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Works Cited

Primary Sources Allen, Garland. "Negroid Sane Criminals and Negroid Civil Insane, Mosaic of Metric Differences." DNA Learning Center. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. <http://www.dnalc.org/view/11220--Negroid-sane-criminals-and-Negroid-civilinsane-mosaic-of-metric-differences-.html>. The DNA Learning Center provides this illustration on the philosophy during the 1900s that visual anatomical differences can be analyzed to determine intellectual ability. Physicians during that time believed that African-Americans were fundamentally inferior to Caucasians. This illustration can be seen in the “Racial Inequality” tab.

Allen, L. C. "The Negro Health Problem." American Journal of Public Health 5.3 (1915): 194203. Print. Allen talks about the problem of the African-American "diseases" in the community and states that the main reason for these dieases is because of a lack of knowledge. He further states that the reason for the high African-American prevalence of syphilis is due to "ignorance and contagion" which breeds vice. We used this in our "Progressive Movement" tab.

American Jewish University IRB Logo. Nevada Insitute of Veterans' Services. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. <http://www.veterans.nv.gov/191.html>. This is a photo of the American Jewish University's IRB logo, one of many universities that use the IRB when making research decisions. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website.

The American Social Hygiene Association. Social Hygiene. Vol. 2. New York: American Social Hygiene Association, 1916. Print. The Progressive Movement's ideologies and the views of people attempting to make 19th and 20th century America a better place are explained in this book. It specifically mentions the higher prevalence of syphilis in the African American community. We utilized this in the “Progressive Movement” tab.

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 140 (1925). Print. Robert R. Moton wrote this article in 1925 detailing the need for a National Negro Health Week to help African-Americans become healthier and less impoverished. His Negro Health Week was one of many movements to make the African-American movement healthier and less susceptible to all types of diseases. This can be found in the "Progressive Movement" Section of our website. This can be found in the “Progressive Movement” section of our website

"Apology for Study Done in Tuskegee." The East Room, The White House. 16 May 1997. Tuskegee University. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.tuskegee.edu/about_us/centers_of_excellence/bioethics_center.aspx>. The following is a full transcript of President Clinton's apology for the Tuskegee study. It is referenced to in our “Clinton’s Apology” tab.

Autopsies. 1940. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Administrative Records, compiled 1929 - 1972. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service. Health Services and Mental Health Administration. Center for Disease Control. Venereal Disease Branch (1970 1973), Atlanta. 650718. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. <http://research.archives.gov/description/650718>. The National Archives provided this primary document, which discusses the procedure to doctors regarding postmortem examination of the patients of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. This source details how the autopsy information will be recorded and who it will be sent to in order to obtain results for the study. We utilized this image in the “New Directions” section.

Belmont Report. Bethesda: The Commission, 1978. National Archives. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://archive.org/search.php?query=mediatype%3Atexts%20AND%20collection%3An ihlibrary%20AND%20subject%3A%22Human%20Experimentation%22>. This is a scanned copy of the original Belmont Report, which we uploaded to the website in embed code (scribd) to make it easier for people to see and understand what the Belmont Report actually is. This can be viewed on the “Informed Consent” page.

2013. The report mentions the different treatments which were used in the study. We specifically used part 1-B of the report. The Belmont Report was written by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. <http://www. N. . 2014. Web.fda. 2014. Public Health Service. Nature.p.p. This can be viewed in the “Termination” tab.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/05/briefing/20054178b_09_02_Belmont%20Report. Though this image is located in the Minority Health & Health Equity Archive at the University of Pittsburgh. Broadus. Food and Drug Administration. 7 Jan.com/news/humanexperiments-first-do-harm-1.nature. Atlanta. Education and Welfare. at the urging of the National Research Act of 1974. Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel.S. Georgia. and ultimately concludes that the study should have been terminated after penicillin became more available.pdf>. The Minority Health & Health Equity Archive. et al. 7 Jan. Web. 1973.The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. We utilized this photograph in the "Penicillin" section of our "New Directions" page. Bettman. This is the final report from the Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. It discusses the basic guidelines for biomedical studies. Print.. the original location of the photograph is the National Archives at Atlanta.p. William Bouie and Unidentified Woman. This was quoted on the “Informed Consent” page. and Corbis. U.: n. It depicts a pharmacist posting on his store window an advertisement for penicillin. 18 Nov. National Archives. which became a viable treatment for syphilis in the 1940s. Penicillin is demonstrated to be an effective treatment for syphilis and gonorrhoea. This can be seen on “The Study is Born” page. Butler. Web..9980>. 1932. 1979. <http://www. in order to outline moral human subject research procedure.edu/346/>. n. Blood Test by Mr.d. Washington: US Department of Health. <http://healthequity. N.pitt. The picture depicts an African-American woman being given a blood test during the early stages of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. which asks if the study should have been conducted when penicillin became more available to the general community.

National Archives and Records Administration. Center for Disease Control. Department of Health. the Public Health Service issued twenty-five dollar certificates to participants of the study. and Welfare. Baker. n. We utilized this on the “Racial Inequality” tab.Byers. It can be seen on the “The Study is Born” tab. Center for Disease Control. Public Health Service.com/activism/tuskegee_experiment>. We used this image on the “New Directions” page. Wellington. This quote is used in the “The Study is Born” section.S. statistics. Box 1. a physician argues that African-Americans are anatomically weaker than Caucasians in this article.archives. J. His beliefs run parallel to those of Social Darwinism at the time. TS. Box 239. Health Services and Mental Health Administration. Macon County. <http://paulrucker.gov/description/649413>. 2014.1973). Record Group 90. 2014. Print. Clark.d. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Administrative Records. Byers. The document also provides one with useful documentation regarding when the study was thought of and discussed among the doctors of the time. Certificate for Participants in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. 7 Jan.. and other multimedia materials in this website. compiled 1929 . N.p. 7 Jan. 649413. N. Upon the Tuskegee study's twenty-fifth anniversary. Web. <http://research. Venereal Disease Branch (1970 . . Education. marking the start of the experiment. U. 29 Aug. "Spinal Tap. Atlanta.1972. Taliaferro. Clark encourages Baker to follow him in his pursuit to have the study allowed by the Public Health Service. National Archives. The article was also published in a medical journal. Paul Rucker discusses the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment through pictures. 1958." Paul Rucker. Taliaferro Clark in this letter states thart the potential study provides an "unparalleled opportunity" if conducted in Macon County." Medical and Surgical Reporter (1888): 734. 1932. which was used on Tuskegee patients in 1933. The image that we used from this source shows the dangerous procedure of the spinal tap. This was done to ensure that study subjects would continue to be involved in the study. "Diseases of the Southern Negro. Web. Letter to J.

