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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere thanks to our Honorable Founder and Chairman Col. Dr. JEPPIAAR, M.A., B.L., Ph.D., Chancellor, Sathyabama University, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, India for his sincere endeavor in educating us in this remier institution! I "ould like to e# ress my dee gratitude and heartfelt thanks to our beloved $irectors Dr. Marie Johnson, B.E., M.B.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., and Dr. Mariazeena Johnson, B.E., M.B.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., for motivating me to com lete this ro%ect "ork! I "ould like to lace my graceful thanks to Dr. B. Sheela Rani, M.S B! Resear"h#, Ph.D., &ice Chancellor for the assistance and encouragement offered throughout my ro%ect "ork eriod! I e# ress my heartfelt thanks to Dr. S. S. Ra$, M.B.A., Ph.D., 'egistrar and sincere thanks to Dr. K. %. Nara!anan. M.E., Ph.D., Controller of (#aminations, Sathyabama University for their valuable su ort offered to conclude my ro%ect! I "ish to e# ress my dee sense A"a(e,i"s# for their valuable of gratitude to Dr. B. Ais&ar!a Ph.D., 'ea( o) *he De+ar*,en* A(,inis*ra*ion# and Dr. S. M$*h$,ani Ph.D., 'ea( o) *he De+ar*,en* suggestions and encouragement offered throughout my ro%ect "ork! I "ish to e# ress my sincere thanks to my Internal )ro%ect *uide Mr. M. Si-a S$.ra,anian for his constant su ort! I "ould also like to thank all the Faculty Members, $e artment of Management Studies for their hel rendered to com lete my ro%ect "ork in time! My s ecial thanks to Ms. Ar"hana %en/a*esh and Mr. %en/a*esh Moor*h!, $irectors + Trikut Info Services )vt! ,td!

%IMAL RAJ L

Ta.l e N$,.e -! . -! / -! 1 -! -! 2 -! 4 -! 5 -! 7 -! 9 -!.: -!.. -!./ -!.1 -!.-!.2 -!.4 -!.5 -!.7 -!.9 -!/: -!/.

LIST O0 TABLES Ta.le 'ea(in1s Satisfaction of Salary )ackage Satisfaction of Current 0ob Satisfaction of Causal ,eave Satisfaction of Medical Facilities Satisfaction of 3onus Satisfaction of Canteen Facilities Satisfaction of (SI 6 )F benefits Satisfaction of Healthy 6 Safe 8orking Condition Satisfaction of 0ob Security Satisfaction of )romotion )olicy Satisfaction of ;uality of 8ork ,ife Satisfaction of )ro er Communication among (m loyees Satisfaction of Cordial 'elationshi among (m loyees Satisfaction of Training Satisfaction of Satisfaction in )erformance < Satisfaction of *rievance 'edressal Satisfaction of 'e"ard 'ecognition Satisfaction of Career $evelo ment Satisfaction of Freedom to carry on the 8ork CHI+S;U<'( <nalysis CHI+S;U<'( <nalysis 8orking Sheet raisal

Pa1 e N$,. / 1 2 4 5 7 9 2 : 2 . 2 / 2 1 2 2 2 2 4 2 5 2 7 2 9 4 : 4. + 4/ 4 1

Char * N$,.e -!.!. -!/!. -!1!. -!-!. -!2!. -!4!. -!5!. -!7!. -!9!. -!.:!. -!..!. -!./!. -!.1!. -!.-!. -!.2!. -!.4!. -!.5!. -!.7!. -!.9!. -!/:!.

LIST O0 C'ARTS Char* 'ea(in1s Satisfaction of Salary )ackage Satisfaction of Current 0ob Satisfaction of Causal ,eave Satisfaction of Medical Facilities Satisfaction of 3onus Satisfaction of Canteen Facilities Satisfaction of (SI 6 )F benefits Satisfaction of Healthy 6 Safe 8orking Condition Satisfaction of 0ob Security Satisfaction of )romotion )olicy Satisfaction of ;uality of 8ork ,ife Satisfaction of )ro er Communication among (m loyees Satisfaction of Cordial 'elationshi among (m loyees Satisfaction of Training Satisfaction of Satisfaction in )erformance < Satisfaction of *rievance 'edressal Satisfaction of 'e"ard 'ecognition Satisfaction of Career $evelo ment Satisfaction of Freedom to carry on the 8ork CHI+S;U<'( <nalysis raisal

Cha r* N$,. / 1 2 4 5 7 9 2 : 2 . 2 / 2 1 2 2 2 2 4 2 5 2 7 2 9 4 : 4. + 4/

Ta.le o) Con*en*s
Cha+*er No. In*ro($"*ion .!.! Industry )rofile .!/! Com any )rofile Ai, an( S"o+e o) *he +resen* in-es*i1a*ion /!.! Need for the Study / /!/! Sco e of the Study /!1! ,imitations of the Study /!-! 'evie" of ,iterature E2+eri,en*al ,a*erials an( ,e*ho(s3 al1ori*h,s $se( 1!.! =b%ectives of the Study 1!/! 'esearch Methodology 1!1! Statement of the )roblem 1 1!-! 'esearch $esign 1!2! Source of $ata 1!4! Sam ling Techni>ue 1!5! Sam le Si?e 1!7! )eriod of the Study 1!9! Statistical Tools Da*a Anal!sis an( In*er+re*a*ion 4.5 0in(in1s 4.6 S$11es*ions 4.7 Con"l$sion Anne2$re Bi.lio1ra+h! 11 1- + 15 17 19 -: -: -: -: -. -/ + 41 4- + 42 42 + 5/ 51 5- + 57 59 + 7/ .5 + /. // /1 + /2 /4 + 11 Con*en* Pa1e No. . -+4 5 + .4

+ +

INTROD8CTION

5.

INTROD8CTION

98ALIT: O0 WORK LI0E

;uality of "ork life @;8,A is vie"ed as an alternative to the control a managing eo le! The ;8 , a roach considers organi?ation rather than as BcostsB! It believes that eo le

roach of

eo le as an BassetB to the erform better "hen they

are allo"ed to artici ate in managing their "ork and make decisions! This a roach motivates eo le by satisfying not only their economic needs but also sychological ones! To satisfy the ne" generation "orkforce,

their social and

organi?ations need to concentrate on %ob designs and organi?ation of "ork! Further, todayBs "orkforce is reali?ing the im ortance of relationshi s and is trying to strike a balance bet"een career and ersonal lives! Successful organi?ations su balance the scales! In this ort and rovide facilities to their eo le to hel them to rocess, organi?ations are coming u "ith ne" and

innovative ideas to im rove the >uality of "ork and >uality of "ork life of every individual in the organi?ation! &arious rograms like fle# time, alternative "ork organi?ations to im lement these schedules, com ressed "ork "eeks, telecommuting etc!, are being ado ted by these organi?ations! Technological advances further hel rograms in the form of increased rograms successfully! =rgani?ations are en%oying the fruits of im lementing ;8, roductivity, and an efficient, satisfied, and committed "orkforce "hich aims to achieve organi?ational ob%ectives! The future "ork "orld "ill also have more "omen entre reneurs and they "ill encourage and ado t ;8, rograms! ;uality of 8orking ,ife is a term that had been used to describe the broader %ob+related e# erience an individual has! 8hilst there has, for many years, been much research into %ob satisfaction @.A, and, more recently, an interest has arisen into the broader conce ts of stress and 6

sub%ective

"ell+being @/A, the recise nature of the relationshi bet"een these conce ts has still been little e# lored! Stress at "ork is often considered in isolation, "herein it is assessed on the basis that attention to an individualCs stress management skills or the sources of stress "ill rove to rovide a good enough basis for effective intervention! <lternatively, %ob satisfaction may be assessed, so that action can be taken "hich "ill enhance an individualCs erformance! Some"here in all this, there is often an a"areness of the greater conte#t, "hereu on the home+"ork conte#t is considered, for e#am le, and other factors, such as an individualCs ersonal characteristics, and the broader economic or cultural climate, might be seen as relevant! In this conte#t, sub%ective "ell+being is seen as dra"ing u on both "ork and non+"ork as ects of life! Ho"ever, more com le# models of an individualCs e# erience in the "ork lace often a ear to be set aside in an endeavor to sim lify the rocess of trying to measuring DstressE or some similarly a arent discrete entity! It may be, ho"ever, that the icture is essential, if targeted, effective

consideration of the bigger, more com le#

action is to be taken to address >uality of "orking life or any of its sub+com onents in such a "ay as to roduce real benefits, be they for the individual or the organi?ation! ;uality of "orking life has been differentiated from the broader conce t of ;uality of ,ife! To some degree, this may be overly sim listic, as (li?ur and Shye, @.99:A @1A concluded that >uality of "ork erformance is affected by ;uality of ,ife as "ell as ;uality of "orking life! Ho"ever, it "ill be argued here that the s ecific attention to "ork+related as ects of >uality of life is valid! 8hilst ;uality of ,ife has been more "idely studied @-A, ;uality of "orking life, remains relatively une# lored and une# lained! < revie" of the literature reveals relatively little on >uality of "orking life! 8here >uality of "orking life has been e# lored, "riters differ in their vie"s on itsC core constituents! It is argued that the "hole is greater than the sum of the arts as regards ;uality of "orking ,ife, and, therefore, the failure to attend to the bigger icture may lead to the failure of interventions "hich tackle only one as ect! 8

< clearer understanding of the inter+relationshi "orking life offers the o

of the various facets of >uality of

ortunity for im roved analysis of cause and effect in the

"ork laceF!This consideration of ;uality of "orking ,ife as the greater conte#t for various factors in the "ork lace, such as %ob satisfaction and stress, may offer o ortunity for more cost+effective interventions in the "ork lace! The effective rove a ho eless task for targeting of stress reduction, for e#am le, may other"ise

em loyers ressured to take action to meet governmental re>uirements!

ABSTRACT
The ur ose of this study is to identify human resource management best ractice "ith regard to "orkGlife balance olicies and ractices in India and its relevanceG im ortance to a H' Manager! 8orkHlife balance is a modern conce t "hich is still evolving! It deals "ith rioriti?ing

bet"een I"orkI on the one hand and IlifeI on the other "hich are t"o inse arable entities of a human life! I have mentioned that it is still evolving because this balance ti s the scale based on the emerging technological advances, as I believe that much advanced the technology itCs much easier to balance "ork and life! In organi?ations and in the home, the challenge of "orkGlife balance is rising to the to of many em loyers and em loyees consciousness! In todayCs fast+ aced society, human resource rofessionals seek o tions to ositively im act the bottom line of their com anies, im rove em loyee morale, retain em loyees "ith valuable com any kno"ledge, and kee ers ective, ace "ith "ork lace trends! This article rovides "ith the historical ossible ers ective resent day scenario and the future of the "ork+life balance and

solutions for organi?ations and em loyees alike! <lso this study offers the "orkGlife initiatives to gain a com etitive advantage in the market lace! Jey ordsK 9 8

that H' Managers can assist their organi?ation to ca itali?e on these factors by using

Human resources, =rgani?ation

ork+life

balance,

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5.5 IND8STR: PRO0ILE

KNOWLEDGE PROCESS O8TSO8RCING


Jno"ledge roc es s outsourcing @J)=A describes the outsourcing of core business

activities, "hich often are com etitively im ortant or form an integral art of a com anyBs value chain! Therefore J)= re>uires advanced analytical and technical skills as "ell as a high degree of ro rietary domain e# ertise! 'easons behind J)= include an increase in s eciali?ed kno"ledge and e# ertise, additional value creation, the reductions, and a shortage of skilled labor! .!.!. TL)(S =F J)= J)= services include all kinds of research and information gathering, e!g! intellectual ro erty research for atent a licationsM e>uity research, business and market research, legal and medical servicesM training, consultancy, and research and develo ment in fields such as harmaceuticals and biotechnologyM and animation and design! The Indian National <ssociation of Soft"are and Service Com anies @N<SSC=MA estimated the total market si?e of the J)= sector in India in /::4 to be N.!2 billion! The year before, /::2, it had been N.!1 billion, "ith (value serve redicting that by /:.: it "ould be some N.: to N.2 billion! The Indian government "as redicting that by /:.: India "ould have .2O of the global J)= market! Ho"ever, the global financial crisis, cou led "ith domestic economic roblems such as the I)= of 'eliance )o"er in /::7, caused eo le to re+evaluate these redictions, incurring "orries that IndiaBs IT, 3)=, and J)= sectors + "hich by then, combined, "ere N7!- billion in e# ort revenues + "ould be greatly affected by these factors! <lthough India has traditionally been a J)= destination for North <merican com anies, an increasing number of (uro ean com anies are looking to (astern (uro e to satisfy their J)= needs! 11 otential for cost

.!.!/ SC=)( =F J)= IN$UST'L )re aration of <ccounts, Ta# 'eturns, <rchitecture and Com uter aided simulation, (ngineering $esign and $evelo ment, Financial Services, 'isk Management and (>uity 'esearch, Financial $ata Mining and Modeling, Cor orate and Market 'esearch, '6$ in )harmaceuticals, 3iotechnology and Healthcare, Medical $iagnosis, (ducation, Intellectual )ro erty 'esearch, ,egal Su and Content $evelo ment, H' =utsourcing, Su .!.!1 8='JIN* <'(<S IN (<CH J)= FI(,$ 1.1.3.1 FINANCIAL RESEARCH: aA <nalytical Su ort H )itch 3ooksGCom any )rofiles, )resentation Services, Financial ort, <nimation and *ra hics, 8 riting ly Chain Management!

