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3

YEAR 2013
MCQ 3.1

CONTROL SYSTEMS

ONE MARK

The Bode plot of a transfer function G ^s h is shown in the figure below.

in 1 rad/s and 10 rad/s respectiveThe gain _20 log G ^s h i is 32 dB and 8 dB .at o c . ^s h is ly. The phase is negative for all . Then iaG d .no (B) . (A) . w s s w
MCQ 3.2

s Assuming zero initial condition, the response y ^ t h of the system given below to a unit step input u ^ t h is

(C)

O N
w

A I D
(D) (B) tu ^ t h (D) et u ^ t h

(A) u ^ t h 2 (C) t u ^ t h 2
YEAR 2013
MCQ 3.3

TWO MARKS

Y ^s h The signal flow graph for a system is given below. The transfer function U ^s h for this system is

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MCQ 3.4

^s h The open-loop transfer function of a dc motor is given as . = + s Va ^s h When connected in feedback as shown below, the approximate value of Ka that will reduce the time constant of the closed loop system by one hundred times as compared to that of the open-loop system is

s+1 5s2 + 6s + 2 s+ (C) s + s+ (A)

s+ s + s+ (D) 2 1 5s + 6s + 2 (B)

(A) 1 (C) 10

d Common Data Questions: 5 & 6 no w.

The state variable formulation ww of a system is given as o 0 x 1 x1 x1 1 > H=> H> H + > H u , x1 ^0 h = 0 , x ^0 h = 0 and y = 61 0@> H o 0 1 x 1 x x
MCQ 3.5

O N

A I D
(B) 5 (D) 100

co ia.

.in

The response y ^ t h to the unit step input is (B) 1 1 e2t 1 et (A) 1 1 e2t 2 2 2 2 (C) e t et (D) 1 et

MCQ 3.6

The system is (A) controllable but not observable (B) not controllable but observable (C) both controllable and observable (D) both not controllable and not observable
YEAR 2012 TWO MARKS

MCQ 3.7

The state variable description of an LTI system is given by Jx o1N J 0 a1 0NJx1N J0N K O K OK O K O o O = K 0 0 a2OKx2O + K0O u Kx Kx o O Ka 3 0 0OKx 3O K 1O L P L PL P L P Jx1N K O y = _1 0 0iKx2O Kx 3O GATE MCQ Electrical L P Engineering (Vol-1, 2 & 3) by RK Kanodia & Ashish Murolia

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where y is the output and u is the input. The system is controllable for (A) a ! a = a ! (B) a = a ! a ! (C) a = a ! a = (D) a ! a ! a =
MCQ 3.8

The feedback system shown below oscillates at 2 rad/s when

(A) K = (C) K =

and a = . and a = .

(B) K = (D) K =

and a = . and a = .

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 9 and 10 :


The transfer function of a compensator is given as Gc (s) = s + a s+b Gc (s) is a lead compensator if (A) a = b = (B) a = b = (C) a = b = (D) a = b = The phase of the above lead compensator is maximum at (A) 2 rad/s (B).in 3 rad/s (C) 6 rad/s

MCQ 3.9

MCQ 3.10

YEAR 2011
MCQ 3.11

The frequency response of a linear system G (j) is provided in the tubular form below G (j) 1.3 1.2 140c 1.0 150c 0.8 160c 0.5 180c 0.3 200c +G (j) 130c (A) 6 dB and 30c (C) 6 dB and 30c

O N
ww w

.no

A I D
co . a (D) 1/ i d

3 rad/s
ONE MARK

(B) 6 dB and 30c (D) 6 dB and 30c

MCQ 3.12

The steady state error of a unity feedback linear system for a unit step input is 0.1. The steady state error of the same system, for a pulse input r (t) having a magnitude of 10 and a duration of one second, as shown in the figure is

(A) 0 (C) 1

(B) 0.1 (D) 10

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MCQ 3.13

Page 254

An open loop system represented by the transfer function (s 1) is G s = (s + 2) (s + 3) (A) Stable and of the minimum phase type (B) Stable and of the nonminimum phase type (C) Unstable and of the minimum phase type (D) Unstable and of nonminimum phase type
YEAR 2011 TWO MARKS

MCQ 3.14

The open loop transfer function G (s) of a unity feedback control system is given as G (s) = K bs + l

s (s + ) From the root locus, at can be inferred that when K tends to positive infinity, (A) Three roots with nearly equal real parts exist on the left half of the s -plane (B) One real root is found on the right half of the s -plane (C) The root loci cross the j axis for a finite value of K K ! (D) Three real roots are found on the right half of the s -plane
MCQ 3.15

A two loop position control system is shown below

The gain K of the Tacho-generator influences mainly the (A) Peak overshoot (B) Natural frequency of oscillation (C) Phase shift of the closed loop transfer function at very low frequencies ( " 0) (D) Phase shift of the closed loop transfer function at very high frequencies ( " 3)
YEAR 2010
MCQ 3.16

O N
ww

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in

TWO MARKS

s (s + ) (s + ) complex G (j) plane (for 0 < < 3) is

The frequency response of G (s) =

plotted in the

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MCQ 3.17

o = AX + Bu with A = > The system X (A) Stable and controllable (C) Unstable but controllable

MCQ 3.18

The characteristic equation of a closed-loop system is s (s + ) (s + ) k (s + ) = k > .Which of the following statements is true ? n (A) Its root are always real o.i c . iathe range 1 < Re [s] < 0 d (B) It cannot have a breakaway point in o .n along the asymptotes Re [s] = 1 w (C) Two of its roots tend to infinity ww (D) It may have complex roots in the right half plane.

O N

A I D

H B = > H is

(B) Stable but uncontrollable (D) Unstable and uncontrollable

YEAR 2009
MCQ 3.19

ONE MARK

The measurement system shown in the figure uses three sub-systems in cascade whose gains are specified as G G G . The relative small errors associated with each respective subsystem G G and G are 1, 2 and 3 . The error associated with the output is :

(A) 1 + 2 + 1 3 (C) 1 + 2 - 3
MCQ 3.20

(B) 1 2 3 (D) 1 + 2 + 3

The polar plot of an open loop stable system is shown below. The closed loop system is

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(A) always stable (B) marginally stable (C) un-stable with one pole on the RH s -plane (D) un-stable with two poles on the RH s -plane
MCQ 3.21

The first two rows of Rouths tabulation of a third order equation are as follows. s s This means there are (A) Two roots at s = ! j and one root in right half s -plane (B) Two roots at s = ! j and one root in left half s -plane (C) Two roots at s = ! j and one root in right half s -plane (D) Two roots at s = ! j and one root in left half s -plane The asymptotic approximation of the log-magnitude v/s frequency plot of a in . o system containing only real poles and zeros is shown. Its transfer function is .c

MCQ 3.22

O N
ww w
)

d .no

A I D
ia
(B)

(A) (C)

(s + ) s (s + ) (s +

(s + ) s (s + ) (s + )

(s + ) s (s + ) (s + ) (s + ) (D) s (s + ) (s + )
TWO MARKS

YEAR 2009
MCQ 3.23

The unit-step response of a unity feed back system with open loop transfer function G (s) = K/ ((s + ) (s + )) is shown in the figure. The value of K is

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(A) 0.5 (C) 4


MCQ 3.24

(B) 2 (D) 6

The open loop transfer function of a unity feed back system is given by G (s) = (e 0. s) s . The gain margin of the is system is (A) 11.95 dB (B) 17.67 dB (C) 21.33 dB (D) 23.9 dB

Common Data for Question 25 and 26 :


A system is described by the following state and output equations dx1 (t) = 3x1 (t) + x2 (t) + 2u (t) dt dx2 (t) = 2x2 (t) + u (t) dt y (t) = x1 (t) when u (t) is the input and y (t) is the output .in
MCQ 3.25

MCQ 3.26

The system transfer function is dia o .n (A) 2 s + 2 (B) 2 s + 3 w w s + 5s 6 s + 5s + 6 w (C) 2 2s + 5 (D) 2 2s 5 s + 5s + 6 s + 5s 6 The state-transition matrix of the above system is e - 3t 0 e - 3t e - 2t e - 3t (B) = (A) = - 2t G - 3t - 2t G e +e e 0 e - 2t e - 3t e - 2t + e - 3t (C) = G 0 e - 2t
YEAR 2008

O N

A I D
.co

e 3t e - 2t e - 3t (D) = G 0 e - 2t
ONE MARK

MCQ 3.27

A function y (t) satisfies the following differential equation : dy (t) + y (t) = (t) dt where (t) is the delta function. Assuming zero initial condition, and denoting the unit step function by u (t), y (t) can be of the form (B) e - t (A) et (C) et u (t)
YEAR 2008

(D) e - t u (t)
TWO MARK

MCQ 3.28

The transfer function of a linear time invariant system is given as

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s + s+ The steady state value of the output of the system for a unit impulse input applied at time instant t = will be (A) 0 (B) 0.5 (C) 1 (D) 2
MCQ 3.29

G s =

The transfer functions of two compensators are given below : 10 (s + 1) C1 = C2 = s + 10 (s + 10) 10 (s + 1) Which one of the following statements is correct ? (A) C1 is lead compensator and C2 is a lag compensator (B) C1 is a lag compensator and C2 is a lead compensator (C) Both C1 and C2 are lead compensator (D) Both C1 and C2 are lag compensator The asymptotic Bode magnitude plot of a minimum phase transfer function is shown in the figure :

MCQ 3.30

This transfer function has (A) Three poles and one zero (C) Two poles and two zero
MCQ 3.31

O N
ww

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in
(B) Two poles and one zero (D) One pole and two zeros

Figure shows a feedback system where K > 0

The range of K for which the system is stable will be given by (A) 0 < K < 30 (B) 0 < K < 39 (C) 0 < K < 390 (D) K > 0
MCQ 3.32

The transfer function of a system is given as 100 s2 + 20s + 100 The system is (A) An over damped system (B) An under damped system (C) A critically damped system (D) An unstable system

Statement for Linked Answer Question 27 and 28.

