rules of the 3ermanischer 1loyd D the 3erman classification societyC prescribe the replacement of the rudder stock when the angle of twist is greater than /: degrees. If the twist is /: degrees, the case where the twist has occurred throughout the length of the rudder stock, say over a range of < m, is uite different from the case where the twist has occurred in a range of =: cm in the rudder stock" while the twist in the former is :.< degrees per unit length, the twist in the latter is nearly si' times this value. Aor instance, the report does not have an entry such as "twist was found over a distance of /,=:: mm from a point >,::: mm above the coupling in the upward direction", because nobody knows the range of twisting. 2ne reason for this is that permissible values of twist have not been decided. In the new building a reference line in the longitudinal direction should be marked on the rudder stock. 17-17-2 Act$al e2amples of twist !s mentioned above, 31 re uires replacement of rudder stock if the twist e'ceeds /: degrees, but we are inclined to think that this re uirement has been simplified beyond our reasoning. $esults of damage and repairs of twisted rudded stock e'perienced during survey are as follows " 17-17-3 4epairing twist Twist occurs because of stranding and bottom contact, therefore, repair costs are generally covered by insurance. Aor this reason, there are many instances of renewing the rudder stock. %owever, as the rudder stock is a large forged block, a considerable time is re uired to procure materials. It is customary to carry out temporary repairs and renew the rudder stock later. The following precautions should be taken during repairsB

/C The keyway was sub)ect to large forces, therefore, confirm using ultrasonic testing that cracks are not present. >C The entire rudder stock is sub)ected to twisting forces, therefore, e'amine the entire surface of the rudder stock for very small flaws. <C Aor details of welding the keyway, see /:+7+6D>C "&rocedure for ?elding $epairs"

Table /:+> ('ample of repair works on the twisted rudder stock D/C If the twist angle is comparatively small as shown in the figure, the keyway for the rudder stock and the tiller is machined to increase its si@e so that a larger key can be fitted. The method of retaining the original keyway and ad)usting the position of the steering gear may also be considered, but I have not heard of actual e'amples of such a practice. Aor the ship in. ( on the Table /:+>, however, the uadrant was increased in si@e by adding an e'tra piece and the rudder angle was corrected" this is an e'ample of ad)usting the steering gear.

Aig./:+9; !d)ustment using a new bigger key

Aig./:+97 !d)ustment of uadrant

D>C *igtwist angle If the twisted angle is so large that repairs to the key alone are inade uate, the keyway can be built up by welding, the welded part checked for flaws by ultrasonic tests, and a new keyway cut to suit the twisted angle. The rudder stock can be used even though it is twisted. %owever, because of the twist, the rudder stock might have flaws that are not visible to the eyes" therefore, it should be e'amined by non+destructive tests such as ultrasonic flaw detection, magnetic particle test or dye penetrant test Dcolour checkC. If very small cracks are detected, depending on the si@es of the cracks, they may be chipped out or other measures adopted to eliminate them. This is a temporary repair method" after repairs are carried out , the shipowner has to procure a new rudder stock and replaced. however, these repairs may be accepted as permanent repairs. The wire rope test is described here for reference. In addition to the breaking test of the wire rope, after individual core wires of the rope is sub)ected to twisting test and coiling test. In the twisting test, one end of each core wire is fi'ed and the other end is rotated to twist the wire. If the core wire breaks before reaching a specified number of turns, the rope is considered to be defective, irrespective of its tensile strength. Aor e'ample, in a =< mm diameter, 4o. < rope D; '/6C used for mast stays, the diameter of one core wire is 9 mm. If the core wire is gripped at a length of 9:: mm and the twisting test performed, it should withstand at least /7 turns before breaking. That is, the 9 mm diameter core wire should not break before /7 rotations D/7 ' <;: degreesC over a length of 9:: mm span. The material of the rudder stock and each individual wire are different" so does the surface layer" therefore, these two items cannot be compared directly. %owever, even if the rudder stock is twisted to <;: or 7;: degrees, it may not break in my opinion.

&hto./:+= Twisting test of core wire in the wire rope The left end of core wire is fi'ed and its right end is rotated. the speed at which the wire is turned is also a factor to be

consideredB it should be ;: tuenes per minute.

8ig.17-4) Ad$stment of twisting The old key way Dshown in full lineC is built up by welding" a new key way Din dotted lineC is cut to suit the twist of the rudder stock DM thetaC and the the tiller position is ad)usted to suit the rudder. 17-11 9thers 17-11-1. 8lap r$dder In order to improve the response of the rudder.The flap is fitted behind the rudder plate. This rdder is called *ecker rudder. The pointofthe inspection is as followsB The link mechanism and the connecting hinges including the flange are to be carefully inspected . If necessary, wear in the bearing may be measured at an overhaul inspection. !t Special Survey, in addition to above inspection, operation tests are to be carried out .

Aig./:+9= Alap rudder 17-11-2 ,ntermediate bearing The rudder is generally supported at three points" In case o f a hanging rudder, the supporting poinnt is two. %owever, in rare cases, some ships have rudders supported at four points, with an additional intermediate bearing below the uppermost support, namely the rudder carrier.

