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The Ripple Effect

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Onn tthhee nnaattuurree ooff rreeaalliittyy,, eenneerrggyy aanndd ccoonnsscciioouussnneessss

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© BENJAMIN BRANDWOOD 2005

THIS BOOK IS COPYRIGHT. APART FROM ANY FAIR


DEALING FOR THE PURPOSE OF STUDY, RESEARCH,

CRITICISM, REVIEW OR AS OTHERWISE PERMITTED

UNDER THE COPYRIGHT ACT, NO PART MAY BE

REPRODUCED BY ANY PROCESS WITHOUT EXPRESS

WRITTEN PERMISSION. INQUIRIES SHOULD BE DIRECTED

TO THE AUTHOR

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TAABBLLEE OOFF COONNTTEENNTTSS

1.1 Table of Contents 1

1.2 Illustration Index 9

1.3 introduction 14

2.0 SECTION ONE: SCIENCE 0

2.1 Classical Physics 1

2.2 A Hole In The Bucket 4

2.3 Electromagnetism 9

2.4 Relativity 11

2.5 Gravity In Motion 17

2.6 Waves 28

2.7 Problematic Ovens 30

2.8 Quanta 34

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2.9 Wave Or Particle? 38 2.24 Supersymmetry And Spin 101

2.10 Probability 50 2.25 Too Much Supersymmetry 104

2.11 Half An Electron 55 2.26 Garden Hoses and Ants 105

2.12 Many Worlds, Many Minds 57 2.27 Bowls of Water 111

2.13 Uncertainty Principle 62 2.28 Wound and Unwound Strings 113

2.14 Quantum Certainties 66 2.29 The Big Bounce 115

2.15 Quantum Computers 72 2.30 why Not? 118

2.16 Quantum Entanglement 75 2.31 Does Size Matter? 120

2.17 Relative Quantum Uncertainties 83 2.32 Why Three Dimensions? 123

2.18 The Big Bang 84 2.33 Spontaneous Strings 126

2.19 The Horizon Problem 87 2.34 Nothing 129

2.20 super String Theory 90 2.35 Chaos; The Butterfly Effect 132

2.21 Strings 93 2.36 Randomness 136

2.22 String Stiffness 96 2.37 Order 140

2.23 Quantum Foam In String Theory 99 2.38 Glycerine Tube 144

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2.39 Synchronised Oscillators 146 4.1 Monkey Mind 190

2.40 Chaos Returns 150 4.2 Loose Ends 192

2.41 Spinning Waterwheel 155 4.3 Value 198

2.42 Strange Attractors 158 4.4 A Set Of Scales 200

2.43 Chaos In Sync 162 4.5 Progression 206

2.44 Entropy 165 4.6 Testing, Testing 208

4.7 Pandora’s Box 210


3.0 SECTION TWO: METAPHYSICS 168
4.8 To Test Or Not To Test? 212
3.1 What Is Consciousness? 169
4.9 Summing Up 215
3.2 Thought Forms and Belief Concepts 177
4.10 I Am The Lens Through Which I View The
3.3 The Mind 179
World 217
3.4 Survival and Wisdom Concepts 181
4.11 Belief 219
3.5 Jung’s Synchronicity 184
4.12 100 Monkeys 221
3.6 Random Event Generators 186
4.13 Motion and Emotion 223

4.0 TIMES MAGAZINE ARTICLE 4.14 Probability Revisited 225


REFERENCE HERE 189
4.15 Russian Roulette 227

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4.16 Resonating Radios 230 4.31 Thankyou Very Much! 279

4.17 Psychological Vs Actual 234 4.32 Flower Essences 281

4.18 Intent And Focus 240 4.33 Multiple Personalities 288

4.19 Resistance 244 4.34 In Sickness And In Health 294

4.20 Preference and Judgment 246 4.35 Divination 297

4.21 States of Mind 249 4.36 The Metaverse And The Psychic Gene 301

4.22 Coincidence 253 4.37 Mind Bubbles 306

4.23 Universal Validation 258 4.38 Remote Viewing 307

4.24 Needs And Wants 260 4.39 Raja Yoga 308

4.25 Purposeful Action 261 4.40 DNA 311

4.26 Mirror, Mirror, On The Wall 265


5.0 SECTION THREE; PHILOSOPHY314
4.27 Act One, Scene Two 267
5.1 Test Tube Universe 315
4.28 Justification 270
5.2 The All-Knowing Consciousness 319
4.29 Try As You Might 272
5.3 The Fall 323
4.30 Co-creation 277
5.4 Divine Intervention? 325

