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CHAPTER II. 1.

Learn that sacred law which is followed by men learned (in the Veda and assented to in their hearts by the !irt"o"s# who are e!er e$em%t from hatred and inordinate affection. &. To act solely from a desire for rewards is not la"dable# yet an e$em%tion from that desire is not (to be fo"nd in this (world ' for on (that desire is (ro"nded the st"dy of the Veda and the %erformance of the actions# %rescribed by the Veda. ). The desire (for rewards # indeed# has its root in the conce%tion that an act can yield them# and in conse*"ence of (that conce%tion sacrifices are %erformed+ !ows and the laws %rescribin( restraints are all stated to be ,e%t thro"(h the idea that they will bear fr"it. -. .ot a sin(le act here (below a%%ears e!er to be done by a man free from desire+ for whate!er (man does# it is (the res"lt of the im%"lse of desire. /. He who %ersists in dischar(in( these (%rescribed

d"ties in the ri(ht manner# reaches the deathless state and e!en in this (life obtains (the f"lfilment of all the desires that he may ha!e concei!ed. 0. The whole Veda is the (first so"rce of the sacred law# ne$t the tradition and the !irt"o"s cond"ct of those who ,now the (Veda f"rther # also the c"stoms of holy men# and (finally self1satisfaction. 2. 3hate!er law has been ordained for any (%erson by 4an"# that has been f"lly declared in the Veda' for that (sa(e was omniscient. 5. 6"t a learned man after f"lly scr"tinisin( all this with the eye of ,nowled(e# sho"ld# in accordance with the a"thority of the re!ealed te$ts# be intent on (the %erformance of his d"ties. 7. 8or that man who obeys the law %rescribed in the re!ealed te$ts and in the sacred tradition# (ains fame in this (world and after death "ns"r%assable bliss. 19. 6"t by :r"ti (re!elation is meant the Veda# and by :mriti (tradition the Instit"tes of the sacred law' those two m"st not be called into *"estion in any matter# since from those two the sacred law shone forth.

11. E!ery twice1born man# who# relyin( on the Instit"tes of dialectics# treats with contem%t those two so"rces (of the law # m"st be cast o"t by the !irt"o"s# as an atheist and a scorner of the Veda. 1&. The Veda# the sacred tradition# the c"stoms of !irt"o"s men# and one;s own %leas"re# they declare to be !isibly the fo"rfold means of definin( the sacred law. 1). The ,nowled(e of the sacred law is %rescribed for those who are not (i!en to the ac*"isition of wealth and to the (ratification of their desires+ to those who see, the ,nowled(e of the sacred law the s"%reme a"thority is the re!elation (:r"ti . 1-. 6"t when two sacred te$ts (:r"ti are conflictin(# both are held to be law+ for both are %rono"nced by the wise (to be !alid law. 1/. (Th"s the (A(nihotra sacrifice may be (o%tionally %erformed# at any time after the s"n has risen# before he has risen# or when neither s"n nor stars are !isible+ that (is declared by Vedic te$ts.

10. <now that he for whom (the %erformance of the ceremonies be(innin( with the rite of im%re(nation (=arbhadhana and endin( with the f"neral rite (Antyeshti is %rescribed# while sacred form"las are bein( recited# is entitled (to st"dy these Instit"tes# b"t no other man whatsoe!er. 12. That land# created by the (ods# which lies between the two di!ine ri!ers :aras!ati and >rishad!ati# the (sa(es call 6rahma!arta. 15. The c"stom handed down in re("lar s"ccession (since time immemorial amon( the (fo"r chief castes (!arna and the mi$ed (races of that co"ntry# is called the cond"ct of !irt"o"s men. 17. The %lain of the <"r"s# the (co"ntry of the 4atsyas# Pan,alas# and :"rasena,as# these (form # indeed# the co"ntry of the 6rahmarshis (6rahmanical sa(es# which ran,s immediately after 6rahma!arta. &9. 8rom a 6rahmana# born in that co"ntry# let all men on earth learn their se!eral "sa(es. &1. That (co"ntry which (lies between the Hima!at and the Vindhya (mo"ntains to the east of Praya(a and to the west of Vinasana (the %lace where the

ri!er :aras!ati disa%%ears is called 4adhyadesa (the central re(ion . &&. 6"t (the tract between those two mo"ntains (?"st mentioned # which (e$tends as far as the eastern and the western oceans# the wise call Arya!arta (the co"ntry of the Aryans . &). That land where the blac, antelo%e nat"rally roams# one m"st ,now to be fit for the %erformance of sacrifices+ (the tract different from that (is the co"ntry of the 4le,,has (barbarians . &-. Let twice1born men see, to dwell in those (abo!e1 mentioned co"ntries + b"t a :"dra# distressed for s"bsistence# may reside anywhere. &/. Th"s has the ori(in of the sacred law been s"ccinctly described to yo" and the ori(in of this "ni!erse+ learn (now the d"ties of the castes (!arna . &0. 3ith holy rites# %rescribed by the Veda# m"st the ceremony on conce%tion and other sacraments be %erformed for twice1born men# which sanctify the body and %"rify (from sin in this (life and after death.

&2. 6y b"rnt oblations d"rin( (the mother;s %re(nancy# by the =ata,arman (the ceremony after birth # the <a"da (tons"re # and the 4a"n(ibandhana (the tyin( of the sacred (irdle of 4"n(a (rass is the taint# deri!ed from both %arents# remo!ed from twice1born men. &5. 6y the st"dy of the Veda# by !ows# by b"rnt oblations# by (the recitation of sacred te$ts# by the (ac*"isition of the threefold sacred science# by offerin( (to the (ods# Rishis# and manes # by (the %rocreation of sons# by the (reat sacrifices# and by (:ra"ta rites this (h"man body is made fit for ("nion with 6rahman. &7. 6efore the na!el1strin( is c"t# the =ata,arman (birth1rite m"st be %erformed for a male (child + and while sacred form"las are bein( recited# he m"st be fed with (old# honey# and b"tter. )9. 6"t let (the father %erform or ca"se to be %erformed the .amadheya (the rite of namin( the child # on the tenth or twelfth (day after birth # or on a l"c,y l"nar day# in a l"c,y m"h"rta# "nder an a"s%icio"s constellation.