Aig./:+9; $udder with 9 bearings

Aig./:+97 Intermediate*earing

The bush in the intermediate bearing always shows abnormal wear and at the every dodking, bush is renewed. This is because the centring of the rudder is incorrect. In this case it is better to abolishthis bearingto take off the bush and change from four point supports to three points. !fter removal of the intermediate bearingthere is no problem in rudder operation.Three support points are ade uate for a normal rudder. 17.11.3 4$dder carrier !lthough no rerationship to bottom inspection, the rudder carrier is an important part connecting the rudder and the steering gear in the steering gear room. Aig. /:+ 8+> shows an e'ample of the construction of a rudder carrier" the construction of the thrust disk Dcarrier diskC has already been described .The points for inspecting the rudder carrier are listed below. D/C 1ooseness of bolts connecting rudder carrier to deck are to be e'amined with the test hammer. D>C Cracks in deck connection part

Aig./:+97 Ai'ing the rudder carrier In the construction shown in the figure on the left, crack will not apear in the deck. *utin the figure right, cracks might appear in the welded )oint at the inserted liner to the deck. when the thicker liner plate is welded to deck. Sometimescircumferenc cracks might be appeared in the weld )oining to the deck. D<C 1oose of wedge ?here reamer bolts are not used but a wedge is used for securing the rudder carrier to the deck, if the wedge becomes loose, or the direction in which the wedge is driven is incorrect, the carrier might turn" therefore, confirm that the wedge has been secured correctly.

Aig./:+98 Ai'ing the rudder carrier fi'ed with edge D9C ?ear to thrust disk Dcarrier diskC cf. &hoto /:+9 ('amine wear and scratch to the thrust disk and the conditions of securing screws, as described in Section /:+8+> . ?hen the wear of the disk is minor but there is local scratch on the carrier disk because of inade uate lubrication, the disk may be reversed, oil grooves newly cut into the disk, and the disk reused, depending on the saratch. In ships e uipped with electrohydraulic steering gear, always check the following points when inspecting the rudder carrierB /C 1oose studs for gland of the hydraulic cylinder and oil leakage >C !re there any flaw or scratch in the ramE

. &hoto./:+; Scratches on the ram

Propeller
&ropeller and the stern tube is an independent survey items from the docking survey.*ut the classification rules in docking survey say as followsB " The propeller and the after end of the stern bush are to be e'amined. The clearance in the stern bush and the efficiency of the oil gland should be ascertained. In the case where a controllable pitch propeller is fitted, it is to be ascertained that the pitch control device is in good working order, and, if considered necessary, the device is to be opened up for further e'amination." These surveyare responsible on the .achinery surveyor . *ut hull surveyor also have someelementary knowledgeon propeller and stern tube. The followings are only guidance concerning to these items. 11-1 Propeller amage The biggest damage of propelle is the broken blades" while sailin , when abnormal vibration suddenly happens in the stern and continues, it may be caused because of the broken propeller blade . In this case, the engine should be stopped, then the e'tent of damage to be checked and depending on the damage, the ship should visit to the nearest port for an 2ccasional Survey. If more than one+third of the blade is broken, there is a possibility that the damage also occurred to the stern tube. In the dry dockd not only propeller but stern tube

should be carafully e'amined. Sometimes propeller shaft should be withdrawn. The causes of this damage are contacting with a submerged or floating ob)ect or small material defect during manufacturing which developt to hair cracks, and or metal fatigue. 11.1.2 !end of blade *end occurs because of impact of the propeller with other ob)ects" they can be detected easily even before the propeller is cleaned. 11.1.3 Crac(s Small cracks are overlooked in many cases. They cannot be detected unless stagings are erected and after cleaning of each blade. (ven the hair cracks they have a possibility of e'panding and breaking the propeller blade. Thse hair cracks are discovered by dye penetration test. 3enerally this test need not be carried out for the entire surface of the blade" it is customary to check only the area from the root to :.9$ of the blade. In the previous dock if a stop+hole has been drilled at the crack end and the hole has been filled with a wooden plug, pay attention whether crack ia e'tended or not. In this case refer to previous Survey $ecord on this matter.

&hoto.//+/ *lade broken D/C

&hoto.//+> *lade broken D>C

&hoto.//+< *lade bent 11.1.4 Corrosion Similar to the rudder, the propeller blade may be sub)ected to spongiform corrosion DerosionC due to cavitation. There is no good repair method" the surface can be smoothed using a grinder, or depending on the position, the blade can be built up by welding, If the corrosion is severe, the corroded part may be cut out and using the approved material and repairedby welding. These welding repairs should be entrusted to the propeller manufacturers because welding of copper alloys is very difficult.

&hoto.//+9 %air crack on the blade

&hoto.//+= *lade errosion 11-2 ,nspection of !lades !ccording to data on cracks and broken blades, the blade is fre uently cut at the location called the & point" therefore, this part should be inspected with particular care. The & point lies on the pressure side of the blade, and it is the point where the thickness of the blade is ma'imum and where the rounded radius of the boss terminates. The indication of the position on the propeller is similar to the concept of the frame space indicating the position of the frame and beam shown in the figure //+/ below. The blade is divided into parts formed by measuring arcs from the centre of the propeller at every /:L of the radius of the propeller, such as :.9$, :.7$. The names of the blades are generally assigned as !, *, C, D and ( or D/C, D>C, D<C, D9C, and D=C in case of five+bladed propeller. The name of each blade is engraved at the root of the blade. It can be find easily after green algae or dirt on the propeller blade has been removed. The area shown in the figure should be inspected with special care. !fter polishing the surface using a disk sander along the length of the blade, the surface should be e'amined using a hand magnifying glass or by performing the dye penetrant test. Aor details of the dye penetrant test,

Aig.//+/ &ropeller 4omenclature D/C Aig.//+> &ropeller 4omenclature D>C 11.3 Propeller 4epair The surface of the propeller blade is divided into three regionsB !, * and C. The table below shows the kinds of repairs that can or cannot be carried out in each region. %owever, only typical damage and inspection procedures are covered here.