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o = AX + Bu Y = CX The state space equation of a system is described by X where X is state vector, u is input, Y is output and , B = = G, C = G The transfer function G(s) of this system will be s (A) (B) s + (s + 2) s (s ) A == s (D) (s 2) s (s + ) A unity feedback is provided to the above system G (s) to make it a closed loop system as shown in figure. (C)

MCQ 3.33

MCQ 3.34

For a unit step input r (t), the steady state error in the input will be (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3
YEAR 2007
MCQ 3.35

The system shown in the figure is

N
YEAR 2007
MCQ 3.36

D O
ww no w. d

co ia.

IA
.in

ONE MARK

(A) Stable (B) Unstable (C) Conditionally stable (D) Stable for input u1 , but unstable for input u2
TWO MARKS

If x = e G (jw) , and y = Im G (jw) then for " 0+ , the Nyquist plot for G (s) = 1 s (s + 1) (s + 2) is (A) x = 0 (B) x = (C) x = y 1 (D) x = y The system 900/s (s + 1) (s + 9) is to be such that its gain-crossover frequency becomes same as its uncompensated phase crossover frequency and provides a 45c phase margin. To achieve this, one may use (A) a lag compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45c at the frequency of 3 3 rad/s (B) a lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase

MCQ 3.37

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lead of 45c at the frequency of 3 rad/s (C) a lag-lead compensator that provides an amplification of 20 dB and a phase lag of 45c at the frequency of 3 rad/s (D) a lag-lead compensator that provides an attenuation of 20 dB and phase lead of 45c at the frequency of 3 rad/s
MCQ 3.38

If the loop gain K of a negative feed back system having a loop transfer function K (s + 3) / (s + ) 2 is to be adjusted to induce a sustained oscillation then (A) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 3 rad/s (B) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 rad/s (C) The frequency of this oscillation must be 4 or 4 3 rad/s (D) Such a K does not exist

MCQ 3.39

The system shown in figure below

can be reduced to the form

O N
ww

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in

with (A) X = c0 s + c Y = / (s2 + a0 s + a ) Z = b0 s + b (B) X = Y = (c0 s + c ) / (s2 + a0 s + a ) Z = b0 s + b (C) X = c s + c0 Y = (b s + b0) / (s2 + a s + a0) Z = (D) X = c s + c0 Y = / (s2 + a s + a) Z = b s + b0
MCQ 3.40

Consider the feedback system shown below which is subjected to a unit step input. The system is stable and has following parameters Kp = 4 Ki = 0 w = 00 and = 0.7 .The steady state value of Z is

(A) 1 (C) 0.1

(B) 0.25 (D) 0

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Data for Q.41 and Q.42 are given below. Solve the problems and choose the correct answers.
R-L-C circuit shown in figure

MCQ 3.41

For a step-input ei , the overshoot in the output e will be (A) 0, since the system is not under damped (B) 5 % (C) 16 % (D) 48 % If the above step response is to be observed on a non-storage CRO, then it would be best have the ei as a (A) Step function (B) Square wave of 50 Hz (C) Square wave of 300 Hz (D) Square wave of 2.0 KHz
YEAR 2006

MCQ 3.42

MCQ 3.43

o = AX + Bu is equal to the matrix A in the state space form X V V R R S1 0 0 W S0 1 0 W (A) S 0 1 0 W (B) S 0 0 1 W W S S W S 1 2 4 W S 1 2 4 W X X T T V V R R 0 1 0 1 0 0 W W S S (C) S3 2 1 W (D) S 0 0 1 W S S W W S1 2 4 W S 1 2 4 W X X T T
YEAR 2006
MCQ 3.44

.co a i For a system with the transfer function d no 3 (s 2) . w , H (s) = 2 4s 2s + 1 ww

O N

A I D
.in

ONE MARK

TWO MARKS

Consider the following Nyquist plots of loop transfer functions over = 0 to = 3 . Which of these plots represent a stable closed loop system ?

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(A) (1) only (C) all, except (3)


MCQ 3.45

(B) all, except (1) (D) (1) and (2) only 1 (1 + j) is (1 + j) (1 + j) 2

The Bode magnitude plot H (j) =

O N
ww
MCQ 3.46

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in

A closed-loop system has the characteristic function (s2 4) (s + 1) + K (s 1) = 0 . Its root locus plot against K is

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YEAR 2005
MCQ 3.47

A system with zero initial conditions .nohas the closed loop transfer function. w s2 + 4 ww T s = (s + 1) (s + 4) The system output is zero at the frequency (A) 0.5 rad/sec (B) 1 rad/sec (C) 2 rad/sec (D) 4 rad/sec Figure shows the root locus plot (location of poles not given) of a third order system whose open loop transfer function is

O N

A I D
d co ia. .in

ONE MARK

MCQ 3.48

(A) K s

MCQ 3.49

K s2 (s + 1) K K (C) (D) s (s2 + 1) s (s2 1) The gain margin of a unity feed back control system with the open loop transfer (B)

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function G s = (A) 0 (C) 2

s+ s

is (B) 1 2 (D) 3
TWO MARKS

YEAR 2005
MCQ 3.50

A unity feedback system, having an open loop gain K (1 s) , G (s) H (s) = (1 + s) becomes stable when (A) K > (C) K < (B) K > (D) K <

MCQ 3.51

When subject to a unit step input, the closed loop control system shown in the figure will have a steady state error of

(A) 1.0 (C) 0


MCQ 3.52

In the G (s) H (s)-plane, the Nyquist plot of the loop transfer function w w pe G (s) H (s) = s passes through the negative real axis at the point (A) ( 0.25, j0) (B) ( 0.5, j0) (C) 0 (D) 0.5
-0.25s

O N

no w.

A I D
d
(B) .in 0.5 o c . ia (D) 0.5

MCQ 3.53

If the compensated system shown in the figure has a phase margin of 60c at the crossover frequency of 1 rad/sec, then value of the gain K is

(A) 0.366 (C) 1.366

(B) 0.732 (D) 2.738

Data for Q.54 and Q.55 are given below. Solve the problem and choose the correct answer.
o (t) = = A state variable system X condition X (0) = 1, 3 T
MCQ 3.54

0 1 1 X (t) + = Gu (t) with the initial G 0 3 0 and the unit step input u (t) has

The state transition matrix

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1 (A) = 0 1 (C) > 0


MCQ 3.55

1 3

(1 e 3t) G e 3t (e3 t e 3t) H e 3t

1 (B) > 0 1 (D) > 0

1 3

(e t e 3t) H e t

1 3

(1 e t) H e t e t G e t

The state transition equation te t (A) X (t) = = t G e te t (C) X (t) = = G e t


YEAR 2004

(B) X (t) = =

te t (D) X (t) = = G et
ONE MARK

MCQ 3.56

The Nyquist plot of loop transfer function G (s) H (s) of a closed loop control system passes through the point ( 1, j 0) in the G (s) H (s)plane. The phase margin of the system is (A) 0c (B) 45c (C) 90c (D) 180c Consider the function, F (s) =

MCQ 3.57

s (s + s + ) where F (s) is the Laplace transform of the of the function f (t). The initial value of f (t) is equal to 5 n (A) 5 (B).i2 (C)
MCQ 3.58
5 3

For a tachometer, if (t) is the w rotor displacement in radians, e (t) is the output voltage and Kt is the tachometer constant in V/rad/sec, then the transfer funcE (s) tion, will be Q (s) (A) Kt s (C) Kt s
YEAR 2004

O N

. ww

A I D
no .co a i d (D) 0
(B) Kt s (D) Kt

TWO MARKS

MCQ 3.59

For the equation, s s + s + = -plane will be (A) Zero (C) Two

the number of roots in the left half of s (B) One (D) Three C (s) is equal to R (s)

MCQ 3.60

For the block diagram shown, the transfer function

(A) s + s

(B) s + s + s

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(C) s + s + s
MCQ 3.61

s +s+ o = AX where The state variable description of a linear autonomous system is, X X is the two dimensional state vector and A is the system matrix given by A ==

(D)

G. The roots of the characteristic equation are


(B) j and + j (D) + 2 and + 2

(A) 2 and + 2 (C) 2 and 2


MCQ 3.62

The block diagram of a closed loop control system is given by figure. The values of K and P such that the system has a damping ratio of 0.7 and an undamped natural frequency n of 5 rad/sec, are respectively equal to

(A) 20 and 0.3 (C) 25 and 0.3


MCQ 3.63

The unit impulse response of a second order under-damped system starting from rest is given by c (t) = 2.5e - t sin t, t $ 0 . The steady-state value of the unit step response of the system is equal to (A) 0 (B) 0.25 .in (C) 0.5 (D) 1.0 .co

MCQ 3.64

dia o .n input x (t) = sin t . In the steady-state, the In the system shown in figure,w the response y (t) will be ww

O N

A I D
(B)

(B) 20 and 0.2 (D) 25 and 0.2

(A)

1 sin (t 45c) 2

1 sin (t + 45c) 2

(C) sin (t 45c)


MCQ 3.65

(D) sin (t + 45c)

The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given as 1. G (s) = as + s2 The value of a to give a phase margin of 45c is equal to (A) 0.141 (B) 0.441 (C) 0.841 (D) 1.141
YEAR 2003 ONE MARK

MCQ 3.66

A control system is defined by the following mathematical relationship d2 x + dx + 5x = 12 (1 e - 2t) dt dt2 The response of the system as t " 3 is (A) x = (B) x = 2 (C) x = 2.4 (D) x = 2

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MCQ 3.67

Page 267

A lead compensator used for a closed loop controller has the following transfer function s K (1 + a ) s (1 + b ) For such a lead compensator (A) a < b (B) b < a (C) a > Kb (D) a < Kb 2 A second order system starts with an initial condition of = G without any exter3 e- t nal input. The state transition matrix for the system is given by = G. The e-t state of the system at the end of 1 second is given by 0.271 0.135 (A) = (B) = G 1.100 0.368G 0.271 (C) = 0.736G
YEAR 2003

MCQ 3.68

0.135 (D) = 1.100 G


TWO MARKS

MCQ 3.69

A control system with certain excitation is governed by the following mathematical equation d x + 1 dx + 1 x = 10 + 5e 4t + 2e 5t dt 1 dt The natural time constant of the response of ithe n system are . o (A) 2 sec and 5 sec (B) c 3 sec and 6 sec ia. d (C) 4 sec and 5 sec .no (D) 1/3 sec and 1/6 sec

MCQ 3.70

w w w The block diagram shown in figure gives a unity feedback closed loop control
system. The steady state error in the response of the above system to unit step input is

O N

A I D
(B) 0.75 % (D) 33%

(A) 25% (C) 6%


MCQ 3.71

The roots of the closed loop characteristic equation of the system shown above (Q-5.55)

(A) 1 and 15 (C) 4 and 15


MCQ 3.72

(B) 6 and 10 (D) 6 and 10

The following equation defines a separately excited dc motor in the form of a differential equation

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d + B d + K = K V dt J dt LJ LJ a The above equation may be organized in the state-space form as follows R V Sd W d S dt W = P dt + QV > H a S d W S dt W X matrix is given by Where T the P K B LJ K B J (B) = LJ (A) = J G G
2 2

0 (C) =
MCQ 3.73

1 G

1 (D) =

0 G
2

The loop gain GH of a closed loop system is given by the following expression K s (s + ) (s + ) The value of K for which the system just becomes unstable is (A) K = (B) K = (C) K = (D) K = The asymptotic Bode plot of the transfer function K + (s a) is given in figure. The error in phase angle and dB gain at a frequency of = 0.5 are respectively

MCQ 3.74

O N
ww
(A) 4.9c, 0.97 dB (C) 4.9c, 3 dB
MCQ 3.75

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in

(B) 5.7c, 3 dB (D) 5.7c, 0.97 dB

The block diagram of a control system is shown in figure. The transfer function G (s) = Y (s) U (s) of the system is

(A)

1 18`1 + 1+ j 12 j` 3

(B)

1 27`1 + j`1 + j 6 9

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Page 269

(C)

1 s 27`1 + j`1 + s j 12 9

(D)

1 s 27`1 + j`1 + s j 9 3
ONE MARK

YEAR 2002
MCQ 3.76

o = AX with initial state X ( ) is The state transition matrix for the system X (A) (sI A) - 1 (B) eAt X ( ) (C) Laplace inverse of [(sI A) - 1] (D) Laplace inverse of [(sI A) - 1 X (0)]
YEAR 2002 TWO MARKS

MCQ 3.77

o == For the system X

GX + = Gu , which of the following statements is true ?

(A) The system is controllable but unstable (B) The system is uncontrollable and unstable (C) The system is controllable and stable (D) The system is uncontrollable and stable
MCQ 3.78

A unity feedback system has an open loop transfer function, G (s) = K The s root locus plot is

O N
ww

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in

MCQ 3.79

MCQ 3.80

The transfer function of the system described by d y dy + = du + u dt dt dt with u as input and y as output is (s + 2) (s + 1) (A) 2 (B) 2 (s + s) (s + s) (C) 2 2 (D) 22s (s + s) (s + s) For the system o == X

GX + = Gu ; Y = 8

B X,

with u as unit impulse and with zero initial state, the output y , becomes (A) 2e2t (B) 4e2t (C) 2e 4t (D) 4e 4t

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MCQ 3.81

Page 270

The eigen values of the system represented by R V S W S W o =S X WX are S W (A) 0, 0, 0, 0 (B) 1, 1, 1, 1 S W T 1 X (C) 0, 0, 0, (D) 1, 0, 0, 0 *A single input single output system with y as output and u as input, is described by dy dy + + 10y = 5 du 3u dt dt dt for an input u (t) with zero initial conditions the above system produces the same output as with no input and with initial conditions dy (0) = 4 , y (0) = 1 dt input u (t) is (B) 1 (t) 7 e 3t u (t) (A) 1 (t) 7 e(3/5) t u (t) 5 25 5 25 (C) 7 e (3/5) t u (t) (D) None of these 25

MCQ 3.82

MCQ 3.83

*A system is described by the following differential equation d2 y dy + - 2y = u (t) e t dt dt2 dy the state variables are given as x1 = y and .x n = b dt y let , the state i .co variable representation of the system iis a od o1 o1 1 1 x1 1 1 x x 1 e t x 1 n . (B) > o H = > H> H + > H u (t) (A) > o H = > tH> H + > H u (t) w 0 1 x 0 0 x x 0 e x ww o1 1 x 1 e t x 1 (C) > o H = > >x H + >0H u (t) H x 0 1

O N

A I D

(D) none of these

Common Data Question Q.84-86*.


The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by (s + ) G (s) = s (s + ) (s + 10) Angles of asymptotes are (A) 60c, 120c, 300c (B) 60c, 180c, 300c (C) 90c, 270c, 360c (D) 90c, 180c, 270c Intercepts of asymptotes at the real axis is (A) 6 (C) 4
MCQ 3.86

MCQ 3.84

MCQ 3.85

(B) 10 3 (D) 8 (B) 2.112, 6.9433 (D) 1.056, 6.9433

Break away points are (A) 1.056 , 3.471 (C) 1.056, 6.9433

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Page 271

YEAR 2001
MCQ 3.87

ONE MARK

The polar plot of a type-1, 3-pole, open-loop system is shown in Figure The closed-loop system is

(A) always stable (B) marginally stable (C) unstable with one pole on the right half s -plane (D) unstable with two poles on the right half s -plane.
MCQ 3.88

3 1 Given the homogeneous state-space equation xo = = x the steady state G T value of xss = lim x (t), given the initial state value of x ( ) = 81 1 B is
t"3

(A) xss = = G 1 (C) xss = = 1 G


YEAR 2001
MCQ 3.89

The asymptotic approximation w of the log-magnitude versus frequency plot of a minimum phase system with real poles and one zero is shown in Figure. Its transfer functions is

O N

. ww

A I D
no . dia co

3 (B) xss = = G 3 (D) xss = = G .in 3


TWO MARKS

(A) (C)

(s + ) s (s + ) (s + (s + ) s (s + ) (s +

) )

10 (s + 5) (s + 2) 2 (s + 25) (s + ) (D) s (s + ) (s + ) (B)

Common Data Question Q.90-93*.


A unity feedback system has an open-loop transfer function of G (s) = 1 s (s + 1 )

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MCQ 3.90

Page 272

Determine the magnitude of G j in dB at an angular frequency of = 20 rad/sec. (A) 1 dB (B) 0 dB (C) 2 dB (D) 10 dB The phase margin in degrees is (A) 90c (C) 36.86c The gain margin in dB is (A) 13.97 dB (C) 13.97 dB The system is (A) Stable (C) Marginally stable *For the given characteristic equation s3 + s2 + Ks + K = 0 The root locus of the system as K varies from zero to infinity is (B) 36.86c (D) 90c (B) 6.02 dB (D) None of these (B) Un-stable (D) can not determined

MCQ 3.91

MCQ 3.92

MCQ 3.93

MCQ 3.94

O N
ww

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in

************

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SOLUTION

Page 273

SOL 3.1

Option (B) is correct. From the given plot, we obtain the slope as Slope = 20 log G2 20 log G1 log w2 log w1 = 8 dB = 32 dB = 1 rad/s = 10 rad/s

From the figure 20 log G2 20 log G1 and 1 2 So, the slope is

Slope = 8 32 log 10 log 1 = 40 dB/decade Therefore, the transfer function can be given as G ^s h = k S at = 1 G ^ j h = k = k w n o.i In decibel, c . ia 20 log G ^ jh = 20 log k = 32 o d .n w or, k = 10 =w 39 .8 Hence, the Transfer functionw is G ^s h = k = . s s

O N
32 20

A I D

SOL 3.2

Option (B) is correct. The Laplace transform of unit step fun n is s So, the O/P of the system is given as Y ^s h = b lb l s s = U ^s h =

s For zero initial condition, we check dy ^ t h u^t h = dt U ^s h = SY ^s h y ^ h & & or, U ^s h = s c U ^s h = s

m y^ h

s Hence, the O/P is correct which is Y ^s h = s

^y ^ h = h

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Page 274

its inverse Laplace transform is given by y ^ t h = tu ^ t h


SOL 3.3

Option (A) is correct. For the given SFG, we have two forward paths Pk = ^1 h^s1h^s1h^1 h = s2 Pk = ^1 h^s1h^1 h^1 h = s1 since, all the loops are touching to both the paths Pk and Pk so, k = k = Now, we have = 1 (sum of individual loops) + (sum of product of nontouching loops) Here, the loops are L = ^ 4h^1 h = 4 L = ^ 4h^s1h = 4s1 L = ^ 2h^s1h^s1h = 2s2 L = ^ 2h^s1h^1 h = 2s1 As all the loop L , L , L and L are touching to each other so, = 1 ^ 4 4s1 2s2 2s1h = 5 + 6s1 + 2s2 n From Masons gain formulae o.i c . ia Y ^s h d P k k o = n U ^s h w. = 1 ^L1 + L2 + L 3 + L 4h

SOL 3.4

Comparing with standard form of transfer function, Aet t , we get the open loop time constant, ol = 10 Now, we obtain the closed loop transfer function for the given system as G ^s h 10Ka H ^s h = = 1 10 s + 10Ka + 1 + G ^s h Ka = s + ^Ka + h By taking inverse laplace transform, we get h ^ t h = ka .e^k + ht So, the time constant of closed loop system is obtained as
a

1 w s2 + s = 1 5 + 6s + 2s2 = 2s+1 5s + 6s + 2 Option (C) is correct. Given, open loop transfer function G ^s h = 10Ka = Ka 1 1 + 10s s + 10 By taking inverse Laplace transform, we have g ^ t h = e t

O N
w

A I D

cl =

ka +

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Page 275

(approximately) ka Now, given that ka reduces open loop time constant by a factor of 100 . i.e., cl = tol 100 or, = 10 100 ka or, ka = 10
SOL 3.5

or,

cl =

Option (A) is correct. Given, the state variable formulation, o 2 0 x1 1 x > o H = > 0 1H>x H + >1H u x 2 x1 and y = 61 0@> H x2 From Eq. (1) we get o1 = 2x1 + u x Taking Laplace transform So,