)1. Let (the first %art of a 6rahmana;s name (denote somethin( a"s%icio"s# a <shatriya;s be connected with %ower# and a Vaisya;s with wealth# b"t a :"dra;s (e$%ress somethin( contem%tible. )&. (The second %art of a 6rahmana;s (name shall be (a word im%lyin( ha%%iness# of a <shatriya;s (a word im%lyin( %rotection# of a Vaisya;s (a term e$%ressi!e of thri!in(# and of a :"dra;s (an e$%ression denotin( ser!ice. )). The names of women sho"ld be easy to %rono"nce# not im%ly anythin( dreadf"l# %ossess a %lain meanin(# be %leasin( and a"s%icio"s# end in lon( !owels# and contain a word of benediction. )-. In the fo"rth month the .ish,ramana (the first lea!in( of the ho"se of the child sho"ld be %erformed# in the si$th month the Anna%rasana (first feedin( with rice # and o%tionally (any other a"s%icio"s ceremony re*"ired by (the c"stom of the family. )/. Accordin( to the teachin( of the re!ealed te$ts# the <"da,arman (tons"re m"st be %erformed# for the sa,e of s%irit"al merit# by all twice1born men in the first or third year.

)0. In the ei(hth year after conce%tion# one sho"ld %erform the initiation ("%anayana of a 6rahmana# in the ele!enth after conce%tion (that of a <shatriya# b"t in the twelfth that of a Vaisya. )2. (The initiation of a 6rahmana who desires %roficiency in sacred learnin( sho"ld ta,e %lace in the fifth (year after conce%tion # (that of a <shatriya who wishes to become %owerf"l in the si$th# (and that of a Vaisya who lon(s for (s"ccess in his b"siness in the ei(hth. )5. The (time for the :a!itri (initiation of a 6rahmana does not %ass "ntil the com%letion of the si$teenth year (after conce%tion # of a <shatriya "ntil the com%letion of the twenty1second# and of a Vaisya "ntil the com%letion of the twenty1fo"rth. )7. After those (%eriods men of these three (castes who ha!e not recei!ed the sacrament at the %ro%er time# become Vratyas (o"tcasts # e$cl"ded from the :a!itri (initiation and des%ised by the Aryans. -9. 3ith s"ch men# if they ha!e not been %"rified accordin( to the r"le# let no 6rahmana e!er# e!en in times of distress# form a conne$ion either thro"(h

the Veda or by marria(e. -1. Let st"dents# accordin( to the order (of their castes # wear (as "%%er dresses the s,ins of blac, antelo%es# s%otted deer# and he1(oats# and (lower (arments made of hem%# fla$ or wool. -&. The (irdle of a 6rahmana shall consist of a of a tri%le cord of 4"n(a (rass# smooth and soft+ (that of a <shatriya# of a bowstrin(# made of 4"r!a fibres+ (that of a Vaisya# of hem%en threads. -). If 4"n(a (rass (and so forth be not %roc"rable# (the (irdles may be made of <"sa# Asmanta,a# and 6alba(a (fibres # with a sin(le threefold ,not# or with three or fi!e (,nots accordin( to the c"stom of the family . --. The sacrificial strin( of a 6rahmana shall be made of cotton# (shall be twisted to the ri(ht# (and consist of three threads# that of a <shatriya of hem%en threads# (and that of a Vaisya of woollen threads. -/. A 6rahmana shall (carry # accordin( to the sacred law# a staff of 6il!a or Palasa+ a <shatriya# of Vata or <hadira+ (and a Vaisya# of Pil" or @d"mbara.

-0. The staff of a 6rahmana shall be made of s"ch len(th as to reach the end of his hair+ that of a <shatriya# to reach his forehead+ (and that of a Vaisya# to reach (the ti% of his nose. -2. Let all the sta!es be strai(ht# witho"t a blemish# handsome to loo, at# not li,ely to terrify men# with their bar, %erfect# "nh"rt by fire. -5. Ha!in( ta,en a staff accordin( to his choice# ha!in( worshi%%ed the s"n and wal,ed ro"nd the fire# t"rnin( his ri(ht hand towards it# (the st"dent sho"ld be( alms accordin( to the %rescribed r"le. -7. An initiated 6rahmana sho"ld be(# be(innin( (his re*"est with the word lady (bha!ati + a <shatriya# %lacin( (the word lady in the middle# b"t a Vaisya# %lacin( it at the end (of the form"la . /9. Let him first be( food of his mother# or of his sister# or of his own maternal a"nt# or of (some other female who will not dis(race him (by a ref"sal . /1. Ha!in( collected as m"ch food as is re*"ired

(from se!eral %ersons # and ha!in( anno"nced it witho"t ("ile to his teacher# let him eat# t"rnin( his face towards the east# and ha!in( %"rified himself by si%%in( water. /&. (His meal will %roc"re lon( life# if he eats facin( the east+ fame# if he t"rns to the so"th+ %ros%erity# if he t"rns to the west+ tr"thf"lness# if he faces the east. /). Let a twice1born man always eat his food with concentrated mind# after %erformin( an abl"tion+ and after he has eaten# let him d"ly cleanse himself with water and s%rin,le the ca!ities (of his head . /-. Let him always worshi% his food# and eat it witho"t contem%t+ when he sees it# let him re?oice# show a %leased face# and %ray that he may always obtain it. //. 8ood# that is always worshi%%ed# (i!es stren(th and manly !i(o"r+ b"t eaten irre!erently# it destroys them both. /0. Let him not (i!e to any man what he lea!es# and beware of eatin( between (the two meal1times + let him not o!er1eat himself# nor (o anywhere witho"t

ha!in( %"rified himself (after his meal . /2. E$cessi!e eatin( is %re?"dicial to health# to fame# and to (bliss in hea!en+ it %re!ents (the ac*"isition of s%irit"al merit# and is odio"s amon( men+ one o"(ht# for these reasons# to a!oid it caref"lly. /5. Let a 6rahmana always si% water o"t of the %art of the hand (tirtha sacred to 6rahman# or o"t of that sacred to <a (Pra(a%ati # or o"t of (that sacred to the (ods# ne!er o"t of that sacred to the manes. /7. They call (the %art at the root of the th"mb the tirtha sacred to 6rahman# that at the root of the (little fin(er (the tirtha sacred to <a (Pra(a%ati # (that at the ti%s (of the fin(ers# the tirtha sacred to the (ods# and that below (between the inde$ and the th"mb# the tirtha sacred to the manes. 09. Let him first si% water thrice+ ne$t twice wi%e his mo"th+ and# lastly# to"ch with water the ca!ities (of the head # (the seat of the so"l and the head. 01. He who ,nows the sacred law and see,s %"rity shall always %erform the rite of si%%in( with water neither hot nor frothy# with the (%rescribed tirtha# in a lonely %lace# and t"rnin( to the east or to the

