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PRIMARY(32) TheAlgerHissTrial.Jan.1950.UniversityofMissouriKentuckySchoolofLaw.Web.29 Dec.2013.<http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hisstrialtranscripts.html>. ThewitnesstestimoniesintheAlgerHisstrialprovideimportantinformationregarding espionageintheUSgovernment.Theygaveussolidprimaryinformationastowhythe governmentmayhavefelttheresponsibilitytostartprogramssuchastheLoyalty ReviewBoard,becauseofthepossibilitythattherewerespiesinthegovernment.This primarysource,comingfromtheUniversityofMissouriKentuckySchoolofLaw database,isrelativelyunbiased,althougheachwitnesstestimonymayhaveadifferent perspective.Overall,however,allwitnesseswereunderoaths,sowecanaccept everythingtheytellusasafact. "BigListofRedFronts."TimesHerald:Washington'sIndepdententNewspaper8Dec. 1947:n.pag.TheU.S.NationalArchivesandRecordsAdministration.Web. Aprimarysourcepublishedin1947,thisarticlereportedthattheAttorneyGeneral, TomClark,hadreleasedanewlistofsubversiveorganizations.

Itisbiasedinsupportof himandthereporterwrotethatClark"deservessomeapplause."Itdescribesthatthe listservedasaguideforallloyalAmericans.Readingthisarticlegaveustheinsightthat thelistwasinformationforthepublic.Aprecursortoablacklist,itrestrictedthe opportunitiesofmany,regardlessiftheyactuallywereathreat,orhadhadaminor associationinthepast.ThearticlegaveusrawevidenceofAmericansturningtheir heads,andperhapsrightfullyso,atallthosewhowereinvolvedinorganizationsthat posedsomepossiblethreat.Aswellasnarrowcontextabouttherootsof McCarthyism,thispassagealsohelpedusfurtherunderstandourtopic'srelationshipto thetheme:TheFBIwasinvolvedintheinvestigationoftheseorganizations,andthis responsibilityfitintotheFBI'sgeneralroleofinvestigationandwasalsoappointedby thegovernment. Block,Herbert.1950.Photograph.Herblock'sHistory.WashingtonPost,29Mar.1950. Web.27Dec.2013. Thisphotograph,reproducedonline,isaprimarysourcefromMarch29,1950.The anticommunistcartoonwasdrawnandpublishedintheWashingtonPostbyHerbert Block,awellrenownedcartoonpoliticalcartoonartist.ThecartoondepictsRepublican resistanceofthegovernmentwhoarebeingforcedtostandatoptheshakystructure labeled"McCarthyism,"despitetheirresistance.However,weknowthatthiscartoonis biasbecauseBlockwasintentionallyportrayinghisnegativebeliefstoward McCarthyism.Althoughweknowitisbias,thesourceaddedevidenceofpopular opinionduringthe1950'stowardMcCarthyismandtheRepublicanSenatorspushing forhissupport. Churchill,Ward,andJimVanderWall.TheCOINTELPROPapers:Documentsfromthe

FBI'sSecretWarsAgainstDomesticDissent.Boston,MA:SouthEnd,1990.Print. TheCOINTELPROinitiativewasavitalparttotheFBI'santisubversiveactions.The recordsofitarepublishedinthisbook,withinsightfulcommentaryfromtheauthors, whohavebothwrittenbooksonthissubjectbefore.Thecommentaryisbiasedbecause itportraystheFBIasessentiallyevil,andmakesit'sactionsseemunnecessary,likethe FBIdidnothavetheresponsibilitytogothatfar.Evenso,theimagesofthe COINTELPROrecordshaveprovideduswithstrongprimarysourcesthatgive informationontheFBI'ssecretactivities. "DeathforASpies:RosenbergsGetTopPenaltyinAtomTrial."UniversalInternational News.N.d.PublicDomainArchivalStockFootage.EasyStreetProductions,LLC. Web. Whileresearching,weoftensawthecaseofEthelandJuliusRosenbergmentioned,but didnotlookmuchintoit.Weconcludedthatitwasnecessarytogainthisnarrow contextabouthowtherewasrealthreatofSovietspiesandhowitcontributedtothe fear.Thispublicnewsreelairedin1951astheRosenbergcaseendedandappearsto havenobias.However,onecouldarguethatisagainsttheRosenbergs,astheyclaimed innocence.WelearnedthattheRosenbergsleakedsecretstotheSovietUnionduring theColdWar.Afterviewingthis,wehaveabetterunderstandingofthiscaseandwill understandreferencestoitandhowitvalidatedfear. "DominoTheoryPrinciple,DwightD.Eisenhower,1954."DominoTheoryPrinciple,Dwight