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5.5 A First Breath 327
1 .1 ILLLLUUSSTTRRAATTIIOONN INNDDEEXX
5.6 Reincarnation 330

5.7 Conclusion 333


Illustration i Newton's Bucket 4
5.8 Bibliography 336
Illustration ii Bucket Water Progressive States 6
5.9 Index 339 Illustration iii Electromagnetic Spectrum 10
Illustration iv Self-propagating Electromagnetic Wave
10
Illustration v Stationary Photon Clock 13
Illustration vi Moving Photon Clock 14
Illustration vii Light Speed Photon Clock 15
Illustration viii Trampoline Bowling Ball 19
Illustration ix Trampoline Golf Ball 20
Illustration x Grid and Line 23
Illustration xi Refraction Pyramid 25
Illustration xii Wave Attributes 28
Illustration xiii Different Frequency Waves 31
Illustration xiv Double Slit Experiment Set-up 39
Illustration xv Double Slit Experiment One Slit 40
Illustration xvi Double Slit Experiment 2 Slits False 40
Illustration xvii Trough Meets Crest 41
Illustration xviii Double Slit Experiment 2 Slits True
42

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Illustration xix Double Slit Experiment Sensor Array Illustration xxxix Glycerine Tube Experiment 144
45 Illustration xl Synchronised Pendulums 147
Illustration xx Bowling Alley 46 Illustration xli Waterwheel Experiment Set-up 155
Illustration xxi Double Slit Experiment Delayed Illustration xlii Waterwheel Experiment Running 156
Choice 47 Illustration xliii 3D Axis State Space Graph 158
Illustration xxii Particle Probability Distribution 51 <insert butterfly wing strange attractor picture> 160
Illustration xxiii Particle Probable Paths 53 Illustration xliv Standing Wave River Rocks 193
Illustration xxiv Probability Wave Split 56 Illustration xlv Applied Value Scales Unbalanced 201
Illustration xxv Particle Uncertainty Principle 63 Illustration xlvi Supply Demand Vs Perception Value
Illustration xxvi Particle Accelerator Pattern 66 203
Illustration xxvii Fundamental Particle Properties 67 Illustration xlvii Percieved Value Scale Balanced 205
Illustration xxviii Force Particle Properties 69 Illustration xlviii Particle State Reality Graph 302
Illustration xxix Photon Polarization 77
Illustration xxx Particle Creation Chamber, Measures
Polarization 79
Illustration xxxi String Vibration Possibilities 94
Illustration xxxii Ant Garden Hose 105
Illustration xxxiii Curled Up Dimensions Spheres 107
Illustration xxxiv Curled Up Dimensions Torus 108
Illustration xxxv Calabi-Yau Space 109
Illustration xxxvi Curled Up Dimensions Calabi-Yau
110
Illustration xxxvii Ripple Patterns Due To Shape 111
Illustration xxxviii Wound And Unwound Strings 113

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1 .2 IIN is self-supporting. For while within it’s own
NTTR
ROOD
DUUC
CTTIIO
ONN
framework, this property is a strength (and I believe a
beautiful and necessary property of the universe’s
being), it also means that if there are inconsistencies
This book is about the relationship
with my ideas, then they remain hidden, as all the
between energy and consciousness. This relationship
rules support each other, and explain each other, and
is too often ignored by science, despite mounting
there are no exceptions.
evidence to the contrary. Nor is it fully appreciated by
Einstein was asked what he would have
psychology, and it is over dramatised by enthusiastic
thought if the experimental proof of his theory of
adherents to the school of New Age thought.
relativity had shown that his theory was wrong instead
This book explores the relationship
of showing it was correct. In reply, he said, “Then I
between the nature of humanity, aspects of the mind
would have been sorry for God, because the theory is
and emotion, the nature of belief, thought forms and
correct”
psychology. It covers the emerging studies of chaos,
In the same manner, I believe that the
randomness, structure and order in our experience of
ideas I have come to, describe the universe and our
society, nature and the individual.
experience of it so beautifully and perfectly, that they
As a result of such studies, I have come to
must be true. This is not necessarily a naïve adherence
a startling and yet subtly obvious, a complex and yet
to simplicity for simplicity's sake. Scientists also want
inherently simple conclusion, which I would like to
to find the simplest solution to a problem (Occam’s
explain and to share.
Razor). In the 14th century a Franciscan friar, William
The only limit that this idea has is that it

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of Occam wisely said that if there are several psychology with science and human experience. It
possibilities to consider, always choose the simplest. claims to be a theory of everything. But its ultimate
Also, no matter what new ideas I dream aim is to explain experience, and the structure and
up to throw at these concepts in an attempt to make mechanism of the relationship between thought and
them fall apart, doing this serves instead to further matter.
define the ideas, and reveal more of the inherent It explores the gaps in reasoning; it
balance and simplicity that makes them complete. explores the exceptions to the rule, and declares that if
The reader of this book is encouraged to a rule has an exception, it is a concept or perception
dissect the views contained herein, to twist them that is ultimately made in error.
around, to invert them, to turn them upside down and For example, while Newtonian Physics
inside out… And in doing so, to explore the structure can adequately explain common experience at
of thought that is outlined. common sizes and common speeds, these laws of
This book is about “why”. It is about the nature are not truly correct. There are exceptions to
reasons behind the “why”. It seeks to explain the rule. For people who wish to remain ignorant of
experience in its entirety. It explains belief, thought the true nature of things, this situation poses no
forms, and all manner of states of being, but does not immediate problem.
in itself propose to be a 'belief system': It only However, relativity and quantum physics
explores the structure and consequence of belief, and (the science of the very big and the very small) came
the mechanism of what some term karma, otherwise from some intelligent people taking objection to those
known as the law of return. It seeks to combine exceptions. These new systems ultimately gave us a

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greater understanding of the nature of the universe, truthful representation of the nature of the universe
our relationship to it, and our place within it. that I can express. And if I was to truly consider my
This book explores the link between relationship with the universe, I could best say it with
belief, experience, perception and reality. For two words:
example, why does toast always fall buttered side I am.
down; why does the worst thing happen at the worst But by being given only the answers, we do not
time; why are some people very lucky, and some gain from the wisdom inherent in asking the question,
incredibly unlucky - beyond or below the probability or from the understanding in the reasoning behind the
of that luck? Why does my cigarette smoke blow answer.
towards the people who hate it? Why do mosquitos To truly understand why things are the
bite some people but not others? Why do some people way they are, we need to get a grass roots
have all their prayers answered, and some do not? understanding of how the fabric of the universe
This book explores whether the answers behaves, and why it behaves the way it does. So we
to those kinds of questions have any basis in science, will begin with the section on science, where we will
or whether any answer to such a question is going to explore Newton’s physics, touch on relativity, and
be purely unsupported speculation at best. explore quantum physics, chaos and order, and super
If I did not wish to write this book with string theory. During this time, we will also become
all its words, I could write three: armchair psychologists.
Energy follows consciousness. I will constrict my discussions on these
That is the most simple, encompassing and topics to thought experiments, and I will not include

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any mathematics or equations. This is because for the terminologies, which I have reproduced in this text. I
purposes of this book, the mathematics are an hope I have altered the wording and presentation of
unnecessary complication of the understanding those ideas sufficiently, thus subverting any copyright
required, and there are copious amounts of books out problems.
there that go into far more detail; some of which are However, some representations of ideas
included in the bibliography. that I have encountered are simply brilliant, and if I
As I write this, I find it hard to remain could think of no better way to improve upon
focused upon a direction, although I have an idea of another's analogy or way of explaining a concept, you
what I wish to cover. Indeed I previously wrote a non- will find it described similarly her.
scientific manuscript exploring the effects of energy
following consciousness. But I destroyed all copies of
that manuscript, as I did not want my previous
assumptions inhibiting a more rigorous investigation
of the concepts. As a result, I find myself freely
following wherever circumstance and logic guides my
intellect. So I hope as a consequence, the ‘storyline’
does not become unintelligible. Please bear with me!
I have used my own analogies where
possible, but through texts I have read, I have come
across some thought experiments and useful