Aig.//+< The area for dye penetration test

Aig.//+9 &ropeller blade $ N $adius, Ct N Chode lenght in rudius r

Table //+>+> Find of repair 11.4 8all of .$ard 4ing ! guard ring Dalso called a rope guardC is fitted between the propeller front face and the stern frame to prevent floating ob)ects such as fishing nets from being fouled with the propeller shaft. The guard ring is a split ring welded to the boss of the stern frame. It can come off easily if an ob)ect hits it. ! guard ring is not prescribed by the $ules, but if it has fallen off, it must be replaced by manufacturing a new ring and fitting it in place.

Aig.//+9 3urd ring


12.5 Clearance Meas$rement The clearance between the propeller shaft and the bearing should be measured during the bottom inspection. There are two methods of

measuring clearance, depending on the waterOsealing method for the shaft. Aor the rudder, the clearances in the longitudinal Dfore+aftC and transverse Dp+sC directions of the rudder shaft are measured, but for the propeller shaft, because the lower surface of the shaft is in contact with the bearing, only the clearance of the upper surface of the shaft has to be measured in case of a water++lubricated system.

Aig.//+= Clearanceof stern tube bearing Aor an oil lubricationsystem, also measure the clearance at the lower surface. %owever, for an oilOlubricated system, clearances of the upper and lower surfaces have to be measured, because the shaft sinkage is small. Clearances in the transverse direction need not be measured because the shaft is rotating all the time. 11.5.1 Clearances of sea waterBl$bricated bearings Similar to measuring the clearance of the rudder pintle, remove the guard ring, insert the feeler gauge or the measuring wedge from the stern tube side and measure the clearance. *efore the lignumvitae dries out after the ship is drydocked, measure the clearance of the upper surface and record the results of the measure+ments in the Inspection $ecord Aorm .+/. Aor a ship with twin shafts, item /. in the form is for the propeller on starboard side, and item >. is for the port side. If a twinOshaft ship has shaft brackets, enter the measurements in the lower Dart of the form

Aig.//+; .easurement of Clrarance

Table //+> $esults of mesurement D/C The allowable ma'imum clearances according to shaft diameter are given below. If the values below are e'ceeded, the stern tube bearing material should be replaced or repaired.

Table //+< !llowable ma'. clarance 12.5.2 'eardown of oilBl$bricated bearings 0nlike lignumvitae used in waterOlubricated bearings, metal can be used in oilO lubricated bearings, and the clearance between shaft and bearing can be reduced. ?ear is also small, and most modern ships use oilOlubricated bearings. Clearances should be measured at the same shaft positions as the previous measurement. To specify the shaft position, use the position of the propeller blade or the position of the main engine piston. 3enerally, this position is specified according to the position of the propeller blade" for e'ample, measure clearance with blade ! at the top. If no hole for measuring sinkage is provided in the guard ring, the guard ring should be removed, the screwed cap of the measuring hole removed, and a measuring instrument such as #ernier calipers, soOcalled wear down gauge, inserted and distances from the bearing to the upper and lower surface of the shaft measured. The measued records is to be entered in the survey report showing the position of measured point sucha sa the Fey Top or 4o. ; Crank Top." however, unless the bonnet is removed, the key position cannot be )udged" therefore, it is convenient to take a specific blade DcylinderC as the reference for sinkage measurement. In large ships today, propellers are generally keyless. Sinkage is the difference in measurement at the time of inspection and measurement when the ship was built. The standard limit for sinkage is :.< mm irrespective of the shaft diameter. Sinkage should be determined by studying the properties of lubricating oil, and the history of temperatures of the lubricating oil and bearing material. !n e'ample of the Inspection $ecord is shown below.

&hoto.//+; .easuringclearnce ('ample of position propeller shaft

Aig.//+7 &osition of propeller blade

Table11-4 Results of measurement (2) (1) Example of measuring clearance in a oil-lubricated bearing

D/C 2riginal

D>C 2verhaul of guard ring and cap bolt

D<C Inserting the gauge

D9C .easurenent Aig. //+= .easuring of propeller shaft clearance

-2/ 12ample of meas$rement res$lts for sin(age .easurement results for two ships and their graphs are provided below for reference. The part above the kinked line shows the top, and the part below the kinked line shows the bottom measurement values. The position of the blade does not conform to the key top position but the 4o. 8 piston top position. Ship D/C B Tanker, 7>,<;83-T,built in /67= .onth .easurement .onth .easurement 9-/677 //9.<://9.8= ;-/678 //=.9:-//9.7= 6-/676 //=.=:-//9.8: //-/68: //=.=:-//9.8: =-/68> //=.;:-//9.8: 6-/68< //=.<:-//9.7: =-/68= //9.6:-//9.7: //-/68; //9.6:-//9.;: /:-/688 //9.6:-//9.;: /:-/66: //=./:-//9.6: 6-/66> //=.9:-//=.:: Ship D>C B Tanker, 9<,9993-T, built in /67= .onth .easurement .onth .easurement />-/68/ 7>.7-7<./ 9-/689 7>.;-7<.> =-/68; 7>.6-7<./ ;-/688 7<.<-7<.< 9-/66: 7<.9-7<.< =-/66> 7<.<-7<.9

Aig.//+; $esults of measurement D<C 11." ,nspection of #tern +$be #eal 2il leaks from the propeller boss in the stern frame of an oilOlubricated system can sometimes be detected during a bottom inspection. This is probably due to a defective seal, therefore, a detailed e'amination of the seal is necessary.