....(1) ....(2)

sX1 x1 ^ h = 2X1 + 1 (Here, X1 denotes Laplace transform of x1 ) s 1 ^s + 2h X1 = s X1 =

SOL 3.6

1 s ^s + 2h Now, from Eq. (2) we have n o.i y = x1 c . Taking Laplace transform both the sides, dia o .n Y = XL w 1 ww or, Y = s ^s + 2h or, Y = 1 ;1 1 E 2 s s+2 Taking inverse Laplace transform y = 1 8u ^ t h e2t u ^ t hB 2 1 = 1 e2t 2 2 Option (A) is correct. From the given state variable system, we have 2 0 A => 0 1H or,

D O

^x1 ^ h = h

IA

....(3)

(from eq. (3))

^for t > 0h

1 B = > H; C = 61 @ 1 Now, we obtain the controllability matrix AB@ CM = 6B and 1 2 => 2 1H and the observability matrix is obtained as C OM = > H CA

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Page 276

1 0 H => 2 0 So, we get Rank of the controllability matrix " Rank ^CM h = Rank of the observability matrix " Rank ^OM h = Since, the order of state variable is 2 ^x1 and x2h. Therefore, we have Rank ^CM h = order of state variables but, Rank (OM ) < order of state variables Thus, system is controllable but not observable
SOL 3.7

Option (D) is correct. General form of state equations are given as o = Ax + Bu x o = Cx + Du y For the given problem R 0 a 0V R V 1 W S S W A = S 0 0 a2W, B = S W S S W W Sa 3 0 0W S W X T T R 0 a 0VR0V R 0V X 1 WS W S W S AB = S 0 0 a2WS0W = Sa2W S W W S WS S 0W S1W Sa 3 0 0W X X T T T V V R VR0X R 0 0 a a 1 2 2 n W WS W Sa1 a S i o.0W A B = Sa2 a 3 0 0WS0W =.S c aS W W S d Wi S WS S S 0 a 3 a1 0W 1 0W o n . X X X T T T w that following For controllability it is necessary matrix has a tank of n = . w w R0 0 a a V 1 2W S U = 6B AB A B@ = S0 a2 0W S W S1 0 0W So, a !0 X T aa !0 & a ! a may be zero or not.

O N

A I D
R (s) Y (s)

SOL 3.8

Option (A) is correct. K (s + ) Y (s) = s + as + s + Y (s) ; +

K (s + ) K (s + ) R (s) = E s + as + s + s + as + s + Y (s) s + as + s ( + k) + ( + k) = K (s + ) R (s) Transfer Function, K (s + ) Y (s) H (s) = = R (s) s + as + s ( + k) + ( + k) Routh Table :

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Page 277

SOL 3.9

For oscillation, a +K +K =0 a a = K+ K+ Auxiliary equation A s = as + k + = s = k + a k + 1 (k + 2) = (k + 2) s = (k + 1) s = j k+ j = j k + (Oscillation frequency) = k+ = k =2 and a = 2 + 1 = 3 = 0.75 2+2 4 Option (A) is correct. jw + a GC (s) = s + a = s+b jw + b Phase lead angle, = tan1 a w k tan1 a w k a b Jw wN 1 K a bO = tan 2 K O w K1 + O ab L P .in o a) c 1 w (b . = tan c ia 2 m d +w oab n . For phase-lead compensation > ww 0 w ba > 0 b >a Note: For phase lead compensator zero is nearer to the origin as compared to pole, so option (C) can not be true.

O N

A I D

SOL 3.10

Option (A) is correct. = tan1 a w k tan1 a w k a b 1/a 1/b d = =0 2 2 d 1 +awk 1 +awk a b + w = + w a ab b ba a b =wb l ab a b 2 rad/ sec

= ab = 1 # 2 =
SOL 3.11

Option (A) is correct. Gain margin is simply equal to the gain at phase cross over frequency ( p ). Phase cross over frequency is the frequency at which phase angle is equal to 180c. From the table we can see that +G (jp) = c, at which gain is 0.5. 1 GM = 20 log 10 e = 20 log b 1 l = 6 dB 0.5 G (jp) o

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Page 278

Phase Margin is equal to 180c plus the phase angle g at the gain cross over frequency ( g ). Gain cross over frequency is the frequency at which gain is unity. From the table it is clear that G (jg) = , at which phase angle is 150c PM = 180c + +G (jg) = 180 150 = 30c
SOL 3.12

Option (A) is correct. We know that steady state error is given by sR (s) ess = lim s " 0 1 + G (s) where R (s) " input G (s) " open loop transfer function For unit step input R (s) = So s

sb 1 l s ess = lim = 0.1 s " 0 1 + G (s)

1 + G (0) = 10 G( ) = 9 Given inputr (t) or

SOL 3.13

R (s) = 10 :1 1 esD = 10 :1 e D s s s So steady state error n (1 es) o.i 0 c s # 10 . s ia10 (1 e ) = 0 l = lim ess = d o 1+9 s"0 1 + G (s).n w Option (B) is correct. ww Transfer function having at least one zero or pole in RHS of s -plane is called non-minimum phase transfer function. s1 G (s) = (s + 2) (s + 3) In the given transfer function one zero is located at s = (RHS), so this is a non-minimum phase system. Poles 2, 3 , are in left side of the complex plane, So the system is stable

O N
G (s) =

A I D
s

= 10 [ (t) (t 1)]

SOL 3.14

Option (A) is correct. K bs + l

s (s + ) Steps for plotting the root-locus (1) Root loci starts at s = , s = and s = (2) n > m , therefore, number of branches of root locus b = (3) Angle of asymptotes is given by (2q + 1) 1 c , q = ,1 nm (2 # 0 + 1) 180c (I) = 90c (3 1) (2 # 1 + 1) 180c (II) = 270c (3 1) (4) The two asymptotes intersect on real axis at centroid

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Page 279

2 b 2 l 3 / x = = 2 nm 31 3 (5) Between two open-loop poles s = and s = there exist a break away point. s (s + ) K = bs + l

/ =

dK = 0 ds s =0 Root locus is shown in the figure

Three roots with nearly equal parts exist on the left half of s -plane.
SOL 3.15

Option (A) is correct. .in The system may be reduced as shown below .co

O N
ww w

d .no

A I D
ia

1 s (s + 1 + K ) Y (s) 1 = 2 = 1 R (s) 1 + s + s (1 + K ) + 1 s (s + 1 + K ) This is a second order system transfer function, characteristic equation is s + s ( + K) + = 0 Comparing with standard form s + n s + n = 0 We get = 1+K 2 Peak overshoot M p = e
SOL 3.16

So the Peak overshoot is effected by K . Option (A) is correct. Given G (s) = s (s + ) (s + )

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G j = G j =

j j +
2

j +

1 + 1 2+ 4 +G j = 90c tan 1 () tan 1 (/2) In nyquist plot For = 0, G (j) = 3 +G j = 90c For = 3, G (j) = 0 +G j = 90c 90c 90c = 270c Intersection at real axis G j = j + j + 32 j (2 2) 1 = # 32 + j (2 2) 32 j (2 2) 32 j (2 2) = 94 + 2 (2 2) 2 2 j (2 2) = 4 23 9 + (2 2) 2 94 + 2 (2 2) 2 j j + j + =

At real axis

Im [G (j)] = 0 (2 2) So, =0 n 94 + 2 (2 2) o.i c . 2 2 = 0 & = 2 rad/sec dia o n . At = 2 rad/sec, magnitude response is w w w 1 G j at = = =1<3 6 4 2 2+1 2+4
SOL 3.17

Option (C) is correct. Stability : Eigen value of the system are calculated as A I = 0 1 2 0 1 2 > => A I = > H H 0 2 0 0 2 H A I = ( 1 ) (2 ) 2 # 0 = 0 & 1, 2 = 1, 2 Since eigen values of the system are of opposite signs, so it is unstable Controllability : 1 2 , B=> H A => 0 2H 2 AB = > H 2 0 2 [B: AB] = > H 1 2 Y 0 6B: AB@ = So it is controllable.

O N

A I D

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SOL 3.18

Page 281

Option (C) is correct. Given characteristic equation s (s + ) (s + ) + K (s + ) = 0 ; s (s + s + ) + K (s + ) = 0 s + s + ( + K) s + K = 0 From Rouths tabulation method s s s1 s 1 4 4 (3 + K) 2K (1) 12 + 2K = >0 4 4 2K 3+K 2K K>

There is no sign change in the first column of routh table, so no root is lying in right half of s -plane. For plotting root locus, the equation can be written as K (s + 2) =0 1+ s (s + 1) (s + 3) Open loop transfer function G (s) = K (s + ) s (s + 1) (s + )

Root locus is obtained in following steps: in o.s 1. No. of poles n = , at s = , s = 1 and = c . ia d 2. No. of Zeroes m = 1, at s = 2 .no w 3. The root locus on real axis wwlies between s = and s = 1, between s = 3 and s = 2 . 4. Breakaway point lies between open loop poles of the system. Here breakaway point lies in the range 1 < Re [s] < 0 . 5. Asymptotes meet on real axis at a point C , given by C = nm (0 1 3) ( 2) = 31

O N

A I D

/ real part of poles / real parts of

eroes

= 1 As no. of poles is 3, so two root loci branches terminates at infinity along asymptotes Re (s) = 1
SOL 3.19

SOL 3.20

Option (D) is correct. Overall gain of the system is written as G = G1 G 2 1 G3 We know that for a quantity that is product of two or more quantities total percentage error is some of the percentage error in each quantity. so error in overall gain G is 3 G = 1 + 2 + 1 3 Option (D) is correct.