north. 0&. A 6rahmana is %"rified by water that reaches his heart# a <shatriya by water reachin( his throat# a Vaisya by water ta,en into his mo"th# (and a :"dra by water to"ched with the e$tremity (of his li%s . 0). A twice1born man is called "%a!itin when his ri(ht arm is raised (and the sacrificial strin( or the dress# %assed "nder it# rests on the left sho"lder + (when his left (arm is raised (and the strin(# or the dress# %assed "nder it# rests on the ri(ht sho"lder# he is called %ra,ina!itin+ and ni!itin when it han(s down (strai(ht from the nec,. 0-. His (irdle# the s,in (which ser!es as his "%%er (arment # his staff# his sacrificial thread# (and his water1%ot he m"st throw into water# when they ha!e been dama(ed# and ta,e others# recitin( sacred form"las. 0/. (The ceremony called <esanta (cli%%in( the hair is ordained for a 6rahmana in the si$teenth year (from conce%tion + for a <shatriya# in the twenty1 second+ and for a Vaisya# two (years later than that. 00. This whole series (of ceremonies m"st be

%erformed for females (also # in order to sanctify the body# at the %ro%er time and in the %ro%er order# b"t witho"t (the recitation of sacred te$ts. 02. The n"%tial ceremony is stated to be the Vedic sacrament for women (and to be e*"al to the initiation # ser!in( the h"sband (e*"i!alent to the residence in (the ho"se of the teacher# and the ho"sehold d"ties (the same as the (daily worshi% of the sacred fire. 05. Th"s has been described the r"le for the initiation of the twice1born# which indicates a (new birth# and sanctifies+ learn (now to what d"ties they m"st afterwards a%%ly themsel!es. 07. Ha!in( %erformed the (rite of initiation# the teacher m"st first instr"ct the (%"%il in (the r"les of %ersonal %"rification# of cond"ct# of the fire1worshi%# and of the twili(ht de!otions. 29. 6"t (a st"dent who is abo"t to be(in the :t"dy (of the Veda # shall recei!e instr"ction# after he has si%%ed water in accordance with the Instit"tes (of the sacred law # has made the 6rahman(ali# (has %"t on a clean dress# and has bro"(ht his or(ans "nder d"e control.

21. At the be(innin( and at the end of (a lesson in the Veda he m"st always clas% both the feet of his teacher# (and he m"st st"dy# ?oinin( his hands+ that is called the 6rahman(ali (?oinin( the %alms for the sa,e of the Veda . 2&. 3ith crossed hands he m"st clas% (the feet of the teacher# and to"ch the left (foot with his left (hand # the ri(ht (foot with his ri(ht (hand . 2). 6"t to him who is abo"t to be(in st"dyin(# the teacher always "nwearied# m"st say' Ho# reciteA He shall lea!e off (when the teacher says ' Let a sto%%a(e ta,e %laceA 2-. Let him always %rono"nce the syllable Bm at the be(innin( and at the end of (a lesson in the Veda+ (for "nless the syllable Bm %recede (the lesson will sli% away (from him # and "nless it follow it will fade away. 2/. :eated on (blades of <"sa (rass with their %oints to the east# %"rified by Pa!itras (blades of <"sa (rass # and sanctified by three s"%%ressions of the breath (Pranayama # he is worthy (to %rono"nce the syllable Bm.

20. Pra(a%ati (the lord of creat"res mil,ed o"t (as it were from the three Vedas the so"nds A# @# and 4# and (the Vyahritis 6h"h# 6h"!ah# :!ah. 22. 4oreo!er from the three Vedas Pra(a%ati# who dwells in the hi(hest hea!en (Parameshthin # mil,ed o"t (as it were that Ri,1!erse# sacred to :a!itri (:a!itri # which be(ins with the word tad# one foot from each. 25. A 6rahmana# learned in the Veda# who recites d"rin( both twili(hts that syllable and that (!erse # %receded by the Vyahritis# (ains the (whole merit which (the recitation of the Vedas confers. 27. A twice1born man who (daily re%eats those three one tho"sand times o"tside (the !illa(e # will be freed after a month e!en from (reat ("ilt# as a sna,e from its slo"(h. 59. The 6rahmana# the <shatriya# and the Vaisya who ne(lect (the recitation of that Ri,1!erse and the timely (%erformance of the rites (%rescribed for them# will be blamed amon( !irt"o"s men.

51. <now that the three im%erishable 4aha!yahritis# %receded by the syllable Bm# and (followed by the three1footed :a!itri are the %ortal of the Veda and the (ate leadin( (to "nion with 6rahman. 5&. He who daily recites that (!erse # "ntired# d"rin( three years# will enter (after death the hi(hest 6rahman# mo!e as free as air# and ass"me an ethereal form. 5). The monosyllable (Bm is the hi(hest 6rahman# (three s"%%ressions of the breath are the best (form of a"sterity# b"t nothin( s"r%asses the :a!itri tr"thf"lness is better than silence. 5-. All rites ordained in the Veda# b"rnt oblations and (other sacrifices# %ass away+ b"t ,now that the syllable (Bm is im%erishable# and (it is 6rahman# (and the Lord of creat"res (Pra(a%ati . 5/. An offerin(# consistin( of m"ttered %rayers# is ten times more efficacio"s than a sacrifice %erformed accordin( to the r"les (of the Veda + a (%rayer which is ina"dible (to others s"r%asses it a h"ndred times# and the mental (recitation of sacred te$ts a tho"sand times.

50. The fo"r Pa,aya(nas and those sacrifices which are en?oined by the r"les (of the Veda are all to(ether not e*"al in !al"e to a si$teenth %art of the sacrifice consistin( of m"ttered %rayers. 52. 6"t# "ndo"btedly# a 6rahmana reaches the hi(hest (oal by m"tterin( %rayers only+ (whether he %erform other (rites or ne(lect them# he who befriends (all creat"res is declared (to be a (tr"e 6rahmana. 55. A wise man sho"ld stri!e to restrain his or(ans which r"n wild amon( all"rin( sens"al ob?ects# li,e a charioteer his horses. 57. Those ele!en or(ans which former sa(es ha!e named# I will %ro%erly (and %recisely en"merate in d"e order# 79. (ViC. the ear# the s,in# the eyes# the ton("e# and the nose as the fifth# the an"s# the or(an of (eneration# hands and feet# and the (or(an of s%eech# named as the tenth. 71. 8i!e of them# the ear and the rest accordin( to their order# they call or(ans of sense# and fi!e of them# the an"s and the rest# or(ans of action.