<nalysis and &aluation! bA (>uity 'esearch+ Financial Models, Forecasts and U dates, 'e ort )re aration G <uthoring, (arnings CallsG;6<! cA Cor orate Finance H Statistical Modeling, MIS 'e orting, Credit <nalysis! dA <sset Management H Financial Modeling, Fund <ccounting, )erformance 'e orting! 1.1.3.2. LEGAL OUTSOURCING: =ffice o erations, ,itigation Su ort, 8 ord )rocessing 6 Secretarial, Information Systems, Marketing, ,egal 'esearch, Finance and <ccounting, ,ibrary, ,egal 'ecruiting, H', )atent 6 Trademark )rosecution! )otential of ,)= H ,egal )rocess =utsourcingK Industry "ide, Forrester estimates that 12,::: US ,a"yer %obs "ill move to lost cost countries by /:.: and 59,::: by /:.2! 3et"een 42+5:O of these %obs are likely to come to India! 1.1.3.3. MARKET RESEARCH:

Survey $esigning, )rimary $ata collection, <nalysis, Strategic )lanning, Sales )lanning, 3usiness $evelo ment, 3usiness 'esearch, Insight *eneration 6 )resentation!

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1.1.3.4. ENGINEERING AND DESIGN ACTIVITIES: Scanning and digiti?ation of engineering dra"ings, Migration from C<$ from one system to another, 1$ Modeling, /$ to 1$ conversion, Finite <nalysis, Com uteri?ed fluid dynamics, Technical s ecifications for Tenders, &alue engineering! 1.1.3.5. MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTION: Tele Medicine, $iagnostic services, Clinical $ata Management, $isease Management, Tele )athology, 'adiation Thera y, 3iotechnology, Case )a er )re aration, etc! 1.1.3.6. OFFSHORE PUBLISHING SERVICES: (ditorial services, )re+)ress "ork, )roofreading, Ty esetting, Te#t com osition, )age Making, Tem late designing, (+)ublishing, $igiti?ation of content, $ata conversion services, content delivery services, data enrichment and 8arehousing, Co y (diting! .!.!- 8H= IS N(($($ IN TH( J)= IN$UST'LK From *raduates and )ost *raduates in <rts, Science, Commerce to Chartered <ccountants, Com any Secretaries, ,a"yers, Management graduates! Those of eo le "ho do not have M3< can a build a career here! <mbitious, smart, articulate eo le "ho can "rite "ell and communicate "ell H is "hat this industry needs! ,iberali?ation, *lobali?ation, etc! rovides rofessionals "ith e# osure to the systems

revalent in a variety of countries and they "ill be in demand!

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5.6 COMPAN: PRO0ILE


< com any "ith e#cellence, distinction, and >uality, ince ted in the year /:.., at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, to render its versatile services! it e# ertise in roviding solutions by "orking together "ith every individual client in < Team to 'ender the ort by eminent cor orate "e have Innovative services by Jeenly Understanding their Terms, "hich has carved a niche for ourselves in the global and Indian markets! Su successfully ac>uired an enviable re utation among our clients! .!/!. S('&IC(SK .! e)ub Conversion! /! $ata Mining 1! $ata (ntry -! 'ecruitment <nd =utsourcing Service 2! Facility Management Service .!/!/ (+)U3 C=N&('SI=N Trikut info service offers an efficient, affordable and cost+effective e ub conversion "ork! e)ub conversion is a globally acce ted e+book format "ith the created ebook reading features in i hone 6 many electronics reading devices, e ub become the most o ular ebook format in the electronic ublishing "orld! The )$F to e)ub ebook files can be read on "ide range of electronic book readers! <s the trend of reading ebooks is gro"ing fast, e)ub format is also fast becoming the referred industry standard "orld+"ide! 8e have e# erts, "ho have e#cellent kno"ledge in the conversion service and can manage all kinds of conversion from Image, )$F to e)ub 14

8ord to e)ub PM, to e)ub 3ook to e)ub Scanned 3ook to e)ub HTM, to e)ub

)$F, HTM,, 8ord to e ub formats "hich could be su

orted by Sony 'eader, Noble

Nook, Jobo e'eader, I hone, <dobe $igital (dition and ,e#cycle Stan?a etc! =ur mission is to rovide >uality service for "hich "e highly recommend manual rovides high

conversions over automated conversions, because manual conversion

>uality and e#act out ut "hereas "e cannot e# ect such a good >uality from automated conversions! So "e assure .::O >uality by manual conversions rather than automation! =ur )df to e ub conversion team "ho are e# ert in fully hand coding techni>ue and very com atible to the entire digital device! 8 e have the ca acity to manage your com le# data entry, data conversion ro%ects In very effective manner! =ur dedicated staff rovides a com lete and accurate data at reasonable cost and on time! .!/!1 =TH(' S('&IC(K )$F to JindleGMobi 8ord to JindleGMobi Indesign to JindleGMobi Hard Co y to JindleGMobi 15

Scanned Image to JindleGMobi

16

.!/!- $<T< )'=C(SSIN*+$<T< MININ* The continual e# losion of information technology and the need for better data collection and management methods has made data mining focus on some very s ecific technical as ect of the field! (very com any G organi?ation needs data mining and data entry services to increase their rofitability! <s in other "ords for business intelligence, Market tracking and to rovide ;uality <ssurance to the Customer $ata Mining is must! From a business oint of vie", data mining services are actively used in marketing and finance to cross e#amine com etitor gro"th, rofit analysis, sales, budget etc! Trikut Info Service hel s businesses for im roving roviding follo"ing servicesK Market monitoring Com etitor Tracking 8eb 'esearch $ata (#tracting .!/!2 H=8 $= 8 ( $= ITQ .! 3usiness UnderstandingK Understand the ro%ect ob%ectives and re>uirements rofitability and detecting fraud by

from a business ers ective, and then convert this kno"ledge into a data mining roblem definition and a reliminary lan designed to achieve the ob%ectives! /! $ata UnderstandingK Start by collecting data, then get familiar "ith the data, to identify data >uality roblems, to discover first insights into the data, or to detect interesting subsets to form hy otheses about hidden information! 1! $ata )re arationK Includes all activities re>uired to construct the final data set 17

@data that "ill be fed into the modeling toolA from the initial ra" data! Tasks include

18

table, case, and attribute selection as "ell as transformation and cleaning of data for modeling tools! -! ModelingK Select and a data mining needed! 2! (valuationK Thoroughly evaluate the model, and revie" the ste s e#ecuted to construct the model, to be certain it considered! <t the end of this results is reached! 4! $e loymentK =rgani?e and resent the results of data mining! $e loyment can be as sim le as generating a re ort or as com le# as im lementing a re eatable data mining rocess! .!/!4 '(CU'ITM(NT <N$ =UTS=U'CIN* S('&IC( =ur e# erienced team of human resource rofessionals assists us in Man o"er ro erly achieves the business ob%ectives! $etermine if there is some im ortant business issue that has not been sufficiently hase, a decision on the use of the data mining ly a variety of modeling techni>ues, and calibrate tool

arameters to o timal values! Ty ically, there are several techni>ues for the same roblem ty e! Some techni>ues have s ecific re>uirements on the ing back to the data re aration hase is often form of data! Therefore, ste

=utsourcing, )ayroll =utsourcing, Facilities Management, Contract Staffing and )ayroll )rocessing Solutions, meeting com lete recruitment needs of our clients right from the grass root level to senior managerial level ositions! =n one hand "e hel candidates easily find their dream %obs 6 on the other hand, "e assist enter rises in hiring best staff to efficiently meet their gro"ing business re>uirements! In addition to this, our com any is also associated "ith multi le educational institutions in India and Canada that rovide training to the em loyees in order to enhance their em loy+ability skills! 8e serve as one sto solution for all contract staffing, tem staffing and tem orary

man o"er outsourcing services that is the need of the industry today! 3esides this, "e 19

also maintain a rich database com rising of both em loyees and ros ective em loyers,

20

"hich is u dated from time to time and hel s us to kee develo ments that take lace in the cor orate arena! .!/!5 M<N<*(M(NT T(<M 8e have a team of e# ert

abreast of the ra id

rofessionals "ho have "ith them sound kno"ledge of us in meeting the e#act needs of our

consulting! Their o erational ca abilities hel

clients! 3esides this, our team also conducts "orksho s for refining the em loy+ability skills of candidates as er current industrial re>uirements! .!/!7 =U' (P)('TIS( 8e rovide the best man o"er outsourcing, contract staffing, ayroll outsourcing,

facilities management, ayroll rocessing and tem orary staffing and hel our clients to focus on their business by roviding them access to our highly skilled 6 certified consultants having industry+s ecific e# ertise! 8e consistently "ork to"ards building long term associations "ith organi?ations and efficiently function as e#tensions of their res ective H' $e artments! =ur services cover various industry segments that include Manufacturing, Construction, and Telecom Infrastructure 6 <utomobile! 8e deal in best man o"er outsourcing, ayroll outsourcing, facility management and ayroll rocessing! =ur 'ecruitment Services in a Nut ShellK 0unior , Middle and Senior )ositions 'esume 'es onse Management (# erience )rofiling and Filtering =nline Testing and (valuation )ayroll G 3enefits <dministration 21

Statutory Com liance

22

Contract Staffing Trikut Info Services )vt ,td is an organi?ation dedicated to resource consulting and administration services that hel roviding global human organi?ations effectively

manage their investments in eo le! 8e believe in adding value to everything "e do! Trikut Info Services )vt ,td started "ith a focus on roviding recruitment services and

later e# anded its domain in financial and other related H' services! 8 e bring our e# ertise to bear around the domain areas "e kno" and understand best! Jno"n as a >uality and rocess driven com any Trikut constantly caters to the need of multinational com anies, e#tending a range of fle#ible staffing solutions that en com riseM )ermanent Staffing Tem orary Staffing Tem orary to )ermanent Staffing (m loyee ,easing 1.2.8.1 PERMANENT STAFFING: Trikut rovides high >uality ermanent staffing solutions that are customi?ed to meet the clientCs re>uirements! Follo"ing an integrated a assignment briefing, fully validated testing roach, the rocess involves detailed ossess the caliber that rocedures, assessments and e#tensive

reference checking and finally referring only candidates "ho candidates for our clients encom assesK (#ecutive Search Cam us Selection 'esearch Ma 23 ing

matches the clientCs re>uirements! The reeminent stringent ractice ado ted to recruit

*eneric 'esourcing

24

Not to mention, a Service ,evel <greement "ith a re lacement guarantee or a money back guarantee if the selected candidate does not match u and under no circumstances do "e charge the candidate any fee! 1.2.8.2 TEMPORARY STAFFING: Focusing on roviding >uality solution for every staffing need, Trikut ado ts to e# ectations

continuous im rovement ractices in both management and skill level of tem orary "ork force and ensures the client, the very best of tem orary skills available! )roviding %ust in time and %ust in skills services! Trikut fluctuations! 1.2.8.3 TEMPORARY TO PERMANENT STAFFING: = timistic over the caliber of the tem orary "ork force rovided by the Trikut, rovides >uick res onse to clientCs business

many clients have moved on to hiring the tem orary "ork force as their regular "orkforce! 1.2.8.4 EMPLOYEE LEASING: <lso kno"n as contract staffing, em loyee staffing is a gro"ing form of human resources outsourcing! 8 ith the (m loyee ,easing service, Trikut enables clients to manage their current staff and at the same time eliminate all the necessary and time+consuming a er "ork or the liability associated "ith being an em loyer! Functioning as an e#tension of the clientCs business off+ remises, Trikut takes com lete res onsibility for various H' tasks including but not limited to )ayroll rocessing Ta# filing Filing re>uired statutory com liance like (SI, )F and other em loyee records 25

<dministering em loyee insurance

26

(m loyee benefits administration

3y combining all these into one single necessary!

ackage! Trikut allo"s the delivery of all these

services in one neat ackage and rovides clients the fle#ibility to staff and de staff as