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Page 282

From Nyquist stability criteria, no. of closed loop poles in right half of s -plane is given as Z = PN P " No. of open loop poles in right half s -plane N " No. of encirclement of ( 1, j0)

Here N = (` encirclement is in clockwise direction) P = (` system is stable) So, Z = ( ) Z = , System is unstable with 2-poles on RH of s -plane.
SOL 3.21

Option (D) is correct. Given Rouths tabulation. s s2 s 2 4 0 2 4 0

4s2 + 4 = 0 ww w s2 = 1 s =! j From table we have characteristic equation as 2s3 + 2s + 4s2 + 4 = 0 s + s + 2s2 + 2 = 0 s (s2 + ) + 2 (s2 + ) = 0 (s + 2) (s2 + 1) = 0 s = 2 , s = ! j
SOL 3.22

So the auxiliary equation is given by, od

O N

.n

A I D
co ia. .in

Option (B) is correct. Since initial slope of the bode plot is 40 dB/decade, so no. of poles at origin is 2. Transfer function can be written in following steps: 1. Slope changes from 40 dB/dec. to 60 dB/dec. at 1 = 2 rad/sec., so at 1 there is a pole in the transfer function. 2. Slope changes from 60 dB/dec to 40 dB/dec at 2 = 5 rad/sec., so at this frequency there is a zero lying in the system function. 3. The slope changes from 40 dB/dec to 60 dB/dec at 3 = 25 rad/sec, so there is a pole in the system at this frequency. Transfer function T (s) = K (s + ) s (s + 2) (s + 2 )
2

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Page 283

Constant term can be obtained as. T j So,


at = .

= 80 K (5) (0.1) 2 # 50

80 = 20 log

K = 1000 therefore, the transfer function is s+ T s = s s+ s+


SOL 3.23

Option (D) is correct. From the figure we can see that steady state error for given system is ess = 1 0.75 = 0.25 Steady state error for unity feed back system is given by sR (s) ess = lim = G s " 0 1 + G (s) s^ 1 sh ; R (s) = (unit step input) = lim s s"0> K H 1+ (s + 1) (s + 2) = 1K = 2 2+K 1+ 2 So, ess = 2 = 0.25 2+K

SOL 3.24

d Option (D) is correct. no . w figure is given by, Open loop transfer function ofw the w . s G (s) = e s
j . G (j) = e j Phase cross over frequency can be calculated as,

O N

2 = 0.5 + 0.25K K = 1. 5 = 6 0.25

A I D
co ia. .in

+G (jp) = 180c 180 b 0.1p # l 90c = 180c 0.1p # 180c = 90c 0.1p = 90c # 180c p = 15.7 rad/sec So the gain margin (dB) 1 = 20 log e = 20 log G (jp) o > = 20 log 15.7 = 23.9 dB
SOL 3.25

1 1 b 15.7 l H

Option (C) is correct. Given system equations dx (t) = 3x1 (t) + x2 (t) + 2u (t) dt

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Page 284

dx t = 2x2 (t) + u (t) dt y t =x t Taking Laplace transform on both sides of equations. sX s = 3X1 (s) + X2 (s) + 2U (s) (s + 3) X1 (s) = X s + U s Similarly sX (s) = 2X2 (s) + U (s) (s + 2) X2 (s) = U (s) From equation (1) & (2) U (s) (s + 3) X1 (s) = + 2U (s) s+2 U (s) 1 + 2 (s + 2) X1 (s) = E s+ ; s+2 (2s + ) = U (s) (s + 2) (s + ) From output equation, Y (s) = X1 (s) So, Y (s) = U (s) (2s + ) (s + 2) (s + ) ...(1) ...(2)

SOL 3.26

System transfer function (2s + ) Y (s) (2s + 5) = 2 T.F = = U (s) (s + 2) (s + 3) s + s+ Option (B) is correct. .in o c . Given state equations in matrix formia can be written as, d o o1 3 1 .n x1 2 x + > H u (t) >o H = > 0 w H > H w x2 w 2 x2 1 dX (t) = AX (t) + Bu (t) dt State transition matrix is given by

O N

A I D

(t) = L 1 6F (s)@ (s) = (sI A) 1 s 1 (sI A) = > H > s 2H s+ (sI A) = > (sI A) 1 = 1 s + 2H

s+2 1 1 > 0 s + 3H (s + 3) (s + 2) R V 1 S 1 W (s + 3) (s + 3) (s + 2)W S -1 So (s) = (sI - A) = S W 1 S 0 (s + 2) W T t 2t X e e e t -1 (t) = L [ (s)] = > H e 2t


SOL 3.27

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Option (D) is correct. Given differential equation for the function dy (t) + y (t) = (t) dt

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Taking Laplace on both the sides we have, sY s + Y s = 1 (s + 1) Y (s) = 1 Y s = s+

Taking inverse Laplace of Y s y t = e t u t , t >


SOL 3.28

Option (A) is correct. Given transfer function G (s) = Input s + s+

r (t) = (t 1) R (s) = L [ (t 1)] = e s Output is given by e s Y (s) = R (s) G (s) = s + s+ Steady state value of output s lim y (t) = lim sY (s) = lim 2 se =0 t"3 s"0 s " 0 s + 3s + 2
SOL 3.29

Option (A) is correct. For C Phase is given by

SOL 3.30

C = tan 1 () tan 1 a ok .in 10 c . ia o J n Nd . O = tan 1 K ww 10 2 K w K1 + O O 10 P L = tan 1 c 9 2 m > 0 (Phase lead) 10 + Similarly for C , phase is C = tan 1 a k tan 1 () 10 J N 1 K 10 O = tan 2 K K1 + O O 10 P L = tan 1 c 9 2 m < 0 (Phase lag) 10 + Option (C) is correct. From the given bode plot we can analyze that: 1. Slope 40 dB/decade"2 poles 2. Slope 20 dB/decade (Slope changes by + 20 dB/decade)"1 Zero 3. Slope 0 dB/decade (Slope changes by + 20 dB/decade)"1 Zero So there are 2 poles and 2 zeroes in the transfer function. Option (C) is correct. Characteristic equation for the system K =0 1+ s (s + 3) (s + 10)

O N

A I D

SOL 3.31

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Page 286

+K = 0 s + s + s+K = 0 Applying Rouths stability criteria s s s1 s0 1 13 (13 # 30) K 13 K 30 K

s s+

s+

For stability there should be no sign change in first column So, 390 K > 0 & K < 3 0 K >0 0 <K< 0
SOL 3.32

Option (C) is correct. Given transfer function is 100 s + 0s + 100 Characteristic equation of the system is given by H (s)) = s + 0s + 100 = 0 n = 100 & n = 10 rad/sec. 2n = 20 n = 20 = 1 o.i c 2 # 10 . a

or

( = 1) so system is critically damped. .no


SOL 3.33

Option (D) is correct. ww State space equation of the system is given by, o = AX + Bu X Y = CX Taking Laplace transform on both sides of the equations. sX (s) (sI A) X (s) X (s) ` Y (s) Y (s) T.F = = AX (s) + BU (s) = BU (s) = (sI A) 1 BU (s) = CX (s) = C (sI A) 1 BU (s)

O N
w

A I D
di

So

Y (s) = C (sI A) 1 B U (s)

s 0 0 1 s 1 => (sI A) = > H > H 0 s 0 0 s+ H R V 1 W S1 1 >s + 1H = Ss s (s + )W (sI A) 1 = S0 1 W s (s + ) 0 s S (s + ) W T X Transfer function

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G s = C sI A

V V R R 1 W S1 S 1 W s s (s + 2)W 0 Ss (s + 2)W = 1 0 B = 81 0BS > H 8 B S0 S 1 W 1 W1 S (s + 2) W S (s + 2) W X X T T = s s+

SOL 3.34

Option (A) is correct. Steady state error is given by, sR (s) ess = lim = G s " 0 1 + G (s) H (s) R (s) = L [r (t)] = 1 (Unit step input) s G (s) = s (s + )

Here

SOL 3.35

H (s) = 1 (Unity feed back) V R sb 1 l W S s W So, ess = lim S 1 s"0S W + 1 S s (s + 2) W X T s (s + 2) = lim = G =0 s " 0 s (s + 2) + 1 Option (D) is correct. For input u , the system is (u2 = 0)

O N
ww

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in

System response is (s 1) (s 1) (s + 2) H (s) = = (s 1) 1 (s + 3) 1+ (s + 2) (s 1) Poles of the system is lying at s = (negative s -plane) so this is stable. For input u the system is (u1 = 0)

System response is 1 (s 1) (s + 2) H (s) = = 1 s ( ) ( s 1) (s + 3) 1+ 1 (s 1) (s + 2) One pole of the system is lying in right half of s -plane, so the system is unstable.

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SOL 3.36

Page 288

Option (B) is correct. Given function is. G (s) = G (j) = s (s + ) (s + )

j ( + j ) ( + j )

By simplifying j j j G (j) = c # j j mc + j # j mc + j # j m = c = j (2 2 j3) j 1 j 2 j = 2 mc 1 + 2 mc 4 + 2 m 2 (1 + 2) (4 + 2)

SOL 3.37

j (2 2) 32 + 2 (1 + 2) (4 + 2) 2 (1 + 2) (4 + 2) G (j) = x + iy x = Re [G (j)] " 0 = 3 = 3 1#4 4 Option (D) is correct. Let response of the un-compensated system is
+

s (s + ) (s + ) Response of compensated system. H (s) = s (s + ) (s + )

H (s) =

Where GC (s) " Response of compensator .co a i d Given that gain-crossover frequency no of compensated system is same as phase . crossover frequency of un-compensated system ww w So, (g) compensated = (p) uncompensated 180c = +H (jp) 180c = 90c tan 1 (p) tan 1 a J + p N p 9 O 90c = tan K 2 O K K 1 p O 9 P L 2 1 p = 0 9
1

O N
G (s)

A I D
.in

p 9k

p = 3 rad/sec. So, (g) compensated = 3 rad/sec. At this frequency phase margin of compensated system is PM = 180c + +HC (jg) 45c = 180c 90c tan 1 (g) tan 1 (g /9) + +GC (jg) 45c = 180c 90c tan 1 (3) tan 1 (1/3) + +GC (jg) R 1 V 3 + S 3 W 45c = 90c tan 1 S + +GC (jg) 1 W 1 3 W S b 3 lW S X T by RK Kanodia & Ashish Murolia