7&. <now that the internal or(an (manas is the ele!enth# which by its *"ality belon(s to both (sets + when that has been s"bd"ed# both those sets of fi!e ha!e been con*"ered. 7). Thro"(h the attachment of his or(ans (to sens"al %leas"re a man do"btlessly will inc"r ("ilt+ b"t if he ,ee% them "nder com%lete control# he will obtain s"ccess (in (ainin( all his aims . 7-. >esire is ne!er e$tin("ished by the en?oyment of desired ob?ects+ it only (rows stron(er li,e a fire (fed with clarified b"tter. 7/. If one man sho"ld obtain all those (sens"al en?oyments and another sho"ld reno"nce them all# the ren"nciation of all %leas"re is far better than the attainment of them. 70. Those (or(ans which are stron(ly attached to sens"al %leas"res# cannot so effect"ally be restrained by abstinence (from en?oyments as by a constant (%"rs"it of tr"e ,nowled(e. 72. .either (the st"dy of the Vedas# nor liberality#

nor sacrifices# nor any (self1im%osed restraint# nor a"sterities# e!er %roc"re the attainment (of rewards to a man whose heart is contaminated (by sens"ality . 75. That man may be considered to ha!e (really s"bd"ed his or(ans# who on hearin( and to"chin( and seein(# on tastin( and smellin( (anythin( neither re?oices nor re%ines. 77. 6"t when one amon( all the or(ans sli%s away (from control # thereby (man;s wisdom sli%s away from him# e!en as the water (flows thro"(h the one (o%en foot of a (water1carrier;s s,in. 199. If he ,ee%s all the (ten or(ans as well as the mind in s"b?ection# he may (ain all his aims# witho"t red"cin( his body by (the %ractice of Do(a. 191. Let him stand d"rin( the mornin( twili(ht# m"tterin( the :a!itri "ntil the s"n a%%ears# b"t (let him recite it # seated# in the e!enin( "ntil the constellations can be seen distinctly. 19&. He who stands d"rin( the mornin( twili(ht m"tterin( (the :a!itri # remo!es the ("ilt contracted d"rin( the (%re!io"s ni(ht+ b"t he who (recites it #

seated# in the e!enin(# destroys the sin he committed d"rin( the day. 19). 6"t he who does not (worshi% standin( in the mornin(# nor sittin( in the e!enin(# shall be e$cl"ded# ?"st li,e a :"dra# from all the d"ties and ri(hts of an Aryan. 19-. He who (desires to %erform the ceremony (of the daily (recitation # may e!en recite the :a!itri near water# retirin( into the forest# controllin( his or(ans and concentratin( his mind. 19/. 6oth when (one st"dies the s"%%lementary treatises of the Veda# and when (one recites the daily %ortion of the Veda# no re(ard need be %aid to forbidden days# li,ewise when (one re%eats the sacred te$ts re*"ired for a b"rnt oblation. 190. There are no forbidden days for the daily recitation# since that is declared to be a 6rahmasattra (an e!erlastin( sacrifice offered to 6rahman + at that the Veda ta,es the %lace of the b"rnt oblations# and it is meritorio"s (e!en # when (nat"ral %henomena# re*"irin( a cessation of the Veda1st"dy# ta,e the %lace of the e$clamation Vashat.

192. 8or him who# bein( %"re and controllin( his or(ans# d"rin( a year daily recites the Veda accordin( to the r"le# that (daily recitation will e!er ca"se sweet and so"r mil,# clarified b"tter and honey to flow. 195. Let an Aryan who has been initiated# (daily offer f"el in the sacred fire# be( food# slee% on the (ro"nd and do what is beneficial to this teacher# "ntil (he %erforms the ceremony of :ama!artana (on ret"rnin( home . 197. Accordin( to the sacred law the (followin( ten (%ersons# !iC. the teacher;s son# one who desires to do ser!ice# one who im%arts ,nowled(e# one who is intent on f"lfillin( the law# one who is %"re# a %erson connected by marria(e or friendshi%# one who %ossesses (mental ability# one who ma,es %resents of money# one who is honest# and a relati!e# may be instr"cted (in the Veda . 119. @nless one be as,ed# one m"st not e$%lain (anythin( to anybody# nor (m"st one answer a %erson who as,s im%ro%erly+ let a wise man# tho"(h he ,nows (the answer # beha!e amon( men as (if he were an idiot.

111. Bf the two %ersons# him who ille(ally e$%lains (anythin( # and him who ille(ally as,s (a *"estion # one (or both will die or inc"r (the other;s enmity. 11&. 3here merit and wealth are not (obtained by teachin( nor (at least d"e obedience# in s"ch (soil sacred ,nowled(e m"st not be sown# ?"st as (ood seed (m"st not (be thrown on barren land. 11). E!en in times of dire distress a teacher of the Veda sho"ld rather die with his ,nowled(e than sow it in barren soil. 11-. :acred Learnin( a%%roached a 6rahmana and said to him' ;I am thy treas"re# %reser!e me# deli!er me not to a scorner+ so (%reser!ed I shall become s"%remely stron(.; 11/. ;6"t deli!er me# as to the ,ee%er of thy treas"re# to a 6rahmana whom tho" shalt ,now to be %"re# of s"bd"ed senses# chaste and attenti!e.; 110. 6"t he who ac*"ires witho"t %ermission the Veda from one who recites it# inc"rs the ("ilt of stealin( the Veda# and shall sin, into hell.

112. (A st"dent shall first re!erentially sal"te that (teacher from whom he recei!es (,nowled(e # referrin( to worldly affairs# to the Veda# or to the 6rahman. 115. A 6rahmana who com%letely (o!erns himself# tho"(h he ,now the :a!itri only# is better than he who ,nows the three Vedas# (b"t does not control himself# eats all (sorts of food# and sells all (sorts of (oods . 117. Bne m"st not sit down on a co"ch or seat which a s"%erior occ"%ies+ and he who occ"%ies a co"ch or seat shall rise to meet a (s"%erior # and (afterwards sal"te him. 1&9. 8or the !ital airs of a yo"n( man mo"nt "%wards to lea!e his body when an elder a%%roaches+ b"t by risin( to meet him and sal"tin( he reco!ers them. 1&1. He who habit"ally sal"tes and constantly %ays re!erence to the a(ed obtains an increase of fo"r (thin(s # (!iC. len(th of life# ,nowled(e# fame# (and stren(th.

