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LTE Technology

Table of Contents

Introduction Air Interface Network Architecture and Protocols LTE Market Alcatel-Lucent LTE Solution LTE Summary

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LTE Introduction

Table of Contents

Telephony Standards 3GPP Standards 3GPP Releases LTE Terminology: EPS, EUTRAN, SAE, EPC LTE Targets Evolution of Data Transmission Rates in 3GPP mobile networks LTE Requirements and Features

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Mobile Telephony Standards


Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 3GPP Standard for Mobile Telephony
Mobile telephony and mobile telecommunications standards
0G (radio telephones) MTS MTA MTB MTC IMTS MTD AMTS OLT Autoradiopuhelin

1G NMT AMPS Hicap Mobitex DataTAC TACS ETACS


GSM/3GPP family GSM CSD

2G

3GPP2 family CdmaOne (IS-95)


Other D-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136) CDPD iDEN PDC PHS GSM/3GPP family HSCSD GPRS EDGE/EGPRS

2G transitional (2.5G, 2.75G)

3GPP2 family CDMA2000 1xRTT (IS-2000) iDEN family WiDEN 3GPP family UMTS (UTRAN) WCDMA-FDD WCDMA-TDD UTRA-TDD LCR (TD-SCDMA) 3GPP2 family CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (IS-856) 3GPP family HSDPA HSUPA HSPA+ LTE (E-UTRA) 3GPP2 family EV-DO Rev. A EV-DO Rev. B
Other Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005) Flash-OFDM IEEE 802.20

3G (IMT-2000)

3G transitional (3.5G, 3.9G) 4G (IMT-Advanced)

3GPP family LTE Advanced WiMAX family IEEE 802.16m

International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) is the global standard for third generation (3G) wireless communications defined by ITU International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT Advanced) is the global standard for third generation (3G) wireless communications being defined by ITU
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3GPP Family of Standards (Dates, Releases, Generations)


1992 Ph1 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 ETSI - GSM Ph2 Ph2+
2G GSM GSM HSCSD

1998 R97
2.5G GPRS

1999 R98

2000 R99

2001 R4

2002 R5

2003 2004 2005 ETSI - 3GPP R6


2.75G

2006

2007 R7

2008 R8

2009 R9

2010

2011 R10

GSM EDGE
(EGPRS)

Evolved EDGE UMTS 3G UMTS UMTS HSPA


(HSDPA)

3.5G HSPA
(HSUPA)

IMS

IMS

R7 HSPA+ IMS

R8 HSPA+ LTE 3.9G

LTE Ad. 4G

Publication Date (not study starting date, neither deployment date!) 3GPP Release: R99, R4, ... Network Architecture: GSM, UMTS, LTE Mobile Telephony Generation: 2G, 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G, ... Technology: GSM, GPRS, EDGE, HSDPA, ...

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Terminology: LTE (E-UTRAN) + SAE (EPC) = EPS


In the 3GPP RAN working groups the terms LTE (Long Term Evolution) and EUTRAN (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) are used interchangeably In the 3GPP SA working groups the term SAE (System Architecture Evolution) was used to denote the architectural effort that resulted in the EPC (Evolved Packet Core) The combination of LTE/SAE has become known as EPS (Evolved Packet System) LTE is commonly used to refer to the whole EPS
LTE is not backward compatible with the UMTS core network, it requires the new EPC

E-UTRAN (Evolved UTRAN)

EPC (Evolved Packet Core)

EPS (Evolved Packet System)

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LTE Targets
Good Cell Size Good Cell Capacity Good Mobility Speeds High Data Rates Co-existence and interworking with UMTS/GSM and other net. Packet Domain Only End-to-end QoS Improved Spectrum Efficiency Flexible Spectrum and Bandwidth Assignment

Low Latency All IP network

LTE
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Simplified Architecture Reduced cost (CAPEX & OPEX)

Acceptable terminal complexity cost and power consumption


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Data Transmission Rates


Generation

2G 2.5G 2.75G 3G

3.5G

3.9G (super 3G) 4G

Technology GSM (CSD) GSM (HSCSD) GPRS EDGE Evolved EDGE Downlink UMTS Uplink Downlink HSDPA Uplink Downlink HSUPA Uplink Downlink HSPA+ (R7) Uplink Downlink HSPA+ (R8) Uplink Downlink LTE Uplink Downlink LTE Adv. Uplink

Transmission Rate

9.6 kbps 57.6 kbps 115 kbps 473.6 kbps 1 Mbps 2 Mbps 384 kbps 14.4 Mbps 384 kbps 14.4 Mbps 5.76 Mbps 28.8 Mbps 11.5 Mbps 43.2 Mbps 11.5 Mbps 326.4 Mbps 86.4 Mbps > 1 Gbps > 500 Mbps

Note that 2G technologies are symmetric (same bitrate on uplink and downlink, while 3G and 4G are asymmetric.
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LTE Main Requirements and Features (I)


Item Peak Downlink Data Rate Uplink Control Idle > Active Plane Latency Dormant > Active User Plane Downlink Average Spectrum Uplink Efficiency Cell Downlink Edge Uplink LTE Requirement > 100 Mbps > 50 Mbps < 100 ms < 50 ms < 5 ms 3-4 HSPA (0.53 bps/Hz) 3-4 HSPA (0.332 bps/Hz) 2-3 HSPA (0.02 bps/Hz) 2-3 HSPA (0.009 bps/Hz) LTE Results 326.4 Mbps 86.4 Mbps 51.25 ms + 3*S1 delay << 50 ms 4 ms 1.56 2.67 bps/Hz 0.68 1.03 bps/Hz 0.04 0.08 bps/Hz 0.01-0.052 bps/Hz LTE-A Requirement > 1 Gbps > 500 Mbps < 50 ms < 10 ms < 5 ms 3.5 bps/Hz 1.7 bps/Hz 0.06 - 0.1 bps/Hz 0.035 - 0.6 bps/Hz

Mobility
Optimized: 0 - 15 km/h High Performance: 15 - 120 km/h Functional: 120 - 350 km/h

Coverage
Throughput, spectrum efficiency and mobility targets achieved in 5 km cells, and with a slight degradation for 30 km cells. Cells range up to 100 km should not be precluded.