8e are one of the leading rofessional 'ecruitment firms and outsourcing com any in India! 3acked a com letely com uteri?ed data bank, "e successfully o erations, "e rovide the em loyers "ith our recruitment solution services! Through our systemati?ed mode of rovide the com lete solutions from short listing the resumes to intervie"ing the candidates! 8e also arrange for trainings on em loy+ability skills! Through our hard "ork and com etent 6 seasoned "orkforce, "e have created a niche for ourselves in this man o"er recruitmentBs services industry! The different services offered by us areK .!/!9 $<T<3<S( S(<'CH S('&IC(SK 8e have a vast and strong database of candidates that hel s us in rendering our search related services! 8 e have collated this database "ith our continuous search and hard "ork! $e ending u on the %ob com letion of the e#ercise! .!/!.: '(F('(NC( CH(CJSK In order to rovide genuine candidates to our clients, "e also rovide reference check services! (m o"ered "ith our contacts in the different industries, "e have been able to check and cross check the informationCs and references given by the candidates before they are recruited! =ur e# erts in recruitment team checks the names and also confirm that the varied details given by the candidate is authentic or not! 27 rofile, "e rovide the clients, candidates "ith a aid on success and on distinct advantage of >uick conversions for "hich fees are

.!/!.. <SS(SSM(NTS S('&IC(SK 8e rovide our assessments services to our clients! Through this service, "e assess the erformance of the candidates and measure their erformance outcomes! This not only hel s in assessing the gro"th of the individuals but also that of the organi?ation! < ool of e# erts assists us rendering these services and re are 6 maintain a detailed re ort of these assessments for future reference! .!/!./ S)(CIFIC )('S=N<,ITL T(STSK 8e also conduct various em loyers to clear organi?ation! These s ecific develo ment! .!/!.1 ='*<NIRIN* *'=U) $ISCUSSI=NSK *rou discussions hel the clients in %udging the s eaking ability and the ersonality of the individuals! 8 e organi?e grou discussions on different relevant to ics! Such discussions enable the em loyers to get the a their vacancy the best! .!/!.- T'<ININ* =N (M),=L<3I,ITL SJI,,SK 8e also offer services related to training on em loyability skills! These trainings assist the students to start a romising career! 8e also conduct "orksho s to im rove the em loyability skills! Such "orksho s are organi?ed by s ecialists from FMSG IIT and other rofessionals involved in recruitment of cor orate! .!/!.2 8HL USQ Some of the salient features that make us different from othersK 28 ro riate candidate "ho "ill fit in ersonality tests for our candidates! These tests hel the

icture of the candidates "ho are to be em loyed in their ersonality test services rendered by us are done by our

ool of e# erts "ho have been in the industry for years and have e# ertise in ersonality

=ne of the leading outsourcing industry and Human 'esource Com any having biggest talent hunt ool!

< consultancy organi?ation launched and strengthened by a grou engineering, administration! finance, accounts and ersonnel management

of and

rofessionals having vast e# erience and kno"ledge in the field of

)rovides clients "ith the best man o"er right from the grass root level to senior managerial ositions! <n e#cellent com uteri?ed office backu su rocess the huge data bank "e re>uire! In house intervie" facility and training develo ment activity! < totally com uteri?ed center for efficiently maintaining the critical time deadlines! =ur strengths that have enabled us to stand ahead of our com etitorsK High hit rate ,ess turnaround time Smooth coordination Non com romising attitude in terms of >uality .!/!.4 =U' C,I(NTSK SUCH<N< ,,C+US< &(STC=M+US< SI*)'= 8 I'(,(SS INC + C<N<$< 29 ort "hich makes it easier to

'(<,8='JS S=,UTI=NS

30

AIM AND SCOPE O0 T'E PRESENT IN%ESTIGATION

6.5 NEED 0OR T'E ST8D:


In todayBs high tech, fast+ aced "orld, the "ork environment is very different than it "as a generation ago! <ccording to the Institute of Industrial (ngineers, it is not uncommon for a erson to change careers an average of si# times in his or her lifetime! It is no" rare for a erson to stay "ith a single com any his or her entire "orking life! 3ecause ortunities, com anies need em loyees are often "illing to leave a com any for better o

to find "ays not only to hire >ualified eo le, but also to retain them! Unfortunately, many em loyees these days feel they are "orking harder, faster, and longer hours than ever before! 0ob+related em loyee stress can lead to lack of commitment to the cor oration, oor roductivity, and even leaving the com anyM all of "hich are of serious concern to management! Many em loyees bring "ork home "ith them on a regular basis, es ecially no" that it is so easy for them to do that! 8 ith the "ide availability of cell hones, agers, ersonal digital assistants @)$<sA, and com uters, em loyees find it harder to get a"ay from the office! =ne of the more stressful Not long ago, IT rofessions today is in the Information Technology @ITA field! rofessionals "ere e#tremely "ell res ected and in demand! <s

technology advanced ra idly, there "as a high demand for rogrammers and engineers! Most had their choice of high+ aying %obs as technology com anies com eted to recruit the best of them! This is not the case today! In 0une /::-, Meta *rou , Inc! surveyed 42: com anies and found that nearly 52 ercent of the com anies ackno"ledged morale roblems among their IT staffs! This number "as u from the year before, "hich sho"ed that t"o+thirds

cited oor "orker morale as an issue! )erha s this is because the U!S! technology sector e# erienced "ides read layoffs during the third >uarter of /::-! In general, "hen layoffs ha en the remaining em loyees are forced to ick u the "orkload of those "ho "ere laid off! This leads to added res onsibility and longer "ork hours, often "ithout additional com ensation! This in turn leads to stress, burnout, and resentment! =ther causes of em loyee dissatisfaction include lo" "ages, lack of challenges, insufficient resources, unrealistic e# ectations, ressure to roduce, "illfully blind management, unreasonable

olicies and benefit costs!

rocedures, difficulty balancing family and "ork, and increased health

<s em loyers try to address em loyee turnover and %ob satisfaction issues, they must first determine "hat the issues are! Several com anies have convened focus grou s and conducted em loyee+satisfaction surveys to find out ho" their em loyees feel and to determine "hat they can do to make their em loyees ha y!

There are also a number of inde endent organi?ations that conduct em loyee surveys to gather this information! =ne such organi?ation is the Families and 8 ork Institute @"""!familiesand"ork!orgA, a non rofit research center Ithat rovides data to inform decision+making on the changing "orkforce and "ork lace, changing family and changing community! Founded in .979, F8I is kno"n for ahead of the curve, non+ artisan research into emerging "ork+life issuesM for solutions+oriented studies addressing to ics of vital im ortance to all sectors of societyM and for fostering connections among "ork laces, families, and communities!I (very five years F8 I conducts the National Study of the Changing 8orkforce @NSC8 A, a nationally re resentative sam le of em loyed "orkers designed to collect and com ile information on the "ork and "idely used by ersonalGfamily lives of the U!S! "orkforce! The study is olicy makers, em loyers, the media, and all those interested in the

"ides read im acts of the changing conditions of "ork and home life! The /::/ NSC8 sho"ed a slight increase from .99/ in the number of com anies that offer "ork+life su and orts on the %oboth s ecific benefit entitlements and less formal olicies ractices! $es ite this, the survey sho"ed a large increase in the number of

em loyees "ith families "ho felt there "as interference bet"een their %obs and their family lives, than em loyees /2 years ago! The NSC8 also found Ithe im ortance of su ortive "ork+life olicies and ractices, such as fle#ible "ork arrangements, is cleared ositive "ork outcomes, such as %ob ositive life they are available, em loyees e#hibit more

satisfaction, commitment to em loyer, and retention, as "ell as more

outcomes, such as less interference bet"een %ob and family life, less negative s illover 33

from %ob to home, greater life satisfaction, and better mental health!I

34

8hat does this mean to the em loyerQ <s more com anies start to reali?e that a ha environment! Many have im lemented various "ork+life rograms to hel

em loyee is a roductive em loyee, they have started to look for "ays to im rove the "ork em loyees, including alternate "ork arrangements, onsite childcare, e#ercise facilities, rela#ed dress codes, and more! ;uality+of+"ork+life rograms go beyond "orkGlife rograms by focusing attention less on em loyee needs outside of "ork and reali?ing that %ob stress and the >uality of life at "ork is even more direct bearing on "orker satisfaction! = en communications, mentoring rograms, and fostering more amicable relationshi s among "orkers are some of the "ays em loyers are im roving the >uality of "ork life! .!1!/ <,T('N<T( 8='J <''<N*(M(NTS Many em loyers have found it beneficial to allo" alternate "ork arrangements for their em loyees! This is one "ay to im rove em loyee roductivity and morale! There are three alternate arrangements that are "idely used today! Telecommuting is the term used to describe the "ork situation in "hich the em loyee "orks outside of the office, usually at home or at a location closer to home! In general, "hen one telecommutes, he or she communicates "ith the office via tele hone and email, and may go into the office eriodically to touch base "ith the em loyer and to attend meetings! <dvancements in technology have made this ossible for many eo le to telecommute! The telecommuting em loyee may be able to access files on the officeBs net"ork from remote locations! <nd "ith conference call, videoconferencing, and 8eb(# ca abilities, the em loyee can attend meetings from other locations! 8 ith 8eb(# technology, meeting attendees can sit at their o"n com uters and vie" the meeting organi?erBs com uter deskto a those same a com uters! Fle#time is another name for fle#ible "ork hours! <lthough most em loyees "ith fle#time do "ork a full eight+hour day, they can start and end the "orkday at a time agreeable to 35 via the Internet! <s the meeting organi?er o ens lications and moves the mouse on his or her com uter, the remote attendees can see lications and movements as if they "ere running them on their o"n

the em loyer and the em loyee, rather than the traditional 7K:: a!m! to 2K:: !m! "ork

36

day! Most em loyers re>uire their em loyees to be in the office during Icore hours,I such as .:K:: a!m! to /K:: !m! but do not mandate the start and end times!

<lternate "ork schedules, like fle#ible schedules, involve "orking outside of the traditional 7 to 2 "orkday! Ho"ever, alternate schedules have a fi#ed start and end time, "hereas fle#time allo"s the em loyee to vary start and end as long as they are there during the core hours! <n alternate schedule may be 4K:: a!m! to 1K:: !m! or ..K:: a!m! to 7K:: !m! five days a "eek, or it may be four .:+hour days, or any other different schedule! The advantages of these alternate "ork arrangements to the em loyee include fle#ible "ork hours, shorter or no commute, and a comfortable "orking environment! The advantages to the em loyer include less need for office s ace, increased lo"er use of sick leave, and im roved em loyee morale! 8hile there are many advantages to these alternatives, there are also several disadvantages that the em loyer must consider! These include roblems maintaining ade>uate staffing coverage, difficulty scheduling meetings, lack of inter ersonal dynamics, and concerns about safety and security @for fle#time and alternate schedule em loyees that come in early or leave lateA! It is u to the em loyer to "eigh the advantages against the disadvantages to determine if any of these alternatives "ill "ork! To im rove the >uality of "ork life and eliminate %ob stress, em loyers can also make efforts to be more a"are of the "orkload and %ob demands! (m loyers need to e#amine em loyee training, communication, re"ard systems, co"orker relationshi s, and "ork environment! (m loyees often are able to give em loyers the best advice on reducing "ork stress! (m loyees in the future "ill likely be looking for cor orations that have a ne" "ork environment, one that encourages each em loyee to "ork to"ard im rovement in the roduct or serviceM gives em loyees the res onsibility and authority to make decisions, rovides timely feedback, and re"ards em loyees based u on the >uality of the roduct and efforts! Team effort "ill assume central im ortanceCs es ecially that of self+directed 37 roductivity,

"ork teams! (m loyees "ill choose em loyers "ho have aims and values that match theirs and "ho value balance in their em loyeesB lives! (m loyees "ant to learn and advance, so o ortunities for rofessional gro"th "ill attract em loyees!

