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PROCEDURE NO.

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PTD-DGS-111
PREPARED BY

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY PROCEDURES

G. LeMaire

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DATE

27 January 2004

APPROVED BY
DEPARTMENT:

PROCESS ENGINEERING

A. Bourji
REVISION DATE

SUBJECT:

TRAPS FOR STEAM MAINS DESIGN GUIDE

30 June 2004

REV.

Table of Contents
1.0 SCOPE.............................................................................................................................1
2.0 RESPONSIBILITIES........................................................................................................1
3.0 DEFINITIONS..................................................................................................................1
4.0 TRAPS.............................................................................................................................4
5.0 LINE SIZE........................................................................................................................5
6.0 PROCEDURE..................................................................................................................6
6.1 Condensate Load................................................................................................6
6.2 Steam Trap Spacing.........................................................................................12
6.3 Design Details...................................................................................................13
7.0 REFERENCES...............................................................................................................15
APPENDIX..........................................................................................................................16

199438089.doc

PROCEDURE NO.

PAGE

PREPARED BY

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY PROCEDURES

G. LeMaire

OF
1

PTD-DGS-111

34

DATE

27 January 2004

APPROVED BY
DEPARTMENT:

PROCESS ENGINEERING

A. Bourji
REVISION DATE

SUBJECT:

TRAPS FOR STEAM MAINS DESIGN GUIDE

30 June 2004

REV.

1.0 SCOPE
This design guide covers the calculation procedure to determine the requirements for
steam traps on long steam mains and supply headers. The procedure is applicable to the
use of thermodynamic, disc-type, impulse, inch traps. Refer to PTD-DGS-110 for
design information for process steam traps.
The following Piping Standards discuss the piping requirements for condensate drip legs,
steam traps, and manifolds for open and closed systems:
DSG-PD-511, Condensate Drip Legs
DSG-PD-512, Maximum Spacing of Steam Traps
DSG-PD-513, Thermostatic Steam Trap Manifolds, Closed System
DSG-PD-514, Thermostatic Steam Trap Manifolds, Open System
DSG-PD-515, Impulse Steam Trap Manifolds, Closed System
DSG-PD-516, Impulse Steam Trap Manifolds, Open System
DSG-PD-517, Inverted Bucket Steam Trap Manifolds, Closed System
DSG-PD-518, Inverted Bucket Steam Trap Manifolds, Open System
2.0 RESPONSIBILITIES
In the absence of Client standards, the Process Engineer determines the requirements for
condensate collection on long steam mains and supply headers. The Process Engineer
specifies the maximum spacing of the steam traps on the P&ID, typically in a note
referring to the steam main or supply header being trapped. Coordination between
Process and Piping is required to ensure the Process requirements are represented in the
appropriate manner.
3.0 DEFINITIONS
Process. The term Process is used to denote the department, group or engineer who
develops the PFDs and P&IDs. The term Process could refer to Process Engineers,
Process Systems Engineers or Mechanical Systems Engineers.
Piping. The term Piping is used to denote the department, group or engineer who
handles the design and routing of pipe.
PFD Process Flow Diagram
P&ID Piping and Instrument Diagram
Swage piping component used to connect dissimilar sizes of pipe

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Supervised warmup - method of startup in which an operator manually opens the drain
valves on the steam header to drain away all of the warmup condensate.
Unsupervised warmup - method of startup in which drains are not opened, and the
warmup condensate is removed only by condensate traps.
QL heat loss per foot of pipe, Btu/(hr*ft)
MC calculated condensate load per foot of pipe, lb/(ft*hr)
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HLV latent heat of vaporization, Btu/lb


MD design condensate load per foot of pipe, lb/(ft*hr)
FS startup design factor for condensate load
MV vendor steam trap capacity, lb/hr
D maximum distance between steam traps, ft
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4.0 TRAPS
Traps on steam mains shall not be sized larger than inch. This size is sufficient for the
normal operating conditions of steam mains and warmup situations, both supervised and
unsupervised, where larger amounts of condensate are formed. Larger traps for warmup
situations are not required. Traps pass much more cold condensate than hot condensate
and condensate from line warmup is naturally colder than it is under normal operating
conditions. Traps have higher capacities at lower temperatures because less condensate
flashes downstream of the trap. The normal operating temperature for traps is typically
about 30 degrees Fahrenheit (F) below the saturation temperature of the steam in the
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main line, depending on the length of condensate piping upstream of the trap and
condition of the insulation.
5.0 LINE SIZE
Inlet piping to the steam trap shall be inch, unless specified otherwise by the Client.
Parsons E&C considers a inch pipe to be the minimum required for mechanical
strength. The inch trap shall be connected with swage fittings to the inlet and outlet
piping. The trap outlet piping shall be at least inch to reduce the pressure drop caused
by flashing in the trap.
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6.0 PROCEDURE
6.1

Condensate Load
1. Calculate the Heat Loss
Based on the pipe size, insulation type, insulation thickness, operating
temperature, and ambient conditions, determine the heat loss per foot of pipe, Q L
(Btu/hr*ft). This is typically calculated using an overall heat transfer coefficient,
which is either determined from an empirical correlation or a vendor chart.

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See Appendix for empirical correlations and an example calculation.


2. Calculate the Condensate Load
Based on the heat loss and the steam pressure, determine the calculated
condensate load per foot of pipe, MC (lb/ft*hr), using the following formula:

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M C

Btu

Q L
hr ft
lb

=
ft hr
Btu
H LV

lb

where HLV is obtained from a steam table.