1&&. After the (word of sal"tation# a 6rahmana who (reets an elder m"st %rono"nce his name# sayin(# ;I am .. ..; 1&). To those (%ersons who# when a name is %rono"nced# do not "nderstand (the meanin( of the sal"tation# a wise man sho"ld say# ;It is I+; and (he sho"ld address in the same manner all women. 1&-. In sal"tin( he sho"ld %rono"nce after his name the word bhoh+ for the sa(es ha!e declared that the nat"re of bhoh is the same as that of (all %ro%er names. 1&/. A 6rahmana sho"ld th"s be sal"ted in ret"rn# ;4ay;st tho" be lon(1li!ed# B (entle oneA; and the !owel ;a; m"st be added at the end of the name (of the %erson addressed # the syllable %recedin( it bein( drawn o"t to the len(th of three moras. 1&0. A 6rahmana who does not ,now the form of ret"rnin( a sal"tation# m"st not be sal"ted by a learned man+ as a :"dra# e!en so is he. 1&2. Let him as, a 6rahmana# on meetin( him# after (his health# with the word ,"sala# a <shatriya (with the word anamaya# a Vaisya (with the word

,shema# and a :"dra (with the word anaro(ya. 1&5. He who has been initiated (to %erform a :ra"ta sacrifice m"st not be addressed by his name# e!en tho"(h he be a yo"n(er man+ he who ,nows the sacred law m"st "se in s%ea,in( to s"ch (a man the %article bhoh and (the %rono"n bha!at (yo"r worshi% . 1&7. 6"t to a female who is the wife of another man# and not a blood1relation# he m"st say# ;Lady; (bha!ati or ;6elo!ed sisterA; 1)9. To his maternal and %aternal "ncles# fathers1in1 law# officiatin( %riests# (and other !enerable %ersons# he m"st say# ;I am .. ..#; and rise (to meet them # e!en tho"(h they be yo"n(er (than himself . 1)1. A maternal a"nt# the wife of a maternal "ncle# a mother1in1law# and a %aternal a"nt m"st be hono"red li,e the wife of one;s teacher+ they are e*"al to the wife of one;s teacher. 1)&. (The feet of the wife of one;s brother# if she be of the same caste (!arna # m"st be clas%ed e!ery day+ b"t (the feet of wi!es of (other %aternal and maternal relati!es need only be embraced on one;s

ret"rn from a ?o"rney. 1)). Towards a sister of one;s father and of one;s mother# and towards one;s own elder sister# one m"st beha!e as towards one;s mother+ (b"t the mother is more !enerable than they. 1)-. 8ellow1citiCens are called friends (and e*"als tho"(h one be ten years (older than the other # men %ractisin( (the same fine art (tho"(h one be fi!e years (older than the other # :rotriyas (tho"(h three years (inter!ene between their a(es # b"t blood1 relations only (if the difference of a(e be !ery small. 1)/. <now that a 6rahmana of ten years and <shatriya of a h"ndred years stand to each other in the relation of father and son+ b"t between those two the 6rahmana is the father. 1)0. 3ealth# ,indred# a(e# (the d"e %erformance of rites# and# fifthly# sacred learnin( are titles to res%ect+ b"t each later1named (ca"se is more wei(hty (than the %recedin( ones . 1)2. 3hate!er man of the three (hi(hest castes %ossesses most of those fi!e# both in n"mber and de(ree# that man is worthy of hono"r amon( them+

and (so is also a :"dra who has entered the tenth (decade of his life . 1)5. 3ay m"st be made for a man in a carria(e# for one who is abo!e ninety years old# for one diseased# for the carrier of a b"rden# for a woman# for a :nata,a# for the ,in(# and for a bride(room. 1)7. Amon( all those# if they meet (at one time # a :nata,a and the ,in( m"st be (most hono"red+ and if the ,in( and a :nata,a (meet # the latter recei!es res%ect from the ,in(. 1-9. They call that 6rahmana who initiates a %"%il and teaches him the Veda to(ether with the <al%a and the Rahasyas# the teacher (a,arya# of the latter . 1-1. 6"t he who for his li!elihood teaches a %ortion only of the Veda# or also the An(as of the Veda# is called the s"b1teacher ("%adhyaya . 1-&. That 6rahmana# who %erforms in accordance with the r"les (of the Veda the rites# the =arbhadhana (conce%tion1rite # and so forth# and (i!es food (to the child # is called the ="r" (the !enerable one .

1-). He who# bein( (d"ly chosen (for the %"r%ose # %erforms the A(nyadheya# the Pa,aya(nas# (and the (:ra"ta sacrifices# s"ch as the A(nishtoma (for another man # is called (his officiatin( %riest. 1--. That (man who tr"thf"lly fills both his ears with the Veda# (the %"%il shall consider as his father and mother+ he m"st ne!er offend him. 1-/. The teacher (a,arya is ten times more !enerable than a s"b1teacher ("%adhyaya # the father a h"ndred times more than the teacher# b"t the mother a tho"sand times more than the father. 1-0. Bf him who (i!es nat"ral birth and him who (i!es (the ,nowled(e of the Veda# the (i!er of the Veda is the more !enerable father+ for the birth for the sa,e of the Veda (ens"res eternal (rewards both in this (life and after death. 1-2. Let him consider that (he recei!ed a (mere animal e$istence# when his %arents be(at him thro"(h m"t"al affection# and when he was born from the womb (of his mother .