Cell Capacity
At least 200 users per cell should be supported in the active state for spectrum allocations up to 5 MHz

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LTE Main Requirements and Features (II)


Spectrum flexibility
LTE will support all existing GSM/UMTS frequency bands as well as new ones Different allocations for users: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz FDD duplexing mode with uplink and downlink paired bands TDD duplexing mode with 1 unpaired band shared for uplink and downlink

Co-existence
with GERAN/3G on adjacent channels with other operators on adjacent channels with overlapping or adjacent spectrum at country borders

Interworking
Handover with UTRAN and GERAN
less than 300 ms for real time services and less than 500 ms for non real time services

Handover with non 3GPP Technologies (CDMA 2000, WiFi, WiMAX)

Simplified Architecture
E-UTRAN is reduced to the Evolved Node B (eNB) All services via the evolved packet core (EPC) (equivalent to the Packet Subsystem). There is no Circuit Subsystem (CS) Clearly delineated control and user planes

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LTE Main Requirements and Features (& III)


All IP Architecture
EPC is completely based on TCP/IP The interface from E-UTRAN (eNB) to the EPC is based on TCP/IP Mobility can be based not only on the UMTS GTP tunnels but on Mobile IP (MIP) tunnels All services based on IP

Cost Reductions
Derived from the simplified architecture based on open interfaces Multivendor RAN Self Organizing Network (SON) feature on the E-UTRAN

Reduced UE Power Consumption


Discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving

Quality of Service:
End-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) supported. VoIP supported with at least as good radio and backhaul efficiency and latency as voice traffic over the UMTS circuit switched networks

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LTE Air Interface

Table of Contents

Multiple Access: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Duplexing Techniques: FDD, TDD and HD-FDD Frequency Bands Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Multiple Antennas Technologies (SM, SDMA) Modulation in LTE Reference Signals Multicast and Broadcast: E-MBMS and MBSFN

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LTE Air Interface Technology


LTE air interface:
Based on OFDMA multiple access/multiplexing on the downlink and SC-FDMA multiple access on the uplink Supports FDD, TDD and HDFDD duplexing modes Uses MIMO technology to increment throughput

What does it mean? We will try to clarify all these terms in the following slides

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Basic Multiple Access Techniques


TDMA = Time Division Multiple Access FDMA = Frequency Division Multiple Access CDMA = Code Division Multiple Access SDMA = Space Division Multiple Access

Imagine a bunch of people trying to maintain several simultaneous conversations in the same room:
TDMA = Speak in turns FDMA = Speak with different tones/pitches CDMA = Speak in different languages SDMA = Use a mechanism to address the voice to the desired person only
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Multiple Access vs. Multiplexing


All the techniques mentioned allow the use of several "subcarriers" in the same shared medium When several subcarriers are used by the same user/terminal we talk about multiplexing When different subcarriers are used by different users/terminals we talk about multiple access The underlying technique is the same, the term may be different. For example:
FDM = Frequency Division Multiplexing FDMA = Frequency Division Multiple Access

Multiplexing and multiple access can be combined. For example, in LTE:


In the downlink interface (OFDMA): each terminal may use a different set of subcarriers (combining multiplexing and multiple access) In the uplink interface (SC-FDMA): each terminal uses a single different subcarrier (pure multiple access) (The meaning of OFDMA and SC-FDMA will be explained later)

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More Multiple Access Techniques: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Access)

Is a type of FDMA where a large number of closely-space orthogonal subcarriers are used That is, it is a type of FDMA where:
the frequencies have been cleverly chosen (in mathematical terms: they are orthogonal) so that the digital processing required to recover the information transmitted in each subcarrier is easy and efficient (in math. terms: Fast Fourier Transform) allowing the use of a large number of closely-spaced (in fact overlapping) subcarriers
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OFDMA: The importance of being "orthogonal"


Sine and cosine are "orthogonal" functions Let us transmit a "4" in the "cosine" channel and a "2" in the "sine" channel

+ vyy = 4 cos( t ) + 2sin( t ) v = vxx


4 v(t) 2

We can recover the information in each channel multiplying the received signal by the corresponding function and integrating it: Ts

>= v(t ) cos( t ) dt = 4 < v, x


0

Ts

v(t ) cos( t )

0 Ts
Ts

>= v(t ) sin( t ) dt = 2 < v, y


0

Ts

v(t ) sin( t )
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0
Ts

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OFDMA: The Fast Fourier Transform (FTT)


In fact it is not necessary to multiply the received signal by each carrier and integrate ... There is a mathematical operation that can be applied to the received signal to recover the information in all channels at once: the Fourier Transform (FT) Basically the FT splits the signal into the component frequencies Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an efficient algorithm to perform the Fourier Transform with a DSP

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Multiple Access and Mobile Telephony Generations


Most 2G technologies are based on TDMA
In particular GSM is based on TDMA The exception would be the IS-95 (or cmdaONE) technology used in the US

Most 3G technologies are based on CDMA


In particular UMTS and CMDA 2000 are based on CDMA

All 4G technologies will probably be based on OFDMA


LTE (pre-4G) is based on OFDMA
Standard OFDMA in the downlink (several carriers per terminal) OFDMA variant called SC-FDMA in the uplink (one carrier per terminal, orthogonal carriers for different terminals)

Other technologies based on OFDMA:


WiFi WiMAX ADSL (where it is called DMT <Discrete Multi-Tone>)

LTE LTEis isbased basedon onOFDMA OFDMA(Standard (StandardOFDMA OFDMAin inthe thedownlink downlink and andSC-FDMA SC-FDMAin inthe theuplink) uplink)
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OFDMA versus SC-FDMA


In OFDMA each data symbol is modulated in narrower subcarrier (15kHz) during a longer symbol time. Several symbols are transmitted in parallel using several subcarriers. In SC-FDMA each data symbol is modulated in a wider subcarrier during a shorter symbol time. Several symbols are transmitted serially along time using a single carrier.

The two techniques transmit the same amount of data symbols in the same time period and using the same bandwidth. But OFDMA requires a higher variation of the signal amplitude to achieve the same signal-to-noise ratio. This requires expensive power amplifiers and high power transmission which is acceptable for the eNB but not desirable for the UE. OFDMA offers more granularity in assigning bandwidth to users SC-FDMA requires less power transmission which is better suited for the UE.

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Duplexing Techniques

FDD
Frequency-division duplexing (FDD) means that the transmitter and receiver operates at different carrier frequencies.

TDD
Time-division duplexing (TDD) is the application of time-division multiplexing to separate uplink and downlink signals
It is important to distinguish between multiple access (FDMA, TDMA) and duplexing (FDD, TDA). While multiple access allows multiple users simultaneous access to a shared medium, duplexing refers to how the radio channel is shared between the uplink and downlink.

GSM GSMuses usesFDD FDD UMTS UMTSis ismainly mainlybased basedon onFDD, FDD,although althoughthere thereis isaaTDD TDDvariant variant(TD(TDSCDMA) SCDMA)used usedin insome somecountries countries(e.g.: (e.g.:China) China) LTE LTEhas hasbeen beendefined definedto tosupport supportboth: both:FDD FDDmode modeand andTDD TDDmode mode
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LTE Duplexing Modes: FDD and TDD


LTE supports both Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) and Time Division Duplexing (TDD) to provide flexible operation in a variety of spectrum allocations around the world
Only 1 unpaired frequency band is required for TDD. 2 Paired frequency bands (uplink/downlink) are required for FDD

Unlike in UMTS where TDD is a kind of add-on to the standards, in LTE there is high degree of commonality between FDD and TDD
Dual UE terminals capable of connecting to both FDD and TDD networks are expected Common: slot length (0.5 ms), subframe length (1 ms), OFDMA symbol time, CP lengths, FFT sizes, sample rates, etc.