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45c = 90c 90c + +GC (jg) +G jg = 45c The gain cross over frequency of compensated system is lower than un-compensated system, so we may use lag-lead compensator. At gain cross over frequency gain of compensated system is unity so. H jg G jg g g + g + G jg in dB G g =1 =1 = 3 9 + 1 9 + 81 = 3 # 30 = 1 900 900 10 = 20 log b 1 l 10 = 20 dB (attenuation)
SOL 3.38

Option (B) is correct. Characteristic equation for the given system, K (s + 3) =0 1+ (s + 8) 2 (s + 8) 2 + K (s + 3) = 0 s + ( + K) s + ( + K) = 0 By applying Rouths criteria. 64 + 3K s 1 s
1

16 + K 64 + 3K

s0

For system to be oscillatory

16 + K = 0 & K = 1 Auxiliary equation A (s) = s + ( & s + + # ( 1 ) = 0 =0 s + s = 1 & j = j = 4 rad/sec

O N
0

ww

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in
+ K) = 0

SOL 3.39

Option (D) is correct. From the given block diagram we can obtain signal flow graph of the system. Transfer function from the signal flow graph is written as c 0 P + c1 P s s2 T.F = a Pb a 0 1 + 1 + 2 2 0 Pb1 s s s s (c 0 + c1 s) P (s + a1 s + a 0) P (b 0 + sb1) (c 0 + c1 s) P 2 s ^ + a1 s + a 0 h = P (b + sb1) 1 2 0 s + a1 s + a 0 from the given reduced form transfer function is given by =
2

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Page 290

XYP 1 YPZ by comparing above two we have T.F = X = (c 0 + c1 s) Y = s +a s+a Z = (b 0 + sb1)

SOL 3.40

Option (A) is correct. For the given system Z is given by Z = E (s) Ki s Where E (s) " steady state error of the system Here sR (s) E (s) = lim s " 0 1 + G (s) H (s) Input R (s) = s (Unit step)

G (s) = b Ki + K p le s s + s + o H (s) = 1 (Unity feed back) So,

R V n sb 1 l i S W . s co Wb Ki l . Z = lim S a 2 i s"0S Ki W s d2 o pl 2 W n S1 + b s + K w. (s + 2s + ) X T w w Ki = lim = Ki = 2 s"0 >s + (Ki + K p s) 2 H Ki 2 (s + 2s + )

O N
LCs + RCs +

A I D

SOL 3.41

Option (C) is correct. System response of the given circuit can be obtained as. H (s) =
bCs l e (s) = ei (s) bR + Ls + Cs l

H (s) =

b LC l

s +Rs+ L LC

Characteristic equation is given by, =0 s +Rs+ L LC Here natural frequency n = LC C L

2n = R L Damping ratio = R LC = R 2 2L Here = 10 2

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1 # 10 3 = 0.5 (under damped) 10 # 10 6

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Page 291

So peak overshoot is given by


SOL 3.42 SOL 3.43

% peak overshoot = e Option ( ) is correct.

=e

= 16%

Option (B) is correct. In standard form for a characteristic equation give as sn + an sn + ... + a s + a = 0 in its state variable representation matrix A is given as R V 1 0 g 0 W S 0 S 0 0 1 g 0 W A =S W Sh h h h h W S a 0 a1 a2 g an 1W T X Characteristic equation of the system is 4s2 2s + 1 = 0 So, a = , a = , a = R 0 R 1 0 V S W S0 0 1 W=S 0 A =S 0 S S a 0 a1 a2W W S S 1 T X T Option (A) is correct. In the given options only in option (A) circle ( 1, j0), So this is stable.

SOL 3.44

SOL 3.45

Option (A) is correct. co. . a di Given function is, o n . 10 4 (1 + j )w w H (j) = w + j ) 2 (10 + j) (100 Function can be rewritten as, 10 4 (1 + j) H (j) = 2 10 91 + j C 10 4 91 + j C 10 100 = 0.1 (1 + j) 2 a1 + j 10 ka1 + j 100 k

O N

A I D
in

1 0V W 0 1W W 2 4W X

the nyquist plot does not enclose the unit

The system is type 0, So, initial slope of the bode plot is 0 dB/decade. Corner frequencies are 1 = 1 rad/sec 2 = 10 rad/sec 3 = 100 rad/sec As the initial slope of bode plot is 0 dB/decade and corner frequency 1 = 1 rad/ sec, the Slope after = 1 rad/sec or log = 0 is(0 + 20) =+ 20 dB/dec. After corner frequency 2 = 10 rad/sec or log 2 = 1, the Slope is (+ 20 20) = 0 dB/dec. Similarly after 3 = 100 rad/sec or log = 2 , the slope of plot is (0 20 # 2) = 40 dB/dec. Hence (A) is correct option.
SOL 3.46

Option (B) is correct.

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Page 292

Given characteristic equation. (s2 4) (s + 1) + K (s 1) = 0 K (s 1) or =0 1+ 2 (s 4) (s + 1) So, the open loop transfer function for the system. K (s 1) , no. of poles n = G s = (s 2) (s + 2) (s + 1) no of zeroes m = Steps for plotting the root-locus (1) Root loci starts at s = , s = 1, s = (2) n > m , therefore, number of branches of root locus b = (3) Angle of asymptotes is given by (2q + 1) 1 c , q = ,1 nm (I) (II) (2 # 0 + 1) 180c = 90c (3 1) (2 # 1 + 1) 180c = 270c (3 1)

(4) The two asymptotes intersect on real axis at / oles / eroes = ( 1 2 + 2) (1) = 1 x = 31 nm (5) Between two open-loop poles s = 1 and s = 2 there exist a break away point. n o.i c . (s2 4) (s + i 1 ) a K = (s n 1o )d

O N
dK = 0 ds

w ww

A I D

s = 1.5

SOL 3.47

Option (C) is correct. Closed loop transfer function of the given system is, s2 + 4 T (s) = (s + 1) (s + 4) T (j) = (j) 2 + 4 (j + 1) (j + 4)

If system output is zero 4 2 T (j) = =0 ^ j + 1h (j + 4) 4 2 = 0 2 = 4 & = 2 rad/sec


SOL 3.48

Option (A) is correct. From the given plot we can see that centroid C (point of intersection) where asymptotes intersect on real axis) is 0 So for option (a) G (s) = K s3

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Page 293

Centroid =
SOL 3.49

o e / ero = nm

Option (A) is correct. Open loop transfer function is. (s + ) G (s) = s j + 1 G (j) = 2 Phase crossover frequency can be calculated as. +G (jp) = 180c tan 1 (p) = 180c p = 0 Gain margin of the system is. G.M = G (jp) = p + p = p p + =

SOL 3.50

Option (C) is correct. Characteristic equation for the given system 1 + G (s) H (s) = 0 (1 s) =0 1+K (1 + s)

(1 + s) + K (1 s) = 0 n s ( K) + ( + K) = 0 o.i c . For the system to be stable, coefficient dia of characteristic equation should be of o .n same sign. w ww 1 K > 0, K + > K < , K > 1 < K < K <1
SOL 3.51

O N

A I D

Option (C) is correct. In the given block diagram

Steady state error is given as ess = lim sE (s)


s"0

E (s) = R (s) Y (s) Y (s) can be written as Y (s) = :"R (s) Y (s), R (s)D s s+ = R (s) ; Y (s) ; s (s + ) s + E s (s + )E Y (s) ; + = R (s) ; s E s (s + )E s (s + )

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Y s =R s So,

s s + s+ s E s =R s s + s+ =R s ; s + s E s + s+

R s

For unit step input R s =


s"0

Steady state error ess = lim sE (s) (s2 + 4s) ess = lim =s 1 2 =0 s (s + 2s + 6)G s"0
SOL 3.52

Option (B) is correct. When it passes through negative real axis at that point phase angle is 180cSo +G (j) H (j) = 180c 0.25j = 2 0.25j = 2 j . = 2 j= 2 # 0.25 s = j = a.co di function we get Put s = in given open loop transfer o n . 0.25 # 2 w e w G (s) H (s) s = w = = 0.5 2 So it passes through ( 0.5, j0)

O N
K+j . j (j + )

A I D
.in

SOL 3.53

Option (C) is correct. Open loop transfer function of the system is given by. G (s) H (s) = (K + 0.366s) ; 1 E s (s + 1) G (j) H (j) =

Phase margin of the system is given as PM = 60c = 180c + +G (jg) H (jg) Where g " gain cross over frequency = 1 rad/sec 0.366g So, 60c = 180c + tan 1 b 90c tan 1 (g) K l = 90c + tan 1 b 0.366 l tan 1 (1) K = 90c 45c + tan 1 b 0.366 l K 15c = tan 1 b 0.366 l K . K = tan 15c by RK Kanodia & Ashish Murolia

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SOL 3.54

K = 0.366 = 1.366 0.267 Option (A) is correct. Given state equation. o (t) = >0 1 H X (t) + >1H u (t) X 0 3 0 Here 0 1 1 ,B = > H A => H 0 3 0 State transition matrix is given by, (t) = L 1 [(sI A) 1] s s => [sI A] = > H > H s s+ H R V S W s+ s s (s + )W S 1 = [sI A] = > W sH S s (s + ) S (s + ) W T X (t) = L 1 [(sI A) 1] 1 => 0
1 3

(1 e3t) H e3t

SOL 3.55

Option (C) is correct. State transition equation is given by

X (s) = F (s) X (0) + F (s) BU od(s) n . Here (s) " state transition matrix w R V ww S W s s (s + )W S (s) = S W S (s + ) W T X X ( ) " initial condition 1 X( ) = > H 3

O N

A I D
co ia. .in

1 B => H 0 R V R V S W S W s s (s + )W s (s + ) s W S S So X (s) = S W> H + S W> H s S (s + ) W S s+ W T X V T X V R R S + W S W s s (s + )W s+ W S S = + s = + >s H S W > Hs S W + S W s+ S W s+ T X T R V X S W s+ W s S X (s) = S W S s+ W T X Taking inverse Laplace transform, we get state transition equation as,

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t e t X t => t H e
SOL 3.56

Option () is correct Phase margin of a system is the amount of additional phase lag required to bring the system to the point of instability or ( 1, j0) So here phase margin = 0c Option (D) is correct. Given transfer function is F (s) = F (s) = s (s + s + ) s (s + ) (s + )

SOL 3.57

By partial fraction, we get 5 F (s) = 5 5 + 2s s + 1 2 (s + 2) Taking inverse Laplace of F (s) we have f (t) = 5 u (t) 5e t + 5 e 2t 2 2

SOL 3.58

So, the initial value of f (t) is given by lim f (t) = 5 5 + 5 (1) = 0 2 2 t"0 Option (C) is correct. n In A.C techo-meter output voltage is directly o.i proportional to differentiation of c . rotor displacement. dia o .n e (t) \ d (t) w dt w d (t) e (t) = Kt dt

O N
w

A I D

Taking Laplace tranformation on both sides of above equation E (s) = Kt s (s) So transfer function E (s) T.F = = ^Kt h s (s) Option (B) is correct. Given characteristic equation, s s +s+ = 0 Applying Rouths method, s s s
1

SOL 3.59

1 4 4 6 = 2.5 4

1 6 0

s0 6 There are two sign changes in the first column, so no. of right half poles is 2. No. of roots in left half of s -plane = (3 2) = 1
SOL 3.60

Option (B) is correct. Block diagram of the system is given as.