1-5. 6"t that birth which a teacher ac*"ainted with the whole Veda# in accordance with the law# %roc"res for him thro"(h the :a!itri# is real# e$em%t from a(e and death. 1-7. (The %"%il m"st ,now that that man also who benefits him by (instr"ction in the Veda# be it little or m"ch# is called in these (Instit"tes his ="r"# in conse*"ence of that benefit (conferred by instr"ction in the Veda. 1/9. That 6rahmana who is the (i!er of the birth for the sa,e of the Veda and the teacher of the %rescribed d"ties becomes by law the father of an a(ed man# e!en tho"(h he himself be a child. 1/1. Do"n( <a!i# the son of An(iras# ta"(ht his (relati!es who were old eno"(h to be fathers# and# as he e$celled them in (sacred ,nowled(e# he called them ;Little sons.; 1/&. They# mo!ed with resentment# as,ed the (ods concernin( that matter# and the (ods# ha!in( assembled# answered# ;The child has addressed yo" %ro%erly.; 1/). ;8or (a man destit"te of (sacred ,nowled(e is

indeed a child# and he who teaches him the Veda is his father+ for (the sa(es ha!e always said EchildE to an i(norant man# and EfatherE to a teacher of the Veda.; 1/-. .either thro"(h years# nor thro"(h white (hairs # nor thro"(h wealth# nor thro"(h (%owerf"l ,insmen (comes (reatness . The sa(es ha!e made this law# ;He who has learnt the Veda to(ether with the An(as (An",ana is (considered (reat by "s.; 1//. The seniority of 6rahmanas is from (sacred ,nowled(e# that of <shatriyas from !alo"r# that of Vaisyas from wealth in (rain (and other (oods # b"t that of :"dras alone from a(e. 1/0. A man is not therefore (considered !enerable beca"se his head is (ray+ him who# tho"(h yo"n(# has learned the Veda# the (ods consider to be !enerable. 1/2. As an ele%hant made of wood# as an antelo%e made of leather# s"ch is an "nlearned 6rahmana+ those three ha!e nothin( b"t the names (of their ,ind . 1/5. As a e"n"ch is "n%rod"cti!e with women# as a

cow with a cow is "n%rolific# and as a (ift made to an i(norant man yields no reward# e!en so is a 6rahmana "seless# who (does not (,now the Ri,as. 1/7. Created bein(s m"st be instr"cted in (what concerns their welfare witho"t (i!in( them %ain# and sweet and (entle s%eech m"st be "sed by (a teacher who desires (to abide by the sacred law. 109. He# forsooth# whose s%eech and tho"(hts are %"re and e!er %erfectly ("arded# (ains the whole reward which is conferred by the Vedanta. 101. Let him not# e!en tho"(h in %ain# (s%ea, words c"ttin( (others to the *"ic,+ let him not in?"re others in tho"(ht or deed+ let him not "tter s%eeches which ma,e (others afraid of him# since that will %re!ent him from (ainin( hea!en. 10&. A 6rahmana sho"ld always fear homa(e as if it were %oison+ and constantly desire (to s"ffer scorn as (he wo"ld lon( for nectar. 10). 8or he who is scorned (ne!ertheless may slee% with an easy mind# awa,e with an easy mind# and with an easy mind wal, here amon( men+ b"t the scorner "tterly %erishes.

10-. A twice1born man who has been sanctified by the (em%loyment of the means# (described abo!e in d"e order# shall (rad"ally and c"m"lati!ely %erform the !ario"s a"sterities %rescribed for (those who st"dy the Veda. 10/. An Aryan m"st st"dy the whole Veda to(ether with the Rahasyas# %erformin( at the same time !ario"s ,inds of a"sterities and the !ows %rescribed by the r"les (of the Veda . 100. Let a 6rahmana who desires to %erform a"sterities# constantly re%eat the Veda+ for the st"dy of the Veda is declared (to be in this world the hi(hest a"sterity for a 6rahmana. 102. Verily# that twice1born man %erforms the hi(hest a"sterity "% to the e$tremities of his nails# who# tho"(h wearin( a (arland# daily recites the Veda in %ri!ate to the "tmost of his ability. 105. A twice1born man who# not ha!in( st"died the Veda# a%%lies himself to other (and worldly st"dy # soon falls# e!en while li!in(# to the condition of a :"dra and his descendants (after him .

107. Accordin( to the in?"nction of the re!ealed te$ts the first birth of an Aryan is from (his nat"ral mother# the second (ha%%ens on the tyin( of the (irdle of 4"n(a (rass# and the third on the initiation to (the %erformance of a (:ra"ta sacrifice. 129. Amon( those (three the birth which is symbolised by the in!estit"re with the (irdle of 4"n(a (rass# is his birth for the sa,e of the Veda+ they declare that in that (birth the :i!itri (!erse is his mother and the teacher his father. 121. They call the teacher (the %"%il;s father beca"se he (i!es the Veda+ for nobody can %erform a (sacred rite before the in!estit"re with the (irdle of 4"n(a (rass. 12&. (He who has not been initiated sho"ld not %rono"nce (any Vedic te$t e$ce%tin( (those re*"ired for the %erformance of f"neral rites# since he is on a le!el with a :"dra before his birth from the Veda. 12). The (st"dent who has been initiated m"st be instr"cted in the %erformance of the !ows# and (rad"ally learn the Veda# obser!in( the %rescribed r"les.

12-. 3hate!er dress of s,in# sacred thread# (irdle# staff# and lower (arment are %rescribed for a (st"dent at the initiation # the li,e (m"st a(ain be "sed at the (%erformance of the !ows. 12/. 6"t a st"dent who resides with his teacher m"st obser!e the followin( restricti!e r"les# d"ly controllin( all his or(ans# in order to increase his s%irit"al merit. 120. E!ery day# ha!in( bathed# and bein( %"rified# he m"st offer libations of water to the (ods# sa(es and manes# worshi% (the ima(es of the (ods# and %lace f"el on (the sacred fire . 122. Let him abstain from honey# meat# %erf"mes# (arlands# s"bstances ("sed for fla!o"rin( (food # women# all s"bstances t"rned acid# and from doin( in?"ry to li!in( creat"res. 125. 8rom anointin( (his body # a%%lyin( collyri"m to his eyes# from the "se of shoes and of an "mbrella (or %arasol # from (sens"al desire# an(er# co!eto"sness# dancin(# sin(in(# and %layin( (m"sical instr"ments # 127. 8rom (amblin(# idle dis%"tes# bac,bitin(# and