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LTE Duplexing Modes: HD-FDD

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GSM Frequency Bands

System T-GSM-380 T-GSM-410 GSM-450 GSM-480 GSM-710 GSM-750 T-GSM-810 GSM-850 P-GSM-900 E-GSM-900 R-GSM-900 T-GSM-900 DCS-1800 PCS-1900

Band Uplink (MHz)

Downlink (MHz) 380 380.2389.8 390.2399.8 410 410.2419.8 420.2429.8 450 450.4457.6 460.4467.6 480 478.8486.0 488.8496.0 710 698.0716.0 728.0746.0 750 747.0762.0 777.0792.0 810 806.0821.0 851.0866.0 850 824.0849.0 869.0894.0 900 890.2914.8 935.2959.8 900 880.0914.8 925.0959.8 900 876.0914.8 921.0959.8 900 870.4876.0 915.4921.0 1800 1710.21784.8 1805.21879.8 1900 1850.01910.0 1930.01990.0

Channel number dynamic dynamic 259293 306340 dynamic 438511 dynamic 128251 1124 9751023, 0-124 9551023, 0-124 dynamic 512885 512810

Comments

Old NMT (1G) systems. No commercial GSM deployments

United States, Canada, and many other countries in the Americas Europe, Middle East, Africa, Oceania and most of Asia "Extended" GSM-900 "Railways" GSM-900 Europe, Middle East, Africa, Oceania and most of Asia United States, Canada, and many other countries in the Americas

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UMTS and LTE Frequency Bands


LTE LTEwill willsupport supportall allthe thebands bandscurrently currentlyspecified specifiedfor forUMTS UMTSas aswell wellas asadditional additionalbands bands
Band 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Freq. 2100 1900 1800 1700 850 850 2600 900 1800 1700 1500 700 700 700 Common Name IMT PCS DCS AWS CLR IMT-E GSM Duplex. Mode UMTS 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 FDD GSM-1900 1850 - 1910 1930 - 1990 FDD GSM-1800 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 FDD UMTS 1710 - 1755 2110 - 2155 FDD GSM-850 824 - 849 869 - 894 FDD UMTS 830 - 840 875 - 885 FDD LTE 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD GSM-900 880 - 915 925 - 960 FDD 1749.9 - 1784.9 1844.9 - 1879.9 FDD 1710 - 1770 2110 - 2170 FDD 1427.9 - 1452.9 1475.9 - 1500.9 FDD 698 - 716 728 - 746 FDD 777 - 787 746 - 756 FDD 788 - 798 758 - 768 FDD Use UL (MHz) DL (MHz) 1900 - 1920 2010 - 2025 1850 - 1910 1930 - 1990 1910 - 1930 2570 - 2620 1880 - 1920 2300 - 2400 TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD Region Europe (O2, Vodafone, Orange), Asia, Oceania, Brazil North America (AT&T, Bell Mobility, Telus, Rogers), Chile Europe, Asia, Oceania USA (T-Mobile), Canada (WIND Mobile) Americas (AT&T, Bell Mobility, Telus, Rogers), Oceania Japan (NTT docomo) Europe (future) Europe, Asia, Oceania Japan (E Mobile, NTT docomo) Japan (NTT docomo) USA (future) (lower SMH blocks A/B/C) USA (future) (upper SMH block C) USA (future) (upper SMH block D)

SMH SMH SMH

Japan (IP Mobile ), Finland

Note Notethat thatthe thebands bandsfor forTDD TDDare areunpaired unpairedbecause becauseuplink uplinkand anddownlink downlinkshare sharethe thefrequencies frequencies
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LTE/UMTS/GSM Frequency Bands


GSM started in Europe in the 900 MHz band, followed by the 1800 MHz band. GSM was introduced in the US in the 1900 MHz band, followed by the 850 MHz band. UMTS started in Europe in the 2100 MHz band. First implementations of LTE will probably use the 2600 MHz band Multi-band phones
dual-band GSM tri-band quad-band UMTS/HSPA tri-band

Europe US 900/1800 850/1900 900/1800/1900 850/1800/1900 850/900/1800/1900 850/1900/2100

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Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) (I)


MIMO systems employ multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver as shown in Figure.

They transmit independent data (say x1, x2, , xN) on different transmit antennas simultaneously and in the same channel. At the receiver, a MIMO decoder users MN antennas. Assuming N receive antennas, and representing the signal received by each antenna as rj we have:

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Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) (&II)


Traditionally this combination has been treated as interference. However, by treating the channel as a matrix, we can in fact recover the independent transmitted streams {xi}. To recover the transmitted data stream {xi} from the {rj} we must estimate the individual channel weights hij, construct the channel matrix H. Having estimated H, multiplication of the vector r with the inverse of H produces the estimate of the transmitted vector x. This is equivalent to solving a set of N linear equations in N unknowns. Because multiple data streams are transmitted in parallel from different antennas there is a linear increase in throughput with every pair of antennas added to the system. An important fact to note is that unlike traditional means of increasing throughput, MIMO systems do not increase bandwidth in order to increase throughput. MIMO exploits the spatial dimension by increasing the number of unique spatial paths between the transmitter and receiver (multipath capabilities) to increase throughput. It is important to distinguish between SDMA and MIMO. While SDMA takes advantage of the spatial dimension to allow multiple users simultaneous access to a shared medium, MIMO uses spatial dimension to increase throughput for each individual user.

LTE LTE uses uses MIMO MIMO technology technology


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Multiple Antennas Technologies in LTE Multiple transmit antennas at eNodeB: 1,2 or 4 Multiple receive antennas at UE: 2

, or MU-MIMO

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Multiple Antennas Technologies in LTE Downlink and Uplink

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Modulation
f
Subcarrier

one symbol

Each subcarrier is modulated to transfer information in the form of a sequence of "symbols" The duration of each symbol (symbol time) is fixed Depending on the modulation scheme, the signal in each symbol is modulated in phase and/or amplitude to represent one of a certain constelation of possible values (states) In LTE the following modulation schemes are used:
t

Symbol time

QPSK, 16QAM 64QAM

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Modulation in LTE: QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM


Example of QPSK constelation 10
Phase 180 (-cosine) Phase 90 (sine)

4 states = 2 bits

00
Phase 0 (cosine)

11
Amplitude = 1
Phase 270 (-sine)

01

States Bits/Symbol 4 2 QPSK 16 4 16QAM 64 6 64QAM

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LTE Downlink: Scalable OFDMA


The LTE downlink uses scalable OFDMA
Fixed subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz for unicast
symbol time fixed at T = 1/15kHz = 66.67 s

Different UEs are assigned different sets of subcarriers so that they remain orthogonal to each other (except MU-MIMO)
bit stream user 1

Encoding + Interleaving + Modulation

Serial to Parallel

IFFT
Serial to Parallel

Parallel to Serial

add CP

...

bit stream user 2

Encoding + Interleaving + Modulation

20 MHz: 2048 pt IFFT 10 MHz: 1024 pt IFFT 5 MHz: 512 pt IFFT

No in-cell interference different users use different subcarriers

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LTE Uplink: DFT-SOFDM Transmitter and Receiver Chain

bit stream

Encoding + Interleaving + Modulation

S P

DFT

IFFT

P S

add CP

D/A

RF Tx

...