D.Eisenhower,1954.N.p.,n.d.Web.14Oct.2013. <http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~hst306/documents/domino.html>. Eisenhower'sDominoTheorywasanimportantpartofhowAmerican'sapproached CommunismduringtheSecondRedScare.Thisprimarysourceisthetextof Eisenhowerexplainingthistheorytoreporters.WefounditonMichiganState University'sonlinearchives,andwehavebeenabletolocatethesametextinother placesaswell,whichleadsustobelieveitislegitimate.Additionally,thistextprovided uswithnarrowcontext,onhowMcCarthyismfitintoCommunisminAmerica. Evans,M.Stanton."TheTruthAboutJosephMcCarthy&"McCarthyism""Interviewby HowardPhilips.Youtube.ConservativeCaucus,19Nov.2012.Web. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QV4qiFNmtn8>. EvanswasacollegestudentduringtheMcCarthyera.HenowownstheFBIfilesfrom theMcCarthyTrials.Heisaconservative,andtheinterviewispublishedbya conservativeorganization.Throughoveradecadeofcollectingevidence,Evansclaims hehasprovedthatSenatorJoeMcCarthywasrightaboutSovietAgentsintheU.S. governmentEvansjustifiesSenatorMcCarthy'shardcoreanticommunismandactions. Hedeniesthatrightsofinnocentcivilianswererestricted,becausefacttheyweresoviet agents.HebelievedthethreatofcommunismwasrealandthatitwasAmerica'sandthe

FBI'sresponsibilitytocombatit.Thissourceisclearlybiasedwhichisimportanttogive usadeeperunderstandingofwhythegovernmentandFBIfeltsoresponsibletoridthe nationofSovietandcommunistthreat. HearingsRegardingCommunistEspionageintheUnitedStatesGovernment.16Aug.1948. UniversityofMissouriKansasSchoolofLaw.Web.29Dec.2013. <http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/816testimony.html>. TheAlgerHisstrialisaveryfamousandnotableonewhenitcomestoourtopicof espionageinthegovernment.ThiscredibledatabasefromUniversityof MissouriKentuckySchoolofLawgaveusoneofthemostimportantpartsofthe wholeHisstrial,whichisAlgerHiss'testimonybeforeHUAC.Thistranscriptshowsus whythegovernmentactuallyhadreasonforactingontheirresponsibilitytoprotect Americans,sincetherewereactuallyspiesinthegovernment.Thereisnoreasonforthe sourcetodistortthisinformation,becausetheschooloflawitcomesfromisjust collectingforadatabase.Hiss,ontheotherhand,hadareasontodistortbecausehe mayhavebeentryingtoprovehisinnocencewhichmaybiassomeofhiscomments. "Home."OurDocuments.U.S.DepartmentofState'sInformationUSAWebsite,n.d.Web. 13Oct.2013. ThetranscriptsandactualimagesofJoseph'sMcCarthy'scensureafterthe WelchMcCarthyhearingsprovideuswithformalevidenceofwhyMcCarthywas censuredforhisactswhileincourt.McCarthywascondemnedofactingcontraryto senatorialtraditionandethics.Inthesedocuments,detaileddescriptionsofhis wrongdoingsareprovidedwithquotationsofhiswordsduringthecourtsessionwhich ledhimtobeingcensured.Weknowthatthissourceiscrediblebecauseitisaprimary sourceofrecordsfromtheU.S.DepartmentofStatethatdisplaysandprovides transcriptsoftheoriginallegaldocumentusedin1954. Hoover,JohnEdgar.InterviewbyGeorgeSmathers.FloridaMemory.FloridaDepartmentof State,ca.1960.Web.<http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/232413>. ThispublicfilmedinterviewbyaFloridasenatorwasfoundintheFloridaDepartmentof Stateonlinearchive.IttookplacejustseveralyearsaftertheplightoftheMcCarthy era.JohnEdgarHooverwasthedirectoroftheFBI,whichhadamajorrolein investigatingsuspectedCommunistsubversionduringtheSecondRedScare.The interviewdisplayshisparanoiatowardsaaforcefulCommunisttakeover.Itshowsthat eventhoughthescarewasover,individualsstillfeltthreatened.Theinterviewgaveus oneprimaryexampleofthefearandhatredofcommunismthatlingeredonafter McCarthyism.ItshowedthattheRedScaresurvivedformorethanthespanofabout sixyearsinwhichMcCarthyhadtheUnitedStatesinthepalmofhishand. Hoover,JohnEdgar."TestimonyBeforetheHouseCommitteeonUnAmericanActivities." Washington,D.C.26Mar.1947.Speech.

