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INTRODUCTION Definition of Mathematics Problem Problem is a question to be considered, solved, or answered.

It is also known as a state of difficulty that needs to be resolved and a question raised for consideration or solution. Mathematics is a group of related sciences, including algebra, geometry, and calculus, concerned with the study of number, quantity, shape and space and their interralationships by using a specialized notation. There are two types of problems. 1. Routine problem Is actually a type of mechanical mathematics problem. It is aimed at training the pupils so that they are able to master basic mathematical skills, especially the arithmetic skills involving basic, in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. 2. Non-routine problem Is a kind of unique problem solving which requires the application of skills, concepts or principle which have been learned and mastered. Thus, the method for solving nonroutine problems in mathematics cannot be memorized, is not the same as answering certain mechanical question.

Polyas Problem Solving Model Polyas Problem Solving Model is an important component of mathematical problem solving in order to find right answer as well as deep understanding what the problems are all about. A primary goal of Polyas Problem Solving Model is to develop the ability to solve a wide variety of simple or complex mathematics problems. Problem solving is defined as the process used to obtain the best possible answer to an unknown, "drawing on the pertinent subject knowledge and objectively and critically assessing the quality, accuracy and pertinence of that knowledge and data rather than trying to combine various memorized ample solutions" (Woods, 1997). It involves an exploratory phase and "understanding" develops throughout the problem solving process. Charles, Lester, and O'Daffer (1987) described problem solving as "the coordination of knowledge, previous experience, intuition, attitude, beliefs, and various abilities" (p. 7). "Solving a problem means finding a way out of difficulty, a way around an obstacle, attaining an aim that was not immediately attainable" (Wheatley, 1991). In short, it is what one does when one does not know what to do. We have learned that Polyas Model of Problem Solving is a good problem solving encompasses four phases as understanding the problem. Without understanding the meaning, students will not able to find a correct situation. Once students understand the problem, they device a plan. Polya suggested that the third phase is carrying out the devised plan. Good problem solvers then, look back at the solution to verify the correctness.

Step 1: Understand the problem

This seems so obvious that it is often not even mentioned, yet students are often stymied in their efforts to solve problems simply because they dont understand it fully, or even in part. Polya taught teachers to ask students questions such as:

i. ii. iii. iv.

Do you understand all the words used in stating the problem? What are you asked to find or show? Can you restate the problem in your own words? Can you think of a picture or a diagram that might help you understand the problem?

v.

Is there enough information to enable you to find a solution?

Step 2: Devise a plan Polya mentions (1957) that it are many reasonable ways to solve problems. The skill at choosing an appropriate strategy is best learned by solving many problems. You will find choosing a strategy increasingly easy. i. ii. iii. What is the relationship between the data and the unknown? Is the problem similar to another problem that you have solved? What strategies can you use? Act it out. Find a pattern. Draw picture. Guess and check. Work backwards.

Make a chart. Use graph. Use logical reasoning. Identify subgoal. Make a table. Step 3: Carry out the plan i. Use the strategy you have selected and solve the problem ii. Check each step of the plan as you proceed iii. Ensure that the steps are correct Step 4: Look back i. Reread the question ii. Did you answer the question asked? iii. Is your answer correct? iv. Does your answer seem reasonable

Create A Non-routine Problem Question Sekolah Sri Puteri is 15 kilometer to the east of Restoran Pantai and the bookshop is 10 kilometer to the east of Sekolah Sri Puteri. Wanas house is 12 kilometer to the south of Restoran Pantai. 15 km 10km
bookshop

Restoran Pantai

Sek.Sri Puteri

3km 12km

laundry

Wanas house

According to the diagram, which is the shortest way for Wana to reach at Sekolah Sri Puteri early?

Strategy 1 Draw a diagram 1. Understand the problem We are told how long the distance from Restoran Pantai to Sekolah Seri Puteri and from Sekolah Seri Puteri to the bookshop. The question just does not give the exact distance from Wanas house to the laundry so we must find it. We can just use the informations given to determine the hypotenuse. 2. Devise a plan Imagine that actually there is a line from Wanas house to Sekolah Sri Puteri. We can draw a line to represent the shortcut in order to make the path is shorten. This is because by travel from the game store to the theatre and then to dry cleaner and lastly to the library it may took longer time instead of just using the shortcut. If we draw the line the diagram will show us the exact shape of the triangular and the line will represent 3. Carry out the plan Find the distance from Wanas house to Sekolah Sri Puteri by using the formula how to find the hypotenuse. The diagram is actually a triangular and the formula to find the distance from Wanas house to Sekolah Sri Puteri is adjacent2+opposite2=hypotenuse2.

152 + 122 = x2 225 + 144= x2 369 = x X =19.2

4. Look back Work backward by additioning the distances from Wanas house to Sekolah Sri Puteri using the shortcut.

Strategy 2 Guess and check 1. Understand the problem Look and observe carefully the number that has given also understand the problem of the question. Students have to know which way is the shortest one for Wana to reach at Sekolah Sri Puteri early. 2. Devise a plan First try out all the distance that most probably can connect Wanas house to Sekolah Sri Puteri. Then compare all of the distance which is the shortest.

252 + 92 = x2 625 + 81 = x2 706 = x X =26.6

The first way is from Wanas house direct to Restoran Pantai then to Sekolah Sri Puteri. Wanas house Restoran Pantai Sekolah Sri Puteri 12km + 15km = 27km

The second way is shortcut from Wanas house to Sekolah Sri Puteri. Wanas house Sekolah Sri Puteri

152 + 122 = x2 225 + 144= x2 369 = x X =19.2 = 19.2 km

The third way is from Wanas house to the laundry then to the bookshop lastly to Sekolah SriPuteri. Wanas houselaundrybookshopSekolah Sri Puteri 12km + 26.6km + 3km + 10km = 51.6km

3.

Carry out the plan Before you decide the answer, check properly all the mathematicals question and make sure the calculations are correct.So that you can make a comparison each answer to decide the final answer.

4.

Look back Then find the smallest number of all the value. All the three distances are short but we need to choose the shortest one to answer the question. The shortest distance from Wanas house to Sekolah Sri Puteri is 19.2km.

REFLECTION

As a human being, we are always face many problems and we need to solve it. We will try many ways to solve our problems. In Mathematics also, it has its own problem that call Mathematicals Problem. It comes either in routine problem or non-routine problem. When I learn about Polyas Problem Solving Model, I realize that there are many ways or strategies to solve Mathematicals problems. It gives us many idea how to solve it and there should no reason why we do not know how to sove the mathematicals problems. Last but not least, Im very proud because I had learn this that is a new thing for me. After this, I will not worried when I need to solve Mathematicals problem especially.

BIBLIOGRAFI Internet http://www.hawaii.edu/suremath/whyPolya.html http://www.thefreedictionary.com/problems http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mathematics http://www.math.wichita.edu/history/men/polya.html http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=reflection+about+polya%27s+problem+solving+model& hl=ms&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart