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MULTIVIBRATOR CIRCUITS USING THE IC-555 TIMER

I. OBJECTIVES
a) To determine the applications that can be obtained by combining a fast PF

and a slow NF: astable multivibrator, monostable multivibrator. b) Understand how to use the !"### timer to obtain specific applications: astable multivibrator, monostable multivibrator, triangular wave signal generator.

II. COMPONENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION


$e are using the e%perimental assembly e&uipped with the !"### timer and the ! '(), two potentiometers, capacitors and resistors of different values. For the assembly supply we use a dc voltage source. The visuali*ation is done using a dual channel oscilloscope.

III. PREPARATION
Brief overview of t e IC-555 ti!er +raw the internal bloc, diagram of the !"### timer. Fill in the Table ) that reflects the operation principle of the !"### -.cc is the supply voltage). The !"### can be considered e&uivalent to an inverting comparator with PF -with hysteresis), the input voltage being the voltage applied to the terminals Trigger and Threshold connected together. The thresholds of the comparator are internally fi%ed so we don/t have access to the PF. The .T! is shown in Fig. ).

Trigger terminal voltage 1 )23 .4 1 )23 .4 6 )23 .4 6 )23 .4

Threshold terminal voltage 1 523 .4 6523 .4 1 523 .4 6 523 .4

0utput voltage

Table ). nternal transistor state -off, aF, saturation)

Forbidden

v0 .cc

)23.cc 523.cc

Fig. ). The .T! of the e.'iv#&e*t hysteresis comparator

P.".T e #$t#%&e !'&tivi%r#tor (ir('it


For the circuit in Fig. 5: Find the value of the threshold voltage of the e&uivalent hysteresis comparator for: -)) v07.cc7)#.8 -5) v079.. Plot v!5-t). $hich are the charging and discharging paths of !5: v!5 is considered the feedbac, voltage corresponding to the NF. !omment on the evolution in time of the NF.

P.). Mo*o$t#%&e !'&tivi%r#tor (ir('it tri++ere, %- $e*$or


The monostable multivibrator shown in Fig. 3 is triggered when the resistance of the sensor ; drops to a value that causes the voltage at terminal Trigger to drop under )23 .cc. This can be done by pressing with a finger both contacts of the sensor. Find the value of v0 and the state of the discharging transistor from the !" ### before and right after pressing the sensor ;.

!an you prove that the duration of the pulse generated at the output of the

monostable circuit is: T<7=5!5ln37),)=5!5: f so, let/s see how much time it will ta,e. Find the possible range of values for T<.

P./. S.'#re w#ve #*, tri#*+'&#r w#ve +e*er#tor


n Fig. (, a circuit which generates a s&uare wave at the output of the !"### -v0) and a triangular wave across !5 is presented. Therefore the charging and discharging of !5 must be done with a constant current. The circuit that contains 0.>., !3, =5, + is a constant current generator - 5), ,eeping the voltage across =5 appro%imately constant when v!5 varies. This is done using the bootstrap method. $hen v!57)23.cc, + is in on state and ! 3 is charging with )9. -523.cc). $hen v!5 start to increase, + goes in off state and v !3 remains appro%imately constant, 523.cc. The 5 current is, in this case, provided by !3. Prove that 5 is constant -for the same cursor position of the potentiometer from =5). Prove that: 575.cc23=5. >nother constant current generator, ), is formed from T), =? and =#, ,eeping the voltage across =? constant when !5 is charging. Prove that ) is constant when !5 is charging and it has the value: )7(,'#@.A2=?. a)
Propose and write an e%perimental procedure to evaluate the operating

principle of the two current generators and to find the charging and discharging currents through !5. b)
Find the relation that e%presses the period of the generated signals. For what positions of the potentiometers/ cursors the s&uare wave signal

has: " ma%imum period: " minimum period: " ma%imum duty cycle: " minimum duty cycle:

IV. E0PLORATIONS AND RESULTS ". T e #$t#%&e !'&tivi%r#tor (ir('it


E12&or#tio*$ Build the assembly shown in Fig. 5, connecting: PS+PJ, IN+ with PS, JR3, J1 with J2 and J4 with J5. .isuali*e simultaneously the voltages v0 -0UT) and v!5. <odify the =5 -using the potentiometer) and find the minimum and ma%imum fre&uencies of output signal.