Web. The Surgeon General of the Public Health Service gives the his official approval of the study in this letter to Moton in 1932. Moton. Tuskegee University Archives. Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.cdc. Images from History of Medicine. TS. <http://www. The website page discusses notable events in its past from 1946 to 2013. as it shows the desire for doctors to conduct a study of this nature in Macon County. H. 1932." Office of Press Secretary. We used this image on the “Termination” page.p. S. Free Treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We used this letter in one of the quotes we used in the “The Study is Born” page of the website when stating "this combination. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P. Tuskegee Univ.. Free Blood Test. ca. 1930s.gov/about/history/timeline. The National Library of Medicine provides this photograph.. "Remarks by the President in Apology for Study Done in Tuskegee. Colored People. We referenced to this transcript in the “Clinton’s Apology” tab. 2000. Box 180. National Lib. 2014. 1970. . N. This can be seen on the “The Study is Born” page.." Patients in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study were told they had "bad blood. 20 Sept. Clinton made this speech at a ceremony in the White House honoring victims of the study. Folio 1516. Print.. By Susan Reverby. Letter to R. Photograph. The CDC website uses this image of the Communicable Disease Center in a timeline of its history and contributions to health and medicine. 16 May 1996. The transcript came from the reference book Tuskegee Truths. 7 Jan. 574-77. of Medicine.htm>. Cumming. Bad Blood. The East Room. Communicable Disease Center." not syphilis. which depicts an AfricanAmerican woman holding a flyer advertising free treatment for "bad blood.offers an unparalleled opportunity for carrying on this piece of scientific research which probably cannot be duplicated anywhere else in the world". R. William J. Tuskegee.Clinton.

and found the detailed steps for making the study Dibble outlines to be of use as well. Dr. Heller>.msu. continued to deny treatment to study patients after penicillin became widely used as an efficacious medicine for syphilis.d. Heller. This is one of many study publications published by the doctors of the study without the consent or knowledge of the patients themselves. Tuskegee Univ.Dibble. Folio 1516. Eugene H." Faces of Tuskegee. Eugene Dibble. The images. I think we ought to do it" to be extremely helpful. Box 180. It can be found on the “Study Publications” section in “Supplements.” Dr. . Heller.. Tuskgee University Archives. N. Tuskegee University Lib. Eugene H. We utilized this quote on the “The Study is Born” page. He forged the collaboration between the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and his hospital as the study was being created. R. The website that provides this portrait of Heller contains summaries of the key figures involved in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Jr. Tuskegee University Archives. Letter to R. originate from the Tuskegee University Archives. Dibble was the chief of Tuskegee Institute's John A. "Draft Report. 10/08/1949.d.edu/course/hm/546/tuskegee. however. 1949. This image is a black-and-white portrait of Dibble that is located on the “The Study is Born” page.. MS. Web. N. TS. Photograph.. Dr.htm#Dr. John R. Moton. 17 Sept. This provided a useful way for us to look at how study publications were made by the study and let us see what exactly the doctors of the experiment were publishing. director of the PHS Venereal Disease Division in 1943. Tuskegee. 7 Jan. 2014. n.p.. "Dr. This specific picture can be found on the “New Directions” page. Tuskegee. We found the quote near the latter portion of the document wherein it states "Personally. John R. <https://www." 8 Oct. Andrew Hospital. The following is one of many correspondences between the doctors of the time when deliberating on how the study should be conducted. 1932.

2014. DuVal. <http://bioethics. We used a quote from English in the “Racial Inequality” section. English. Education. tells the Center for Disease Control to terminate the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Health Services and Mental Health Administration. <http://www.: National Bioethics Advisory Commission." Atlanta Journal Record of Medicine 5th ser. we used the image in the “Progressive Movement” section. and Welfare..archives.edu/about_us/legacy_of_leadership/robert_r_moton. This website includes a portrait of Dr. Moton succeeded Booker T. n. "Memorandum Terminating the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. This can be seen in the “Termination” tab. Web. Bioethics Research Library at Georgetown Library.georgetown. Merlin K. with the urging of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. Center for Disease Control." Memo to Center for Disease Control. <http://research.p. N. 7 Jan.html>. DuVal states that surviving participants of the study must be given treatment for syphilis. DuVal." Tuskegee University.d.S. Public Health Service. It defends the racist belief during the early 1900s that Caucasians are anatomically superior to African-Americans. of Health. 17 Nov. U. Ethical and Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants. We refer to this in the “Informed Consent” page. 7 Jan. Washington's position as president of the Tuskegee Institute and was involved in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study during that time. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Administrative Records. 650716. National Archives and Records Administration. . W. Print. compiled 1929 .edu/nbac/human/overvol1. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) provides a comprehensive review of recommendations for studies using human subjects in this report.1973). Dept. 1972.aspx>. In this memorandum from the Assistant Secretary of Health. Robert Russa Moton.1972. 2014."Dr. Venereal Disease Branch (1970 .tuskegee. N. Atlanta. T. Web. Web.p.d. On our website. English claims that African-Americans have "imperfections" throughout the physical body in this medical journal article. Moton from the early 1900s. Dr.gov/description/650716>. 2013. (1903): 461. 16 Nov. "The Negro Problem from the Physician's Point of View. n.