Aig.//+7 2il leakage from propeller boss 11.& !ow +hr$ster and #ide +hr$ster These items are shipowner,s options, therefore, they need not be inspected under class re uirements. %owever, if these items are installed on the ship, they should be inspected at the docking survey. Are uently observed damage includes damage to guards at sea water ports due to impact with submerged or floating ob)ects, and bent propeller blades. If the shaft seal is defective, water entersin to the ship" however, such incidents are not reported. Inspection results should be entered in the Survey $eport. ?hen the stainless plate is used in the surface of the no@@le, the corrosion of ad)usent steel platesuould be carafully inspected.

Aig.//+8 Damage of side thruster guard

Aig.//+6 Damage to side thruster

12. Anchor
12.1 .eneral !nchors, anchor chain cables, mooring ropes, and towing ropes are collectively called "( uipment" . The number, weight and si@e of the e uipment are determined by the ( uipment 4umber calculated according to the si@e of a ship. Conse uently, ?hen the dimensions of the hull are modified or the arrangement is modified and the e uipment 4umber e'ceeds the present number, the e'isting e uipment has to be changed to new one. Inspections of anchors and anchor chains are not the re uirements of the Docking Survey but they are an inspection items in a Special Survey and Intermediate Survey. *ut the inspection of the anchor and chain cable are carried out costomary at the Doking Survey. !t the Docking Survey anchors and anchor chain cabless are ranged on the dock floor and the surveyor carry out the survey. %ereinafter e'plain the survey points and the e'amples of dmage and repair methods.

&hoto./>+/ !nchor and chain cable ranged on the dry dock 12-2 5ind and m$mber of anchor 1ong time ago anchors are made of stone or wood. *ut in later days many kinds of anchors are invented. %owever in these days anchors are made of steel and the following types are widely used.

-1/ #toc( anchor I

&hoto./>+/ Stock anchor Dfrom "The Sea Aellow"C

Aig./>+/ Stock anchor

-2/ #toc(less anchor 4ow almost all ships have a stockless anchor which e uipped at bow on both & and S side. .r.%arkins invented the stockless anchor in /8>< and .r. .atinse took a patent in /8=9. *ut the shipowners did not pay much interst in this new anchor. !fter long testing, in /668 0F 4avy finally accepted ths anchor and gradually stockless anchor becomes popular. 2n the other hand, .r.Scot invention the very useful %ause pipe. 4ow the stockless anchor and hause pipe are indespensable e uippment to all ships.

&hoto./>+> Stockless anchor Dfrom ?ikipediaC

Aig./>+/ Stockless anchor

Aig./>+< Terminology of stocklessanchor parts

-3/ @$mber of anchor !ccording to the old $ules , at least three anchors including the spare anchor are to be provided. %owever, from /68;, omission of the spare anchor has been approved at the re uest of the shipowners. -4/ #$r*e% items 4ot only the inspection of !nchor and chain cable the Classification rules re uests the following survey itemsB "!nchors are to be e'amined, and when the chain cables are ranged, they are to be e'amined. %awse pipes, chain lockers and cable holdfasts are to be e'amined. The Surveyor should ascertain that sufficient mooring ropes are provided on board. !s described above, note that in addition to inspection of anchors and anchor chains, inspection of chain lockers and chain stoppers is included in the Special Survey. Inspection of ropes generally includes confirmation of the number, and it is customary to carry out a visual inspection of ropes." 12-3 efects and preca$tions d$ring inspection -1/ !rea( and Crac( *reaks or cracks may develop in the shank or the arm because of defects in the casting during manufacturing. 4aturally anchor should be renewed. It takes several months to manufacture the new anchor.So the surveyor make the outstanding recommendations considering the delivery period for a new anchor. It is customary about si' months Small cracks sometimes appears at the corners of the hole in the under surface of the crown. This part should be carefuly inspected after sludge is removed and cleaned. Depending on the degree of damage, repair can be carried out out by rewelding.

&hoto./>+< *roken shank D/C

&hoto./>+9 *roken surface D/C

&hoto./>+= *roken shank D>C

&hoto./>+; *roken surface D>C

&hoto./>+7 *roken arm

&hoto./>+8 *roken surface

&hoto./>+6 Crack at the end of arm

&hoto./>+/: Crack at stopper

&hoto./>+// Crack at shank -2/ !end ?hen the anchor is resting on the dock floor, sometimes both fluke ends do not touch to the floor, it means, one fluke is raised higher than the other, then the one arm is bent. Depending on the degree of the bend, the anchor should be send to the manufacturer for repairing or it should be renewd. In this case also the outstanding recommendation is appointed.

&hotp./>+/> *ent arm

Aig./>+9 *ent arm />+<+< ?ear and tear D/C ?ear to anchor ring The ma'imum wear to the anchor ring appears at the pin. If the wear is only at the pin, then only the pin may be renewed using an approved material Dforged steel, cast steel or rolled steel round barC" but in most cases the hole in the anchor ring is also worn out, therefore, the complete set is generally replaced. During replacement, a proof test for the complete anchor should be carried out" however, if the anchor is repaired at the shipyard, sometimes this test is omitted as the testing e uipment is not available. .oreover, the pins at both ends became loose and they develop play fre uently. If this happens, the end of the pin should be hammered while heating to tighten the pin.

Aig./>+= !ncho ring pin D>C ?ear to shank In new ships the shank often wears out at the the bellOmouth position. 1ater when the shank and bellOmouth adopt themselves , the wear is reduced, so repairs by welding is not necessary.

Aig./>+; abrasion of shank <C ?orn out of crown pin The crown pin connecting the shank and the crown wears out in the aged ship but generally the wear does not reach a stage where it needs replacement. %owever, it is recommended that the condition of the pin is to be

inspected after cleaning the sludge.