TheHouseCommitteeonUnAmericanActivities(HUAC)wasasubcommitteeofthe UnitedStatesHouseofRepresentatives.Itwasestablishedin1938toinvestigate suspecteddisloyaltyandsubversiveness.Thisprimarysourcegaveusvitalinformation regardingrightsandresponsibilities.J.EdgarHooverledtheFBIduringtheSecond RedScare.ToHUAC,helistedtheresponsibilitiestheFBIhadtoprotecttheUnited StatesfromCommunism,whichsolelyincludedinvestigation.Healsoexplainedwhy actionsneededtobetakenandwhyitwastheFBIandthegovernment'sresponsibility. Kriesberg,Harriet.Telephoneinterview.4Jan.2014. Ms.Kriesberg,despiteherspottymemory,hadaveryinterestingperspectiveonthe McCarthyEra.HerhusbandhadappliedforajobattheStateDepartment,andhe wouldonlybehiredpendingasecuritycheck,whichheendedupfailing.Sheexplained howtheStateDepartmentwasverycautiousbecauseofMcCarthy'saccusations, whichiswhyherhusbandprobablydidnotgetajob.Shealsotoldusaboutan interestingscandalinvolvingArthurMiller,whichledustolookintothat.Shesounded slightlybiasedagainstMcCarthy,probablybecauseherfamilywassoaffected.Overall, thisinterviewwithMs.Kriesbergsupplieduswithaninterestingperspectiveandnew storiestolookinto. Matthews,J.B."RedsandOurChurches."TheAmericanMercury(1953):314.UNZ.org. Web.21Sept.2013.<http://www.unz.org/Pub/AmMercury1953jul00003>. J.B.MatthewswasMcCarthy'sresearchdirector,soitcameasnosurprisewhenwe readthisarticleandfoundoutitwasincrediblybiased.Itportrayedanticommunistsas heroesandcommunists,specificallyclergymen,asenemies.Itwasinterestingtoreadan articlefromtheMcCarthyismera,togivemeanideaofwhatinfluencedthepeopleof thattime.Eventhoughthisarticlewasmainlyattackingclergymen,itdidhavesome quotesfromFBIdirectorJEdgarHoover,whichhelpedtoshowhowinvolvedhewas duringthewholeera. McCarthy,Joseph.Speech.Wheeling,WestVirginia.9Feb.1950.GeorgeMason UniversityHistoryCourseOnline.Web.3Jan.2014. <http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6456>. AsoneofthekeytriggersofthewholeMcCarthyEra,thisspeechprovideduswith somedirectquoteswehadbeenreadingsomuchabout.Thisspeechisverybiased againstCommunistsobviously,butitprovidesuswithaninterestingperspectivetoform ourargumentfrom.JosephMcCarthyhadahugereasontoliewhendeliveringthis speech,sincehejustwantedpoliticalpower,butwetakethatintoaccountwhen readingthis.Thedatabasewefoundthespeechinisfromacredibleuniversity,sowe cantrustitisaccurate.Wehaveread,however,thatthereisnorecordingofthe wheelingspeechandMcCarthychangedwhathehadwrittendownashesaidit.Taking thatintoaccount,weknowthatthetranscriptheremaynotbeexactlywordforword.