Com anies "ill seek em loyees "ith technical skills, vision, and the ability to organi?e and ersuade in resentation of ideas and information! Strong communication skills and the ability to learn "ill be high on em loyersB demand list for em loyees! There are a great number of common elements bet"een the em loyee list and the em loyer list! To attract and retain em loyees, com anies need to be e# loiting those stress, increase %ob autonomy, rovide learning and training o the >uality of "ork life! oints of convergence and continuously "ork "ith em loyees to redesign the "ork, eliminate %ob ortunities, and im rove

38

6.6 SCOPE O0 98ALIT: O0 WORK LI0E


;U<,ITL =F 8 ='J ,IF( is a multi dimensional as ect! The "orkers e# ect the follo"ing needs to be fulfilled by the organi?ationsK 1.1 COMPENSATION: The re"ard for "ork should be above a minimum standard for life and should also be e>uitable! There should be a %ust and e>uitable balance bet"een the effort and the re"ard! 1.2 HEALTH AND SAFETY: The "orking environment should be free from all ha?ards detrimental to the health and safety of the em loyees! The main elements of a good hysical environment for "ork should be reasonable hours of "ork, cleanliness, ollution free atmos here, risk free "ork etc! 1.3 OB SECURITY: The organi?ation should offer security of em loyment! (m loyees should not have to "ork under a constant concern for their future stability of "ork and income! 1.4 OB DESIGN: The design of %obs should be such "hich is ca able of meeting the needs of the organi?ation for roduction and the individual for satisfying and interesting "ork! ;uality of "ork life can be im roved if the %ob allo"s sufficient autonomy and control, rovides timely feedback on erformance and uses a "ide range of skills! Social IntegrationK The "orkers should be able to feel a sense of identity "ith the organi?ation and develo grou s to form! 5.4 SOCIAL RELEVANCE OF !ORK: 8 ork should not only be a source of material and sychological satisfaction, but also a means of social "elfare! <n organi?ation that has greater concern for social causes can im rove the >uality of "ork life! Sco e for 3etter Career = ortunitiesK The management should rovide facilities to the a feeling of self esteem! This includes the elimination of discrimination and individualism, "hilst encouraging teams and social

em loyees for im roving their skills both academic and other"ise! The management 39

should al"ays think of utili?ing human resources for e# ansion and develo ment of the organi?ations!

40

6.7 LIMITATIONS O0 T'E ST8D:


Though ade>uate care has been taken "hile doing the ro%ect! This )ro%ect still suffers from certain limitations, they are as follo"s! .! The ;uality of "ork life involves a "ider range! The other factors "hich might not have been covered in this study! /! Some res ondents did not ro erly res ond to the ;uestionnaireM thus to eliminate this as ect the researcher has also conducted some ersonal intervie"s! 1! The Management allo"ed the researcher to collect the data from the limited res ondents only! Though the ositive effect of ;8, is already established, all arties of the organi?ation still resist to any schemes or rocedure to im rove ;8,! The management may feel the ;8 , at the resent level is satisfactory and more ste s need be taken to im rove it! (m loyee on the other hand resist to changes "ith a re conceived notion that any scheme that the management takes u to "ould be to increase roduction "ithout e#tra cost! <nother barrier to the im rovement of ;8, is lack of financial resources! Strategies for im roving ;8, are self+managed "ork teams, %ob redesign and enrichment, effective leadershi and su ervisory behavior, career develo ment, alternative "ork schedules, artici ating management! 3y %ob security, administrative or organi?ational %ustice and resent study e#amines it

from identified and selected dimensions only! Ho"ever it is ossible that there may be

im lementing such changes management can create a sense of involvement, commitment and togetherness among the em loyees "hich aves "ay for better ;8, 1!9!. ISSU(S <N$ C=NC('NS =ur ma%or concerns focus on ho" the conce t of >uality of "ork life has evolved and the state of its a lication today! The issues that concern us include the vagueness of the conce t, faddism Greligious e# erience vs! scientificG ragmatic ers ective, the focus on lo"+level em loyees, naive vie"s of causes of individual behavior, naSve vie"s of organi?ational behavior, and >uality of "ork life and roductivity! 41

3.9.1.1 VAGUENESS OF THE CONCEPT ;8 , has not been firmly and clearly defined! In fact, some ro onents of ;8, have talked e# licitly about not develo ing s ecific definitions! 8e believe this has led to continued misunderstanding and u??lement on the art of many managers, and it is no sur rise that concern over the fu??iness of the conce t has hindered its im lementation and develo ment! 3.9.1.2 SCIENCE: FADISM/RELIGIOSITY VS.

Many of those "ho have discussed or advocated ;8, refer to it as a cure+all, as something that "ill "ork "onders as if by some mystical rocess! In the e#treme, itBs vie"ed as some sort of religious e# erience T that is, "hen youBve got it, or "hen youBve had it, youBll kno" "hat it is! These contrasts "ith the scientific or ragmatic ers ective that describes ;8, as a cou le of conce ts and tools that might be useful and that might "ork in certain situations! <gain, the unreasonable e# ectations! 3.9.1.3 NA'IVE VIEWS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR: 'ecently, those "ho have talked about ;8 , in some organi?ations have ro osed that it "ill lead to greater effectiveness because it "ill make "orkers Iha more satisfied, they "ill levels of yI Tand that, being roduce more! 'esearch on organi?ations has demonstrated it may lead to decreases in turnover and roblem is that ideologists alienate those "ho havenBt bought into the ideological content of the definition, "hich, they feel, can create

consistently for the last /2 years that satisfaction does not necessarily lead to higher erformance although absences! <gain, the e# ectation that ha y "orkers "ill be roductive "orkers is

misleading and therefore may be setting u unreasonable e# ectations! 3.9.1.4 NA'IVE VIEWS OF ORGANI ATIONAL BEHAVIOUR: < good many of those e# erts "ho have ro osed ;8, activities have described a rocess "hereby ilot ro%ects may be run and good ideas, having seen the light of day, "ill naturally s read throughout the organi?ation and be institutionali?ed or made ermanent! They also assume that 42 ro%ects at the lo"est levels "ill succeed even if

the

43

environment "ithin the larger organi?ation is unfavorable to them! 8hat "e kno" about the systemic nature of organi?ations leads us to be very ske tical about the degree of otential for highly artici ative rocesses that are instituted at lo" organi?ational levels in authoritarian to +do"n organi?ations! The lessons of the %ob+enrichment movement in the late .94:s sho"ed this again and again! Similarly, to e# ect that ilot ro%ects "ill someho" s read throughout the organi?ation ignores the reality that, in general, successful! 3.9.1.! FOCUS EMPLOYEES: ON LOW"LEVEL ilot ro%ects tend to be enca sulated and do not get disseminated even "hen they are

Much ;8, em hasis has been on first+level or line+o erative em loyees! ;8 , has been described as something the to tells the middle to do to the bottom in organi?ations! This creates roblems in t"o "aysK First, em loyees at the bottom are fre>uently being asked to do things that the to is un"illing to doM s ecifically, to use artici ative roach clearly decision making! This inconsistency or I$o "hat I say, not "hat I doI a has some inherent dra"backs! Middle managers or technical

ersonnel have %ust as

severe ;8, roblems as those of line+o erative em loyees! To assume that only the erson on the assembly line is concerned "ith ;8, ignores other large grou s of eo le "ho are entitled to the same level of consideration! 3.9.1.# $UALITY OF WOR% LIFE AND PRODUCTIVITY: The actual relationshi bet"een >uality of "ork life efforts and roductivity is often ignored! Some assume that ;8, activities "ill inevitably lead to increased roductivity! In many cases, this is sim ly not true! Such activities may lead to higher levels of commitment, lo"er levels of turnover, and higher >uality, but not necessarily to higher roductivity! The im ortant thing to kee individual outcomes as satisfaction and in mind is that ;8 , and such roductivity can be addressed by some of the

same kinds of actions, but they arenBt in a direct cause+and+effect relationshi ! Careful analysis of each activity is needed to determine "hat effect it is likely to have! It is naive to assume that merely doing something related to ;8, "ill lead to higher 44

roductivity

45

6.; RE%IEW O0 LITERAT8RE


/!1!. $(FINITI=N &arious authors and researchers have ro osed models of ;uality of "orking life "hich include a "ide range of factors! Selected models are revie"ed belo"! Hackman and =ldham @.954A@2A dre" attention to "hat they described as sychological gro"th needs as relevant to the consideration of ;uality of "orking life! Several such needs "ere identifiedM Skill variety, Task Identity, Task significance, <utonomy and Feedback! They suggested that such needs have to be addressed if em loyees are to e# erience high >uality of "orking life! In contrast to such theory based models, Taylor @.959A@4A more ragmatically identified the essential com onents of ;uality of "orking life asM basic e#trinsic %ob factors of "ages, hours and "orking conditions, and the intrinsic %ob notions of the nature of the "ork itself! He suggested that a number of other as ects could be added, includingM individual o"er, em loyee artici ation in the management, fairness and e>uity, social su ort, use of oneCs resent skills, self develo ment, a meaningful future at "ork, social roduct, effect on e#tra "ork activities! Taylor suggested relevance of the "ork or em loyee grou ! 8arr and colleagues @.959A @5A, in an investigation of ;uality of "orking life, considered a range of a intrinsic They arently relevant factors, including "ork involvement, order need strength, erceived intrinsic %ob iness, and self+rated an#iety! %ob motivation, higher discussed

that relevant ;uality of "orking life conce ts may vary according to organi?ation and

characteristics, %ob satisfaction, life satisfaction, ha

a range of correlations derived from their "ork, such as those erceived intrinsic %ob characteristics and %ob satisfaction! In iness, "ith a less strong, but significant

bet"een "ork involvement and %ob satisfaction, intrinsic %ob motivation and %ob satisfaction, and articular, 8arr et al! found evidence for a moderate association bet"een total %ob satisfaction and total life satisfaction and ha association "ith self+rated an#iety! 46

Thus, "hilst some authors have em hasi?ed the "ork lace as ects in ;uality of "orking life, others have identified the relevance of "ell being, and broader conce ts of ha ersonality factors, sychological iness and life satisfaction!

Factors more obviously and directly affecting "ork has, ho"ever, served as the main focus of attention, as researchers have tried to tease out the im ortant influences on ;uality of "orking life in the "ork lace! Mirvis and ,a"ler @.97-A @7A suggested that ;uality of "orking life "as associated "ith satisfaction "ith "ages, hours and "orking conditions, describing the Dbasic elements of a good >uality of "ork lifeE asM safe "ork environment, e>uitable "ages, e>ual em loyment o ortunities and o ortunities for advancement!

3aba and 0amal @.99.A @9A listed "hat they described as ty ical indicators of >uality of "orking life, includingK %ob satisfaction, %ob involvement, "ork role ambiguity, "ork role conflict, "ork role overload, %ob stress, organi?ational commitment and turn+ over intentions! 3aba and 0amal also e# lored re etitive nature of %ob content, suggesting that this facet should be investigated as "orking life! Some have argued that >uality of "orking life might vary bet"een grou s of "orkers! For e#am le, (llis and )om li @/::/A @.:A identified a number of factors contributing to %ob dissatisfaction of care and >uality of "orking life in nurses, includingK )oor "orking environments, 'esident aggression, 8 orkload, Unable to deliver >uality referred, 3alance of "ork and family, Shift "ork, ,ack of involvement in ortunity to learn ne" skills! decision making, )rofessional isolation, ,ack of recognition, )oor relationshi s "ith su ervisorG eers, 'ole conflict, ,ack of o art of the conce t of >uality of

Sirgy et al!M @/::.A @..A suggested that the key factors in >uality of "orking life areK Need satisfaction based on %ob re>uirements, Need satisfaction based on 8 ork environment, Need satisfaction based on Su ervisory behavior, Need satisfaction based on <ncillary and outcomes stemming from 47 rograms, =rgani?ational commitment! They defined artici ation in the "ork lace! Maslo"Cs needs "ere

>uality of "orking life as satisfaction of these key needs through resources, activities,

seen as relevant in under inning (conomic and

this

model,

covering

Health

safety,

48

family,

Social, (steem, <ctuali?ation, Jno"ledge and <esthetics, although the

relevance of non+"ork as ects is lay do"n as attention is focused on >uality of "ork life rather than the broader conce t of >uality of life! These attem ts at defining >uality of a "orking life have included theoretical

roaches, lists of identified factors, correlation analyses, "ith o inions varying as

to "hether such definitions and e# lanations can be both global, or need to be s ecific to each "ork setting! 3earfield, @/::1A @./A used .4 >uestions to e#amine >uality of "orking life, and distinguished bet"een causes of dissatisfaction in for different grou s! The distinction made bet"een %ob satisfaction and dissatisfaction in >uality of "orking life reflects the influence of %ob satisfaction theories! Her?berg at al!, @.929A@.1A used DHygiene factorsE and DMotivator factorsE to distinguish bet"een the se arate causes of %ob satisfaction and %ob dissatisfaction! It has been suggested that Motivator factors are intrinsic to the %ob, that isM %ob content, the "ork itself, res onsibility and advancement! The Hygiene factors or dissatisfaction+avoidance factors include as ects of the %ob environment such as inter ersonal relationshi s, salary, "orking conditions and security! =f these latter, the most common cause of %ob dissatisfaction can be com any olicy and administration, "hilst achievement can be the greatest source of e#treme satisfaction! <n individualCs e# erience of satisfaction or dissatisfaction can be substantially rooted in their erce tion, rather than sim ly reflecting their Dreal "orldE! Further, an individualCs erce tion can be affected by relative com arison H am I aid as much as that erson + and com arisons of internali?ed ideals, as irations, and e# ectations, for e#am le, "ith the individualCs current state @,a"ler and )orter, .944A @.A! rofessionals, intermediate clerical, sales and service "orkers, indicating that different concerns might have to be addressed