('ample where crown pin D/<C is leaning to one side because block P is short. The block is inserted into the crown hole and is welded so that the crown pin does not fall out. There are instances of no block being used, but molten lead is poured in to prevent the crown pin from falling out.
Aig./>+7 Defectivecrown pin (1)

('ample where the crown pin diameter is too small. 3enerally, a considerable amount of sludge accumulates near the crown pin. If the sludge is not removed from a and b, flaws cannot be detected.
Fig.12- !efecti"e crown pin (2)

Discontinuities in the structure should be closely inspected. &hoto. />+/< *ack of crown D9C Decrease of anchor weight In the past, $ules prescribed replacement of an anchor when its weight was found to have decreased below the allowable limit due to corrosion and wear" however, measurement of anchor weight is not re uired by $ules today. . /<.9 Spare !nchor ?ith the amendment to the /68; $ules, a spare anchor became a shipowner,s option" If the shipowner re uested e'emption from provision of a spare anchor, e'emption was granted. Conse uently, in recent years, spare anchors have not been provided for most ships. If provided, the spare anchor is lashed in the vicinity of the uperstructure. The anchor ring, which is a movable part, often rusts and does not operate. Therefore, an ade uate amount of grease should be applied to the ring pin and it should be covered with canvas.

&hoto. />+/9 Spare anchor of 9/<,==< D-? tanker on the A,cle deck

13. Anchor Chain Cable


?hen the ship is anchored the holding power is not only ancor itself but the total weight of anchor chain cables on the sea bed. 3enellaly common rink of anchor chain cable has a stud and studless chain is not used as an anchor chain cable. Studless chain is used as lashing, hand rail etc. During an anchor chain inspection, the chain cables should be ranged out on the dock floor and visually inspected for wear and the link diameter is measured .3enerally the overhauling of eachshackle has been omitted.(specially the opening up the kenter shackle is very difficult and not so important for the maintenance of chain cable.

&hto./ Cahin cable in dry dockD/C

&hto./ Cahin cable in dry dockD>C 13.1 5ind of chain cable 13.1.1 +%pe and ma$nfact$ring process Chin rinks are made of steek bar or cast steel. In case of 01CC and #1CC almost all are of cast steel. -1/ +%pe !ll ancor chains are st$d chain. Studless chain is not used as an anchor cain cable. -2/ 0ength and Aoining The length of chain is defined as the distance between the inside edge of the link at one end and also the inside edge of the link at another end. In the past, the length of chain cable was >9.: m, but today almost all

are are >7.= m. These chains are )oined with shackles to form a length that complies with the re uirements of the ( uipment 4umber. The number of links in a chain is an odd number so the shackle always comes at the same position on the gypsy wheel of the windlass. To remove the twists of chain cable, a swi*el piece is sometimes connected between anchor and the chain cable. The number of links in the swivel piece is even number. -3/ Mat$fact$ring process iC Aorging In these days forged chain is not used as an anchor chain . iiC ?elding The almost all chains are made by electrically welding. iiiC Cast steel The big chain for 01CC and #1CC is manufactured by casting. *y casting different strength steel chain can be made. -4/ #trength There are three kinds of chain cables depends on the maerial as followsB /C 4ormal strength >C %igh strength <C ('tra high. strength 9C The diameter of the chain The diameter of the chain is that of the common link.

Aig./<+/ Cahin Diameter, the piece between upper and lower pieces is called stud. ?hen a large tensile load is applied to this chain, the studs bare the compression load, therefore, deformation of the link is small and the total strengh of the stud chain is stronger than the studless chain. 13.1.2 5ind of chain cable There are two kinds of chain cable depends on the )oining means. -1 'ith end and enlarged lin( at both ends ?hen connect using a ordinary )oining shackle, both end links do not have studs for inserting the head of shackle. Then the diameter is bigger than the common link.The links of both ends are called end lin( and the ne't one to the end link is called second lin(. *oth links have a bigger diameter .?ithout the two links at the ends, all other links are called common lin(s. -2/ Common lin(s onl% ?hen connection using a kenter shakles, there are neither end link nor second link. !ll are common links.

Aig./<+> Studless chain Dshort link chainC

Aig./<+< Stud chain without end link DHoin with kenter shackleC 13.1.3 Connection of Chain Cable The length of anchor chain cable is >9m or >7.=m. So it is necessary to )ion each other using shackles. There are two type of shackles. 2ne is a )oining shackle and the others is a kenter shackle.

Aig./<+< Hoining with )oiningshackle

Aig./<+9 )oining with kenter shackle -1/ Aoining shac(le ?hen the chain is connected with )oining shackle, the ends of the chain cable have no end links so that the head of the )oining shackle can pass through. The second link DenlargedC is an intermediate link used for connecting the end link and the common link.

Aig./<+= (nd rink DaboveC and Hoining shackle DdownC -2/ 5enter shac(le ?hen the chain is )oined with Fenter shackle, chain cable has neither end link nor second link. !ll chain cable consists of common links only. The construction of this shakle is not a simple like the )oining shackle and more e'pensive . *ut it is very useful because the chain can be )oined at any position when it is broken. In case of chain is connected with )oining shackle and broken at the common link, it is impossible to )oin the broken common link with the )ionung shackle. So in case of all chains connected with )oining shackle, generally the ship has one or two kenter shakles to )oin the broken common link.

Aig./<+; Dismantling of kenter shackle

D/C &ull out the taper pin D>C $emove the stud D<C Dismantle the two parts of the link by sliding them apart" however, if rust has formed the parts, slide the parts is very difficult " therefore, sometimes openingEup may be omitted . !ssembling the Fenter shackle is by reversing procedure. *ut , if the top and bottom of the stud are not assembled correctly, the taper pin cannot be inserted.