Lastly,thedatabasewefounditinhada"seealso"pagewithlinkstootherspeeches relatingtoMcCarthyism,whichhelpedleadustootherhelpfulsources. TheMcCarthyYears.Prod.EdwardR.MurrowandFredW.Friendly.ByRussBensley.Dir. SamRoberts.CBS,Inc.,1991.DVD. AsacollectionofprimarysourceswithsomecommentarybyaCBSNewsanchor,this documentaryallowedforustomakeourownconclusionsaboutthematerial.It providedfirsthandvideosofspeechesthatshowedushowMcCarthyinfringedon people'srights.Italsogavepersonalstoriesofpeoplewho'sliveswereaffectedbyhim. AlthoughitdidnottalkabouttheFBI,Morrow'scommentarygavesimplebroad contextofhowMcCarthyismfitintoCommunism.UponresearchingEdwardR. Morrowwediscoveredthatheisa"great"ofbroadcastjournalism,andhesetthe standardformanyothers.Thisdocumentary,inaddition,wonanEmmywhich confirmedforusthatitisastrongandreliablesource. "McCarthyWelchExchangeDuringtheArmyMcCarthyHearingsOnlineSpeechBank." McCarthyWelchExchangeDuringtheArmyMcCarthyHearingsOnlineSpeech Bank.AmericanRhetoric,2001.Web.11Sept.2013. WefoundthissourceoffoftheAmericanRhetoricwebsitethathadapagewithlinksto thetoponehundredspeechesinAmerica.Thewebsite'screatorisagraduateofthe UniversityofTexasandhashisPhDinspeechandcommunication.The McCarthyWelchExchangewasrankedonthesiteastheninetyninthbestpolitical speechinAmericainthe20thcentury.Thespeechisfamousforexposingthe recklessnessofMcCarthyinhispursuittoridtheU.S.ofcommunismduringtheCold WarEra.Thisprimarysourceincludedavideooftheactualsupremecourthearingwith atranscript.Forus,thissourceisgreatevidencetosupporttheactionsofMcCarthy includinghisabuseofresponsibilityasanFBIleaderwhenaccusingpeoplelikeMr. Welchwithalmostnoorillegallyobtainedevidence. N.d.Photograph.TheNationalArchives.TheU.S.NationalArchivesandRecords Administration.Web.6Oct.2013. TakenfromaTimesHeraldWashington'sIndependentNewspaperclippingpublished onDecember8,1947,thisprimarysourceprovidedhandsonknowledgeaboutthe namesof"red"organizationsandschoolsaroundthetimeoftheSecondRedScare releasedbyAttorneyGeneralTomC.Clark.Thisclippingprovidesuswithspecific detailsthatincludethenamesofcertainorganizationspossiblyassociatedwith communismthatwillallowustodofurtherresearchonourtopic.Therightsofmanyof theseorganizationswereinfringedupon,andwecanusethesespecificcasestosupport ourthesisabouttheSecondRedScareandMcCarthyism.Weknowthatthissourceis crediblesinceitisananationalarchiveandofficialrecordoftheHouseof Representatives.