Print. Bus Ride to Justice. N." British Journal of Venereal Diseases 32. Fred.-. The following book is Fred D."Fred Gray. <http://www. <http://www.S. 1998.tokensshow. Montgomery: Black Belt.. during the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. We utilized this in our “Institutional Review Boards” page. n. as Mr. Fred D. L. 1995. Gray’s autobiography. The journal article discusses and analyzes the research of the Oslo study. We used this image in our "Pollard v. This is a photo of the Hastings Institute's IRB logo. Gray. US” section. Tokens. Print. This is a photograph of Fred Gray.thehastingscenter..org/Media/LogosPhotos. 2014.2 (1956): 70-78. one of many organizations that use the IRB when making research decisions.. Montgomery: Black Belt. U. W. It does not nearly go into as much depth as Fred Gray's other works dealing with the Study ad subsequent court case.S. This can also be found in the “Pollard v. We used this book mostly in the “Pollard v. "The Hastings Center. Print. U. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website.. While the entirety of the original Oslo study is available.aspx>. 2014. . Gray's role in the study revolved primarily in preparing the case. this review and commentary on the study was written in 1956.p. . 7 Jan. US” section. but also gives his insider account of what he thought happened within the study itself." Hastings Center. It can be found in its entirety on the “Syphilis and the Need for Treatment” page. Most of the content of the book revolves around Pollard v. Gray not only cites a variety of primary sources on what happened before Pollard v. Web. 7 Jan.SA. "The Oslo Study of Untreated Syphilis Review and Commentary. U. It discusses the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and Pollard v.d.com/fred-gray-at-june-7-tokens/>. Web. 10 May 2012. Harrison. US only briefly. but does give some basic overview on the case itself." Tokens. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study." tab to show what Fred Gray actually looks like.

Jean. Print. R. We used an image of this in the “Study Publications” tab. The racial sentiment of many doctors in the time period is exemplified in this journal. the woman who broke the story to the Associated Press in 1973. H. This article is shown on the “Termination” page. "Syphilis Victims in U. "Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro: A Comparative Study of Treated and Untreated Cases. receiving instantaneous media and public reaction. Print. Heller.11 (1936): 856-60. 26 Dec.Hazen. . H. This provided a useful way for us to look at how study publications were made by the study and let us see what exactly the doctors of the experiment were publishing. ." New York Times [New York City] 25 July 1972: n. We quoted Hazen in the “Racial Inequality” tab. Heller. Jean Heller's article was the first to expose the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.. Portions of her interview are quoted throughout various parts of our website. et al.-. "Syphilis in the American Negro. 2013.S. This is one of many study publications published by the doctors of the study without the consent or knowledge of the patients themselves.6 (1914): 463-66." Journal of the American Medical Association 107. Print. Study Went Untreated for 40 Years. white doctors were able to convince the majority of Americans that African-Americans had many kinds of ailments and illnesses that put them "below" the white man in the social order.. pag. J." Journal of the American Medical Association 63. what she thought the rights and responsibilities of the patients and government were. Jean Heller. It discusses the storyline of the study and how the denied treatment and lack of informed consent violated ethics. It was very insightful to us to hear firsthand on the study itself. She talked about how she broke the study. gave us the opportunity to have an interview with her on December 26. Personal interview. 2013. By using medical terms.

Web.edu/research/hsrp/>. Washington. Web. Ds. This webpage serves as educational outreach for Northeastern University's Office of Human Subject Research Protection. <http://siarchives.p.d. It can be seen on the “Informed Consent” page. ca. Cumming headed the United States Public Health Service during the Tuskegee Syphilis Study's inception. 1920s.loc. It especially refers to the Belmont Report. 2014. <http://www. Smithsonian Institution Archives.Hugh Smith Cumming (1869-1948). This black-and-white portrait is provided by the Smithsonian Institution Archives. 7 Jan. of Cong.. Web. This is a photo of the State of New York's Psychiatric Institute IRB logo.. 1920s-1970s.nyspi. C.org/IRBDNN/>. 7 Jan. 1910. Library of Congress. <http://www. including Macon County. Northeastern University." Northeastern University. 2014. is located in our “Progressive Movement” section. Lib. Records. 2013. Sears Archives. n. D. <https://irb. Peter P.si. the Julius Rosenwald Fund granted monetary support for surveys on the prevalance of syphilis in six counties.com/people/questions/detail/rosenwald_julius.edu/collections/siris_arc_296591>. Jones. 2012. Science Service. 2014. this image is a portrait of Julius Rosenwald.d.searsarchives.htm>.northeastern. The image can be viewed in our “Progressive Movement” tab. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. SIA Acc.gov/pictures/item/2013649123/>. Provided by Sears Archives. Institutional Review Board of the New York State Psychiatric Institute. 17 Nov. N. Washington. Institutional Review Board of the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Washington was a forerunner in improving medical programs in African-American communities. C. Booker T. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website.04383. Sears Archives. . This photograph. Smithsonian Instit. Web. Web. a portrait of Washington. Washington. 90-105. 7 Jan. During the Progressive Movement. A leader in the Progressive movement. <http://www. "Human Subject Research Protection. It can be seen on our “The Study is Born” page. 7 Jan. Booker T. one of many institutions that use the IRB when making research decisions. 2014. D. Julius Rosenwald.. N.

<http://www. Web. . By Hunter McGuire and Frank G.d. The website that provides this image is a philanthropic society devoted to education and the encouragement of charitable reform. <http://www. This is a photo of the Kanas Department of Health and Education's IRB logo.. James B.d. It is located in our “Institutional Review Boards” tab. Atlanta. Washington. Tuskegee Files . N. Kansas Department of Health and Environment IRB. Kansas Department of Health and Environment. Dr. N. 2014. n. N. Julius Rosenwald and Booker T. 1893. Lucas in a prepared memo states that the study did not achieve anything. Lucas. is provided in this website. 10 Sept.. Print. 7 Jan.p. but does state that the study "should be continued along its present lines". Web. Dr. as it succinctly shows the conflict doctors had in ending the study but their desire to continue it. N. We used this source in our "Racial Inequality" page. both significant reformers of the Progressive Movement. We use this image in the “Progressive Movement” tab. ca. Washington. TS."Julius Rosenwald and Booker T. n. Lydston argued in one letter that African-Americans had an unusually strong sexual desire.org/almanac/great_men_and_women/hall_of_fame/ julius_rosenwald>. Web. Washington's advocacy of medical programs in the African-American community and the Rosenwald fund both instituted social reforms in the United States. Lucas to doctors who were in the CDC just as the Tuskegee Study was becoming more widely known.p.d. James B. "LSSU Institutional Review Board.d. We used a quote from it in the “Termination” section. A meaningful image relating to Institutional Review Boards. walk side by side in this photograph. n. 2013. 1970. 7 Jan.gov/health/irb. one of many governmental organizations that use the IRB when making research decisions.htm>. Letter.edu/irb/>. Letter to William J. pag. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website. Lydston." Philanthropy Roundtable. We found this interesting. B.. Brown. this is a collection of open correspondence between McGuire and Lydston. This is a letter from James. Sexual Crimes Among the Southern Negroes.philanthropyroundtable. Louisville: Renz & Henry.p. 19 Nov. <http://www. a consequence of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. An anthology of letters dated March 11 and March 16.lssu.Center for Disease Control. 2014. N.kdheks." Lake Superior State University. 1893.