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2.0 SECTION ONE: 2 .1 CLLAASSSSIICCAALL PHHYYSSIICCSS

SCIENCE
Once upon a time, people believed that
the natural state of being for an object was at rest. This
was not as silly an assumption as it now seems to us
with our level of understanding. After all, it
corresponded with experience. If you throw something
in the air, it seems to seek rest again by coming to rest
on the ground, and if you cease pushing something, it
will eventually stop moving.
Those same people believed that the
things of the earth were of a different 'stuff' than the
things of the heavens. Because obviously the things in
the heavens always appeared to be moving; they never
fell to the earth. They believed that this was the way
things were, because God said so.
But then Isaac Newton claimed that they
were wrong. He said that the natural state of being for
an object was to continue in its motion forever until an

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external force acted upon it. He declared that the believed God gave humans was offset in part by a
matter on earth was the same as the matter in the level of fatalistic predeterminism as a result of this
heavens. He also said that the greater the mass of an new and exciting line of thought.
object, the harder it was to change it’s motion. And to Matter was not spirit, spirit was not
top it all off, he said that there was this force called matter, and science was divorced from religion.
gravity that got stronger with mass and weaker with About this time, another scientist came up
distance. Every action had an equal and opposite with a theory that everything was made up of waves of
reaction, and the earth was not the centre of the energy, not solid mass, and he developed the
universe; that in fact it was in orbit around the sun. equations to support his ideas. Although his equations
Luckily for him, he had figured out the described the motion of mass equally as well as
maths, and was able to predict the motion of objects in Newton’s equations, they were more complicated and
the earth and in the heavens. Only two objects though, were thought of as a mere mathematical oddity.
as even with three, the mathematics becomes Unfortunately for humanity the equations were (with a
insurmountably difficult. few simple changes) the same as Schrodinger’s wave
The product of this new structure of functions that are now used in quantum physics. We
belief in the nature of the universe was that everything could have been hundreds of years ahead of where we
seemed to behave like clockwork. Everything are now in terms of scientific knowledge and our
happened according to a predictable set of rules, the understanding of the universe.
universe being a massive conglomeration of objects;
all of which obeyed those rules. The free choice they

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2 .2 A HOOLLEE INN THHEE BUUCCKKEETT rope to unwind, we find that for a time, when the
bucket initially turns, that the water does not. Then as
the friction of the water molecules on the sides of the
bucket increases, the water also begins to turn,
Writing in Principia in 1686, Sir Isaac Newton
eventually at the same pace as the bucket.
described a simple experiment, which to him seemed
When this is happening, the spinning
to validate his theory that there was a universal frame
motion of the water causes it to gather at the sides of
of reference. Newton imagined hanging a bucket filled
the bucket due to the centrifugal force acting upon it.
with water from a rope, the rope being twisted prior to
This is the same force that pushes you towards the
tying to the bucket.
right if you make a sharp left turn in a car. This force
is due to the inertia of objects; the tendency of all
things to continue in their current state of motion
unless acted on by an external unbalanced force.
Once the bucket stops turning, it takes a
while for the friction on the bucket's surface to slow
Illustration i Newton's Bucket the water's motion. When this has been achieved, full
circle has been reached.

Newton then describes what happens; at


first, the bucket is not moving and nor is the water
inside it. Once we let go of the bucket and allow the

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State of Bucket Water Relative Concave
System Moving Moving Motion Surface

1 No No No No
2 Yes No Yes No
3 Yes Yes No Yes
Illustration ii Bucket Water Progressive States 4 No Yes Yes Yes

Newton explained that the concave shape As we can see from the table
of the water proved that the water 'knew' that it was above, the relative motion of both bucket and water
rotating. But science now knows that there is no has no bearing on the water 'knowing' that it is
universal co-efficient and no universal frame of turning.
reference. So what is the water rotating relative to? In the eighteenth century, philosopher
Not the bucket, although to the water the bucket is the George Berkley argued that the water knew it was
source of friction that seeks to disturb the inertial rotating because of it's position relative to the rest of
properties of the water's movement. the known universe, which at the time meant (what
was thought to be) the fixed positions of the stars.
We now know the true extent of the
visible universe, and we know the stars are not in
fixed positions, but his supposition still holds; the
water's surface is concave if it rotates with reference

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to the rest of the known universe. 2 .3 ELLEECCTTRROOM
MAAG
GNNEETTIISSM
M
This gives all things the curious property
of being able to instantaneously determine their
position relative to everything else in the entire
The scientist James Maxwell united the
universe, whereupon they act according to this
known theories regarding electricity with those of
knowledge. But is that truly the case?
magnetism. Basically, he worked out that electrons
As we get on to describing gravity and
moving along metal caused a magnetic field, and that
space-time, we will see what actually does happen in
a piece of metal moving through a magnetic field
this and every other case of relative motion.
caused an electric current. His theories showed that
electromagnetic waves travelled at a fixed and never
changing speed; the same as light. These waves could
also self-propagate, i.e. the magnetic field created the
electric field, and vice versa.

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2 .4 REELLAATTIIVVIITTYY

Einstein had a problem with this. He asked


himself what would happen if he tried to catch up with
Illustration iii Electromagnetic Spectrum a beam of light. Newton’s laws require that we can,
but that would require that light can become
From this he rightly deduced that light stationary, which it can’t.
was just one part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The What he came up with as a result of such
most important part for us to consider is that speculation was his theory of relativity. Relativity
electromagnetic waves, which include light, never concerns the relative movement of two points in
stop, and never slow down. space, through time. For example, the dashboard of a
car appears to be stationary for the driver, but for the
pedestrian the dashboard is moving.
Depending upon the different points of
observation, the perception of an observer moving
Illustration iv Self-propagating Electromagnetic Wave
through space and time is different. Where time and
space were once thought to be separate, they were
now being presented as one and the same entity -
space-time.

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If I drive past you in your parked car, (we light. You will get no closer, ever. How can this be
both have the same model car and we are both so? When you are travelling through space, you slow
waving) you will see that my car is slightly shorter, down in time. Or alternatively, when you move
and that I will be moving (waving) slightly slower. through space, space stretches. Therefore, movement
But I will see that it is your car that is slightly shorter, distorts space-time.
and it is you that is moving slower. Motion warps In order to help visualise how all of this
space-time. relativity stuff works, we will consider a very simple
If I throw a ball at you at 67kmph and clock. In essence, it is two mirrors placed facing each
you run away at 10kmph, and you turn to look at the other, with a single light particle bouncing from one
ball, you will see it coming at you at 57kmph. side to the other.
But, if you were in a spaceship and I fired
my photon beam at you from my stationary ship at
670 million miles an hour, and you ran away at 100
million miles an hour, you would expect to turn back
and see the light approaching at 570 million miles an
hour. But it doesn’t. You will see the photon beam
Illustration v Stationary Photon Clock
approaching at 670 million miles an hour.
So, what happens when you run after a
beam of light? Nothing. No matter how fast you try to It takes one second for the particle to
go, it will always be travelling away at the speed of travel from point a to point b and back again. Because
a photon will always travel at the speed of light, this
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device would be the most accurate clock ever made. would not be “ticking” at all. As the speed of light is
So long as the clock is the point of constant, the photon cannot move up and down.
reference, i.e. it is considered to be stationary, it will
always take one second to travel a, b, a.

Illustration vii Light Speed Photon Clock

Illustration vi Moving Photon Clock For the stationary observer, time has
stopped for the clock, but from the point of view of
If we have another clock and we move it the clock, time has stopped for the “stationary”
across the page, we note that as well as the up-down observer, and it still ticks once each second. In this
motion, the photon also has to travel from left to right. case, all of the clock’s motion through time is taken up
From our perspective, it has taken longer than a moving through space. From this we can extrapolate
second to achieve a, b, a, as the distance the photon that any object can only move through space-time at
travels is longer, even though the photon is travelling the speed of light. Any occasion an object moves
at light speed. So, when the clock is moving relative to through space, it borrows from its motion through
us, for us it seems to have slowed down in time. time.
In fact, if we moved the clock across the Because a photon travels at the speed of
page at the speed of light, we would see that the clock light through space, it cannot actually move through

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time. Every photon that exists, no matter when it was 2 .5 GRRAAVVIITTYY INN MOOTTIIOONN
created, never ages. In fact, this is so for everything in
the electromagnetic spectrum, and all mass-less
particles.
Whenever you are moving, everything
that appears to be moving past you (relative to your
position) slows down in time. As we now know, this is
because motion warps the space-time continuum -
much in the same way as a boat forms a wave on its
bow as it moves through water.
Another occurrence that causes a warping
of space-time is gravity. We know that there is a
gravitational field around all objects with mass. And
we know that this force increases with the amount of
mass, but decreases with distance. Also, where an
object moves through space, this movement causes a
change in the gravitational field. From this we can see
that there is a link between gravity and motion.
If you are in an elevator on the 100th
floor, and the cable breaks, you will fall, and you will
feel no gravity. Your motion through space causes a

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gravitational effect, which cancels out the one caused time, which is the speed of light. Moving through
by the mass of the earth. On the other hand, if you space causes slower motion through time, until at the
were to take off in a rocket, the gravitational field speed of light, there is no motion through time relative
caused by it’s take-off is added to the one caused by to the rest of the universe. If an object with mass
the earth. moving through space cannot ever reach the speed of
As an object with mass travels ever closer light, it must be spending some of it’s energy having
to the speed of light, it does a few things from the mass.
point of view of a stationary observer: That would mean that an object with
1) Its space contracts mass would cause time to pass slower within its field
2) Its time slows of influence -even when it is at rest! Which it does. So
3) It will get heavier what does this all mean? Well, I admit it may be
If an object ever reached the speed of becoming confusing, so we will describe the situation
light, its mass would become infinite, which can’t visually.
happen. But why can’t an object with mass reach the
speed of light? Well, consider this...
Everything has a certain amount of
energy, and that energy cannot be created nor Illustration viii Trampoline Bowling Ball

destroyed, regardless of that something having mass


or no mass. Imagine you have a trampoline. The
This energy is its motion through space- surface of the trampoline represents the space-time

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continuum. We have a bowling ball, which we put in it up into an orbit just like the satellites orbiting our
the middle of the trampoline, which represents the earth.
earth. We note that the trampoline surface stretches Remembering however that gravity is a
and warps around the bowling ball, just as mass and warping of space-time, the golf ball is actually
motion warps space-time. travelling in a straight line. It is just that the straight
line it is travelling in is actually bent around the earth.
When we put the bowling ball onto the
trampoline, the elastic surface warped slowly, not
Illustration ix Trampoline Golf Ball instantaneously. This is also a suitable part of the
analogy, as it has been shown by Einstein’s theories
Now imagine putting a golf ball on the and by experiment that the effect of gravity travels at
surface; it will move along the surface and crash into the speed of light. If the sun were to explode, its
the bowling ball, which is the same effect that gravity gravitational effect would begin to unravel at the
has. And just like gravity, the surface of “space” is speed of light. So when the light of the explosion
warped more nearer the bowling ball than it is further reached the earth, at that moment, and not before, the
away. Also, the heavier bowling ball bends space earth would depart from its orbit. Hence Newton's
more than the smaller mass of the golf ball. bucket is unaware of changes in the density or
Pretending that there is no friction, we properties of space-time immediately. Its 'awareness'
can see how if we rolled the golf ball towards the of the space-time continuum is limited and localized.
bowling ball and yet slightly askew to it, we could set Of course, it is easier to imagine space as