...

Subcarrier mapping

Subcarrier demapping

...

Demod + deinterleave + decode

P S

IDFT

Equalizer

FFT

S P

remove CP

A/D

RF Rx

...

...

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...

...

LTE Downlink: Scalable OFDMA


subframe
LTE frames are 10 msec in duration. They are divided into 10 subframes, Physical Resource Block (PRB) = 7 symbols X 12 subcarriers (short CP), or;

Subcarrier

first 1..3 OFDM symbols* reserved for L1/L2 control signaling (PCFICH, PDCCH, PHICH)
* 2..4 symbols for 1.4 MHz bandwidth only

6 symbols X 12 subcarriers (long CP) This is the minimum unit of allocation in LTE

one OFDM symbol

PRB
15 kHz Resource Element is a single subcarrier in an OFDM symbol
66.67 s

Slot (0.5 ms)

Slot (0.5 ms)

CP

Symbol Data

t
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Subframe (1 ms)
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4.67 s (short) 16.67 s (long)

LTE Downlink Numerology (FDD)

Transmission BW Sampling Frequency FFT Size Number of PBRs # of Usable Subcarriers

1.3 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz 192 kHz 3.84 MHz 7.68 MHz 15.36 MHz 23.04 MHz 30.72 MHz
(1/2 x 3.84) (1 x 3.84) (2 x 3.84) (4 x 3.84) (6 x 3.84) (8 x 3.84)

128 6 72

256 15 180

512 25 300

1024 50 600

1536 75 900

2048 100 1200

FFT sizes chosen such that sampling rates are a multiple of the UMTS chip rate (3.84 MHz)

Eases implementation of dual mode UMTS/LTE terminals

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Reference Signal
Reference signals are generated as the product of an orthogonal sequence and a pseudo-random numerical (PRN) sequence. Overall, there are 510 unique reference signals possible. A specified reference signal is assigned to each cell within a network and acts as a cell-specific identifier. UE must get an accurate CIR from each transmitting antenna. Therefore, when a reference signal is transmitted from one antenna port, the other antenna ports in the cell are idle. Reference signals are sent on every sixth subcarrier. CIR estimates for subcarriers that do not bear reference signals are computed via interpolation.

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Reference Signal
In the multi-antenna case, there is a need for a RS power boost to overcome interference from neighbor cell data transmission Cell-specific frequency shift of RS position to avoid RS overlap RS overhead 4.8% for 1 Tx 9.5% for 2 Tx 14.3% for 4 Tx

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Evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS)


With E-MBMS, multiple users receive the same information using the same radio resources much more efficient approach for delivering common content
Examples: television broadcasts, news updates, sports scores, etc. Broadcast: every user receives content Multicast: only users with a subscriptions receive content

E-MBMS can be used in synchronous or asynchronous networks, and can either be on a stand-alone E-MBMS carrier or multiplexed with unicast traffic
Subframes reserved for broadcast are reserved periodically in time TDM of broadcast and unicast subframes (FDM is not allowed)

Broadcast

Broadcast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast

Unicast time

1ms subframe

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Unicast

Multicast Broadcast on a Single Frequency Network (MBSFN)


MBSFN refers to a mode of E-MBMS where synchronized transmission of the same content from multiple cells on same set of subcarriers takes place
Appears as extra multipath at the mobile, as long as signal components from different cells arrive within the CP length diversity gains exploited for free with over the air combining An extended CP length is used for broadcast subframes to account for propagation delay from different cells
CP length extended from 4.7 ms to 16.6 ms (increased CP overhead) 6 OFDM symbols per slot for broadcast (instead of 7 for unicast)

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LTE Network Architecture and Protocols

Table of Contents
Network Architecture
LTE-Uu Interface E-UTRAN
S1 Interface X2 Interface eNB Functions Radio Resource Control (RRC) Inter-cell Interference Control SON (Self-Organizing Networks) MME Functions MME Interfaces Bearer Management LTE Initial Attach/Default Bearer Establishment (High Level View) Serving & PDN Gateway PCRF and QoS User Plane Protocols S5 Interface: GTP and GRE

EPC

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3GPP Family Mobile Networks Architecture


LTE

User Plane
EPC eNB E-UTRAN Serving-GW MME PDN-GW PCRF

Control Plane

UMTS

IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem


UTRAN Node B GSM / GPRS RNC SGSN GGSN Packet Switched Domain

IP Multimedia Network VoIP Network NGN

IP Network Data Network

MSC GERAN BTS BSC Circuit Switched Domain PSTN Circuit Switched Voice Network

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Evolved Packet System Architecture Overview

PDSN

HA

EPS is based upon an end-to-end all-IP architecture


All services are delivered over IP Clearly delineated control plane & data plane Simplified network architecture: from 2 to 1 core

PCRF MME

SGW

PDN GW

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Evolution to EPS
A Unified IP-based Always-on, QoS-enabled Network
Legacy Infrastructure
CS Core

CS Services

PS Core
BTS

Backhaul RNC (TDM/ATM)

PDSN

GGSN

Packet Services

1
Radio Mobility Intelligence placed in the eNB

2
Backhaul transition To IP/Ethernet

3
RNC Bearer mobility collapse into the SGW RNC control distributed into the MME/eNB

4
MCS voice and SGSN packet mobility collapse into the SGW SGSN control collapses into the MME

5
CS and PS Collapse into a Unified IP backbone

6
GGSN collapses into the PDN GW All services delivered over IP

Evolved Packet System


Multi-Media
MME

Backhaul (IP/Ethernet)
eNB SGW

Service aware and mobile aware IP network

PCRF

Services

PDN GW

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EPS Architecture: Functional Description of Nodes


Mobility Management Entity
Authentication Tracking area list management Idle mode UE reachability S-GW/PDN-GW selection Inter core network node signaling for mobility between 2G/3G and LTE Bearer management functions
PCRF

eNB- contains all radio access functions


Functions for Radio Resource Management: Radio Bearer Control, Radio Admission Control, Connection Mobility Control, Dynamic allocation of resources to UEs in both uplink and downlink (scheduling); IP header compression and encryption of user data stream; Selection of an MME at UE attachment;

Policy
Policy Decisions

Policy & Charging Rules Function


Network control of Service Data Flow (SDF) detection, gating, QoS & flow based charging Dynamic policy decision on service data flow treatment in the PCEF (xGW) Authorizes QoS resources

Serving Gateway
Local mobility anchor for inter-eNB handovers Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP handovers Idle mode DL packet buffering Lawful interception Packet routing and forwarding

PDN Gateway
IP anchor point for bearers UE IP address allocation Per-user based packet filtering Connectivity to packet data network

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LTE Network (non-roaming)


HSS

S6a

S10

MME
S3

S11

PCRF
Gxx Serving GW S5 S2a S2b E-PDG SWn S6b S7 (Gx) PDN SGi SGi

eUTRAN
S1-MME LTE-Uu

Rx Operator IP Services

UE
X2

eNB

S1-U S4

SGSN GERAN UTRAN 3GPP Network non-3GPP Access


Proxy Mobile IPv6 or MIPv4 in FA mode Dual-Stack Mobile IPv6 S12

AAA

Other IP Networks

Trusted Non 3GPP IP CAN

Non-Trusted Non 3GPP IP CAN


S2c

UE

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LTE Network (Roaming)