Lib. This map shows the areas in which the Rosenwald Fund created schools. . This proved extremely useful to us. D. Web. MS.p.d. We quoted it on the “Racial Inequality” page. Washington. and G. Henry. They discuss the many "ailments" the African-American had and lament the "destitution" of the Negro race. The Library of Congress provides this pamphlet. <http://www. Matas." Philanthropy Roundtable. It can be found on the “Progressive Movement” page. 1893. N. "The Sexual Status of the Negro. McHatton.philanthropyroundtable. Reprinted from the American Surgical Association. Hunter. An excerpt on this article can be found on the “Racial Inequality” page.. The source lists one of many we used to examine the perspectives of doctors at the time and gave us valuable insight into the biased opinions of medical professionals at the time. this journal examines the "differences" in the African-American male and gives a white doctor's perspective of the medical racial divide between blacks and whites. "The Surgical Peculiarities of the American Negro. McGuire. as we developed a good understanding of the racist sentiments of white doctors and their feelings towards the black man in terms of syphilis.."Map of Rosenwald Schools throughout the South. of Congr. n." N. C. In it. which was published in the 1900s. It is used in the “Racial Inequality” section.org/almanac/great_men_and_women/hall_of_fame/j ulius_rosenwald>. 7 Jan. Sexual Crimes among the Southern Negroes. it is difficult to treat many effectively. Louisville: Renz & Henry. Print. The Julius Rosenwald Fund built schools throughout the United States and donated large sums of money toward improving education during the early 1900s.d. Henry McHatton discusses his belief that because African-Americans are ignorant to medicine and disease. "Sexual Crimes among the Southern Negroes" is in the style of an open correspondence between two doctors." American Surgical Association 4 (1896): 1-123. Daniel Murray Pamphlet Collection. Print. Past and Present. 2014. Rudolph. Frank Lydston.

Munday. Pub. Moore details the need for a study such as Tuskegee in this 1932 letter to Clark. TS. This is used on the “Informed Consent” page. Letter to Taliaferro Clark. Record Group 90 (1918-1936). 7 Jan. which set standards for new biomedical and ethical procedures in medicine in the United States. This can be found in the "Clinton's Apology" tab of our website. and provides the reader with a useful insight as to the views of both the creators of the study as well as the views of doctors at the time.Moore. . Billy. Letter to Taliaferro Clark. A copy of this was put in Scribd and attached to our document in embed code to help readers learn more about the act and see its original writing. Atlanta. This can be seen in the “The Study is Born” tab. The quote we used in the “The Study is Born” tab of our website was "syphilis in the negro is in many respects almost a differentt disease from syphilis in the white". Moore sent this letter to Clark discussing the physical examination procedure to select patients for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. TS. 28 Sept. We used this to gain a better understanding of the impact of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The lives of African Americans in the early 20th century are described in this book.3678321>. . National Archives Washington National Records Center. 93-348. At the time of the letter's address. Web. The following is a picture of one of the survivors and attendees of the Tuskegee Study (Herman Shaw) embracing the President after he gave his address.com/opinion/oped/maxwell-apologies-can-t-heal-all-wounds1. Print. 12 July 1974." Long Island Newsday. New York: Broadway. and the other details the "observations" of a doctor towards syphilis in the African America..newsday. 1914. Box 239. 88 Stat. 2014.d. Joseph Earle. National Archives.-. L. National Research Act. Folder 1. Moore was a doctor at the Venereal Disease Clinic in John Hopkins University Medical School. while Clark was the Assistant Surgeon General of the USPHS. This is a copy of the National Research Act. The Black Shadow and the Red Death. 1932. Long Island Newsday. "Ninety-four-year-old Herman Shaw embraces President Bill Clinton after receiving a public apology for being victimized in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. 28 Sept. 1932. <http://www. n. one was made at a lecture in Chicago and speaks of the indifference of the African American towards treatment. Print. We used this source to identify two separate quotes regarding syphilis in the African American.

Web.Northwestern University Office of Undergraduate Research. 2013. "Office of Research Integrity and Assurance . Web.com/watch?v=CBLKWPv7Wz4>." Faces of Tuskegee. NA.Cornell Universit.. 7 Jan.d. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website. N.. This is a photo of Harvard University's IRB logo.edu/ohra/>. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website. 7 Jan.Cornell Universit. n.p. Web.1933. located in the “Syphilis and the Need for Treatment” section. 2014.C. "The Oslo Study.p. n. <https://www. <http://www. YouTube. <http://www. 2014. This video provides a concise and easy to understand overview and explanation of the IRB process.hsph. A sample of the Oslo study is shown in this image. Web.d.. The website that provides this image contains artifacts and short summaries of people and ideas involved in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.harvard. n. The Oslo Study of Untreated Syphilis recorded the disease's development in Caucasians. It also shows and underscores the importance new standards of research have on research institutions today. Researching with Human Subjects (IRB). 7 Jan. Office of Human Research Administration (OHRA). This is a photo of Cornell University's IRB logo. July 21. one of many universities that use the IRB when making research decisions. 2014. N. YouTube.msu. . Office of Research Integrity and Assurance .Cornell Universit. 7 Jan." Office of Research Integrity and Assurance .edu/training/citi/>.irb. <http://www. 2014.youtube. A 45 second clip of this may be found in our website under the "Insitutional Review Board" tab. 25 Oct.htm>.edu/course/hm/546/tuskegee. Office of Human Research Administration (OHRA). Wenger to Raymond Vonderlehr. O.d.cornell. one of many universities that use the IRB when making research decisions.