Calculate the design condensate load using the following formula:
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lb
lb
MD
ft hr
= MC
ft hr
FS

where FS = 1.5 for supervised startup


Fs = 2.0 for unsupervised startup
4. Determine the Steam Trap Capacity
Based on vendor information for a inch steam trap, determine the steam trap
capacity, MV (lb/hr), for the steam pressure and condensate return pressure.
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Steam trap capacity information is readily available from most vendor catalogs. For
example, Figure 1 below is provided by Spirax Sarco for thermo-dynamic steam
trap models TD42 L and TD42 H, where differential pressure is the difference
between the steam main pressure and the condensate return pressure. For a
typical trap, use the curve labeled 1/2 H.

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Figure 1. Example Trap Capacities


6.2

Steam Trap Spacing


1. Calculate the Distance Between Traps
Based on the steam trap capacity and the design condensate load, determine the
maximum distance between traps using the following formula:

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lb
MV
hr
D ( ft ) =
lb

M D
ft hr

6.3

Design Details

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In no case shall traps along a steam main be spaced more than 1000 ft apart. If the
calculated steam trap spacing is more than 1000 ft, then a 1000 ft spacing is
specified.
If the calculated steam trap spacing is less than 1000 ft, an economic evaluation can
be performed. For differences in vendor trap capacities, the optimum number of
traps can be determined.
The Process Engineer specifies the maximum spacing of the steam traps on the
P&ID, typically in a note referring to the steam main or supply header being trapped.
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7.0 REFERENCES
Design of Fluid Systems, Hook-Ups: Twelfth Edition. Spirax Sarco, Inc.,
Blythewood, SC, 2001.
Heat Transfer, A Basic Approach. M. Necati Ozisik, McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York,
1985.

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APPENDIX
The following three equations are empirical correlations for the average heat transfer
coefficient for the flow of gases or liquids across a single cylinder.
The following definitions are applicable to the equations presented.
hm average heat transfer coefficient
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k thermal conductivity
D cylinder diameter
Re Reynolds number (dimensionless)
Pr Prandtl number (dimensionless)
- bulk free stream viscosity
w wall free stream viscosity
Pe Peclet number (dimensionless)
Whitaker equation
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2

k
hm = 0.4 Re 0.5 + 0.06 Re 3 Pr 0.4

D
w

0.25

which agrees with experimental data within +/- 25% in the range of variables
40 < Re < 100,000
0.67 < Pr < 300

0.25 < < 5.2
w
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where the liquid physical properties are evaluated at the free-stream temperature
except for w, which is evaluated at the wall temperature. For gases, the viscosity
correction is neglected and the properties are evaluated at the film temperature.

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Churchill and Bernstein equation

hm

1
1

k
0.62 Re 2 Pr 3
=
0.3 +
1
D
0.4 2 3 4

1
+

Pr

5

Re
8
1 +

282,000

which is applicable for the range of variables


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100 < Re < 10,000,000


Pe = RePr > 0.2
where the liquid and gas physical properties are evaluated at the film temperature.
Modified Churchill and Bernstein equation

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hm

1
1

k
0.62 Re 2 Pr 3
=
0.3 +
1
D
0.4 2 3 4

1 +

Pr


2
Re

1 +

282,000

which is recommended for the range of variables


20,000 < Re < 40,000
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where the liquid and gas physical properties are evaluated at the film temperature.
EXAMPLE
Ambient air at 10F and a velocity of 60 ft/s flows across a 150 psig steam main. The
pipe is 8 inch schedule 40 carbon steel (ID = 7.981 in, wall = 0.322 in) with 2 inches of
cellular glass insulation (k = 0.0267 Btu/h ft F). Determine the heat loss per foot of pipe.

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Assuming the film temperature is approximately 150F, the physical properties of


air are:
k = 0.0169 Btu/(h ft F)
Pr =0.699
= 0.0206 cP
=0.0649 lb/ft3
Using the Whitaker equation, the average heat transfer coefficient for the forced
convection is:
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Re =

Dv

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1
12.625 ft 60 ft cP ft s 0.0649lb

= 296,000
3

12
0
.
0206
cP
ft

s .000672lb

2
0.0169 Btu 12

6.74 Btu

0.4( 296,000 ) 0.5 + 0.06( 296,000 ) 3 ( 0.699 ) 0.4 =


hm =
h ft 2 F
h ft F 12.625 ft

Assuming negligible pipe wall resistance and negligible radiation, the overall heat
transfer coefficient can be calculated as:
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UO =

1
Do 1 Do Do 1

+
+
ln
Di hi 2k Di hm

where hi = inside heat transfer coefficient


k = thermal conductivity of insulation
Do = outer diameter of insulation
Di = inside diameter of insulation
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Assuming the steam main is static, hi is negligible and the above equation reduces
to:
UO =

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1
Do Do 1
+
ln
2k Di hm

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Uo =

1
12.625 ft

12.625 ft 1 h ft F 12


ln
12 2 0.0267 Btu 8.625 ft

12

Therefore, the heat loss per foot of pipe is:

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h ft 2 F
+
6.74 Btu

0.131Btu
h ft 2 F

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0.131Btu 12.625 ft
163Btu
Q L = U o AS T =
(1 ft )[366 F ( 10 F ) ] =
h ft 2 F

12
h

Since this heat loss is calculated based on an assumed film temperature, the
temperature should be verified as follows:
For conduction through the insulation, the heat loss formula is:

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QC =

T TW
Do Di

4kDo Di

When rearranged, the formula for the film temperature is:


D Di
Tw = T QC o
4kDo Di
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Tw

12.625 ft 8.625 ft

163Btu
12
12
= 366 F

h
4( )

32

34

h ft F
12

12

=152 F

0.0267 Btu 12.625 ft 8.625 ft

Since the calculated value for T w is close to the assumed value for the air
properties, the assumption is validated.

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