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E-UTRAN Architecture: LTE-Uu interface


User plane
BMC layer is not needed in EUTRAN, since MBMS is used to broadcast RLC/MAC layer (terminated in eNB):
Scheduling, ARQ, HARQ

PDCP layer (moved now to eNB):


Header Compression (ROHC), Ciphering, Integrity protection

Control Plane
RRC terminated in eNB
Broadcast, Paging, RRC connection management, RB control, Mobility functions, UE measurement reporting and control

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E-UTRAN Architecture: S1 and X2 interfaces


S1-AP

X2-AP

SCTP IP Data link layer Physical layer

SCTP IP Data link layer Physical layer

S1 Interface Control Plane (eNB-MME)

X2 Interface Control Plane

E-UTRAN consists of eNBs, providing the E-UTRA user plane and control plane protocol terminations towards the UE
Fully distributed radio access network architecture

eNBs may be interconnected with each other by means of the X2 interface


X2 supports enhanced mobility, inter-cell interference management, and SON functionalities

eNBs are connected by means of the S1 interface to the Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

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E-UTRAN Architecture: eNB Functions


Radio Resource Management functions Radio Bearer Control, Radio Admission Control, Connection Mobility Control, Dynamic allocation of resources to UEs in both uplink and downlink (scheduling) Measurement and measurement reporting configuration for mobility and scheduling IP header compression and encryption of user data stream Selection of an MME at UE attachment when no routing to an MME can be determined from the information provided by the UE Routing of User Plane data towards Serving Gateway Scheduling and transmission of paging messages (originated from the MME) Scheduling and transmission of broadcast information (originated from the MME or O&M)

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RRC: Radio Resource Control

In LTE the UE has only two RRC states:


RRC_IDLE RRC_CONNECTED

After a long period of inactivity, an UE can go to RRC_IDLE state, releasing some of the radio resources, without losing the "registration" with the EPC (for example, without losing its IP address) On RRC_IDLE state the UE is still able to receive broadcast/multicast data and can receive the "paging" message that takes the UE to RRC_CONNECTED state again.

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RRC Procedures
UE
RRC: Connection Request RRC: Connection Setup RRC: Connection Setup Complete

eNB

UE
RRC: Paging

eNB

Paging

Connection Establishment

Other procedures:
Connection Release Connection Reconfiguration Connection Re-establishment Initial Security Activation UL Information Transfer (of NAS control protocol info) DL Information Transfer (of NAS control protocol info)

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Inter-cell interference control over X2


Dynamic inter-cell interference management is supported in E-UTRAN based on messages exchanged between neighbour eNBs over X2 Uplink interference
Overload Indicator message (reactive scheme)
Indicates the interference level experienced by the eNB in certain PRBs Typically used to indicate high interference situations experienced by eNBs

High Interference Indicator message (proactive scheme)


Indicates that the eNB is going to schedule some cell-edge users in certain PRBs

Downlink interference
Relative Narrowband Tx Powermessage
Indicates, per PRB, whether the downlink Tx power is lower than a certain threshold

Inter-cell interference mitigation/coordination by means of Intelligent scheduling based on priority allocation of sub-frame/sub-carrier allocation, frequency scheduling, power levels coupled to sub-band priorities, soft reuse: power levels coupled to groups of sub-bands etc.

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Self Organizing Networks (SON)

E-UTRAN supports multiple SON functions


Allow to automate network configuration/optimization processes and thus reduce the need for centralized planning and human intervention "plug and play" eNBs

SON functions are mostly enabled by the exchange of information between neighbour eNBs
Some functions rely also on UE assistance

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SON functions supported in the standard


Automatic Neighbour Relation function
Allows the eNB to build and maintain its neighbour relations based on UE reports (Function relies on connected mode UEs that can read and report the Cell Global Identity (CGI) of a neighbour cell)

Automatic PCI selection


Allows the eNB to select its own Physical Cell Identifier (PCI) based on UE reports and information received from neighbour eNBs

Dynamic configuration of X2/S1 interfaces


Allows the eNB to dynamically configure the S1-MME interface with the serving MMEs and the X2 interface with neighbour eNBs

Physical Random Access CHanne (PRACH) parameters optimization


Allows neighbor eNBs to exchange information about their used PRACH resources (and thus avoid interference and RACH collisions)

Mobility parameters optimization


Allows to adapt the mobility-related parameters of an eNB to enhance mobility robustness or for load-balancing reasons

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MME Functions
The MME is the key control-node for the LTE access-network. Terminates the Non-Access Stratum (NAS) signaling from the UE and the GTP-C signaling from the SGW Idle mode UE tracking and paging procedure including retransmissions. Bearer management Responsible for choosing the SGW and PDN-GW for a UE at the initial attach and at time of intra-LTE handover involving Core Network (CN) node relocation. UE authentication (by interacting with the HSS). Responsible for generation and allocation of temporary identities to UEs. Termination point in the network for ciphering/integrity protection for NAS signaling and handles the security key management. Lawful interception of signaling is also supported by the MME. The MME also provides the control plane function for mobility between LTE and 2G/3G access networks with the S3 interface terminating at the MME from the SGSN.

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MME Interfaces

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Bearer Management
EPS Mobility Management (EMM) is the function of controlling whether a UE is registered with the Mobile Management Entity (MME) and the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) States: EMM-registered or EMM-deregistered. EPS Connection Management (ECM) is a sub-function of Mobility Management. It has to do with the physical and logical connectivity to the UE through the radio network. States: ECM-Idle or ECM-Connected A mobile transferring data is always EMM-registered and ECM-connected, but, after a long period of inactivity, it could go to ECM-Idle state (corresponding to an underlying RRC-Idle) without losing its registration (EMM-registered) EPS Session Management (ESM) is the function of providing IP connectivity (by means of EPS bearers) to the UE. Bearer Context Inactive
When there is no EPS Bearer for the UE.

Bearer Context Active


When there is at least one EPS Bearer for the UE.

As soon as the UE registers (EMM-registered) at least one EPS Bearer (the default bearer) is activated. But one UE may have more than one context and more than one bearer active.

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Bearer Management

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Bearer Management Procedures


The main EMM procedures are as follows:

Attach Detach Tracking Area update Paging Identification Security Mode Control
Default EPS Bearer Context Activation EPS Bearer Context Deactivation Dedicated EPS Bearer Context Activation EPS Bearer Context Modification UE Requested PDN Connectivity UE Requested Disconnect UE Requested Bearer Resource Allocation UE Requested Bearer Resource Modification

The main EPS Session Management (ESM) are

ESM procedures can be performed only after a NAS connection is established (ECM-Connected). The Default EPS Bearer setup is performed during the EMM Attach procedure.