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Page 297

From the figure we can see that C s = :R s s +R sD +R s s

C s =R s : + + D s s C s = +s+s R s s
SOL 3.61

Option (A) is correct. Characteristic equation is given by, sI A = 0 s (sI A) = > H > s s , s =! 2

SOL 3.62

Option (D) is correct. For the given system, characteristic equation ican n be written as, . o c 1 + K (1 + sP) = 0 ia. d s (s + 2) o s (s + ) + K ( + sP) = w 0w w s + s ( + KP) + K = 0 From the equation. n = K = 5 rad/sec (given) So, K= and 2n = 2 + KP 2 # 0.7 # 5 = 2 + 25P or P = 0.2 so K = , P = 0.2

O N

.n

A I D

s H = > s H = s

=0

SOL 3.63

Option (D) is correct. Unit - impulse response of the system is given as, c (t) = 12.5e 6t sin 8t , t $ So transfer function of the system. H (s) = L c (t) s + s+ Steady state value of output for unit step input,
t"3

12.5 # 8 (s + 6) 2 + (8) 2

H (s) =

lim y (t) = lim sY (s) = lim sH (s) R (s)


s"0 s"0

100 1 = 1.0 = lim s ; 2 E s s"0 s + 12s + 100

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SOL 3.64

Page 298

Option (A) is correct. System response is. H (s) = s s+ j H (j) = j + Amplitude response +1 Given input frequency = 1 rad/sec. 1 So H (j) = rad/sec = = 1 1+1 2 Phase response H (j) = h () = 90c tan 1 () h () = = 90c tan 1 (1) = 45c So the output of the system is y (t) = H (j) x (t h) = 1 sin (t 45c) 2 Option (C) is correct. Given open loop transfer function ja + 1 G (j) = (j) 2 Gain crossover frequency (g) for the system. G (jg) = 1 a g + g =1

SOL 3.65

a g + = g g a g = 0 Phase margin of the system is

O N
ww

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in
...(1) (2)

SOL 3.66

PM = 45c = 180c + +G (jg) 45c = 180c + tan 1 (g a) 180c tan 1 (g a) = 45c g a = 1 From equation (1) and (2) 1 11 = 0 a a = 1 & a = 0.841 2 Option (C) is correct. Given system equation is. d 2 x + dx + x = 12 (1 e 2t) dt dt 2 Taking Laplace transform on both side. s2 X (s) + sX (s) + X (s) = 12 :1 1 D s s+2 (s2 + 6s + 5) X (s) = 12 ; 2 E s (s + 2)

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Page 299

System transfer function is X s = s s+ s+ s+

Response of the system as t " 3 is given by lim f (t) = lim sF (s) (final value theorem)
t"3 s"0

24 = lim s ; s"0 s (s + 2) (s + 5) (s + 1)E =


SOL 3.67

24 = 2.4 2#5

Option (A) is correct. Transfer function of lead compensator is given by. K a1 + s k a H (s) = s a1 + b k R V S + j a a kW H (j) = K S W W S + j a b kW S T X So, phase response of the compensator is. h () = tan 1 a k tan 1 a k a b

J N 1 K a b O = tani1n (b a) = tan 2 . ; ab + 2 E K K1 + O O a.co ab Pdi L o h should be positive for phase lead .ncompensation w w(b a) w So, h () = tan 1 ; ab + 2 E > 0 b >a
SOL 3.68

O N
t

A I D

Option (A) is correct. Since there is no external input, so state is given by X (t) = f (t) X (0) (t) "state transition matrix X "initial condition So e x (t) = > e t

H> H

2e 2t x (t) = > t H 3e At t = , state of the system 0.271 2e 2 x (t) t = = > 1H = > 1.100H 2e
SOL 3.69

Option (B) is correct. Given equation d x + dx + x = 10 + 5e 4t + 2e 5t dt dt Taking Laplace on both sides we have

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Page 300

s X s + sX s +

X s =

s+

s+ + s s+

s+ s+ + s s+ (s2 + 1 s + 1 ) X (s) = 2 18 s s+ s+ System response is, s+ s+ + s s+ + s s+ X s = s s+ s + bs + s + l = s+ s+ + s s+ s+ + s s+

s s+

bs + lbs + l

We know that for a system having many poles, nearness of the poles towards imaginary axis in s -plane dominates the nature of time response. So here time constant given by two poles which are nearest to imaginary axis. Poles nearest to imaginary axis s = 1 , s = 3 So, time constants )
SOL 3.70

1 = 3 sec 2 = 6 sec

Option (A) is correct. Steady state error for a system is given by sR (s) ess = lim .in s " 0 1 + G (s) H (s) .co Where input R (s) = G (s) = b s+ H (s) = 1 So

(unity feedback) sb 1 l s ess = lim = 15 = 15 60 15 + 45 45 s"0 1+ (s + 15) (s + 1)

O N
s
lb s + l

d (unit step) no w ww .

A I D
ia

SOL 3.71

%ess = 15 # 100 = 25% 60 Option (C) is correct. Characteristic equation is given by Here 1 + G (s) H (s) = 0 H (s) = 1 G (s) = b (unity feedback)

So,

s + lb s + l 1 + b 3 lb 15 l = 0 s + 15 s + 1

(s + 15) (s + 1) + 45 = 0 =0 s + s+ (s + 6) (s + 10) = 0 s = 6, 10
SOL 3.72

Option (A) is correct.

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Page 301

Given equation can be written as, d = d K + K V J dt LJ LJ a dt Here state variables are defined as, d = x dt =x So state equation is o = B x K x + K Va x J LJ LJ o = d = x x dt

In matrix form

So matrix P is

o K LJ x B J K LJ x >o H = > >x H + > H Va H x R V Sd W S dt W = P >dH + QVa dt S d W S dt W T X

>
SOL 3.73

B J K

Option (C) is correct. in Characteristic equation of the system is given co. by

di 1 + GH = 0 o n w. K w = 0 1+ s (s + 2) (s + 4) w

s (s + ) (s + ) + K = 0 s + s + s+K = 0 Applying rouths criteria for stability s s s s


1

O N
8 K

A I D
LJ

a.

1 6 K 48 6 K

SOL 3.74

System becomes unstable if K 48 = 0 & K = 8 6 Option (A) is correct. The maximum error between the exact and asymptotic plot occurs at corner frequency. Here exact gain(dB) at = 0.5a is given by 1 + 2 a (0.5a) 2 1/2 = 20 log K 20 log ;1 + E a2 = 20 log K 0.96 Gain(dB) calculated from asymptotic plot at = 0.5a is gain(dB) = 0.5a = 20 log K 20 log
2

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= 20 log K Error in gain (dB) = 20 log K (20 log K 0.96) dB = 0.96 dB Similarly exact phase angle at = 0.5a is. h () = . a = tan 1 a k = tan 1 b 0.5a l = 26.56c a a Phase angle calculated from asymptotic plot at ( = 0.5a) is 22.5c Error in phase angle = 22.5 ( 26.56c) = 4.9c
SOL 3.75

Option (B) is correct. Given block diagram

Given block diagram can be reduced as

3 = s+ 1 1 + b l .no d sw w w1 bs l G = = s+ 1 + b 1 l 12 s Further reducing the block diagram.

Where

O N
G = 1 bs l Y (s) =

A I D
co ia. .in

2G1 G2 1 + (2G1 G2) 9 (2) b 1 lb 1 l s + 3 s + 12 = 1 + (2) b 1 lb 1 l (9) s + 3 s + 12

SOL 3.76

2 = (s + 3) (s + 12) + 18 s + s+ 1 2 = = s (s + 9) (s + 6) 27 a1 + ka1 + s k 9 6 Option (C) is correct. Given state equation is, o = AX X =

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Page 303

Taking Laplace transform on both sides of the equation, sX s X = AX s (sI A) X (s) = X X s = (sI A) 1 X (0) = (s) X (0) Where (t) = L- 1 [ (s)] = L 1 [(sI A) 1] is defined as state transition matrix
SOL 3.77

Option (B) is correct. State equation of the system is given as, o = >2 3H X + >1H u X 0 5 0 Here 2 3 A = > H, B = > H 0 5

Check for controllability: 2 3 1 2 AB = > H> H = > H 0 5 0 0 1 2 U = [B : AB] = > H 0 0 U = (1 # 0 2 # 0) = 0 Matrix U is singular, so the system is uncontrollable. Check for Stability: Characteristic equation of the system is obtained as, sI A = 0 n o.i s c . (sI A) = > H > H ia s d no . w s w => ws H

sI A = (s 2) (s 5) = 0 s= ,s= There are two R.H.S Poles in the system so it is unstable.