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being flat and constant, and to view gravity as a force,
not as bent space… But it may not truly be so.
When you throw a ball through the air, it
is travelling in a straight line. When you see it curve,
you are seeing the curvature of the space-time
continuum caused by the mass of the earth. As light
has no mass, this curvature does not affect its path
Illustration x Grid and Line
noticeably, except in the extreme case of a black hole,
where space itself is so warped that light is caught in
the warping of space-time around the black hole's Using the grid as a frame of reference, the
event horizon. line still appears straight. Viewed from any point
Another way to see this is to imagine a along the surface of our improvised bed-sheet-space,
bed sheet with a straight line drawn along it, and a space may appear straight, but it can be very warped,
grid drawn over the entire surface. Picture a basketball stretched, rolled up etc, and anything living in that
on the ground. Now imagine putting the bed sheet flat space would never know… everything to them would
on the ground with the line travelling over the appear straight. In the same way, for us the earth does
basketball. not appear to be travelling the ‘lip’ of warped space-
time, and gravity appears instead to be a force.
So we now have the following view of
the universe; every object or particle that exists is

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travelling through the space-time continuum at the motion can also be viewed as an effect of the warping
speed of light. Some of this energy may be used up to of space-time.
have mass, to move in space, or to move in time.
Movement through space in time or having mass
causes space-time to warp and bend.
But how does a particle use some of it’s Illustration xi Refraction Pyramid

space-time motion on having mass? What if we


considered mass as a folded up piece of space? That Therefore, when mass travels through a
would mean mass cannot reach the speed of light gravitational field, a folded space is travelling through
because it is already “travelling” - just like the slower a bend in space (because of a change in the thickness
flow of time within a gravitational field. Some of the of space), much like how light bends while travelling
energy of goes towards “travelling” through that through a prism (because of a change in density or
gravitational field in space and time, even at rest. refraction value of the medium the light or force
We can picture then that all of the travels through).
particles that exist and make up all of the stuff in the In theory, if particles are tiny areas of
universe are actually small knots in space, origami warped space-time then not only are they loops in
style. space, but also in time. That seems perfectly okay at
This means that all forces and particles first glance, but it actually mucks around with
are made of the same stuff. All forces and particles causality. An effect appears to follow a cause, with the
can be viewed as folded or warped space. In fact, cause always preceding an effect. If you muck around

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with causality, you could get to the shops before you to consider.
left to go there. Theoretically, events in your future have
If a particle is a space-time loop, (as affected how you came to be where you are today just
proposed by physicist Mark Hadley; Einstein and as much as has your past. Some physicists reject this
other physicists following this line of thought refused idea because it challenges their notion of linear time,
to violate causality by considering the ‘time’ in space- which is the theory that a ‘cause’ is always followed
time) then a particle can not only be affected by an by an ‘effect’. However, we don’t get the choice of
event in it’s past, but also by one in it’s future. It can informing the universe how it should operate; we have
be argued that this situation serves to unite the general to accept it whichever way it is.
theory of relativity with quantum physics on a
fundamental level. The uncertainty with which we
would be able to determine the exact position of a
particle using relativity and ‘space-time-loop-
particles’ means that we cannot say for sure what
future events are influencing the current moment. In
this case, the universe then has an inherent
probabilistic tendency.
Despite the resistance in the scientific
community, this time looping is explicitly allowed by
the theory of relativity; it’s just that it’s uncomfortable

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2 .6 WAAVVEESS describes the height from the crest to the trough. It is
the distance your hand travels in the up-down motion.
Wavelength describes the distance between two
troughs or crests etc.
There are three terms used to describe waves;
A guitar string works much the same
frequency, amplitude, and wavelength. Imagine tying
way. The higher the frequency (wavelengths per
a rope at one end to a pole, and holding the other end
second) of a sound, the higher the note we hear. The
of the rope in your hand. Now imagine walking away
amplitude is how hard or soft the string is plucked,
so the rope is taught but not overly tight, and picture
and corresponds to loudness.
yourself moving the end of the rope you are holding
up and down.