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Bearers
EPS Bearers provide access to PDN services for the UE
Typically a Default Bearer is established during attachment and maintained through the lifetime of the connection (always-on IP connectivity) Additional Dedicated Bearers can be dynamically established as the result of service requests

The S-GW and PDN-GW manage the dynamic creation, modification and deletion of S1 and S5/S8 bearers

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LTE Initial Attach/Default Bearer Establishment (High Level View)


UE eNB MME S-GW P-GW
Network Discovery RRC Conn. Establishm.
RRC-Connected

Attach Request

Initial UE Message Attach Request

Diameter: LTE Authentication Diameter: Update Location, Insert Subscriber Data Create Default Bearer Req. Create Default Bearer Req. DHCP: IP Addr. assig. Diameter: PDN Auth. Diameter: Policy & Charg. Ctrl. Create Default Bearer Res.

HSS HSS DHCP AAA PCRF

Create Default Bearer Res. Initial Context Setup Req. Attach Accept Attach Accept
EMM-Registered

Default S5 Bearer

Attach Complete Default Radio Bearer Initial Context Setup Res. Attach Complete Update Bearer req. Update Bearer res. Default S1-U Bearer Default EPS Bearer

Protocol Color Code: RRC S1AP NAS GTP-C Other (indicated)

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Serving & PDN Gateway

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PCRF: Policy and Charging Control


QoS is enforced at the PDN-GW level. The PDN-GW performs the PCEF (Policy & Charging Enforcement Function).
The PDN-GW is the element responsible for the ESM (EPS Session Management), that is, for EPS Bearer management. Fine grain QoS and Charging enforcement:
Multiple Service Data Flows (SDF) can be aggregated onto a single EPS bearer UL and DL packet filters, policing, shaping, scheduling are applied to each bearer

QoS is required by services, signaled using SIP. The elements handling SIP signaling, and aware of the QoS requirements perform called AF (Application Function)
This includes the Session Control Elements that belong to the IMS

The PCRF acts as the policy decision point: the mediator between the AF (who knows the required QoS) and the PCEF (who enforces the QoS)
The PCRF is not a simple protocol translator It really takes policy decisions based on: user profile, policy rules, charging rules, etc.

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PCRF: Policy and Charging Control

Note that at least the default EPS Bearer has to be activated (steps 1 and 2) before the UE can send the service request (step 3) The service request consists on SIP signaling exhanged over IP

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User Plane Protocols

UE

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S5 Interface
There are two types of S5 Interfaces:
GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) based Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) based

GTP is the same tunneling protocol used on GPRS/UMTS network GRE is used together with MIP (Mobile IP) and in particular together with PMIPv6 (Proxy Mobile IP version 6)
In any case, the S5 interface is based on a tunnel. The network between the PGW and the SGW is usually an IP network. But this means that there are two IP levels and two IP addresses:
The "user" IP level and the UE IP address And the "SGW-PGW network" IP level and the IP address used to route the packets from PGW to SGW

This requires encapsulation, i.e. tunneling.

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LTE Market

Market Trends
iPhone and the sequel ... Real game changers

X X 10 10

X X 50 50

AT&T x4 Telia Sonera +275%


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Market Trends
iPhone and the sequel ... Real game changers

Derek McManus, Chief Technology Officer of O2, at Fierce Wireless Europe on November 18, 2009:
The Theintroduction introductionof ofworld-class world-classsmartphones, smartphones,in incombination combinationwith with a awide widevariety varietyof ofdata dataapplications, applications,has hasbrought broughtabout abouta adramatic dramatic change changein incustomer customerbehavior behaviorand andcreated createdan anexponential exponentialdemand demand on onmobile mobiledata datanetworks. networks.Data Dataon onour ournetwork networkhas hasincreased increased twenty-fold twenty-foldin inthe thelast lastyear yearalone, alone,and andto toput putthis thisin incontext, context, watching watchinga aYouTube YouTubevideo videoon ona asmartphone smartphonecan canuse usethe thesame same capacity capacityon onthe thenetwork networkas assending sending500,000 500,000text textmessages messages simultaneously. simultaneously.

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New devices, new applications


Increase in the diversity of traffic: The Internet of things

Increase in the volume of traffic: M2M, Cloud Computing, Video, UGC

M2M
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Cloud Computing

Video

UGC

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LTE is the answer

Excellent performance for outstanding Quality of Experience

20MHz 326Mbps 10ms RTT 1.4MHz 2.6GHz 700MHz

Spectrum flexibility Wide spectrum and bandwidth range

cost effective IP architecture and transport

Flat IP CDMA, GSM, W-CDMA, WiMAX

Smooth integration Mobility, load balancing and upgrade path

A flexible technology addressing operators challenges


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Comparison of Value Propositions Between HSPA and LTE Networks


When network providers explore the technology challenges in migrating to a 4G LTE network they will basically be weighing the value and costs of an LTE wireless network architecture versus their existing architectures, which are likely to be either 3G High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) or evolved HSPA (HSPA+), which is an advanced version of HSPA that offers an optional all-IP architecture.

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MNOs committed to LTE


According to the announcements made to end-June 2010, 158 LTE deployments (including on-going network deployments, trials and commitments of which two were in-service) are scheduled before end-2015. Some Mobile Network Operators committed to LTE:
3 (Hutchison) America Movil Etisalat MTN Orange Telefonica Telenor TeliaSonera T-Mobile Vodafone Zain
Groups operating in several countries

AT&T China Mobile KDDI NTT DOCOMO, Optus, SK Telecom, Telstra Verizon Wireless.
MNO with presence in one key market

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Some LTE Highlights


Telia Sonera
First commercial LTE deployment: December 2009 in Norway and Sweden

Verizon Wireless
US CMDA operator Launch in Q4 2010
Main Supplier!

AT&T Mobile
US GSM operator - Launch in 2011
Main Supplier!

Germany
Four licenses assigned on the 800, 2100 and 2600 MHz bands: O2, Deutsche Telekom, Vodafone, E-Plus (KPN) <4384 M> Required to launch commercial service in 2011

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Case Study: Telia Sonera

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Case Study: Telia Sonera

Telia Sonera LTE


December 2009: Oslo and Stockolm (2.6 GHz band) Coverage extended during 2010 in other Norway and Sweden cities Commercial roll-out in Finland and Denmark towards the end of 2010

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Case Study: Telia Sonera


In June 2010, Telia Sonera started offering triple-mode modems for LTE, 3G and 2G networks; prior to this, it offered LTE-only modems. The triple-mode modem automatically switches between 2G and 3G but needs to be shut down for transition between 3G and LTE. These Samsung-manufactured USB dongles are being offered with a 30-day money back guarantee and can also be bought in an exchange offer with old LTE-only modems at no extra cost. The offer aims to encourage their subscribers to try LTE services. It plans to offer LTE compatible handsets (data only) in early 2011.

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Case Study: Verizon


Launched its 4G LTE service in 38 markets and 60 airports on December 5, 2010 Downlink (between 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps) and uplink (between 2 Mbps and 5 Mbps). One-half the latency as compared with todays 3G networks. Rate Plans
The first plan offers 5 GB of data for $50 per month. The second plan offers 10 GB of data for $80 per month. Users will be notified via text message when they hit 50 percent, 75 percent, 90 percent and 100 percent of their allotted bucket). They will be charged an additional $10 for every extra GB they use.