Rosenberg,Julius,andEthelRosenberg."TheFinalLetterFromtheRosenbergstoTheir Children."LettertoTheRosenbergChildren.19June1953.MS.N.p. TheRosenberg'slastlettertotheirchildren,whileitbringsateartotheeye,alsoshows agreatprimaryexampleofhowruthlessthegovernmentwas.Althoughitiscommonly believedthattheRosenbergswereguilty,thereisstillthepossibilitythattheywere innocent.Inthislettertotheirchildrentheystillmaintaintheirinnocence.Iftheywere innocentthenthisletteristrulyaheartbreaker.Whileitdoesnotprovideuswithmuch historicalcontext,itdoesgiveusinsightintothelivesofthoseconvictedbytheruthless governmentthatmayhaveinfringedupontheirrights. TheRosenbergTrial.N.d.UniversityofMissouriKentuckySchoolofLaw.Web.29Dec. 2013.<http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/rosenb/ROS_SENT.HTM>. JudgeKaufman'sSentencingoftheRosenbergsisahistoricalstatement,thatgaveusthe biasedinsightofthegovernment,throughtheeyesofthejudicialbranch.Comingfrom thedatabaseoftheUniversityofMissouriKentuckySchoolofLaw,weknowthis primarysourceiscredible,andthedatabasehasalsoledustomanyotherprimary sourcesregardingoursubject.Theschooloflawdoesnothaveanyreasontodistort, sincetheyarejustreporting,butJudgeKaufmanmayhaveareasontodistortifhewas tryingtoconvictthemonlyforthesakeofgettingaconviction.Ifso,thenthis exemplifiestheruthlessnessofthegovernmentduringthistimeperiod. SchiffShannon,Dorothy.Personalinterview.28Oct.13. DorothySchiffShannongaveusinterestinginsighttowhattheactualMcCarthyerawas like.WhenshewasincollegeherteacherwasbroughtbeforeHUAC,andmanyother peopleshehadheardofwentthroughthesamething.Shewasbiasedagainst Communists,whichmakessensebecauseshedidhaveareasontodistort,sinceher teacherwassomeonewhowasaffected.Herstoriesabout"fifthamendment communists"spurredustodomoreresearchinthattopic,whichaddedtoourargument greatly.Overall,shewasveryhelpfulforaddingsmallbitsofinformationtomakeour argumentbetter. 76thCongress."AlienRegistrationActof1940."CornellLawSchool.CornellUniversity,3 Jan.2012.Web.04Jan.2014. Thisprimarysourcegaveuscrucialinformationforourargument.TheSmithActset criminalpunishmentsforadvocatingtheoverthrowofgovernmentwhichwasa communistgoal,atleastinitsearlystages.Thisbecameagovernmentresponsibilityfor thegovernmenttoenforce.Itcontributestoourexplanationoftheparadoxbecauseitis aspecificresponsibilitythattheFBIpursued,whichinturninfringedupontherightsof individuals.TheCornellLawSchoolhaspublishedmanyfederalstatutes,anditnotes severalminorwordingsubstitutionsthatmakecomprehensioninmodernlanguage easier,yetdonotalterthecontent.

"SpeechExplainingtheCommunistThreat|TeachingAmericanHistory."TeachingAmerican History.AshlandUniversity,n.d.Web.14Oct.2013. InoursearchtoseebothperspectivesoftheethicsintheFBI'sactionsaftertheSecond RedScare,wefoundthetranscriptsofSenatorMcCarthy'sspeechontheTeaching AmericanHistorywebsitesponsoredbyAshlandUniversity.Onthetopicof CommunistThreatinAmerica,McCarthyspokeonJune2,1950abouthisofopinion towardcommunistsandexpressedhisconcernofAmericafallingtocommunism.We foundthatMcCarthy'sconcernactuallymatcheduptomanyAmericans'concernofthe spreadofcommunismwhereChinawouldfall,thenthePacific(Asia),andfinally America.SeeingMcCarthy'sreasoningforhisradicalactioninapublicspeech,we knowthathiswordsmaynotbenecessarilyaccurateofhistrueopinionormotives sincehewantedtobevotedintoofficeatthetimeofhisspeech.However,thissource isareliable,primarysourcethatgaveusfurtherperspectiveonourtopic. Spina,Pasquale.Personalinterview.11Nov.2013. PasqualeSpinajoinedtheUnitedStatesmilitaryatagefourteenin1943becauseofhis strongpatriotismduringtheSecondWorldWar.HewasinthearmyduringtheSecond RedScare,andstatedthatanyonewhowasinthearmyhadfelttheresponsibilityto protectAmericafromallthreats,whichatthattimeincludedCommunism.Eventhough hewasawarethatmuchofthefearwascausedbypropagandaandexaggerationbythe government,hebelievedtherealwayswasathreatofacommunisttakeover.Hetalked tousabouttheGreatDepressionanditcausingmanytojointheCommunistPartyin theiryoungeryears,whichguidedourresearchtowardsthisbroadcontext.Hecriticized Communismasawhole,explaininghowtheideologyofequalitywasgood,butinreality ithasproventofail.Areasontodistortcouldhavebeenhispatriotism,whichoften correlatedwithanticommunism.However,healsomentionedtheaggressive assumptionsofMcCarthyandhisfollowers,showinghisunderstandingofbothsidesof thestory.Spina'sremarksgaveusaprimarysourcefromamilitarypointofview,which wehadnotyetresearched,andalsopointedusinthedirectionoftheFifthAmendment rightsandpropaganda. TestimonyofCongressmanRichardM.Nixon.13Dec.1948.Universityof KentuckyMissouriSchoolofLaw.Web.29Dec.2013. <http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hissgrandjury.html>. InadditiontoAlgerHiss'testimonybeforeHUAC,thistestimonybyRichardNixon, whoatthetimewasacongressman,givesinsighttothegovernment'sperspectiveon whyHUACwasimportant.Beinganimportantprimarysource,thiscourtdocument providedusgoodnarrowcontext,givingusmoreinformationontrialsrelatedtoour topic,butinyearsprior.Theuniversitythatprovidedthedatabasehasalsoprovided manyothertranscriptsfornumerousotherfamouscases,whichledustosomeother helpfulprimarysources.