49

In summary, "here it has been considered, authors differ in their vie"s on the core constituents of ;uality of 8orking ,ife @e!g! Sirgy, (fraty, Siegel 6 ,ee, /::. @..A and 8arr, Cook 6 8all, .959A @5A! It has generally been agreed ho"ever that ;uality of 8orking ,ife is conce tually similar to "ell+being of em loyees but differs from %ob satisfaction "hich solely re resents the "ork lace domain @,a"ler, .97/A @.2A! ;uality of 8orking ,ife is not a unitary conce t, but has been seen as incor orating a hierarchy of ers ectives that not only include "ork+based factors such as %ob ay and relationshi s "ith "ork colleagues, but also satisfaction, satisfaction "ith

factors that broadly reflect life satisfaction and general feelings of "ell+being @$anna 6 *riffin, .999A@.4A! More recently, "ork+related stress and the relationshi bet"een "ork and non+"ork life domains @,oscocco 6 'oschelle, .99.A @.5A have also been identified as factors that should conce tually be included in ;uality of 8orking ,ife! /!1!/ M(<SU'(M(NT There are fe" recogni?ed measures of >uality of "orking life, and of those that e#ist fe" have evidence of validity and reliability, that is, there is a very limited literature based on eer revie"ed evaluations of available assessments! < recent statistical rove to be a useful instrument, analysis of a ne" measure, the 8ork+'elated ;uality of ,ife scale @8 ';o,A @.7A, indicates that this assessment device should although further evaluation "ould be useful! The 8';o8, measure uses 4 core factors to e# lain most of the variation in an individualCs >uality of "orking lifeK 0ob and Career SatisfactionM 8orking ConditionsM *eneral 8ell+3eingM Home+ 8ork InterfaceM Stress at 8ork and Control at 8ork! The 0ob 6 Career Satisfaction 0ob and Career satisfaction @0CSAscale of the 8ork+ 'elated ;uality of ,ife scale @8 ';o,A is said to reflect an em loyeeCs feelings about, or evaluation of, their satisfaction or contentment "ith their %ob and career and the training they receive to do it! 8 ithin the 8';o, measure, 0CS is reflected by >uestions asking ho" satisfied eo le feel about their "ork! It has been ro osed that this )ositive 0ob Satisfaction factor is influenced by various issues including clarity of goals and role ambiguity, a 50 raisal, recognition and re"ard,

ersonal develo ment

51

career benefits and enhancement and training needs! The *eneral "ell+being @*8 3A scale of the 8ork+'elated ;uality of ,ife scale @8 ';o,A @.7A, aims to assess the e#tent to "hich an individual feels good or content in themselves, in a "ay "hich may be inde endent of their "ork situation! It is suggested that general "ell+being both influences, and is and influenced by "ork! Mental being of the ha iness! health roblems, redominantly de ression

an#iety disorders, are common, and may have a ma%or im act on the general "ell+ o ulation! The 8 ';o, *8 3 factor assesses issues of mood, an#iety, life satisfaction, general >uality of life, o timism and de ression and

The 8 ';o, Stress at 8ork sub+scale @S<8 A reflects the e#tent to "hich an individual erceives they have e#cessive ressures, and feel stressed at "ork! ossible to be The 8 ';o, S<8 factor is assessed through items dealing "ith demand and erce tion of stress and actual demand overload! 8hilst it is "ith high ressure! The Control at 8ork @C<8 A subscale of the 8 ';o, scale addresses ho" much em loyees feel they can control their "ork through the freedom to e# ress their o inions and being involved in decisions at "ork! )erceived control at "ork as measured by the 8ork+'elated ;uality of ,ife scale @8 ';o,A @.7A is recogni?ed as a central conce t in the understanding of relationshi s bet"een stressful e# eriences, behavior and health! Control at "ork, "ithin the theoretical model under inning the 8';o,, is influenced by issues of communication at "ork, decision making and decision control! The 8 ';o, Home+8ork Interface scale @H8 IA measures the e#tent to "hich an em loyer is a erceived to su ort the family and home life of em loyees! This factor e# lores the interrelationshi bet"een home and "ork life domains! Issues that ear to influence em loyee H8 I include ade>uate facilities at "ork, fle#ible "orking hours and the understanding of managers! 52 ressured at "ork and not be stressed at "ork, in general, high stress is associated

The 8orking Conditions scale of the 8 ';o, assesses the e#tent to "hich the

53

em loyee is satisfied "ith the fundamental resources, "orking conditions and security necessary to do their %ob effectively! )hysical "orking conditions influence em loyee health and safety and thus em loyee ;uality of "orking life! This scale also ta s into satisfaction "ith the resources rovided to hel /!1!1 <)),IC<TI=NS 'egular assessment of ;uality of 8orking ,ife can otentially rovide organi?ations "ith im ortant information about the "elfare of their em loyees, such as %ob satisfaction, general "ell+being, "ork+related stress and the home+"ork interface! Studies in the UJ University sector have sho"n a valid measure of ;uality of 8orking ,ife e#ists @.9A and can be used as a basis for effective interventions! 8orrall and Coo er @/::4A@.-A recently re orted that a lo" level of "ell+being at "ork is estimated to cost about 2+.:O of *ross National )roduct er annum, yet ;uality of 8orking ,ife as a theoretical construct remains relatively une# lored and une# lained "ithin the organi?ational sychology research literature! < large chunk of most eo lesC lives "ill be s ent at "ork! Most eo le recogni?e the im ortance of slee ing "ell, and actively try to en%oy the leisure time that they can snatch! 3ut all too often, eo le tend to see "ork as something they %ust have to ut u "ith, or even something they donCt even e# ect to en%oy! Some of the factors used to measure >uality of "orking life ick u on things that donCt actually make eo le feel good, but "hich seem to make eo le feel bad about "ork if those things are absent! For e#am le, noise H if the lace "here someone "orks is too noisy, they might get fre>uent headaches, or find they cannot concentrate, and so feel dissatisfied! 3ut "hen it is >uiet enough they donCt feel donCt feel bad! This can a conditions! =ther things seem to be more likely to make eo le feel good about "ork and leased or ha y + they %ust ly to a range of factors that affect someoneBs "orking eo le do their %obs!

themselves once the basics are =J at "ork! Challenging "ork @not too little, not too 54

muchA can make them feel good! Similarly, o

ortunities for career rogression and

using their abilities can contribute to someoneBs >uality of "orking life!

The recent

ublication of

National Institute of Clinical (#cellence @NIC(A

ublic

health guidance //M )romoting mental "ellbeing through roductive and healthy "orking conditions @/:A em hasi?es the core role of assessment and understanding of the "ay "orking environments ose risks for sychological "ellbeing through lack of control and e#cessive demand! The em hasis laced by NIC( on assessment and monitoring "ellbeing s rings from the fact that these rocesses are the key first ste in identifying areas for im roving >uality of "orking life and addressing risks at "ork! The term ;uality of 8ork ,ife @;8,A aims at changing the entire organi?ational climate by humani?ing "ork! Individuali?ing organi?ations and changing the structural and managerial systems! ;o8 , takes into consideration the socio+ sychological needs of the em loyees! It seeks to create such a culture of "ork commitment in the organi?ations "hich "ill ensure higher roductivity and greater %ob satisfaction for the em loyees! ;uality of "ork life refers to the favorableness or un+favorableness of the %ob environment of an organi?ation for its em loyees! It is generic term "hich covers a ersonBs feelings about every dimension of his "ork e!g! economic incentives and re"ards, %ob security, "orking conditions, organi?ational and inter ersonal relationshi s etc! ;uality of 8ork ,ife influences the roductivity of the em loyees! 'esearchers have roved that good ;8, leads to sychologically and hysically

healthier em loyees "ith ositive feelings! ;uality of 8ork ,ife is the degree to "hich em loyees of an organi?ation are able to satisfy their ersonal needs through e# erience in the organi?ation! It main aim is to create a "ork environment "here em loyees "ork in coo eration "ith each other and contribute to organi?ational ob%ectives 55

2.3.4 THE TERM $OWL HAS DIFFERENT MEANINGS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE. A FEW IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS OF $WL ARE AS FOLLOWS:

<ccording to HarrisonK I;uality of 8ork ,ife is the degree to "hich "ork in an organi?ation contributes to material and sychological "ell being of its members!I rocess of %oint decision making, <ccording to $!S!Cohan I;uality of 8ork ,ife is a

collaborations and building mutual res ect bet"een management and em loyees!I <ccording to the <merican Society of Training and $evelo ment I;uality of 8ork ,ife is a rocess of "ork organi?ation "hich enables its members at all levels to artici ate actively and effectively in sha ing the organi?ationsB environment,

methods and outcomes! It is a value based rocess "hich is aimed to"ards meeting the t"in goals of enhanced effectiveness of the organi?ation and im roved >uality of life at "ork for the em loyeesI!

7.5. OBJECTI%ES O0 T'E ST8D:


.!1!. )'IM<'L =30(CTI&(K .! To kno" the overall >uality of "ork life in the organi?ation and its im act on em loyees "ork culture!

.!1!/ S(C=N$<'L =30(CTI&(SK

.! To measure the level of satisfaction of em loyees to"ards the >uality of "ork life! /! To suggest suitable measures to im rove the >uality of "ork life! 1! To identify the ma%or areas of dissatisfaction if any, and -! To analy?e the findings and suggestion for the study! 56 rovide

valuable suggestions im roving the em loyees satisfaction in those areas!

7.6 RESEARC' MET'ODOLOG:


'esearch methodology is a "ay to systematically solve the research roblem! It

may be understood as a science of studying ho" research is done scientifically! The sco e of research methodology is "ider than that of research methods! 8hen "e talk of research methodology "e not only talk of research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods "e use in the conte#t of our research study and e# lain "hy "e are using a articular method or techni>ue! Ho" to (nhance 8 ellbeing at 8 orkK Si# )ositive! (vidence+based Interventions, 'esearch into >uality of "orking life in UJ universities has hel ed organi?ations to develo room! <s rograms for im roving "ellbeing! < summary of this benchmarking research into stress and "ellbeing in Higher (ducation can be found in our media art of our "ork "ith universities, "e have carried out multi le regression ositive outcomes like "ellbeing and redictors of different "ellbeing analyses to find out "hich "ork as ects are most likely to lead to negative outcomes like stress, and "hich are most likely to lead to motivation! This a er, the second in a series on

outcomes, looks at the redictors of @ ositiveA "ellbeing at "ork! 8e have been able to identify the key redictors of the *eneral 8ellbeing @*8 3A

factor from our >uality of "orking life survey results! *83 is one of si# factors assessed in the research validated 8ork+'elated ;uality of ,ife @8 ';o,A measure! <s a measure of "ellbeing, it includes both (#ecutive @HS(A Stress Factors, other sychological and data from the hysical health outcomes! ;o8, ,td surveys on The table belo" also includes results from the statistical analysis of the Health 6 Safety 8ork lace 8ellbeing =utcomes and 3iogra hical Indicators! The strongest )redictors of *eneral 8ellbeing @. U 3est redictorAK .! Higher satisfaction "ith overall >uality of "orking life + ;o8 , survey outcome >uestion /! *ood slee + ;o8 , survey outcome >uestion 1! Higher %ob and career satisfaction + 8 ';o, 0ob 6 Career Satisfaction factor 57

-! *ood 8ork+life balance + ;o8, survey outcome >uestion

58

2! Higher en%oyment of "ork + ;o8 , survey outcome >uestion 4! ,o"er levels of an#iety + ;o8 , survey outcome >uestion 5! Family su ort for "ork commitments + ;o8, survey outcome >uestion 7! *ood "orking conditions + 8 ';o, 8orking Conditions factor 9! Fe"er number of days off "ork due to ill health in the last year + ;o8 , biogra hical indicator >uestion .:! Higher satisfaction "ith the home+"ork balance + 8 ';o, Home+8ork Interface ..! Higher motivation + ;o8, survey outcome >uestion ./! )erce tion of ersonal erformance + ;o8, survey outcome >uestion .1! $isability + ;o8 , biogra hical indicator >uestion .-! *ood "orking relationshi s + ;o8, survey outcome >uestion .2! Management su ort + HS( Management Su ort factor .4! ,o"er stress + 8 ';o, Stress at 8ork factor There "ere notable differences bet"een redictors of "ellbeing and redictors of stress! The findings here a ear to sho" that "ellbeing is related to the resence of ositive as ects of "ork e# erience and as "ell as the absence of negative factors! 3.1.1. 8H<T INT('&(NTI=NS MI*HT (NH<NC( 8(,,3(IN*Q These results rovide valuable insight into the different kinds of interventions that are most likely to be effective in enhancing staff "ellbeing! Most of the interventions recommended are interlinked and connected! Im rovements made in one area "ill likely have ositive im acts else"here! The analysis indicates that im rovements to staff "ellbeing could come fromK V Fostering ;uality of 8orking ,ife V Management of 8 ork+life 3alance V (nhancing Satisfaction and (n%oyment at "ork V Maintenance and Im rovement of 8orking Conditions V Im roved Motivation in Staff V )rovision of 3etter Management Su Fostering ;uality of 8orking ,ife ort