&hoto >. 2verhauled kentere shackle

&hto <. Special kenter shaclle

13.1.4 Accessor% to Anchor Chain Cable !cccessories to anchor chain cable are as followsB -1/ Anchor shac(le

1arge shackle used for connecting the chain cable and the anchor -2/ Aoining shac(le !S above mentioned, shackles used for connecting two chain cables" if studless end links are not provided at both ends , this shackle cannot be used. -3/ 5enter shac(le Shackles used for connecting a chain consisting of common links only and no end links. This shackle has a split construction, therefore, it can be used to connect a broken chain, irrespective of where the break has occurred. It is more e'pensive than the )oining shackle" dismantling this shackle is a little difficult. -4/ #wi*el Swivel is i)oined close to the anchor, it has the role of preventing twists in the chain cable due to its rotation. If a swivel is not provided in the chain, the links in the chain may be twisted

Aig./<+7 Swivel -5/ !$o% shac(le D%arp shackleC This is a special shackle used for connecting the chain directly to a buoy after removing the anchor when mooring a ship to a buoy. This shackle is a shipowner,s option and is not a rule re uirement. The buoy shackle is the similar form of a harp so, called a harp shackle.

Aig./<+8 *uoy shakle 13.2 amage to Chain and Chec( Point d$ring ,nspection 13.2.1 0in(s

-1/ !rea(s ! chain cableis broken at the shoulder part of a link due to shearing force as shown below. If the link breaks at the parallel part, it is due to a welding defect. If the link breaks the chain and the anchor drop into the sea. In this case lost chain cables and anchor should be discovered and pull up from the seabed. unless otherwise ancor and chain cables should be renewed.

Aig./<+6 *roken link at the tensile test in the manufacturer In 3rade > flash butt chain of diameter <> mm, the chain broke at a load of 8=.6 tons compared to the rule tensile load of =6.9 tons D99.;L overC. 4ot broken links have no big deformation.

Aig./<+/: 4ormal breaking ! fully welded chain elongates ade uately and breaks at the shoulder D!C due to shearing. Depending on the impact, the link might also break at D*C and the stud might be separated.

Aig./<+// *reaking at welding )oint If welding is defective, the link break at the welded section. -2/ !ending and twisting Sometimes bending or twisting happens in the links near the anchor in a chain with no swivel. This occurs when the anchor rotates while it is suspending. In case of e'cessive bending or twisting, the chain cannot pass the gypsy wheel of the windlass" In this case it has to be taken to the manufacturer and repaired.

&hoto./<+/: *ent rink -3/ !low hole In case of cast steel chain, sometimesblow holes appear on the surface, which did not appear during inspection at the manufacturer,s works. *low holes normally appear in a solid link or in every )oining link ! chain with blow holes, when taken to the manufacturer,s works and proofEtested to the specified load showed no decrease in strength" therefore, blow holes can be ignored depending on the number.

&hoto./<+// *low hole 13.3.2 #t$d ! stud is piece of steel inserted into the link" when a tensile load acts on both ends of the link, it keeps the link formand holds it firmly. %owever, if it is sub)ected to a large transverse impact, it sometimes works loose and comes off. D/C 1oss of stud If the stud is missing, the strength of the chain decreases considerably" therefore, repairs should be carried out promptly. If transporting to the manufacturer is difficult , the easy way to repair is to insert an appropriate steel piece similar to stud in the link to serve as a stud and weld one end of the piece to the link. In this case, welding is only one end not both ends.

Aig./<+/> Stud insert D>C Slack If you strike the stud with a test hammer , you can find whether the stud is slack or not. If in doubt, touch the stud with your finger while striking it with a hammer" you shall feel a slight looseness at your finger. If the stud is slack, either tighten it or weld one end only . If both ends of the stud are welded, abain crack appears in weldedone end.

Aig./<+/< ('amination of stud sluck

Aig.<+/9 Stud sluck

Aig./<+/= 1ost stud

D<C Cracks !ged ships have a forgeEwelded chains. Sometimes, crack appears in stud end. the studs in these chains are made of tempered iron.

Aig./<+/; Crack in stud 14.3.3 #wi*el The swivel might be provided optionally by the shipowner" it is not provided in some small ships. The points to be checked in the swivel areB wear at the neck" if wear is e'cessive, the eye piece might work loose and drop off, causing the anchor to fall into the sea. (ither the swivel

Aig./<+/7 !brasion of Swivel should be taken to the manufacturer,s works to replace the eye piece, or the entire swivel should be replaced. 14.3.4 Aoining shac(le

Aig./<+/8 !brasionof shackle 14.3.5 Anchor shac(le The bolt of anchor shackle should come to the anchor side. If it comes to the opposite side, when the anchor is heaved up, the anchor shackle might bite into the bell+ mouth and open the shackle, resulting in the anchor falling.

*efore making a connection, confirm that the head of the anchor shackle can be inserted into the end link, as shown in the figure above. This may not be possible with some anchor shackles.

The connection is generally made as shown in the above figure " however, when the anchor is stowed, the anchor shackle catches at the bellEmouth as shown in the figure to the right, the anchor shackle opens and the anchor drops. Such instances have been reported. Aig./<+/6 Connection anchor to chain cable

Aig./<+>: *ell mouth and anchor shckle 13.4 Meas$rement of chain diameter 13.4.1 Chain diameter In small ships that operate on short voyage , anchoring is so fre uent. therefore, the chain wears out faster. There have been instances where a chain reached its wear limit within eight years and had to be renewed. The anchoring fre uency is low for large ships and the diameter of the chain is also large" therefore, wear is small. Aor both types of ship, the chain diameter should be measured during the Docking Survey.