"TheTruthAboutJ.EdgarHoover."TIME22Dec.1975:n.pag.TIME.com.TIMEInc. Web.14Oct.2013. AsJ.EdgarHoover'scareerandlifecametoanend,itbecameapparenttothe AmericanPublicthathismotivesweretwistedandthathewaspowerhungryand selfish.TIMEmagazinepublishedthisarticlefollowinghisdeath,andsuggestedthat couldhave"caredlessaboutcrimethanaboutperpetuatinghiscrimebustingimage." LearningaboutHoover'ssecretiveactionsshowedusthathewaslessconcernedwith protectingcivilrightsthanpower.Thepartsofthearticlethatfocusedonthe1940sand 1950sgaveusnarrowcontextabouthowHooverandtheFBIrestrictedrightsof Americans,suchaswiretapping.ThearticlemostdefinitelyshowsbiasagainstHoover becauseitfocusesonwrongdoingsandscandalandthetitleimplieswhatissaidistrue itoffersnocounterarguments.Itisasecondarysourcethatdoesincludequotesfrom menwhoknewHoover. UnitedStates.DepartmentofJustice.TheUSAPatriotAct:PreservingLifeandLiberty. N.p.:n.p.,n.d.Web.6Dec.2013. <http://www.justice.gov/archive/ll/what_is_the_patriot_act.pdf>. TheUSAPatriotActisvitaltoourargumentonhowMcCarthyismlivesontodaywith actssimilartothoseenactedduringtheera.TheActisaprimeexampleofthis argument,andsinceitwaspublishedfromtheDepartmentofJusticeonlineweknowit iscredibleandarealprimarysource.Althoughtheactissorecent,itstillhelpsusasa primarysourcesinceitisagovernmentpublicationthatshowshowmanythemesfrom theMcCarthyismeraarestillaroundtoday. UnitedStates.ExecutiveOrder9835.ByHarryS.Truman.N.p.:n.p.,1947.TheAmerican PresidencyProject.Web.05Oct.2013. <http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=75524>. TheloyaltyreviewprogramsformedbythisexecutiveorderwerevitaltotheFBI's developmentduringtheMcCarthyEra.Throughtheseprograms,governmentagencies hadtosubmitthenamesofsuspiciouspeopletotheFBItobeinvestigated.Inmanyof oursources,thisexecutiveorderistalkedabout,sowewerehappytobeabletoread thefulltext.TheAmericanPresidencyProject,wherethetextcamefrom,isareliable databasewithmanyotherdocumentspublishedbyAmericanpresidents.Theorderwas biasedheavilyagainstCommunists,ascouldbeexpected.Evenso,itgaveusprimary informationontheLoyaltyReviewBoardsrunbytheFBI. UnitedStates.SubversiveActivitiesControlActof1950.BySamRayburnandAlbenW. Barkley.N.p.:U.S.StatutesatLarge,81stCong.,IISess.,n.d.ROHAN.SanDiego StateUniversity.Web.5Oct.2013. <http://wwwrohan.sdsu.edu/dept/polsciwb/brianl/docs/1950InternalSecurityAct.pdf>.

TheMcCarranInternalSecurityActwasoneofthemostimportantpiecesoflegislation fromtheMcCarthyera.Thisdocumentgaveustheinformationthatmanyofourother sourceshadbeenalludingorreferringto.Beingaprimarysource,thisdocumentwas biasfree,andgaveustheabilitytoformourownargumentaboutit.Weaccessedthis sourcethroughacollegedatabase,whichisveryreliable.Thisdocumentwillbeakey partofourargument,asitshowsintexthowthegovernmentfeltresponsiblefordealing with"subversives". UnitedStates.VetooftheInternalSecurityBill.ByHarryS.Truman.N.p.:n.p.,n.d. TrumanLibraryPublicPapersofthePresidents:HarryS.Truman.22Sept. 1950.Web.05Oct.2013. <http://trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/viewpapers.php?pid=883>. InresponsetotheproposedSubversiveActivitiesControlActof1950,HarryTruman wroteavetotocongress.Thetextofthevetoissignificanttohistorybecauseitshows theothersideoftheargument,ofhowtheactwouldhurttheAmericanpopulation ratherthanhelpit.Additionallyitprovidesinsightsthetextoftheactdidnot.The TrumanLibraryandMuseum,wherewefoundthetextisareliabledatabasethat includesmanydocumentspertinenttoTruman'spresidency. "VENONADocumentsApril1945."VenonaDocuments.NationalSecurityAgency,15Jan. 2009.Web.29Sept.2013. <http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/declass/venona/apr_1945.shtml>. TheVenonaTelegramsthatweredecodedbytheAmericangovernmentwerekey piecesofevidencethatledtothearrestofmany.Theywerekeptclassifieduntil recently,andnowtheycanbeseenontheNSA'swebsite,whichleadsustobelieve theyarelegitimate.Thetelegramsdonotprovidemuchcontextsurroundingoursubject, butasaprimarysourcetheyarebiasedcommentaryfreeandtheyshowuscause behindmuchoftheFBI'sfeelingofresponsibility.TheNSAwebsiteingeneralhas impressedus,anditsvaultofprimarydocumentshasprovedtobeajackpot. "Video:TheFileandMcCarthyism:APersonalOdyssey|WatchTheOpenMindOnline|PBS Video."PBSVideo.TheOpenMind,03Aug.1984.Web.29Sept.2013. Wewereveryexcitedtofindthissourceofaninterviewofapersonallyaffectedbyan investigationdoneonhim,asacommunistlivinginAmericaduringtheMcCarthy period.ThisvideogaveusreallifesituationevidenceofMcCarthyism.Theinterviewee, PennKimball,livedinAmericaasanonconformistademocratandsupporterof Roosevelt'sNewDeal.Althoughthebreadthofthisvideoconcernsitselfmostlyaround Kimball'spublishingofhisbookTheFile,thevideoprovideduswithwordsofaperson whoactuallylivedthroughthearea.However,wedidnotethatthereisalargebiasin thisvideo,sincetheintervieweespokeagainstMcCarthyandAmerica'sunfairsecurity system,drivenbyhispassionforthesubjectthatpersonallyaffectedhim.Wefoundthis videoonthePBSwebsite,acredibleandstrongsiteaboutpublicbroadcasting.This

sourceisaprimarysourceofapersonwholivedthroughtheMcCarthyera,speaking onaccountofhisownstoriesandexperiences. "WisconsinHistoricalImages."WisconsinHistoricalSociety.N.p.,n.d.Web.05Oct.2013. <http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/whi/feature/mccarthy/timeline.asp>. McCarthy'slifestartingfrombirthtodeathandmajoreventsinhislifetimeareall documentedinthisonesource,datebydate.TheWisconsinHistoricalSociety publishedMcCarthy'sCareertimelineinaconciseyetdetailedonlinemanner.Fromthis secondarysource,wewereabletoseewhereeventsliketheMcCarthyArmyhearing fitintothebiggerpictureofMcCarthy'slifeaswellasgathercontextaboutMcCarthy's earlylife.Usingthissource,wewerefurtherabletochronologicallydiscoverhow McCarthyallowedtheFBItoinfringeuponcommonrightsofAmericans.Weknow thatthewebsiteiscrediblesinceitisastategovernmentrunwebsitecreatedtoprovide adatabaseforresearch.