59

=verall >uality of "orking life @;o8,A "as the single best redictor of "ellbeing! ;o8, is a broad construct that involves a number of related "ork lace "ellbeing factors, and so it is robably most useful as a model or Wframe"orkC for organi?ational develo ment, im rovement and olicy initiatives! For e#am le, organi?ations could construct a W;uality of 8orking ,ife StatementC that under ins leadershi of "ellbeing olicies! 1!.!/! M<N<*(M(NT =F 8='J+,IF( 3<,<NC( Three of the to balanceK .: redictors related to as ects of 8ork+life and management develo ment! 8e "ill soon be ublishing a guide to using ;o8 , as a frame"ork for the develo ment

V The "ork+life balance outcome V Family su ort for "ork commitments outcome V 8 ';o, Home+8ork Interface factor This a ears to sho" that "ork+life balance is one of the most im ortant redictors of

"ellbeing at "ork! Su

orting this conclusion, our >ualitative analysis of res onses to an

o en >uestion in the survey sho"ed the im ortance of related issues such as organi?ational fle#ibility and trust! This indicates that im lementation of im rovements in this area should enhance "ellbeing in staff! 1!.!1! (NH<NCIN* S<TISF<CTI=N <N$ (N0=LM(NT <T 8='J The 8 ';o, 0ob 6 Career Satisfaction factor and the en%oyment of "ork outcome "ere highly ranked redictors of "ellbeing, indicating ho" im ortant ositive as ects of "ork e# erience are to "ellbeing! Therefore, inclusion of such em loyee engagement+ related outcomes in the develo ment and training of managers should yield benefits both to the organi?ation and to individual em loyees! 1!.!-! M<INT(N<NC( <N$ IM)'=&(M(NT =F 8='JIN* C=N$ITI=NS 8orking conditions @"hich includes the hysical "orking environment and having the right e>ui mentA are more im ortant than many managers reali?e! 8e have found that 60

ho" staff vie" their "orking conditions is a key determinant of overall >uality of "orking

61

life!

,ack of a"areness of the im ortance of "orking conditions can lead to senior roblems that could easily be solved! iness in staff, es ecially long+

managers overlooking or failing to address

This can over time foster discontent and unha

serving staff, "ho may have seen their conditions deteriorate "ithout remedial action! The main im lications of this are that it is vital to consult on, and continuously revie", "orking conditions to make sure they are meeting the needs of staff in different arts of the organi?ation! Im rovements to "orking conditions also actively demonstrate investment in em loyees on the art of the organi?ation! 3.1.5 IMPROVED MOTIVATION IN STAFF Motivated em loyees "ant to do their best, "hich is of course good for the organi?ation, but this result also sho"s that motivation is also a good redictor of "ellbeing! ier and healthier! Therefore, there should be a double+benefit from initiatives that boost the motivation of staff! Staffs are likely to "ork harder and better, but also "ill feel ha Im rovements in motivation are strongly linked to other "ellbeing redictors such as %ob satisfaction, en%oyment and the >uality of su ervision! 3ecause of its im ortance, "e "ill soon be "riting a "hite a er s ecifically on redictors of motivation at "ork! 3.1.6 PROVISION OF BETTER MANAGEMENT SUPPORT HS(Cs Management Su as ects of su ort factor is related more to the ractical and organi?ational ort ort is a redictor ofY stress, ositiveM ort than the social as ects! It is interesting that management su ort from managers is

is a much stronger redictor of "ellbeing than Xlack of su indicating that the main reason for im roving su eo le are likely to feel better if they are su

orted! These results therefore indicate ort from managers and the

that "here an organi?ation can take ste s to im rove su

"ider organi?ation, this is likely to have a ositive im act on staff "ellbeing!

3.1." CONCLUSIONS .! These redictors of "ellbeing demonstrate that a variety of interventions

could yield ositive results! /! ;uality of "orking life rovides an e#cellent frame"ork, and ur ose for, 62

"ellbeing olicies and organi?ational im rovement! 1! Im rovements to "ork+life balance and organi?ational fle#ibility can foster im rovements in staff "ellbeing more generally! -! <ny overall a 2! ,eadershi su roach to enhancing "ellbeing at "ork should include the management develo ment initiatives are likely to be maintenance and im rovement of "orking conditions! and more effective in enhancing "ellbeing if they rovide effective training to im rove ort, motivation, %ob satisfaction, and en%oyment at "ork!

7.7. STATEMENT O0 T'E PROBLEM


=ver the ast decade, considerable anecdotal evidence has accumulated to suggest orted by a gro"ing body of literature that suggests that

that the erosion of social "ork salaries, benefits and "orking conditions is escalating! This has been su field! The =ntario <ssociation of Social 8orkers @=<S8 A conducted a from diverse fields of rovince+ social "orkers are feeling the stress of the ever+accelerating changes to the social "ork

"ide, online survey to gather baseline information on the "ork life of social "orkers ractice! Information from the survey "ill be used to develo strategies that "ill be shared "ith other stakeholder grou s such as unions, em loyers and funders to seek key "ork lace im rovements! It "as around .9:: that F!8 ! Taylor develo ed "hat are commonly kno"n as the )rinci les of Scientific Management "hich till today form the basis for designing %obs in most organi?ations! The traditional %ob design of scientific management focuses mostly on division of labor, hierarchy, close su ervision and the one best "ay of doing "ork! This no doubt, has brought several benefits to society but its disadvantage has been its high human cost! The highly s eciali?ed %obs have made "orkers socially isolated from their fello" "orkers "eakened their community of interest in the "hole roduct and deskilled them 63

to such an e#tent that "orkers have lost ride in their "ork! The system of hierarchy has made "orkers totally de endent u on their su erior! It is al"ays the su erior and not his subordinates "ho initiates actions and controls the "orking environment! Close su ervision further accentuates "orkersC de endence on their su eriors! The result is high turnover and absenteeism! ;uality declines and "orkers become alienated! No", as "orkers are becoming more and more educated, skilled, affluent and unioni?ed the above dysfunctional conse>uences of "ork are becoming less and less acce table is no longer ossible to design %obs solely according to the needs of technology com letely overlooking the needs of "orkers! There is an all+round demand for develo ing the humani?ed %obs "hich can satisfy "orkersC higher needs, em loy their higher skills and make them better citi?ens, s ouses and arents! The %obs need to be e#cellent both from the oint of vie" of technology and human needs! The traditional %ob design needs to be re laced by enriched %ob design! This demand for redesigning of %obs has come to be kno"n as ;uality of 8ork ,ife! It en%oins management to treat "orkers as human resources that are to be develo ed rather than sim ly used!

7.;. RESEARC' DESIGN


D< research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research ur ose "ith economy in rocedureE! 'esearch design is the conce tual structure "ithin "hich research is conductedM it constitutes the blue rint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data! The ty e of research design used in the ro%ect "as $escri tive research, because it hel s to describe a articular situation revailing "ithin a com any! Careful design of the descri tive studies "as necessary to ensure the com lete inter retation of the situation and to ensure minimum bias in the collection of data!

64

7.4. SO8RCE O0 DATA


3oth the )rimary and Secondary data collection method "ere used in the ro%ect! First time collected data are referred to as the rimary data! In this research rinted form! It had both rimary data "as collected by means of a Structured ;uestionnaire! The

>uestionnaire consisted of a number of >uestions in

o en+end closed end >uestions in it! $ata "hich has already gone through the rocess of analysis or "ere used by someone else earlier is referred to secondary data! This ty e of data "as collected from the books, %ournals, com any records etc!

7.<. SAMPLING TEC'NI98E


Sam ling is the selection of some art of an aggregate or totality on the basis of "hich a %udgment about the aggregate or totality is made! C o n v e n i e n t sam ling method "as used in this because of their "ork nature! ro%ect! Since the o ulation "as of various nature, I have chosen those in shifts, as their life style is the ma#imum affected

7.=. SAMPLE SI>E


For a research study to be erfect the sam le si?e selected should be o timal

Z i!e! it should neither be e#cessively large nor too small! Here the sam le si?e "as bounded to ../, the total o ulation in the com any is /2: of "hich 9: are tem orary and .4: are o ulations are those "ho "ork in rotational shifts! ermanent! My s ecific sam le

7.? PERIOD O0 T'E ST8D:


The eriod of study for this ro%ect is $ec /:./ to March /:.1!

65

E@PERIMENTAL MATERIALS AND MET'ODS3 ALGORIT'MS 8SED

7.A STATISTICAL TOOLS


)ercentage analysis! Chi+S>uare! Five oint liker scales! )('C(NT<*( <N<,LSIS =ne of the sim lest methods of analysis is the )ercentage method! It is one of the traditional statistical tools! Through the use of )ercentage, the data are reduced in the standard form "ith the base e>ual to .::, "hich facilitates com arison!

The formula used to com ute )ercentage analysis is,

CHI+S;U<'( It is a measure to study the divergence of actual and e# ected fre>uencies! It is / re resented by the symbol X M *reek letter CHI! It describes the discre ancy theory and observation. The formula used is,

8here IOI is the observed Fre>uency IEI is the e# ected Fre>uency

;. DATA ANAL:SIS AND INTERPRETATION S<TISF<CTI=N =F S<,<'L )<CJ<*( Table -..K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s . : 2 4 / . 2 5 55 6 Per"en*a1e 7! 5 2 : / / . 1 4! 1 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!.!. INF('(NC (K It is seen from the table -!. that 7!5O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the salary ackage and 2:O of em loyees are satisfied, //O of em loyees are neutral, .1O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and 4!1O of em loyees are highly

dissatisfied "ith the salary ackage!

S<TISF<CTI=N =F CU''(NT 0=3 Table -!/K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s . / 4 4 / 9 2 : 55 6 Per"en*a1e . . 2 9 / 4 : 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!/!.

INF('(N C(K It is seen from the table -!/ that ..O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith current %ob and 29O of em loyees are satisfied, /4O of em loyees are neutral, -O of 70

em loyees are dissatisfied, and :O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied!

71

S<TISF<CTI=N =F C<SU<, ,(<&( Table -!1K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Strongly agree <gree Moderate $isagree Strongly $isagree To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s 2 4 1 9 . 5 2 55 6 Per"en*a1e . 1 4 . 2 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!1!. INF('(N C( It is seen from the table -!1 that -O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the casual leave and -.O of em loyees are satisfied, 14O of em loyees are neutral, .2O of em loyees are dissatisfied and -O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith the 72

casual leave!

73

S<TISF<CTI=N =F M($IC<, F<CI,ITI(S Table -!-K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Strongly agree <gree Moderate $isagree Strongly $isagree To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s . 9 / . 2 . : 55 6 Per"en*a1e . 5 1 9 / / . 1 9 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!-!. INF('(NC( It is seen from the table - ! - that .5O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the medical facilities and 19O of em loyees are satisfied, //O of em loyees are neutral, .1O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and 9O of em loyees are highly 74

dissatisfied "ith the medical facilities!

75

S<TISF<CTI=N =F 3=NUS Table -!2K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Strongly agree <gree Moderate $isagree Strongly $isagree To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s . / 2 . / 5 / / : 55 6 Per"en*a1e . . 2 / / : : 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!2!.

INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!2 that ..O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the bonus and -2O of em loyees are satisfied, /-O of em loyees are neutral, /:O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and :O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith the 76

bonus!

77

S<TISF<CTI=N =F C<NT((N F<CI,ITI(S Table -!4K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Strongly agree <gree Moderate $isagree Strongly $isagree To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s / / 9 1 5 : 55 6 Per"en*a1e / : -1! 2 /9! 2 5 : 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!4!.

INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!4 that /:O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the canteen facility and -1!2O of em loyees are satisfied, /9!2O of em loyees are neutral, 5O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and :O of em loyees are highly 78 dissatisfied!