Aig./<+>/ Chain diameter 13.4.1 'hat is the diameter C The diameter of the chain in old ships is reduced due to wearing out. The original diameter is given in the survey report but sometimes the original diameter is unknown because of the report cannot be found on site. ?e can guess the original diameter measuring the length of the link and divide it by ;. The result will be the original diameter. The length of the link,

even in old ships, shows practically no change. 13.4.2 12change the both ends of the chain cable The chain cable is always stowed in the chain locker. The part of the chain near the anchor wears out rapidly than the remaining cable in the chain rocker. Therefore, to prolong the life of the chain cable, it is better to change the arrangement at anchor side and end in the chain rocker. Docking survey is very good oportunity to change the arrangement of the chaincable. ('changing the both ends also eliminates rust in the part of the chain cable in the chain locker. 13.4.3 Meas$ring of cahin diameter The measuring position is shown in Aig./<+>>. It is difficult to measure the diameter of all links in the limited docking period, so they pick out > or < cables on both & and S+side at random and measure the diameter of both end and middle link . The avarage value is the chain diameter. .easured diameter should be entered in the survey report for the ne't docking survey. The wear limit was /:L according to conventional rules, but after the unification of the I!CS standards, this limit has been amended to />L. ?hen the rule diameter of the chain is /:: mm, a diameter up to 88 mm may be acceptable. If the avarage value of measured diameter is e'ceeds />L the chain cable shuld be renewed. *ut the chain cable is a productio by order so it is impossible to get the new one immediaetly. 3enerally surveyor makes an outstanding recommendation within si' months or so.

Aig./<+>> measurement of chain diameter The diameter is the average of "a" and "b" 13.4.4 bigger diameter ?hen the chain is manufactured, round bars are bent and welded" during these processes, the diameter is sometimes reduced. Taking this reduction, the diameter of round bar is >L Q <L larger than the rule diameter. Conse uently, in a

new ship, the measured results sometimes show a larger than the rule re uirement. !t the owners opton, some ships have a chain with one step above the rule re uirement . In such cases, the wear limit shall correspond to the diameter prescribed by rules. The measured diameter should be written in the survey report. 13.4.5 4enewal of chain cable Aor the renewal of chain cable there are many items. If one of the following items is not complied, new cahin cable may be useless. The following items are carefully check in the certificate of chain cable kept on board. 1/. #iDe Daimeter and length 2/ Material Depends on the steel, there are two kinds of steel is used for chain cable. 2ne is mild steel for welded chain and another is cast steel. !nd also there are three kinds of mild steel and two kinds of cast steel depends on the strenght of each steel. 3/ 5ind of <ioning 2ne is the )oining shackle and another is kenter shackle. ?hen to order a new chain cable, it is better to attach the copy of the certificate of e'isting chain cable to ship+chandler. 0nless otherwise , for e'ample, the following items have to be report to order book. "Diameter 9= mm using Fenter shackle, length >7.= m, 3rade > flash butt chain". If one item is different delivered new chain cable is useless. 13.5 3awse Pipe and Chain Pipe In old ships both hawse pipe and chain pipe have to be carefully e'amined. Sometimescrack, deform and heavy corrosion are found. 13." Chain 0oc(er Chain lockers in large ships have structures that looks like huge cylinders suspended on both sides" some chain lockers can be accessed only by descending the Hacob,s 1adder. Inside the chain locker it is dark and there is a shortage of o'ygen because of rusting, So ade uate precautions should be taken when you descend into the chain locker. ?e have to carefully e'amine the deformation, corrosion around the bilge well and end connection of chain cable.

Aig./<+>< chain 1ocker sideview

Aig./<+>9 In the chain locker D/C

Aig./<+>9 In the chain locker D>C

Aig./<+>= (nd connection D/C

Aig./<+>; (nd connection D>C


If the chain is connected using Fenter shackles, the entire chain consists of common links only without second link and end link

14. #ea ;al*es


!bout the sea valves, please refer to I4T($4!TI24!1 C24#(4TI24 24 12!D 1I4(S, $egulation >>. %ere in this chapter the inspection of the water suction and discharge valves Dhereinafter called "sea valves"C during a docking survey is described. If a sea valve and the distance piece are holed, water enters into the hull and may cause a ma)or casualty such as sinking of the ship" therefore, the inspections should be /9+/+/ %ull "Sea inlets and overboard discharges below the waterline are to be e'amined and valves and cocks together with their fastenings to the hull are to be dismantled and e'amined. Dismantling may be dispensed with at the discretion of the Surveyor, provided they were dismantled and e'amined at the last Docking Survey." /9+/+> .achinary "!ll openings to the sea including sanitary and overboard discharges in the machinery spaces and pump room with valves and cocks are to be e'amined internally and e'ternally. The fastening of valves and cocks to the hull are also to be e'amined." 14-2 Position of *al*e The weather deck discharge pipes are fitted above load water line without any

valves but most of discharge and inlet pipes are in stalled below the load water line directly to shell plate through the distance piece or the sea chest.

Aig./9+= #alve fitted directly to shell plate

Aig./9+; #alve fitted to the sea chest

&hoto. /9+< Storm valve Two storm valves are fitted because the open end of the pipe in the accommodation ie. drain hole of bath tub, located more than :./1, above 1?1 but

less than :.>1

&hoto./9+9 2verhauled sea valve at the sea chest 14-3 5inds and Constr$ction of #ea ;al*e There are many kinds of valves in the engine room. The biggest valves are in the cargo pump room in 01CC D0ltra 1arge Crude oil CarrierC. 3enerally valves are in charge of .achinery crew but depends on the practice of the ship+owners valves in the cargo oil pump in tanker are in charge of deck crew. 14-3-1 5inds of ;al*es D/C Alow direction Depends on the li uid flow direction there are < kinds of valves such as vertical, hori@ontal and angle as shown below.