lyin(# from loo,in( at and to"chin( women# and from h"rtin( others. 159. Let him always slee% alone# let him ne!er waste his manhood+ for he who !ol"ntarily wastes his manhood# brea,s his !ow. 151. A twice1born st"dent# who has in!ol"ntarily wasted his manly stren(th d"rin( slee%# m"st bathe# worshi% the s"n# and afterwards thrice m"tter the Ri,1!erse (which be(ins # ;A(ain let my stren(th ret"rn to me.; 15&. Let him fetch a %ot f"ll of water# flowers# cowd"n(# earth# and <"sa (rass# as m"ch as may be re*"ired (by his teacher # and daily (o to be( food. 15). A st"dent# bein( %"re# shall daily brin( food from the ho"ses of men who are not deficient in (the ,nowled(e of the Veda and in (%erformin( sacrifices# and who are famo"s for (followin( their lawf"l occ"%ations. 15-. Let him not be( from the relati!es of his teacher# nor from his own or his mother;s blood1 relations+ b"t if there are no ho"ses belon(in( to stran(ers# let him (o to one of those named abo!e#

ta,in( the last1named first+ 15/. Br# if there are no (!irt"o"s men of the ,ind mentioned abo!e# he may (o to each (ho"se in the !illa(e# bein( %"re and remainin( silent+ b"t let him a!oid Abhisastas (those acc"sed of mortal sin . 150. Ha!in( bro"(ht sacred f"el from a distance# let him %lace it anywhere b"t on the (ro"nd# and let him# "nwearied# ma,e with it b"rnt oblations to the sacred fire# both e!enin( and mornin(. 152. He who# witho"t bein( sic,# ne(lects d"rin( se!en (s"ccessi!e days to (o o"t be((in(# and to offer f"el in the sacred fire# shall %erform the %enance of an A!a,irnin (one who has bro,en his !ow . 155. He who %erforms the !ow (of st"dentshi% shall constantly s"bsist on alms# (b"t not eat the food of one (%erson only + the s"bsistence of a st"dent on be((ed food is declared to be e*"al (in merit to fastin(. 157. At his %leas"re he may eat# when in!ited# the food of one man at (a rite in hono"r of the (ods# obser!in( (howe!er the conditions on his !ow# or at a

(f"neral meal in honor of the manes# beha!in( (howe!er li,e a hermit. 179. This d"ty is %rescribed by the wise for a 6rahmana only+ b"t no s"ch d"ty is ordained for a <shatriya and a Vaisya. 171. 6oth when ordered by his teacher# and witho"t a (s%ecial command# (a st"dent shall always e$ert himself in st"dyin( (the Veda # and in doin( what is ser!iceable to his teacher. 17&. Controllin( his body# his s%eech# his or(ans (of sense # and his mind# let him stand with ?oined hands# loo,in( at the face of his teacher. 17). Let him always ,ee% his ri(ht arm "nco!ered# beha!e decently and ,ee% his body well co!ered# and when he is addressed (with the words # ;6e seated#; he shall sit down# facin( his teacher. 17-. In the %resence of his teacher let him always eat less# wear a less !al"able dress and ornaments (than the former # and let him rise earlier (from his bed # and (o to rest later.

17/. Let him not answer or con!erse with (his teacher # reclinin( on a bed# nor sittin(# nor eatin(# nor standin(# nor with an a!erted face. 170. Let him do (that # standin( "%# if (his teacher is seated# ad!ancin( towards him when he stands# (oin( to meet him if he ad!ances# and r"nnin( after him when he r"ns+ 172. =oin( (ro"nd to face (the teacher # if his face is a!erted# a%%roachin( him if he stands at a distance# b"t bendin( towards him if he lies on a bed# and if he stands in a lower %lace. 175. 3hen his teacher is ni(h# let his bed or seat be low+ b"t within si(ht of his teacher he shall not sit carelessly at ease. 177. Let him not %rono"nce the mere name of his teacher (witho"t addin( an honorific title behind his bac, e!en# and let him not mimic his (ait# s%eech# and de%ortment. &99. 3here!er (%eo%le ?"stly cens"re or falsely defame his teacher# there he m"st co!er his ears or de%art thence to another %lace.

&91. 6y cens"rin( (his teacher # tho"(h ?"stly# he will become (in his ne$t birth an ass# by falsely defamin( him# a do(+ he who li!es on his teacher;s s"bstance# will become a worm# and he who is en!io"s (of his merit # a (lar(er insect. &9&. He m"st not ser!e the (teacher by the inter!ention of another while he himself stands aloof# nor when he (himself is an(ry# nor when a woman is near+ if he is seated in a carria(e or on a (raised seat# he m"st descend and afterwards sal"te his (teacher . &9). Let him not sit with his teacher# to the leeward or to the windward (of him + nor let him say anythin( which his teacher cannot hear. &9-. He may sit with his teacher in a carria(e drawn by o$en# horses# or camels# on a terrace# on a bed of (rass or lea!es# on a mat# on a roc,# on a wooden bench# or in a boat. &9/. If his teacher;s teacher is near# let him beha!e (towards him as towards his own teacher+ b"t let him# "nless he has recei!ed %ermission from his teacher# not sal"te !enerable %ersons of his own

(family . &90. This is li,ewise (ordained as his constant beha!io"r towards (other instr"ctors in science# towards his relati!es (to whom hono"r is d"e # towards all who may restrain him from sin# or may (i!e him sal"tary ad!ice. &92. Towards his betters let him always beha!e as towards his teacher# li,ewise towards sons of his teacher# born by wi!es of e*"al caste# and towards the teacher;s relati!es both on the side of the father and of the mother. &95. The son of the teacher who im%arts instr"ction (in his father;s stead # whether yo"n(er or of e*"al a(e# or a st"dent of (the science of sacrifices (or of other An(as # deser!es the same hono"r as the teacher. &97. (A st"dent m"st not sham%oo the limbs of his teacher;s son# nor assist him in bathin(# nor eat the fra(ments of his food# nor wash his feet. &19. The wi!es of the teacher# who belon( to the same caste# m"st be treated as res%ectf"lly as the teacher+ b"t those who belon( to a different caste#

m"st be hono"red by risin( and sal"tation. &11. Let him not %erform for a wife of his teacher (the offices of anointin( her# assistin( her in the bath# sham%ooin( her limbs# or arran(in( her hair. &1&. (A %"%il who is f"ll twenty years old# and ,nows what is becomin( and "nbecomin(# shall not sal"te a yo"n( wife of his teacher (by clas%in( her feet. &1). It is the nat"re of women to sed"ce men in this (world + for that reason the wise are ne!er "n("arded in (the com%any of females. &1-. 8or women are able to lead astray in (this world not only a fool# b"t e!en a learned man# and (to ma,e him a sla!e of desire and an(er. &1/. Bne sho"ld not sit in a lonely %lace with one;s mother# sister# or da"(hter+ for the senses are %owerf"l# and master e!en a learned man. &10. 6"t at his %leas"re a yo"n( st"dent may %rostrate himself on the (ro"nd before the yo"n( wife of a teacher# in accordance with the r"le# and say# ;I# .. ..# (worshi% thee# B lady .;