Nurse Rivers.Photograph of Participants in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Education. The National Archives includes this photograph in its archives.gov/description/956124>. Center for Disease Control. The image shows study participants. for their disease. Venereal Disease Branch (1970 .1972. compiled 1929 . of Health.gov/description/824601>.1972. N. Photograph of Participants in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. 7 Jan. <http://research.d. all of whom were poor sharecroppers. . and Welfare. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Administrative Records. Center for Disease Control. It can be seen in the “Macon County” tab. not treated. Atlanta.archives. Web. During the experiment. Web.gov/description/956091>.1973).archives. Atlanta. The iamge can be seen in the “The Study is Born” page.S. Health Services and Mental Health Administration. Center for Disease Control.1973). Tuskegee Syphilis Study Administrative Records. Atlanta. Health Services and Mental Health Administration.d. The U. picking cotton on plantations in Macon County. Venereal Disease Branch (1970 . Dept. of Health. Photograph of Participants in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Dept.S. in order to obtain a blood sample.1972. The National Archives provide this photograph from the later end of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.archives. 2014. 956124. Health Services and Mental Health Administration.1973). National Archives and Records Administration. compiled 1929 . Public Health Service. Venereal Disease Branch (1970 . This image can be seen in the “New Directions” section. Education. 2014. N. of Health. Education. <http://research. and Welfare. The U. It depicts a USPHS doctor injecting a needle into a study participant. Public Health Service. Participants were unaware that they were being tested on. 7 Jan. Andrew Memorial Hospital for physical examinations and supplies of ineffective treatment. U. Dept. National Archives and Records Administration. <http://research. 824601. 2014. and Welfare. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Health Service. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Administrative Records. 7 Jan. along with two other USPHS physicians. compiled 1929 . help a study patient into a car in this photograph. study patients were given free transportation to the nearby John A. Web.S. N.d.

gov/description/824600>.. The President-Elect. We utilized this image in the "New Directions" page. n. 2014. 824600. "Presidential Apology.. U of California Irvine. Peter Buxton testified before Congress in regards to the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. It is utilized in the “Clinton’s Apology” tab. National Archives and Records Administration. compiled 1929 . 7 Jan.cdc. 19 Nov. Nov. Vernal G. 2014. To help readers better understand some of the lasting impacts of the study. 7 Jan. 2014. Web.d. Web. An image of Clinton and a Tuskegee study survivor is provided in this source. "The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues continues the nearly forty-year history of groups established by the president or Congress to provide expert advice on topics related to bioethics.gov/history>. The National Archives provided this photograph." Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethics Issues. <http://bioethics. <http://faculty. 14 June 2011.humanities.1972. Cave is found in this source.p. A picture of Peter Buxtun testifying before Congress during the Kennedy hearings. Web.htmC>. A picture of Vernal G. 1973. and directly after he testified in the Kennedy Hearings. Atlanta. which depicts six African-American men.p. Web.gov/tuskegee/clintonp. . all inhabitants of the town of Davisville. who participated in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.d. <http://www. Venereal Disease Branch (1970 ." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. and can be found in the "Kennedy Hearings" tab of our website. and one of the resulting photographs of his testimony is shown. This photograph was used to provide readers with a photograph of the man who broke the study.archives. Public Health Service. Irvine Department of History.uci. N. <http://research. This can be found in the "Kennedy Hearings" tab of our website.Photograph of Participants in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. just as he was about to be named the President of the American Medical Association. n. 1973. Commissions such as the one in this picture are a lasting legacy of the reforms instituted after the study. The U. 2013. of Health. Center for Disease Control. Photograph. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Administrative Records.d. Dept. Dr. Health Services and Mental Health Administration. The photo is placed in the "Informed Consent" tab of our website.S. 7 Jan. University of California. Cave. N.edu/bjbecker/PlaguesandPeople/lecture10. N. American Medical Assn. and Welfare.1973). Education. we included this photo.html>.

Print. Protection of Human Subjects.d.edu/cphl/history/reports/tuskegee/report1.. Brown and Vernal Cave.edu/index.. of Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. <http://biotech. Located on the “Institutional Review Boards” page of our website. Protection of Human Subjects. We used this source to identify one of the biggest consequences of the Tuskegee experiments . this U. N. This is a photo of Princeton University's IRB logo. Web. n. Ronald H.p. Web.p. 2014. 45 C."Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. <http://www.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46. 101-124. "Report on Charge I. It is used in the “Informed Consent” page. 18 Nov. one of many universities that use the IRB when making research decisions. 24 Apr. This site provided us with useful information regarding one of the commissions established by the government to investigate ethical issues in the medical community. Dr. 7 Jan. n.princeton. 2009. 2013. Department of Health & Human Services. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website. LSU Law Center Program.p. N.miami.d. <http://www.lsu." Tuskegee Report.R.edu/ria/>. This document is an official title from the Code of Federal Regulations which details how IRBs are made and gives an official governmental definition of informed consent.php/ethics/programs/international/presidential_commissio n/>. Web. It also includes a brief history on syphilis during the early 1930s. Proc. 2013.F. It also discusses the functions of Institutional Review Boards. 2009." University of Miami.101>.law.d.: n. "Princeton University Research Integrity and Assurance.S regulation.pdf>. . this report provides a thorough examination on the unethical conduct in the experiment. Sec. Comp. 45 C. U of Miami.hhs. 7 Jan. <http://www. enforces the protection of human subjects in biomedical research. 3 Oct.S. n. It can be found on the “Termination” page.the creation of institutional review boards.html#46. It provided us with a better understanding of how the study has impacted the field of bioethics today.R. Web. To aid readers and to better explain the concept of informed consent. Written a year after the Tuskegee study ended. 2014. 1973." Princeton University Research Integrity and Assurance. we used HTML code to put a PDF version of this document in the “Institutional Review Boards” section of our website.F. U.

one of many universities that use the IRB when making research decisions. 7 Jan. Eunice. Print.1969.d. <http://www. National Public Radio." Public Health Reports 68. The following is one of many study publications published by the doctors of the study without the consent or knowledge of the patients themselves.edu/irb/>. "Schoolhouse: Rosenwald Schools in the South.npr. Julius Rosenwald's involvement in African-American betterment. Web. 1969.. 1969 . All Things Considered. 11 Mar. "Non Random Events. We added this to the “Study Publications” tab.org/2012/03/11/148066822/-schoolhouse-the-story-of-rosenwaldschools-in-the-segregated-south>. 2014. 7 Jan. This is the first of many study publications published by the Tuskegee Syudy without the knowledge of the participants. Web. N. Barbara. This is a photo of Touro University's IRB logo. Print. "Twenty Years of Followup Experience in a Long-Range Medical Study.tu. NPR. Rosenkrantz also offers a detailed history of the study itself. "Seal of Touro University. Washington is discussed in this audio recording from National Public Radio. Legal and ethical implications of the study are examined and this source. It can be found on the “Progressive Movement” page. The source also questions if the study was ethically obligated to treat its patients instead of what they actually did. This provided a useful way for us to look at how study publications were made by the study and let us see what exactly the doctors of the experiment were publishing. 2012. . et al." Touro University California. and his relationship with Booker T. We included this in a Scribd format to let people read any of the study publications if they chose to on the “Study Publications” page." By NPR Staff.4 (1953): 391-95.p. Rivers. <http://research. n. 2014." Yale Review 72 (1983): 284-96. We used this to gain a better understanding of Julius Rosenwald's involvement in the betterment of African-American health. Print. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website. Rosenkrantz. Atlanta: National Archives.Report on Tuskegee Syphilis Study.