#ertical %ori@ontal !ngle &hoto./9+= kinds of valve D/C from the catalogue of 4iikura Fogyo Co.1td.

D>C Construction There are four types of valves depends on the construction.

Storm valve !ngle valve Sluice valve *utterfly valve 1/ #torm *al*e Aig. /9+< is a sketch of the construction. If sludge accumulates in the pipe, the valve plate automatically opens with the weight of sludges and discharges them. !fter discharging, the counterweight fitted to one side of the valve plate closes the valve, It prevents thesea water from outside come into the hull.

Aig./9+7 .echanism of storm valve 2/ Angle *al*e and .lobe *al*e The stem ascends or descends when the handle is rotated. ?hen the valve disc at the end of the stem descends and comes in contact with the metal latch in the dis shaped valve seat, the suction-discharge stops.

Aig./9+8 .echanism of angle valve 3/ #l$ice *al*e The valve body is wedgeEshaped" when the handle is rotated, the valve body descends because of the threads cut into the stem and the valve plate stops the flow of fluid. In ships where the engine room is amidships and a shaft tunnel is provided, the construction of this valve is analogous to a watertight door installed at the aft end of the engine room.

Aig./9+6 .echanism of sluice valve 4/ !$tterfl% *al*e ?hen the spindle is rotated, the valve body rotates by 6: degrees and stops the flow of fluid.

Aig./9+/: .echanism of butterfly valve MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 14-4 amages of *al*es and distance piece /9+9+/ Storm valve In aged ships storm valve should be completely opened up and inspected. If the cover protruding from the valve body, it should be removed and completely opened up. D/C *lockage ?hen the valve is opened up, you might sometimes find toothbrushes or combs etc. came down from the washing basin which block the flow in the valve. In such cases, the valve plate will not operate, and the valve will not function as a non+ return valve. D>C Corrosion If the casing or the valve plate is e'cessively corroded, there might be corroded hole and if the arm to the hinge is also corroded and worn out, the valve plate should be renewed.

Aig./9+// corroded valve plate In the above figure ,D/C original valve plate, D>C gasket, counterweight missing and broken hinge D<C ?ear of gasket The gasket of the valve plate and the gasket fitted to the cover might be worn out and thickness reduced. If the cover is worn out, naturally water will leak. D9C ?ear or missing hinge pin The hinge pin might be too much corroded or missing. If the hinge pin is missing, the valve plate works loose. D=C .issing counterweight Sometimes the lead counterweight fitted to the valve plate is lost . In such a case, the valve will remain open permanently and will not function as a non+ return valve. D;C Defective spindle and handle In the screw+down type stop valve, sometimesthe spindle and the handleare broken.

Aig./9+/> *roken handle

/9+9+> D/C Corrosion and cracks ! ma)or problem in valves is a corrosion of the valve body. In old ships, openings appear suddenly because of corrosion, water floods into the engine room and in bad case the ship sinks. ('amine the thickness of body by hammering" if it feels thiner, open the valve completely and inspect thoroughly the internals . If a rubber lining has been provided, corrosion will be small" however, if the rubber lining has partly peeled off, concentrated local corrosion occurs. (ven if other area is is satisactory, holes might develop at the peeled off spots. In angle valves and globe valves, corrosion in valve body, valve stem and valve seat can be carefully e'amined, in addition to corrosion in the casing, sometimes, cracks are also detected in the casing. In Sluice valve, the grooved disk guide is provided on both sides of the casing. It prevents hori@ont@l movement of the valve disk. ?hen this guide is heavily corroded valve disk do not move smoothly. D>C #alve connection bolts or studs

*olts or studs used for securing the valve to the sea chest do not have any problems when they are made of stainless steel. *ut if they are made of mild steel they rapidly corrode because they are immersed in bilge. If the base of the valve is, corrosion progresses rapidly. In some cases, bolts head is disappeared.

Aig./9+/< #alve connecting bolt D<C Damage and wear to the valve seat ?hen the valve seat is damaged and the contact between sest snd valve disk is defective, watertightness will not be maintained even if the valve is closed. If such defect is found , it should be taken to the machine shop and repaired to obtain the proper seating. D9C 1eakage from gland ?hen the gasket through which the valve stem passes is deteriorted, the tightness is not kept. The basket is the important parts.

&hoto./9+= Corroded valve disk

Aig./9+/9 Defective valve disk

Aig./9+/= Defective valve seat

Aig./9+/; Defectivevalvedisk

14-5 istance Piece 3enerally valves are not directly fitted to the shell plating, but short piece of pipe which is called distance piece, is used between valve and shell plate. If a hole is made in this distance piece due to corrosion or crack,sea water runs into the engine room. ?e have to carefully e'amine the condition of distance piece. If corrosion is suspected, the plate thickness should be measured. 4ot only corrosion sometimes crack appeas at the bracket end. If the paint in the distance piece is partly dirty, there is a possibility of hole or crack. The scupper pipe on the e'posed deck is the same as the distance. piece. Check point of distance piece is as shown in the following figures.

Aig./9+/7 Corrosion of distance piece D/C

Aig./9+/8 Corrosion of distance piece D>C

Aig./9+/6 Corrosion of distance piece D<C

Aig./9+/6 Corrosion and crack in distance piece