The 5 GB LTE plan is priced $10 per month cheaper than Verizons 5 GB 3G data plan, though the LTE service provides much faster speeds.
The company believes a significant amount of customers will embrace LTE and 5 GB will not be enough so instead they will gravitate to the $80 per month plan.

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Cumulative LTE Deployments (Current and Forecasted)

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LTE Engagements per Vendor (End-June 2010)

Source: PortioResearch August 2010

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Signed LTE Contracts

Source: Telegeography Reseach, mid-November 2010

Huawei Huawei Ericsson Ericsson Nokia-Siemens Nokia-Siemens Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Other Other

36% 16% 16% 14% 18%

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LTE device availability


Instopable Waves for a fast mass market adoption
H1

2009

H2

H1

2010

H2

H1

2011
H2

H1

2012

H2

H1

2013

H2

H1

2014+

LTE New connected devices

Prototype products

Commercial Devices (High End), USB, Netbook, Smarphone, W-DSL

LTE Middle end handset

LTE low end handset

Field Trials

Early Launches

Mass Market Adoption

LTE solution Prototype

1st Gen LTE solution

In 2009, LTE ecosystem is already backed by the top 5 device suppliers and the wireless chipset champions

2nd Gen LTE solution

In 2011, the LTE technologies is ready for the Mass Market with mature chipsets ready for Wireless and Consumer electronic suppliers

3rd Gen LTE solution In 2013, The LTE technologies would become commodities for smooth integration into any type of wireless synchronised devices

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Example of existing LTE USB Device

Telia-Sonera: Samsung's GT-B3730


2G GPRS/EDGE 3G UMTS/HSPA 4G LTE 800/1900 MHz 2100 MHz 2.6 GHz 296 kbps 17/5.7 Mbps 100/50 Mbps

AT&T: USBConnect Adrenaline


2G GPRS/EDGE 850/900/1800/1900 MHz 3G UMTS/HSPA 850/1900/2100 MHz 4G LTE 700/1700/2100 MHz 7.2 Mbps ?

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First (Data only) Smartphones

To be offered by Verizon HTC Droid Incredible HD ?


Expected: second quarter 2011 4.3 inch display Can be connected to a television or monitor to stream HD (1080p) video. Can serve as a WiFi hotspot for up to five connected devices.

Or Motorola Etna?
March 2011?

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LTE Spectrum vision


790-862 MHz (Digital Dividend) - Mainly Europe 2100 MHz (UMTS) - Asia Initially for Japan, Korea, and maybe Europe 2009 Trials (07-08)
2100 MHz AWS 2100MHz Japan/EU 1700/2100 NAR 700MHz NAR

1800 MHz (GSM)- Europe & Asia Pacific Band not widely used, may see some re-farming, as for 900MHz 2011
1900MHz NAR 850MHz NAR

Larger cell sizes and better in-building coverage. 2009 - 2010


25002690 MHz World 1800MHz Europe & APAC 790-862MHz Europe (Digital Dividend)

2012
450 MHz Europe 900MHz Europe

1700/2100 MHz (AWS) Americas much interest in this band (1700 also for Japan) 700 MHz Americas Digital Dividend

2500-2690MHz (IMT 2000) Worldwide Likely the only band with 20MHz of spectrum available for LTE Likely to be popular for worldwide roaming / device availability

900 MHz (GSM)- Europe Operators are looking to migrate GSM 900MHz to LTE for rural scenarios (coupled w/urban 2.6 GHz)

LTE FDD deployable in any of the 3GPP bands, (and more)


2.5/2.6 GHz, 2.3 GHz, 2.1 GHz,1900 MHz,1800 MHz,1700/2100 MHz, 1500 MHz, 900 MHz, 850 MHz, 700 MHz, 450 MHz

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LTE vs. WiMAX

WIMAX OFDMA modulation used in the uplink and downlink Only TDD supported, in the 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, and 3.5 GHz bands. Additional bands might be added in the future. The availability of comparatively cheap spectrum at 3.5 GHz and higher frequencies in many markets is being leveraged to launch WiMAX networks. Standardization driven by vendors, operators, and greenfield players at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the WiMAX Forum. First mover advantage. Already deployed in numerous countries while LTE was still in the trial phase. However, most deployments have been small, serving targeted communities, businesses and private institutions. WiMAX coverage is far behind conventional mobile networks cover. Less complex solution for regional/rural operators who dont need roaming with 3GPP networks.

LTE OFDMA modulation in the downlink and SC-FDMA in the uplink. Less power consumption in the UE. Supports TDD and FDD. TD-LTE frequencies range from 1800 MHz to 2.6 GHz (with possible inclusion of the 3.5 GHz band in the future). LTE FDD bands range from 700 MHz to 2.6 GHz.

3GPP standardization process led by mobile operators and top vendors. Major mobile operators (AT&T, China Mobile, China Telecom, KDDI, Orange, Telecom Italia, Telefonica, Telstra, T-Mobile, and Verizon) have committed to LTE.

Larger market share in the long term, with better opportunities for international and domestic roaming. Volume of production will bring down the cost of LTE equipment. Powerful ecosystem with strong vendor and operator support to ensure future affordability and choice among devices. Developed with mobility in mind, but could support fixed usage scenarios. Better mobility target (350 Km/h compared to 120 Km/h in WiMAX).

WiMAX Forum certification program supports device interoperability across vendors, but smaller market size results in more limited choice of devices. Supports fixed, nomadic, and mobile usage scenarios.

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LTE vs. WiMAX: Coexistence / Migration


Radio Network
WiMAX and LTE use the same underlying encoding scheme (OFDMA). Base Stations that support both TD-LTE and WiMAX have been announced.

Core Nework:
Flat IP network WiMAX ASN Gateway corresponds to the MME and Serving Gateway in LTE WiMAX HA corresponds to the LTE PDN Gateway While these core elements perform similar functions, they are specific to the air interface and cannot be shared by WiMAX and LTE networks.