Taliaferro Clark. Sen. who played a role in events leading up to the Tuskegee experiment. Usilton. Kennedy. and Geraldine A. "Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro: A Prospective Study of the Effect on Life Expectancy. D-Mass. n. K. Senator Edward Kennedy was the chair of the hearings investigating the Tuskegee hearings.d. The Cleveland Plain Dealer Archives provided this photograph of Jean Heller receiving a journalism award from Senator Edward Kennedy for her work on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Shafer. J. It can be found on the “Study Publications” page.nlm.com.Senator Edward Kennedy. n." Public Health Reports 69. Gleeson.d. 7 Jan. of the Associated Press Special Assignment Team. is found in this source. Thursday in Washington. This provided a useful way for us to look at how study publications were made by the study and let us see what exactly the doctors of the experiment were publishing.gov/luna/servlet/view/all/what/Portraits?os=23600&res=2&printerFri endly=1>. <http://www. A portrait of Dr. Boston. "Taliaferro Clark.d. Photograph. Boston.com.com/news/nation/articles/2009/02/17/chapter_3_chappaquiddick/>.. Print. Edward M. This is one of many study publications published by the doctors of the study without the consent or knowledge of the patients themselves. Web. 18 Nov. Miss Heller won the honor for her series on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. This image can be found on our "Termination" page. This picture is used in the "Kennedy Hearings: tab of our website. The Plain Dealer Lib. <http://ihm. Cleveland Plain Dealer Archives. 2013.. It is located on the “The Study is Born” page.7 (1954): 684-90.p.." Images from History of Medicine.nih. and this photograph shows him as he appeared during the hearings. .boston. N. 2014. Lida J.. Web. Cleveland. N. Kennedy Journalism Award for the best newspaper coverage to Jean Heller. presents the Robert F.

Print. It depicts USPHS physicians taking blood tests of prospective patients at local church meetings in the Macon County area. Inside the National Archives: Southeast Region. Web.php>. The photograph above can be found on the Minority Health & Health Equity Archive at the University of Pittsburgh website.lc:NLMNLM~1~1&mi=23600&trs=25653>.The Syphilis Men. Atlanta: TF-CDC. Web.nih.d. 1 Mar. Ed. <http://ihm. Tuskegee Study Photographs. National Archives. D. . C. his successor. Taliaferro Clark headed the USPHS Venereal Disease Division in the 1930s and is credited with creating the Tuskegee Syphilis Study in 1932. "Tuskegee Ad Hoc Committee Meeting . We refer to this in our “Termination” section. A detailed account of the meeting between CDC members in 1965. 19669. Raymond Vonderlehr extended the study. Dr. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Pictures. 7 Jan.pitt. This can be viewed in the “The Study is Born” tab. National Archives. Records of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clark. Atlanta. Lawson Smith states Smith states that "you will never have another study like this" and to "take advantage of it". February 6.gov/luna/servlet/detail/NLMNLM~1~1~101412184~171691:Taliaferro-Clark-?qvq=w4s:/what/Portraits. Atlanta. It shows doctors collecting blood samples for the USPHS study. while it originated from the National Archives at Atlanta.archives. Dr. N. but once he retired. 2014. N. when the Tuskegee Study was becoming known is provided in this source. Web. 101412184. 7 Jan. implying that these doctors want the study to continue regardless of the ethical or moral implications involved. Tuskegee Files . 1969. This image is a black-and-white portrait of Dr.Minutes. 7 Jan. 2014.gov/atlanta/exhibit/6. We use this image in the “The Study is Born” tab." Tuskegee Ad Hoc Committee Meeting. J. Washington.Center for Disease Control.edu/344/>. <http://www. The Minority Health & Health Equity Archive. 2014. The National Archives at Atlanta provides this photograph taken during the Tuskegee study. 1932. Images from the History of Medicine (IHM). 1932. <http://health-equity. He originally intended for the study to go on for six months. pag. Dr.nlm.

d. YouTube. It mentions the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and shows that publications of the study were given out to the government without the consent and knowledge of the patients of the study itself.youtube.USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. Cong. This image was used during the 1930s. 2014. Print. of Medicine. It can be seen in our “Syphilis and the Need for Treatment” section. U. This can be found in the "Pollard v.net/books. 7 Jan. It depicts a silhouette of a man diseased with syphilis falling down. N. 2014.d. US" tab of our website. n." Fred Gray. This is a copy of the apology delivered by President Clinton to the survivors of the experiments in a video format. when the need for syphilis treatment became urgent. <http://www. It is found on Fred Gray's official website. Web. The document is quoted in “The Study is Born.com/watch?v=l1A-YP24QwA>. 1938. Presidential Apology . 101446355.nih.html>. National Lib. Web.gov/images/A20812>. Tuskegee University. <http://www. Images from the History of Medicine (NLM). 76th Cong. History of Medicine. along with other pictures and summaries of books he wrote. We used a 45 second clip of this in our "Clinton's Apology" page to show the president himself delivering those words on video.. YouTube. Public Health Service. Viewers are warned of the deadly symptoms of syphilis in this poster.” . The Surgeon General makes statements detailing the need for African American treatment for venereal diseases in rural areas.nlm. House.p. n."The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: The Real Story and beyond.or Local Health Officer. Uncured Syphilis May Strike Years Later.S. 7 Jan.fredgray. This is a photograph of the book Fred Gray published on the Tuskegee Study. See Your Doctor .. 1st sess. ca. 1930s. <http://ihm. 7 Jan. Web. Washington: GPO. Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service of the United States for the Fiscal Year 1938. United States. 2014.