&12. Bn ret"rnin( from a ?o"rney he m"st clas% the feet of his teacher;s wife and daily sal"te her (in the manner ?"st mentioned # rememberin( the d"ty of the !irt"o"s. &15. As the man who di(s with a s%ade (into the (ro"nd obtains water# e!en so an obedient (%"%il obtains the ,nowled(e which lies (hidden in his teacher. &17. A (st"dent may either sha!e his head# or wear his hair in braids# or braid one loc, on the crown of his head+ the s"n m"st ne!er set or rise while he (lies aslee% in the !illa(e. &&9. If the s"n sho"ld rise or set while he is slee%in(# be it (that he offended intentionally or "nintentionally# he shall fast d"rin( the (ne$t day# m"tterin( (the :a!itri . &&1. 8or he who lies (slee%in( # while the s"n sets or rises# and does not %erform (that %enance# is tainted by (reat ("ilt. &&&. P"rified by si%%in( water# he shall daily worshi%

d"rin( both twili(hts with a concentrated mind in a %"re %lace# m"tterin( the %rescribed te$t accordin( to the r"le. &&). If a woman or a man of low caste %erform anythin( (leadin( to ha%%iness# let him dili(ently %ractise it# as well as (any other %ermitted act in which his heart finds %leas"re. &&-. (:ome declare that the chief (ood consists in (the ac*"isition of s%irit"al merit and wealth# (others %lace it in (the (ratification of desire and (the ac*"isition of wealth# (others in (the ac*"isition of s%irit"al merit alone# and (others say that the ac*"isition of wealth alone is the chief (ood here (below + b"t the (correct decision is that it consists of the a((re(ate of (those three. &&/. The teacher# the father# the mother# and an elder brother m"st not be treated with disres%ect# es%ecially by a 6rahmana# tho"(h one be (rie!o"sly offended (by them . &&0. The teacher is the ima(e of 6rahman# the father the ima(e of Pra(i%ati (the lord of created bein(s # the mother the ima(e of the earth# and an (elder f"ll brother the ima(e of oneself.

&&2. That tro"ble (and %ain which the %arents "nder(o on the birth of (their children# cannot be com%ensated e!en in a h"ndred years. &&5. Let him always do what is a(reeable to those (two and always (what may %lease his teacher+ when those three are %leased# he obtains all (those rewards which a"sterities (yield . &&7. Bbedience towards those three is declared to be the best (form of a"sterity+ let him not %erform other meritorio"s acts witho"t their %ermission. &)9. 8or they are declared to be the three worlds# they the three (%rinci%al orders# they the three Vedas# and they the three sacred fires. &)1. The father# forsooth# is stated to be the =arha%atya fire# the mother the >a,shina(ni# b"t the teacher the Aha!aniya fire+ this triad of fires is most !enerable. &)&. He who ne(lects not those three# (e!en after he has become a ho"seholder# will con*"er the three worlds and# radiant in body li,e a (od# he will en?oy

bliss in hea!en. &)). 6y hono"rin( his mother he (ains this (nether world# by hono"rin( his father the middle s%here# b"t by obedience to his teacher the world of 6rahman. &)-. All d"ties ha!e been f"lfilled by him who hono"rs those three+ b"t to him who hono"rs them not# all rites remain fr"itless. &)/. As lon( as those three li!e# so lon( let him not (inde%endently %erform any other (meritorio"s acts + let him always ser!e them# re?oicin( (to do what is a(reeable and beneficial (to them . &)0. He shall inform them of e!erythin( that with their consent he may %erform in tho"(ht# word# or deed for the sa,e of the ne$t world. &)2. 6y (hono"rin( these three all that o"(ht to be done by man# is accom%lished+ that is clearly the hi(hest d"ty# e!ery other (act is a s"bordinate d"ty. &)5. He who %ossesses faith may recei!e %"re learnin( e!en from a man of lower caste# the hi(hest law e!en from the lowest# and an e$cellent wife e!en

from a base family. &)7. E!en from %oison nectar may be ta,en# e!en from a child (ood ad!ice# e!en from a foe (a lesson in (ood cond"ct# and e!en from an im%"re (s"bstance (old. &-9. E$cellent wi!es# learnin(# (the ,nowled(e of the law# (the r"les of %"rity# (ood ad!ice# and !ario"s arts may be ac*"ired from anybody. &-1. It is %rescribed that in times of distress (a st"dent may learn (the Veda from one who is not a 6rahmana+ and that he shall wal, behind and ser!e (s"ch a teacher# as lon( as the instr"ction lasts. &-&. He who desires incom%arable bliss (in hea!en shall not dwell d"rin( his whole life in (the ho"se of a non16rahmanical teacher# nor with a 6rahmana who does not ,now the whole Veda and the An(as. &-). 6"t if (a st"dent desires to %ass his whole life in the teacher;s ho"se# he m"st dili(ently ser!e him# "ntil he is freed from this body. &--. A 6rahmana who ser!es his teacher till the

dissol"tion of his body# reaches forthwith the eternal mansion of 6rahman. &-/. He who ,nows the sacred law m"st not %resent any (ift to his teacher before (the :ama!artana + b"t when# with the %ermission of his teacher# he is abo"t to ta,e the (final bath# let him %roc"re (a %resent for the !enerable man accordin( to his ability# &-0. (ViC. a field# (old# a cow# a horse# a %arasol and shoes# a seat# (rain# (e!en !e(etables# (and th"s (i!e %leas"re to his teacher. &-2. (A %er%et"al st"dent m"st# if his teacher dies# ser!e his son (%ro!ided he be endowed with (ood *"alities# or his widow# or his :a%inda# in the same manner as the teacher. &-5. :ho"ld none of these be ali!e# he m"st ser!e the sacred fire# standin( (by day and sittin( (d"rin( the ni(ht # and th"s finish his life. &-7. A 6rahmana who th"s %asses his life as a st"dent witho"t brea,in( his !ow# reaches (after death the hi(hest abode and will not be born a(ain in this world.