SOL 3.78

O N

A I D

Option (B) is correct. Given open loop transfer function, no of poles = 2 G (s) = K , s no of zeroes = 0 For plotting root locus: (1) Poles lie at s1, s = (2) So the root loci starts (K = 0) from s = 0 and s = 0 (3) As there is no open-loop zero, root loci terminates (K = 3) at infinity. (4) Angle of asymptotes is given by (2q + 1) 1 0c , q = 0, 1 nm So the two asymptotes are at an angle of (i) (2 # 0 + 1) 180c = 90c 2

(2 # 1 + 1) 180c (ii) = 270c 2 (5) The asymptotes intersect on real axis at a point given by

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x=

oles / e os = 00 = 0 nm 2 =0 1+K s2 K = s dK = 2s = 0 & s = ds

(6) Break away points

So the root locus plot is.

SOL 3.79

Option (A) is correct. System is described as. d y dy = du + u + dt dt dt

Taking Laplace transform on both sides.

s Y (s) + sY (s) = sU (s) + U (s) (s2 + s) Y (s) = (s + 2) U (s) n So, the transfer function is o.i c . Y (s) (s + 2) dia T.F = = 2 o n U (s) (s + s) w.
SOL 3.80

w Option (A) is correct. Here, we have 2 0 A = > H, B = > H, C = 0 4

O N
w
sH >

A I D
, s H

We know that transfer function of the system is given by. Y (s) G (s) = = C (sI A) B U (s) s [sI A ] = > (sI A) 1 = s H =>

So,

Y (s) U (s) Y (s) U (s)

(s 4) 0 1 > 0 (s 2)H (s 2) (s 4) R V S 1 0 W (s 2) W =S S 1 W S 0 (s 4)W T X R V R V S 1 W S 1 0 W1 (s 2) S(s 2)W W = [4 0] S S 1 W>1H = [4 0] S 1 W S(s 4)W S 0 (s 4)W T X X T 4 = (s 2)

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Here input is unit impulse so U s = Y s = 4 (s 2) y t = 4e2t


SOL 3.81

and output

Taking inverse Laplace transfer we get output Option (D) is correct. Given state equation R V S0 1 0 0W S W o = S0 0 1 0W X X S0 0 0 1W S0 0 0 1W T X R V S0 1 0 0W S0 0 1 0W Here A =S W S0 0 0 1W S0 0 0 1W T obtained X as Eigen value can be A I = 0 R V R V S0 1 0 0W S 0 0 0W S0 0 1 0W S0 0 0W (A I) = S WS W S0 0 0 1W S0 0 0W S0 0 0 1W S0 0 0 W T X T X n R V o.i c 1 0 0 . S W ia S 0 1 0 nW od . =S 1 W ww S 0 0 W w S 0 0 0 1 W T X A I = 3 (1 ) = 0 1, 2, 3 = 0 , 4 = 1

O N

A I D

or
SOL 3.82

Option (A) is correct. Input-output relationship is given as d y dy + + y = 5 du 3u dt dt dt Taking Laplace transform on both sides with zero initial condition. Y (s) = 5sU (s) 3U (s) (s + 2s + 10) Y (s) = (5s 3) U (s) (5s 3) Output Y (s) = 2 U (s) (s + 2s + 10) With no input and with given initial conditions, output is obtained as d y dy + + y =0 dt dt s Y (s) + sY (s) +
2

Taking Laplace transform (with initial conditions) [s2 Y (s) sy (0) y' (0)] + 2 [sY (s) y (0)] + 10Y (s) = 0 Given that y ( ) = , y ( ) = [s2 Y (s) s ( 4)] + 2 (s 1) + 10Y (s) = 0

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= (s 2) (s 2) Y s = 2 (s + 2s + 10) Output in both cases are same so (5s 3) (s 2) U (s) = 2 (s2 + 2s + 10) (s + 2s + 10) Y s s + s+ U s = (s 2) (5s 10) =1 5 (5s 3) (5s 3)

(5s 3) 7 = 1= 5 5s 3 (5s 3)G 7 U s = 1 ;1 5 (5s 3)E Taking inverse Laplace transform, input is u t = 1 : (t) 5 e3/5t u (t)D 5 5 = 1 (t) 7 e3/5t u (t) 5 25
SOL 3.83

Option (C) is correct. d y dy + y = u (t) e t dt dt State variable representation is given as o = AX + Bu X Or Here

x1 = y , x = b

dx1 = dy = x e t + y = x e t + x 1 dt dt dx1 = x + x e t + ( ) u (t) or 1 dt Similarly 2 dx2 = d y et + dy et et dy yet dt dt dt dt 2 d 2y Put from equation (1) dt 2 dx2 = u (t) e t dy + 2y et yet So, : D dt dt = u (t) dy t e + 2yet yet dt ...(2)

O N
dy t yw le dt

o1 o.i x1 x c . > o H = A >x H + Bu ia x od

. ww

A I D
n n

...(1)

= u (t) x2 e t + y et + yet = u (t) x2 dx2 = 0 x + u (t) 2 dt From equation (2) and (3) state variable representation is o1 0 x 1 e t x 1 >o H = > >x H + >1H u (t) H x2 0 1 2 ...(3)

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SOL 3.84

Page 307

Option (B) is correct. Characteristic equation of the system 1 + G (s) = 0 2 (s + ) =0 1+ s (s + 2) (s + 10) ) + (s + ) = 0 s + s + s+ s+ = 0 s + s + s+ = 0 2 =0 1+ 3 s + 12s2 + 22s No of poles n = 3 No. of zeros m = 0 Angle of asymptotes ( q+ ) c A = q= nm A = (2q + 1) 180c = (2q + 1) 60c 3 s (s + ) (s +

A = 60c, 180c, 300c


SOL 3.85

Option (A) is correct. Asymptotes intercepts at real axis at the point / real arts of oles / real arts of zeros C = nm in Poles at s =0 s = 2 s = 10

SOL 3.86

C = 0 2 10 0 = 4 30 Option (C) is correct. Break away points d = 0 ds So = 1 [s3 + 12s2 + 22s] 2 d = 1 [3s2 + 24s + 22] = 0 2 ds s s = 1.056, 6.9433

O N
w

. ww

A I D
no .c dia o.

SOL 3.87 SOL 3.88

Option ( ) is correct. Option (A) is correct. Given state equation o = > 3 1 H X X 0 2 Or o = AX , where A = > X H

Taking Laplace transform on both sides. sX (s) X ( ) = AX (s)

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X s sI A = X X s = (sI A) 1 X (0) Steady state value of X is given by xss = lim sX (s) = lim s (sI A) 1 X (0)
s"0 s"0

s (sI A) = > (sI A 1) =

> H s

s+ => H

s+ H

SOL 3.89

s+2 1 1 > 0 s + 3H (s + 3) (s + 2) R V 1 S 1 W (s + 3) (s + 2) (s + 3)W S =S W 1 S 0 (s + 2) W T value X So the steady state R V 1 S 1 W (s + 3) (s + 2) (s + 3)W 10 S xss = lim s S W> 10H 1 s"0 S 0 (s + 2) W T XV R 10 10 S W 0 (s + 3) (s + 2) (s + 3)W S => H = lim s S W 0 s"0 10 S W (s + 2) T X Option (D) is correct. n So no. of poles at origin is 2. dB/dec. Initial slope of the bode plot is 40 c o.i . Then slope increased by 20 dB/dec. diaat = 2 rad/sec, so one poles lies at this o .n changes by + 20 dB/dec, so there is one zero frequency. At = 5 rad/sec slope w ww slope decrease by 20 dB/dec at = 25 so one lying at this frequency. Further pole of the system is lying at this frequency. Transfer function K (s + ) H (s) = 2 s (s + 2) (s + 2 ) At = 0.1, gain is 54 dB, so 5K 54 = 20 log (0.1) 2 (2) (25)

O N
2

A I D

K = 50 H (s) =
SOL 3.90

5 (s + 5) s (s + 2) (s + 25)

Option (B) is correct. Open loop transfer function of the system is G (s) = G (j) = Magnitude
4

s (s +
4

)2 )2 =
4

j ( 2 + j2 ) 10 4 G (j) = (100 2) 2 + 4002 j (j +

At = 20 rad/sec

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10 4 20 9 # 10 4 + 16 # 10 4 10 4 =1 = 20 # 5 # 102 Magnitude in dB = 20 log 10 G (j20) = 20 log 10 1 = 0 dB G j =


SOL 3.91

Option (C) is correct. Since G (j ) = at = 20 rad/sec, So this is the gain cross-over frequency g = 20 rad/sec Phase margin PM = 180c + +G (jg) 20 g +G (jg) = 90c tan 1 = 2G 100 g PM = 180 90c tan 1 ; 20 # 20 2 E 100 (20) = 36.86c Option (C) is correct. To calculate the gain margin, first we have to obtain phase cross over frequency (p). At phase cross over frequency +G (jp) = 180c 20p 90c tan 1 = G = 180c 100 2 p 20p n tan 1 = G = 90c o.i 100 2 p c . dia 100 2 p = 0 & p = 10orad/sec. .n w 1 Gain margin in dB = 20 log 10 e ww G (jp) o 10 4 G (jp) = G (j ) = 10 (100 100) 2 + 400 (10) 2

SOL 3.92

O N
=

A I D

SOL 3.93

10 4 =5 10 # 2 # 102 G.M. = 20 log 10 b 1 l = 13.97 dB 5 Option (B) is correct. Since gain margin and phase margin are negative, so the system is unstable. Option (C) is correct. Given characteristic equation s + s + Ks + K = 0 K (s + 1) =0 1+ 3 s + s2 K (s + 1) =0 1+ 2 s (s + 2) so open loop transfer function is K (s + ) G (s) = s (s + ) root-locus is obtained in following steps: 1. Root-loci starts( K = ) at s = , s = and s =

SOL 3.94

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2. 3. 4.

There is one zero at s = , so one of root-loci terminates at s = other two terminates at infinity No. of poles n = 3 , no of zeros ,m = Break - Away points

and

dK = 0 ds Asymptotes meets on real axis at a point C / poles / zeros C = nm (0 + 0 2) ( 1) = 0.5 = 31 ***********

O N
ww

no w.

A I D
d co ia. .in

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