Senate.-. Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.. and states that the study was neither needed. . It is quoted in the “Kennedy Hearings” section. a doctor who appeared before the Subcommittee chaired by Senator Kennedy. Print. Washington: GPO. he mentions that they did not know what they were being treated for. 1973.Human Experimentation.-. Print. 1973. Subcommmittee on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.. The statements of Charlie Pollard offer valuable insight as to what the patients themselves experienced and witnessed over the duration of their time in their study. This is located in the “Kennedy Hearings” sections. The statements of Lester Scott offer valuable insight as to what the patients themselves experienced and witnessed over the duration of their time in their study. Testimony of Henry Simmons..d. This also can be found in the “Kennedy Hearings” section.-.-. . Senate. Testimony of Peter Buxton..-.-. 1040-42. and further states that they thought they were only being treated for "bad blood". . Testimony of Lester Scott. Washington: GPO. 1973. Print..-. 1973 -Tuskegee Syphilis Study.. This can be found in the “Kennedy Hearings” page. Hearings on the Quality of Health Care. Like Charlie Pollard. 1973. Washington: GPO. Hearings on the Quality of Health Care .. Hearings on the Quality of Health Care . 1973. . 1187-207. . . Henry Simmons. provides in this testimony insight into whether the Tuskegee Study was needed to further advance syphilitic treatment and research in the United States. n. Hearings on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. . He mentions that they did not know what they were being treated for.. 1036-40. Print. who details how he found out about the study and his dealings with Jean Heller in uncovering the study itself. Senate. Human Experimentation. Testimony of Charles Pollard. 1223-33. .Human Experimentation. Senate. The following is the official statement of Peter Buxtun.. Subcommitte on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.-. Washington: GPO.

Washington: GPO. Cave." UW Medicine. Web.Human Experimentation. 1930. 1931.-. Washington: GPO.-. 1932.d. Print.washington.. .Tuskegee Syphilis Study. This can be located on the “Kennedy Hearings” page. Testimony of Vernal G.. Senate.. 2nd sess. 1931..shtml>. It particularly emphasizes the need for treatment. Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service of the United States for the Fiscal Year 1932. . 1932. n.-. United States Census. 1st sess. . 1233-40. n. "University of Washington IRB. <http://depts.p.-..d.. Hearings on the Quality of Health Care . This is quoted in our “Macon County” tab. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury Transmitting a Report Prepared by the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service on the Extent and Circumstances of Cooperation by the Public Health Service with State and Local Authorities in the Conduct of Rural Health Work in the Drought-Stricken Areas under the Terms of the Appropriation for the Period February 6. . 72nd Cong. 1973 .. The USPHS chose Macon County as the destination for their study partially due to the high percentage of African-Americans in the region. 72nd Cong. He also mentions that Macon County has a high prevalence of venereal diseases. 2014.. to November 30. 1973.-. . Vernal Cave testified to the subcommittee that the study both did not have any new effects and did not contribute to a substantial degree to the field of medicine.edu/anesth/research/irb/index. Print. 7 Jan. and stated that the Oslo Study had already given a concise summary of the effects of syphilis. Alabama during that time. Washington: GPO. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website. The need for syphilis and venereal disease treatment in Macon County is analyzed in this document. one of many universities that use the IRB when making research decisions. We quote it in our “Syphilis and the Need for Treatment” section. The Secretary of the Treasury underlines the need for financial aid in Macon County and outlines the steps needed (financial aid for the county) in his letter. Public Health Service.-. Print. Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Washington: GPO.. N. . Print. We use an image of the census in the “Macon County” tab. The United States Census from 1930 provides statistical data on the distribution of races in Macon County.. This is a photo of the University of Washington's IRB logo.

Hot Springs. The John A. Andrew Hospital in the 1900s.d.tuskegee. Andrew Hospital at the Tuskegee Institute aided in providing a facility for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study blood tests. These interviews were conducted in the investigations of the Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. Web. Proc.upenn. We did not directly use a quote from it but used it in our research." Tuskegee University. 2 of HEW Doxument Reports... and Wenger also gives a summary of the events that lead up to the study itself. Wenger urges the seminar before him to keep the study as quiet as possible. Andrew Hospital. University of Pennsylvania. 18 Sept. "The Prevalence and Prevention of Sysphilis.. Unnamed Tuskegee Syphilis Study Subject."University to Mark 100th Anniversary of John A. Wenger. 1973. N. <http://www. N. 7 Jan. <http://www. Oliver C. Vedder. n. The urgency for a cure for syphilis to be discovered in the medical field is discussed in the following source. Tuskegee University provides this image of the John A.p. We used this article in our “Syphilis and the Need for Treatment” section. UPenn IRB. This is a photo of the University of Pennsylvania's IRB logo. Many references are made to the patients of the study. "Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male. . pag. 7 Jan. The subjects describe their experiences in the study and how they were treated by Nurse Rivers and other staff members. 2014. Print. Comp." Bound Book II.edu/Articles/university_to_mark_100th_anniversary_of_john_a_a ndrew_hospital.php?option=com_content&task=view&id =3&Itemid=8>. It can be found in the "Institutional Review Board" section of our website. Edward B." Social Hygiene 2 (1916): 37581. This document is one of many study publications that detailed the study while the study was going on. 1950. Print. 1950. N. n.d. as there may not be a chance again for something of this nature to happen again. 2014. Interview by Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. This is in our “Macon County” section. Web. We use this in our “Study Publications” section.aspx>.p. Tuskegee University Archives. of Hot Springs Seminar. Tuskegee: Tuskegee Univ. Vol. one of many universities that use the IRB when making research decisions.edu/regulatoryaffairs/index.

Web. and found this article about his life to be extremely helpful in our pursuit. The New York Department of Correction distributed this poster to advise people with syphilis to seek treatment. Philanthropy Roundtable. Lib. Zinmeister discusses Julius Rosenwald in this article. Web. 4 June 1937. . 7 Jan." Philanthropy Roundtable. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. We were fascinated to learn more about the philanthropist who could have been the catalyst for a study such as Tuskegee. Zinmeister. It was interesting to note that most of the schools he did make were in the Deep South. Washington. LC-USZC2-5598. <http://www. <http://www. D.d. n. syphilis. Library of Congress. "Julius Rosenwald.loc. 2014.3f05598/>. 7 Jan.gov/pictures/resource/cph.. It can be found in the “Macon County” section. one of Rosenwald himself and another of the schools he built in his pursuit to make a better America. C. 2014. Doctors used the term "bad blood" during the Tuskegee Syphilis Study instead of referring the actual disease. We used this in the “Progressive Movement” tab.org/almanac/great_men_and_women/hall_of_fame/ julius_rosenwald>. We also used this site to find two pictures relating to Rosenwald that we subsequently used in our website.Your Blood is Bad Means You Have Syphilis. of Congr. Karl.philanthropyroundtable.