4)#. =5 =3 !5 5#, )9, ))


.
4

'
=C;CT 0UT ? + ;!E )9 !.

(', D # TE=C; T= FF )99n


FN+

v0

G !)

)9n

Fig. 5. The astable multivibrator circuit Re$'&t$ v0-t) and v!5-t). v!5-t) is the input voltage in the e&uivalent hysteresis comparator, and also the feedbac,
$hat are the values of the threshold voltages: The minimum and ma%imum period of generated signal. +id you ,now that this oscillator is called rela%ation oscillator: $hat do
voltage of the NF path.

you thin,, why:

). Mo*o$t#%&e !'&tivi%r#tor (ir('it tri++ere, %- $e*$or


E12&or#tio*$ Build the assembly shown in Fig. 3. +isconnect all Humpers and connect: DESC+ PS, PJ 4S, PS with C2, J1 with J2 and J4 with J5. .isuali*e v0-t) after pressing the sensor with the finger -as e%plained before). <odify =5 from the 5#,I potentiometer and e%amine its effect on the duration of the pulse generated at the output.

=) )< =5

4)#. 5#, )9, ))


.4

'
=C;CT 0UT !.

)9 + ;!E D TE=C; # ; !5 59
T= FF FN+

? G v0 !) )9

Fig. 3. <onostable multivibrator circuit triggered by sensor Re$'&t$ v0-t) for the ma%imum and minimum values of =5. n what range can T< vary: !ompare with the result computed at P5.).

Those of you who are living in a bloc, of flats, where do you thin, the applications of the monostable can be found in everyday life:

/. S.'#re w#ve #*, tri#*+'&#r w#ve +e*er#tor


E12&or#tio*$ Build the assembly shown in Fig. (. +isconnect all Humpers and connect: PS4PJ, IN+ with PS, DESC+R4, J2 with J3 and J5 with J6.

<a,e sure that the circuit generates the e%pected signals, namely v!5

"triangular wave and v0 " s&uare wave. .isuali*e v=5 and find the value of 5. a)
Use the procedure proposed in P3 to derive the operating principle of the

two current generators -the one with T ) and the one with 0.>.) and to measure the charging and discharging currents through !5. b)
.isuali*e simultaneously v0 and v!5. >dHust the potentiometers one by one to derive the effect of each of them

on the output signals. ;et the potentiometers for the s&uare wave signal -v0) to be of: " ma%imum period " minimum period " ma%imum duty cycle " minimum duty cycle For which of the above mentioned situations do we get a linearly variable -saw"tooth signal) voltage on !5:

=( ))
.4 =C;CT + ;!E)9

T) 5,# )#9 v0

=# + )9, =? #,' =5 )9,


) 5

4)#. 5#, !3 ) 4)#. 0.>.

'

DTE=C; #T= FF

0UT ? FN+ !.

( G !) )9n !5 )99n

v!5
Fig. (. ;ignal generator

Re$'&t$ a) The data obtained from the measurements. !onclusions drawn from your measurements. b) v -t) and v -t). v=5-t) and value of 5. The ma%imum and minimum period of the generated signal. The ma%imum and minimum duty cycle of the s&uare wave signal. Eow do you e%plain the possibility to set"up the period and the duty cycle: !an the period and the duty cycle be modified independently: Eow should =5 and =( be modified to obtain a linearly variable -saw"tooth signal) v!5-t):
!5 0

$hy do you thin, that the !"### is called timer:

RE3ERENCES ). 0ltean, F., !ircuite Clectronice, UT Pres, !luH"Napoca, 599', ;BN D'G" D'3"??5"399"( 5. FeJtilK Lelia, ;imion C., <iron !., >mplificatoare audio Ji sisteme mu*icale, Cditura +acia, !luH"Napoca, )DD9 3. http:22www.bel.utcluH.ro2dce2didactic2fec2fec.htm

Fig. #. C%perimental assembly