Switching from WiMAX to LTE is much easier than, for example, the complicated switch from CDMA to GSM or vice-versa. Early movers from WiMAX to LTE:
Clearwire (US) Yota (Russia) EnergyAustralia

Key challenges in the migration


Regulatory issues (licenses for only one technology) Changing subscribers

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LTE vs. WiMAX: Transition Scenarios

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Case Study: Yota

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Case Study: Yota


Yota launched trial services in November 2008. The services were provided free-of-charge until Yota launched the service commercially in June 2009, after receiving regulatory approval. The service was targeted to Moscow and St. Petersburg, though in October 2009 the service was launched in Ufa. The service provider plans to expand its coverage to 180 cities in Russia by end-2012. Yotas proprietary data services include
Yota music Yota Video Demo Yota TV Yap-Yap (contact synchronization service with Yotas server)

In May 2010 Yota announced plans to use LTE for new deployments and migrate the existing ones to LTE

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Informa LTE North America Awards

Alcatel-Lucents leadership in (LTE) was recognized by Informa Telecoms and Media, organizers of the LTE world series at the LTE North America 2010 Awards in Dallas with awards in three categories:
Significant Progress for a Commercial Launch of LTE by a Vendor in the North America Region Best Network/Device Testing Product for LTE (Alcatel-Lucent 9900 Wireless Network Guardian) Best Green LTE Product or Initiative in North America (Alcatel-Lucent LTE RAN, Alternative Energy Program and Bell Labs GreenTouch initiative)

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Alcatel-Lucent LTE Solution

Alcatel-Lucent LTE Solution

EPS
IMS
8650 SDM - HSS

eUTRAN
9471 MME 9412 eNodeB 9926 BBU

ePC

8615 IeCCF

7750 SR - SGW

7750 SR - PGW

PDN 5780 DSC - PCRF


User Control

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Alcatel-Lucent LTE Management Solution

5620 SAM

eUTRAN
9471 MME 9412 eNodeB 9926 BBU

ePC
8650 SDM - HSS

7750 SR - SGW

7750 SR - PGW PDN

9453 XMS

5780 DSC - PCRF


User Control OAM&P

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Alcatel-Lucent eUTRAN
9412 eNodeB Cube
Fully integrated eNodeB

9926 BBU (Base Band Unit)


The BBU is the Base Band Unit component of a distributed configuration with separate radios. The 9926 BBU can be used with both remote radio heads (RRH) for distributed deployments and Transmit/Receive/duplexer Units (TRDUs) for more classic BTS deployments.

9926 BBU (also known as d2U-v3)

9412 eNodeB Cube


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Alcatel-Lucent ePC

9471 MME (Mobility Management Entity) 5780 DSC (Dynamic Services Controller)
Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF)

7750 SR (Service Router)


Can be configured as a mobile gateway to support GGSN functions, Signaling Gateway (SGW) and the Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN-GW)

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Alcatel-Lucent HSS and CCF Functions

8650 Subscriber Data Management (SDM)


Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

8615 IeCCF (Instant enhanced Charging Collection Function)


Provides the (Offline) Charging Collection Function (CCF)

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Alcatel-Lucent LTE OAM&P

9453 XMS (eXtended Management System)


eNodeB management

8650 SAM (Service Aware Management)


ePC management (9471 MME, 7750 SR, 5780 DSC)

103 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

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Alcatel-Lucent LTE OAM&P Interfaces


NMS
Fault Management Configuration Management Accounting Management Performance Management Security Management

JMS SOAP-XML

(3GPP CORBA)

5620 SAM

9453 XMS

SNMPv3 Telnet & SSH FTP & SCP

FM: SNMPv3 CM: NETCONF/XML PM: sftp XML

9412 eNodeB 9471 MME 7750 SR (SGW) 7750 SR (PGW) 5780 DSC (PCRF)
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

104 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Alcatel-Lucent RAN OAM&P


Product Description

9453 XMS Extended Management System manages a large portfolio of network elements for next generation wireless networks integrating and converging existing 2G-3G Alcatel-Lucent Element Domain Managers. 9455 RNP The Radio Network Planning tool is usable for planning multi-technology and multivendor solutions.

9452 WPS 9459 NPO

The Wireless Provisioning System simplifies the provisioning and reverse engineering/auditing of the network. The Network Performance Optimizer is Alcatel-Lucents main solution for wireless network optimization. It delivers a rich toolset enabling QoS diagnostic, correlation of performance and configuration, and QoS tuning based on network performance collection. NPO also delivers advanced reporting functions on network QoS across multi-standard wireless technologies being 2G-3G-LTE.

The 9453 XMS is used for all eNodeBs. The 9453 XMS represents a suite of management applications. The XMS 9453 supports the integration of 5620 SAM for centralized, unified fault and state management and navigation.

105 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

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Alcatel-Lucent LTE project release naming convention

LEx.x End-to-End LTE Release


LSx.x LTE solution feature set - ePC LMx.x LTE MME LAx.x LTE Access, eNodeB SR-OS-MG Rx.y SGW, PGW

106 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

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LTE Summary

#1 LTE Compelling performance Latency Reduction


65 ms 50 ms 50 ms

Low latency enables fast channel adaptation therefore allowing high speed applications
10 ms

HSPA

HSPA+

WiMAX

LTE

HD TV
User created content

Higher Peak throughput (Mbps)

326
DL

Multi-screen

Gaming
173
DL

More
86
UL

55 42 5
UL

36
UL

UL

14
DL

11
UL

DL

DL

High peak throughput enables rich content applications over LTE


(20MHz)

HSPA
(5MHz)

HSPA+
(5MHz)

WiMAX
(10MHz)

LTE MIMO 2x2 LTE MIMO 4x4


(20MHz)

108 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

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#2 Spectrum flexibility
LTE channelization

Bandwidth flexibility for a smooth introduction


1.4MHz 3MHz 5MHz

10MHz

20MHz

Band flexibility for a global introduction

AWS 700Mhz

1800MHz 2,6GHz 2,5GHz 2,1GHz 800Mhz 900MHz 2,3GHz

1900Mhz 850Mhz

Duplex Mode flexibility for a Optimum introduction


109 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

LTE FDD

LTE TDD

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#3 All-IP, simplified network architecture


2G/3G 2G/3G
GMSC Softswitch MGW PSTN Other mobile networks Internet
Packet Switched Core

CDMA / EV-DO GSM / GPRS EDGE UMTS HSPA


Voice Channels IP channel Node B SGSN PDSN BTS BSC / RNC MSC

Circuit Switched Core (Voice)

GGSN HA

VPN

New, all-IP mobile core network introduced with LTE


End-to-end IP Clear delineation of control plane and data plane Simplified architecture: flat-IP architecture with a single core

LTE+EPC LTE+EPC
MME IP channel SGW eNode B PCRF

Evolved Packet Core (All-IP)

PGW

META (backhaul and backbone)

110 | EPC IA Brief |Title March 2009 2006 Presentation | Month

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#4 LTE Multilayer Deployments


Very large cells are cell sites that have very large coverage areas (often used in rural areas and highways) Coverage area 10s KM Macrocells are sites used for coverage in urban and suburban areas Coverage area 500m to 3 km Relay Coverage/capa extension

outdoor deployment
mid power + smart antennas

Micro AAA cells Coverage area 100s meters

indoor deployment
low power isolated from macro [15db wall attenuation]

Picocells Coverage area high 10s meters

Femtocells coverage area low 10s meters

Increased Throughput / QoS


111 | Presentation Title | Month 2006 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2006, #####

#5 LTE improved operational efficiency LTE SON (Self Organizing Network) drives
Intelligence and automation in the network Better service offering

SON is the answer to solve complexity challenges


Reduce network complexity Fast adaptation to network conditions Increase network Quality

Network design and planning simplification Reduce installation and commissioning works Reduce OPEX

World of data is dynamic and networks must adapt in real time Avoid repetitive optimization Avoid error-prone and slow manual operations
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Provide Higher Quality of Experience Ensure service continuity

112 | Presentation Title | Month 2006