S<TISF<CTI=N =F (SI 6 )F Table -!5K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s . 9 9 1 9 2 : 55 6 Per"en*a1e . 5 1 2 : 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!5!. INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!5 that .5O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the (SI 6 )F and --O of em loyees are satisfied, 12O of em loyees are neutral, -O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and :O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith the (SI 6 )F! 79

S<TISF<CTI=N =F H(<,THL 6 S<F( 8='JIN* C=N$ITI=NS Table -!7K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s . 9 2 4 1 / 2 : 55 6 Per"en*a1e .5! 2 2 : /7! 2 : 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!7!. INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!7 that .5!2O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the healthy and safety "orking conditions and 2:O of em loyees are satisfied, /7!2O of em loyees are neutral, -O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and :O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith the healthy and safety "orking conditions! 80

S<TISF<CTI=N =F 0=3 S(CU'ITL Table -!9K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s . / 5 . . 5 5 2 55 6 Per"en*a1e . . 4 1 . 2 5 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!9!. INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!9 that ..O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the %ob security and 41O of em loyees are satisfied, .2O of em loyees are neutral, 5O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and -O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith the %ob security! 81

S<TISF<CTI=N =F )'=M=TI=N )=,ICL Table -!.:K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1e

5 9 . 2 . : 55 6

5 -1! 2 14! 2 9 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!.:!.

INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!.: that 5O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith romotion olicy and -1!2O of em loyees are satisfied, 14!2O of em loyees are neutral, -O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and 9O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith romotion olicy! 82

S<TISF<CTI=N =F ;U<,ITL =F 8='J ,IF( Table -!..K


sno Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1e

. / 1 2

&ery good *ood =k 3ad &ery bad


To*al

. : 4 9 : 5 55 6

9 : : 5 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!..!.

INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!.. that 9O of em loyees are highly satisfied and -:O of em loyees are satisfied, --O of em loyees are neutral, :O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and 5O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied!

83

S<TISF<CTI=N =F )'=)(' C=MMUNIC<TI=N 8 ITH (M),=L((S Table -!./K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Strongly agree <gree Moderate $isagree Strongly $isagree To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1e

/ / / 9 . 5 :

/ : 1 9 / 4 . 2 : 5B B

55 6

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!./!. INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!./ that /:O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the attention of changes and 19O of em loyees are satisfied, /4O of em loyees are neutral, .2O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and :O of em loyees are highly unsatisfied "ith the attention of changes! 84

S<TISF<CTI=N =F C='$I<, '(,<TI=NSHI) <M=N* (M),=L((S Table -!.1K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Strongly agree <gree Moderate $isagree Strongly $isagree To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1e

2 4 . 1 9 5 : 55 6

2 1 2 5 : 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!.1!.

INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table - ! . 1 that -O of em loyees are highly satisfied cordial relationshi among em loyees and 2-O of em loyees are satisfied, 12O of em loyees are neutral, 5O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and :O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied cordial relationshi among em loyees! 85

S<TISF<CTI=N =F T'<ININ* Table -!.-K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1e

. / 2 . 1 9 5 1

. . 2 1 2 5 / 5B B

55 6

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!.-!.

INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table - ! . - that ..O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith training and -2O of em loyees are satisfied, 12O of em loyees are neutral, 5O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and /O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith training! 86

S<TISF<CTI=N IN )('F='M<NC( <))'<IS<, Table -!.2K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1e

5 2 7 / 9 . 2 1 55 6

5 2 / / 4 . 1 / 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!.2!. INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!.2 that 5O of em loyees are highly satisfied erformance a raisal and 2/O of em loyees are satisfied, /4O of em loyees are neutral, .1O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and /O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied erformance 87

raisal!

88

S<TISF<CTI=N =F *'I(&<NC( '($'(SS<, Table -!.4K


sno . / 1 2 Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied To*al No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1e

. : 2 4 1 9 2 / 55 6

9 2 : 1 2 / 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!.4!.

INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table - ! . 4 that 9O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith grievance redressed and, 12O of em loyees are neutral, -O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and /O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith grievance redressed! 89

S<TISF<CTI=N =F '(8 <'$ '(C=*NITI=N

Table -!.5K
sno Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1 e

. /

Les No To*al

4 4 4 55 6

4 2 9 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!.5!.

INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table - ! . 5 that -.O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith re"ard recognition and 29O of them are highly dissatisfied "ith re"ard recognition! 90

S<TISF<CTI=N =F C<'((' $(&(,=)M(NT Table -!.7K


sno Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1e

. / 1 2

&ery good *ood =k 3ad &ery bad


To*al

. : 4 1 4 . 2 2 .. /

9 . 1 1 . 1 .: :

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!.7!. INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!.7 that 9O of em loyees are highly satisfied "ith the career develo ment and -.O of em loyees are satisfied, 11O of em loyees are neutral, .1O of em loyees are dissatisfied, and -O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith the career
59

develo ment!

S<TISF<CTI=N =F F'(($=M T= C<''L =N TH( 8='J Table -!.9K


sno Le-el o) sa*is)a"*ion No. o) Res+on(en*s Per"en*a1e

. / 1 2

&ery True T'U( Some"hat true Not too true Not at all true To*al

. / 2 . 9 . 5 . : 55 6

. . 7 . 5 . 2 9 5B B

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!.9!. INF('(NC(K It is seen from the table -!.9 that ..O of em loyees are highly satisfied, -7O of em loyees are satisfied, .5O of em loyees are neutral, .2O of em loyees are 92

dissatisfied, and 9O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith the freedom of "ork!

93

S<TISF<CTI=N =F CHI+S;U<'( <N<,LSISK

Table -!/:K A1e 3elo" /2 Lrs /2+12 Lrs 12+-2 Lrs -2+22 Lrs 22 Lrs and <bove To*al 'i1hl ! sa*is)ie : : / 1 2 5 B Sa*is)ie ( 5 . / . : 5 . : ; < Ne$*r al 2 . 2 . / 5 . : ; A 'i1hl ! (issa*is)ie 2 / : : : = To*al . 5 / 9 / . 5 / 2 556

[Source H )rimary $ata

Chart -!/:!. HL)=TH(SISK Null hy othesis H:K There is no significant difference bet"een the age and the >uality of "ork life <lternate hy othesis H.K There is significant difference bet"een the age and 94

the >uality of "ork life! The observed fre>uency @=A is the value obtained from the collected data and the e# ected fre>uency @(A is calculated using the e>uation

(U

'o" total of the cell # column total of the cell +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ *rand total

In the ne#t ste

the corres onding values of = and ( are calculated using the

formula in e>uation

95

CHI+S;U<'( <nalysis 8orking Sheet Chart -!/. O.ser-e( O# :!::::: 5!::::: 2!::::: 2!::::: :!::::: ./!::::: .2!::::: /!::::: /!::::: .:!::::: ./!::::: :!::::: 1!::::: 5!::::: 5!::::: :!::::: 2!::::: .:!::::: .:!::::: :!::::: E2+e"*e( E# .!2.59 4!97/. 5!-152 .!:4/2 /!2791 ..!9.:5 ./!4752 .!7./2 /!.-/9 9!725. .:!2::: .!2::: .!2.59 4!97/. 5!-152 .!:4/2 /!/1/. .:!/459 .:!9152 .!24/2 To*al OC E +.!2.59 :!:.59 +/!-152 1!9152 +/!2791 :!:791 /!1./2 :!.752 +:!.-/9 :!.-/9 .!2::: +.!2::: .!-7/. :!:.59 +:!-152 +.!:4/2 /!5459 +:!/459 +:!9152 +.!24/2 O C E# D +/!1:19 :!:::1 +2!9-..2!2:19 +4!5:-:!::7: 2!1-55 :!:12/ +:!:/::!:/:/!/2:: +/!/2:: /!.945 :!:::1 +:!.9.+.!./79 5!44.: +:!:5.5 +:!7579 +/!--.O C E# D E E +.!2.59 :!:::: +:!5977 .-!29.9 +/!2791 :!:::5 :!-/.2 :!:.9+:!::92 :!::/. :!/.-1 +.!2::: .!--51 :!:::: +:!:/25 +.!:4/2 1!-1/. +:!::5: +:!:7:+.!24/2 5B.A=4=

Here, the calculated value is .:!9525 and the table value for degree of freedom is ./ Xd!fU @C+.A @'+.A U @2+.A @-+.AY at 2O level of significance is /4!/94! Since Table value is greater than @\A the Calculated &alue, Null Hy othesis is acce ted i!e There is N= significant difference bet"een the age and the >uality of "ork life! 96

DATA ANAL:SIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.5 0INDINGS

.! From Table -!. it is inferred that 2:O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the salary ackage! /! From Table -!/ it is inferred that 29O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the current %ob! 1! From Table -!1 it is inferred that -.O of em loyees are satisfied "ith casual leave "ith ay! -! From Table -!- it is inferred that 19O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the medical facilities! 2! From Table -!2 it is inferred that -2O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the bonus! 4! From Table -!4 it is inferred that -1!2O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the canteen facility! 5! From Table -!5 it is inferred that --O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the (SI 6 )F! 7! From Table -!7 it is inferred that 2:O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the healthy and safety "orking conditions!

9! From Table -!9 it is inferred that 41O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the %ob security! .:! From Table -!.: it is inferred that -1!2O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the romotion olicy! ..! From Table -!.. it is inferred that --O of em loyees are neutral "ith >uality of "ork life!
64

./! From Table -!./ it is inferred that 19O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the attention of changes! .1! From Table -!.1 it is inferred that 2-O of em loyees are satisfied cordial relationshi among em loyees! .-! From Table -!.- it is inferred that -2O of em loyees are satisfied "ith training! .2! From Table -!.2 it is inferred that 2/O of em loyees are satisfied "ith erformance a raisal!

.4! From Table -!.4 it is inferred that 2:O of em loyees are satisfied "ith grievance redressed! .5! From Table -!.5 it is inferred that 29O of em loyees are highly dissatisfied "ith re"ard recognition! .7! From Table -!.7 it is inferred that -.O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the career develo ment! .9! From Table -!.9 it is inferred that -7O of em loyees are satisfied "ith the freedom given to the em loyee for doing their o"n "ork!

/:! From the chi s>uare table i t i s i n f e r r e d th a t there is no significant difference bet"een the age and the >uality of "ork life! 4.6 S8GGESSTIONS .! Im roving rela#ation olicies and introducing attractive and rograms for em loyees "ould artici ative entertainment and

ositively influence the "ork life and

thereby im rove the >uality of the "ork life! /! Im roving ositive relationshi "ith em loyees and roviding friendly environment in the organi?ation is an essential art of a healthy organi?ational 99

environment, as

100

only "hen there is an amicable environment "ould the organi?ation!

erformance of the

em loyees be to their full otential, this is beneficial for the individual as "ell as the 1! Making the em loyees to en%oy the "ork, is much easier said than done, but if the right chord is stuck it is very much ossible and has been done in organi?ations! -! (stablish career develo ment systems, by "hich the em loyee feels oneness "ith the organi?ation as he recogni?es that the com any is not only interested in its o"n gro"th but its em loyees also! 2! Hel to satisfy the em loyees esteem needs, "hich directly reflect in his im roved organi?ational erformance! 4! *ift vouchers for the to erformers in the de artment for giving an innovative idea is cost saving, time saving etc!! and is ultimately for solving roblems "hich beneficial to the organi?ation! 5! (m loyees are the assets of the organi?ation their strength is the organi?ations strength! The success of any organi?ation is highly de endent on ho" it attracts, recruits, motivates, and retains its "orkforce! TodayBs organi?ations need to be more fle#ible so that they are e>ui ed to develo their "orkforce and en%oy their commitment! Therefore, organi?ations are re>uired to ado t a strategy to im rove the em loyees B>uality of "ork lifeB@;8,A to satisfy both the organi?ational ob%ectives and em loyee needs! The term @;8,A refers to the favorableness or un+favorableness of a total %ob environment for eo le! ;8, rograms are another "ay in "hich organi?ations recogni?e their res onsibility to envelo %obs and "orking conditions that are e#cellent for eo le as "ell as for economic health of the organi?ation! The elements in a ty ical ;8, rogram include + o en communications, e>uitable re"ard systems, a concern for em loyee %ob security and satisfying careers and artici ation in decision making! 101

Many early ;8, efforts focus on %ob enrichment! In addition to im roving the "ork