A concise overview of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study from the enrollment of the participants in the study to the legacy committee formed in 1996 is provided in this website. Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The Hastings Center Report 8(6): 21-29. statistics.6 (2005): 1259-62. 2014.p. Marks. Allan M. Otis W. which was used on Tuskegee patients in 1933. Brandt. Professor of History in Medicine at Harvard University.edu/about_us/centers_of_excellence/bioethics_center/about_the_u sphs_syphilis_study. <http://www.d. "Effects of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male." Urology 65..tuskegee. It was used in the “New Directions” tab. 1932 to 1972: A Closure Comes to the Tuskegee Study. 2014. n. n...com/activism/tuskegee_experiment>. Baker. 7 Jan. 2004. Washington's position as president of the Tuskegee Institute and was involved in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study during that time.. 2013.p.Secondary Sources "About the USPHS Syphilis Study. Brawley.aspx>.d. The “Progressive Movement” section of this website includes a portrait of Dr. Print. Shamim M. We used this information during preliminary research. The image that we used from this source shows the dangerous procedure of the spinal tap. Moton succeeded Booker T. N. Information from this article was dispersed throughout the website.aspx>. Web. <http://www. Allan Brandt.d. Dr.tuskegee. Web. gives a historical overview of the Tuskegee Study after the study was ended and provides some analytical information which was helpful to us when beginning and researching our topic as well as providing some general information regarding the study itself which we used in our “Forty Year Experiment” tabs.edu/about_us/legacy_of_leadership/robert_r_moton. Moton from the early 1900s. <http://paulrucker. 7 Jan. Web. A brief examination of the study and various primary sources is provided in this article. Center for Disease Control. Paul Rucker discusses the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment through pictures. n. Robert Russa Moton. "Spinal Tap. N. "Dr.p." Tuskegee University. . 1978. 21 Oct. and other multimedia materials in this website. N." Tuskegee University." Paul Rucker. and Leonard S.

Little Rock. and it works. . <http://www. 2011. of North Carolina Press. with special emphasis on the study itself.d. as well as much of the information we later used when discussing the precursor to the experiment.p. a former bioethics professor in the University of Virginia. His lecture focuses on the ethics involved in the study. Print. 24 Apr. He asks if the government had an ethical and moral right to do what they did to the patients. Comp. in his book. Peter. and information is dispersed through the website. Susan M. Medical Ethics and Human Subject Research in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.: Counterpoint. Bad Blood by James H. This quote can be found in the "Progressive Movement" tab of our website. James H. Jones. Fletcher. 2000. Youtube. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: A Tragedy of Race and Medicine.p. 2012. Print. 2014.com/watch?v=WUExxTIFaLE>. I Have Seen the Future: A Life of Lincoln Steffens. details the story of one of the members of the Progressive Movement. Jones provides a good summary of the study from its birth to its termination. n.Fletcher. N. Hartshorn. New York: Free. 7 Jan. asks questions regarding the ethical and moral implications of the study. We took audio and video clips from it and used them throughout the website. and finally assesses the ethical and moral implications of the study in today's world. N." as it succinctly describes the feelings espoused by many Progressive leaders. Dr. Web. Lincoln Steffens. Jones." Tuskegee's Truths. John C. Jones speaks about the Tuskegee Syphilis Study from its initiation to termination. John C. who advocated for cleaner cities and better sanitary qualities throughout America.youtube. Hartshorn. 1993. Chapel Hill: Univ. Much of the information we had regarding the Progressive Movement as well as Social Darwinism was included in this book.. 2nd ed. This source helped us to analyze several aspects of the study history. Reverby. "A Case Study in Historical Relativism: The Tuskegee (Public Health Service) Syphilis Study. University of Arkansas. James. 276-98. James H. Print. We used this book primarily for the quotation "I have seen the future.

Ed.htm>. n. and primary documents relating to the study in this book. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P. 2013. Wayne.edu/otlt/MPHModules/EP/EP713_ResearchEthics/EP713_ResearchEthics3.html>. 2009. pag." Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 17. 21 Oct. . The article on the Tuskegee Legacy Project in this journal discusses the controversial debate regarding how the Tuskegee study impacted the willingness of African-Americans to participate in human subject research. 2013. Web. 19 Nov. is given in this book.bu.p.msu.d. Numerous pictures of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment are contained in this website. quotes. "Institutional Review Boards and the Belmont Principles.html>. 3 Oct. this specific webpage regarding the Tuskegee study discusses its consequences. n." Faces of Tuskegee. Web. We used this as a part of our overall analytical research.edu/course/hm/546/tuskegee. We took images of significant figures from the study and used them in our “Forty-Year Experiment” section. and an equal balance of contrasting professional opinions. including the Belmont Report and Health and Human Services Policy for Protection f Human Research Subjects. Susan. but also its legacy. Web.4 (2006): n. Print. <http://sph. Susan Reverby has collected numerous essays written by historians. JHCPU.jhu. Print." Intervention Studies: Clinical Trials.LaMorte. <http://muse. Susan. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P. It provides an unbiased approach to understanding the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. A detailed analysis on not only the study itself.. We utilize this source in our “Institutional Review Boards” page. Incorporated from a research ethics course at Boston University. 2000. letters between doctors. Boston University School of Public Health. 2013. N. Reverby. Examining Tuskegee: The Infamous Syphilis Study and Its Legacy. Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.4. <https://www. "Tuskegee Legacy Project. Brody.d. Primary and secondary quotes from this book are dispersed through our website. using statistics. H. Reverby. We use this source throughout the enitre website. "Study Publications.edu/journals/journal_of_health_care_for_the_poor_and_underserved/toc /hpu17. news articles.

Print. We used these dates throughout the website. CDC.d. We also used this book to develop a better understanding of the study as a whole. and makes it easy to read. 3 Oct.gov/tuskegee/timeline. Uschan. Michael.htm>. n." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Forty Years of Medical Racism: The Tuskegee Experiments. Web. <http://www. this source provides a short timeline of Tuskegee-related events from 1895 to 2009. . and many captions of pictures we used were found in this book. Portions of the book were used when starting our research.cdc. A concise summary of the entire storyline of the experiment is provided in Michael Uschan’s book."The Tuskegee Timeline. Sponsored by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. New York: Thomson Gale. 2013.