102

system, ;8,

rograms usually em hasi?ed develo ment of em loyee skills, the

reduction of occu ational stress and the develo ment of more co+o erative labor+ management relations! The recent definition by Serey @/::4A on ;8, is >uite conclusive and best meet the contem orary "ork environment! The definition is related to meaningful and satisfying "ork "hich em hasi?es - CBs i!e! Concern, consciousness ca acity and commitment! It includes @iA an o ortunity to e#ercise oneBs talents and ca acities, to face challenges and situations that re>uire inde endent initiative and self+directionM @iiA an activity thought to be "orth"hile by the individuals involvedM @iiiA an activity in "hich one understands the role the individual lays in the achievement of some overall goalsM and @ivA a sense of taking ride in "hat one is doing and in doing it "ell! This issue of meaningful and satisfying "ork is often merged "ith discussions of %ob satisfaction, and believed to be more favorable to ;8,! This revie" on the definitions of ;8, indicates that ;8, is a multidimensional construct, made u of a number of interrelated factors that need careful consideration to conce tuali?e and measure! It is associated "ith %ob satisfaction, %ob involvement, motivation, roductivity, health, safety and "ell+being, %ob security, com etence develo ment and balance bet"een "ork and non "ork life as is conce tuali?ed by (uro ean Foundation for the Im rovement of ,iving Conditions @/::/A! <lso in todayBs high tech, fast+ aced "orld, the "ork environment is very different than it "as a generation ago! <ccording to the Institute of Industrial (ngineers, it is not uncommon for a erson to change careers an average of si# times in his or her lifetime! It is no" rare for a erson to stay "ith a single com any his or her entire "orking life! ortunities, 3ecause em loyees are often "illing to leave a com any for better o

com anies need to find "ays not only to hire >ualified eo le, but also to retain them! Unfortunately, many em loyees these days feel they are "orking harder, faster, and longer hours than ever before! 0ob+related em loyee stress can lead to lack of commitment to the cor oration, 103 oor roductivity, and even leaving the com anyM all

of

104

"hich are of serious concern to management! Many em loyees bring "ork home "ith them on a regular basis, es ecially no" that it is so easy for them to do that! 8ith the "ide availability of cell hones, agers, ersonal digital assistants @)$<sA, and com uters, em loyees find it harder to get a"ay from the office! =ne of the more stressful rofessions today is in the Information Technology @ITA

field! Not long ago, IT rofessionals "ere e#tremely "ell res ected and in demand! <s technology advanced ra idly, there "as a high demand for rogrammers and engineers! Most had their choice of high+ aying %obs as technology com anies com eted to recruit the best of them! This is not the case today! In 0une /::-, Meta *rou , Inc! surveyed 42: com anies and found that nearly 52 ercent of the com anies ackno"ledged morale roblems among their IT staffs! This number "as u from the year before, "hich sho"ed that t"o+

thirds cited oor "orker morale as an issue! )erha s this is because the U!S! technology sector e# erienced "ides read layoffs during the third >uarter of /::-! In general, "hen layoffs ha en the remaining em loyees are forced to ick u the "orkload of those "ho "ere laid off! This leads to added res onsibility and longer "ork hours, often "ithout additional com ensation! This in turn leads to stress, burnout, and resentment! =ther causes of em loyee dissatisfaction include lo" "ages, lack of challenges, insufficient resources, unrealistic e# ectations, health benefit costs! <s em loyers try to address em loyee turnover and %ob satisfaction issues, they must first determine "hat the issues are! Several com anies have convened focus grou s and conducted em loyee+satisfaction surveys to find out ho" their em loyees feel and to determine "hat they can do to make their em loyees ha y! ressure to roduce, "illfully blind management, unreasonable olicies and rocedures, difficulty balancing family and "ork, and increased

There are also a number of inde endent organi?ations that conduct em loyee surveys 105

to

106

gather this information! =ne such organi?ation is the Families and 8ork Institute @"""!familiesand"ork!orgA, a non rofit research center Ithat rovides data to inform decision+making on the changing "orkforce and "ork lace, changing family and changing community! Founded in .979, F8I is kno"n for ahead of the curve, non+ artisan research into emerging "ork+life issuesM for solutions+oriented studies addressing to ics of vital im ortance to all sectors of societyM and for fostering connections among "ork laces, families, and communities!I (very five years F8I conducts the National Study of the Changing 8orkforce @NSC8A, a nationally re resentative sam le of em loyed "orkers designed to collect and com ile information on the "ork and ersonalGfamily lives of the U!S! "orkforce! The study is "idely used by olicy makers, em loyers, the media, and all those interested in the "ides read im acts of the changing conditions of "ork and home life! The /::/ NSC8 sho"ed a slight increase from .99/ in the number of com anies that offer "ork+life su orts on the %ob, s ecific benefit entitlements and less formal olicies and ractices! $es ite this, the survey sho"ed a large increase in the number of em loyees "ith families "ho felt there "as interference bet"een their %obs and their family lives, than em loyees /2 years ago! The NSC8 also found Ithe im ortance of su ortive "ork+life olicies and ractices, such as fle#ible "ork arrangements, is clear ositive "ork outcomes, such as %ob ositive life then they are available, em loyees e#hibit more

satisfaction, commitment to em loyer, and retention, as "ell as more from %ob to home, greater life satisfaction, and better mental health!I

outcomes, such as less interference bet"een %ob and family life, less negative s illover

8hat does this mean to the em loyerQ <s more com anies start to reali?e that a ha em loyee is a hel 107 the "ork environment! Many have im lemented various "ork+life facilities, rela#ed dress codes, and more! ;uality+of+"ork+life

roductive em loyee, they have started to look for "ays to im rove rograms to

em loyees, including alternate "ork arrangements, onsite childcare, e#ercise rograms go beyond

"orkGlife

108

rograms by focusing attention less on em loyee needs outside of "ork and reali?ing that %ob stress and the >uality of life at "ork is even more direct bearing on "orker satisfaction! = en communications, mentoring "ork life! Many em loyers have found it beneficial to allo" alternate "ork arrangements for their em loyees! This is one "ay to im rove em loyee roductivity and morale! There are three alternate arrangements that are "idely used today! Telecommuting is the term used to describe the "ork situation in "hich the em loyee "orks outside of the office, usually at home or at a location closer to home! In general, "hen one telecommutes, he or she communicates "ith the office via tele hone and email, and may go into the office eriodically to touch base "ith the em loyer and to attend ossible for many eo le to meetings! <dvancements in technology have made this rograms, and fostering more amicable relationshi s among "orkers are some of the "ays em loyers are im roving the >uality of

telecommute! The telecommuting em loyee may be able to access files on the officeBs net"ork from remote locations! <nd "ith conference call, videoconferencing, and 8eb(# ca abilities, the em loyee can attend meetings from other locations! 8ith 8eb(# technology, meeting attendees can sit at their o"n com uters and vie" the meeting organi?erBs com uter deskto a those same a com uters! Fle#time is another name for fle#ible "ork hours! <lthough most em loyees "ith fle#time do "ork a full eight+hour day, they can start and end the "orkday at a time agreeable to both the em loyer and the em loyee, rather than the traditional 7K:: a!m! to 2K:: !m! "ork day! Most em loyers re>uire their em loyees to be in the office during Icore hours,I such as .:K:: a!m! to /K:: !m! but do not mandate the start and end times! 109 via the Internet! <s the meeting organi?er o ens lications and moves the mouse on his or her com uter, the remote attendees can see lications and movements as if they "ere running them on their o"n

<lternate "ork schedules, like fle#ible schedules, involve "orking outside of the traditional

110

7 to 2 "orkday! Ho"ever, alternate schedules have a fi#ed start and end time, "hereas fle#time allo"s the em loyee to vary start and end as long as they are there during the core hours! <n alternate schedule may be 4K:: a!m! to 1K:: !m! or ..K:: a!m! to 7K:: !m! five days a "eek, or it may be four .:+hour days, or any other different schedule! The advantages of these alternate "ork arrangements to the em loyee include fle#ible "ork hours, shorter or no commute, and a comfortable "orking environment! The advantages to the em loyer include less need for office s ace, increased lo"er use of sick leave, and im roved em loyee morale! 8hile there are many advantages to these alternatives, there are also several disadvantages that the em loyer must consider! These include roblems maintaining ade>uate staffing coverage, difficulty scheduling meetings, lack of inter ersonal dynamics, and concerns about safety and security @for fle#time and alternate schedule em loyees that come in early or leave lateA! It is u to the em loyer to "eigh the advantages against the disadvantages to determine if any of these alternatives "ill "ork! To im rove the >uality of "ork life and eliminate %ob stress, em loyers can also make efforts to be more a"are of the "orkload and %ob demands! (m loyers need to e#amine em loyee training, communication, re"ard systems, co"orker relationshi s, and "ork environment! (m loyees often are able to give em loyers the best advice on reducing "ork stress! (m loyees in the future "ill likely be looking for cor orations that have a ne" "ork environment, one that encourages each em loyee to "ork to"ard im rovement in the roduct or serviceM gives em loyees the res onsibility and authority to make decisions, rovides timely feedback, and re"ards em loyees based u on the >uality of the roduct and efforts! Team effort "ill assume central im ortance es ecially that of self+ directed "orks teams! (m loyees "ill choose em loyers "ho have aims and values that match theirs and "ho value balance in their em loyeesB lives! (m loyees "ant 111 roductivity,

to learn and

112

advance, so em loyees!

ortunities

for

rofessional

gro"th

"ill

attract

Com anies "ill seek em loyees "ith technical skills, vision, and the ability to organi?e and ersuade in resentation of ideas and information! Strong communication skills and the ability to learn "ill be high on em loyersB demand list for em loyees! There are a great number of common elements bet"een the em loyee list and the em loyer list! To attract and retain em loyees, com anies need to be e# loiting those stress, increase %ob autonomy, rovide learning and training o the >uality of "ork life! oints of convergence and continuously "ork "ith em loyees to redesign the "ork, eliminate %ob ortunities, and im rove

113

4.7 CONCL8SION The overall satisfaction of the em loyees of Trikut Info Services )vt! ,td! is satisfactory and fe" im rovements by the com any "ould greatly enhance the ;uality of 8ork ,ife of the em loyees, thereby increasing the "orking otential and the overall out ut of the organi?ation! Social security scheme as "ell as "elfare measures that are undertaken by the com any are a reciable! These measures are not only for the com any but also for the em loyees through satisfaction levels a com any can ascertain "hether an em loyee has sho"n hisGher best erformance on given %ob! 8elfare measures of the em loyees should be taken seriously by the to management to im rove the satisfaction level by facilities to them! roviding various benefits and

114

ANNE@8RE

ANNE@8RE 98ESTIONNAIRE NameK $esignationK <geK *enderK

)lease rovide brief ans"ers for the follo"ing >uestionsK .! <re you marriedQ FFFFF

/! <re you living in a %oint familyQ FFFFF

1! Ho" many members of your family are de endent on youQ FFFFF

-! $o you e#ercise regularlyQ FFFFF

2! Is your office near your homeQ FFFFF

4! If not ho" far a"ay is your office from homeQ FFFFF

5! $o you "ork in shiftsQ FFFFF

7! If so ho" many days in a month do you "ork in night shiftsQ FFFFF

9! Ho" many years have you continuously "orked in this organi?ationQ FFFFF

.:! $o you consider yourself to belong to an ethnic minority grou Q FFFFF

)lease Tick H your choice .! <re you satisfied "ith your salary ackageQ Strongly <gree <gree Moderately <gree $isagree Strongly <gree /! Ho" far you are satisfied "ith your current %obQ Strongly <gree <gree Moderately <gree $isagree Strongly <gree 1! Is the organi?ation roviding casual leave "ith ayQ Strongly <gree <gree Moderately <gree $isagree Strongly <gree -! 8hat do you feel about the medical facilities rovided by the concernQ Strongly <gree <gree Moderately <gree $isagree Strongly <gree 2! <re you satisfied "ith the bonus rovided to youQ Strongly <gree <gree Moderately <gree $isagree Strongly <gree 4! <re you satisfied "ith your canteen facilityQ Highly Satisfied

Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied 5! Ho" far you are satisfied "ith the (SI and )F given by the organi?ationQ Strongly <gree <gree Moderately <gree $isagree Strongly <gree 7! To "hat e#tend you are satisfied "ith the safety and healthy "orking conditionsQ Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied 9! 8hat do you feel about the %ob security in your organi?ationQ Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied .:. <re you satisfied "ith the romotion olicies in your organi?ationQ Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied ... 8hat do you think about the >uality of "ork life in the organi?ationQ &ery *ood *ood =k 3ad &ery 3ad

./. The com any communicates every ne" change that takes time to time. Strongly <gree <gree Moderately <gree $isagree Strongly <gree .1. To "hat e#tend the cordial relationshi and su eriorsQ Strongly <gree <gree Moderately <gree $isagree Strongly <gree .-. Ho" far you are satisfied "ith the training given by the em loyerQ Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied

lace from

e#ist among the em loyees

.2. <re you satisfied "ith the training method used in your organi?ationQ Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied .4. Ho" do you find the erformance a your managementQ Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied 119 raisal methods ado ted by

.5. <re you satisfied "ith the *rievance 'edressedQ Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral $issatisfied Highly $issatisfied .7. <re you getting re"ard as means of recognitionQ Les No .9. 8hat is the sco e of your career develo ment in the organi?ationQ &ery High High Moderate ,o" &ery ,o" /:. $o they give freedom to decide ho" to do your o"n "orkQ &ery True True Some"hat True Not True Not at all True

120

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through

roductive

designI W0294028), Se tember .997, /.!

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