Illustration xii Wave Attributes

The frequency aspect describes how often


one wavelength passes a point each second. This is
how frequently your hand travels up down. Amplitude

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2 .7 PRROOBBLLEEM known that each wave must have a whole number of
MA C OV
ATTIIC VEEN
NSS
crests and troughs, there are an infinite number of
wavelengths possible inside the oven; ones with more
peaks and more troughs. And an infinite number of
th
Using 19 century thermodynamics,
wave patterns carrying a finite energy still equates to
physics determined how much energy the hot walls of
infinite energy.
an oven would pump out into electromagnetic waves
for each allowed wavelength.
In this situation, we are discussing only
electromagnetic heat radiation, not convection heat as
is passed on by hot air. So for this example, the oven
is assumed to be in a vacuum.
The result they found is simple; each of
the waves, regardless of their wavelength, has exactly
the same amount of energy, which is governed by the
temperature of the oven. So if the wavelength of a
wave was smaller, the amplitude or the frequency Illustration xiii Different Frequency Waves

increased so that each wave still carries the same


amount of energy. For any given temperature, 19th century
This seems perfectly fine and indeed it thermodynamics gave an infinite result for the amount
makes sense. But the problem is, although it was of energy in the oven, which is quite simply wrong.

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Let us consider this by imagining that an every person has only one denomination of currency -
infinite number of people are living in a residential all the way up to $1, $2, $5, $10 notes, $20 notes and
block. The people here are representing each of the $50 dollar notes …
infinite wavelengths available in the oven. Now, the The denomination of currency equates to
landlord has put in a central heating unit, so that if each wavelength having the same frequency. At any
anyone wants the heating system on, it must be on for one point in time, the frequency of a wave is constant.
everyone. The landlord grandly informs you when you So each person in this analogy should rightfully have
move in that he charges $1 for each degree that the only one denomination of currency.
heating is set at, and that everyone has to pay that Then, you confidently set the thermostat
amount. at 30C, and wait for the landlord. When he comes, the
But the landlord can’t be bothered giving person with one cent coins gives him 3000, 2c hands
an infinite amount of people change, so he works on over 1500 coins, 5c gives 600, 10c gives 300, and so
an honour system. People who can pay the exact on until the person with $10 notes hands over three
amount do so, and others just pay as much as they can notes, the person with $20 gives one note, and nobody
without requiring any change. else has to pay. So instead of receiving an infinite
So, you want to have the heat on for amount of money, the landlord walks away with only
everyone, but you want to avoid the excessive cost as $330.00c.
well. You organise things so that one person has all
the one cent pieces, another has all the 2c pieces,
another has all the 5’s, another the 10’s etc, so that

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2 .8 QUUAANNTTAA the oven. A large frequency means a shorter
wavelength, which means a larger minimum energy,
while a smaller frequency means larger wavelength
and smaller minimum energy.
In 1900, Maxwell Planck did much the same as
So while there are an infinite number of
this with the problem of the infinitely hot oven. He
waves with an infinite number of energy, only some of
simply assumed that energy comes in discrete little
them can contribute to the total energy. This is
lumps, and that you can have one lump or two (or
because if the smallest minimum energy (frequency) is
more), but that you can never have half a lump of
too large, it is bigger than the energy that the wave can
energy. Fractions, he said, were not allowed.
carry (which is set by the temperature, which is the
He decried that the size of the lumps is
representative of the amplitude).
directly related to the frequency of the wave, while the
By changing just one parameter in his
amplitude of the wave determines the wave's total
equations by adding a constant, Planck found he could
energy (which is in turn determined by the
accurately determine the amount of energy in an oven
temperature of the oven). The size of the lumps that
for any given temperature.
the total energy of each wave has is determined by the
This number is now known as Planck’s
frequency of the wave (like our denomination of
constant, and it is approximately
currency in the analogy).
0.000000000000000000000000000001 or consequently
More specifically, he said that the
around one thousandth of one billionth of one billionth
minimum energy a wave can have is proportional to
of the size of the nucleus of an atom, which in itself
its frequency, and the amplitude is set for all waves in

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incredibly small. Which in turn means that the sizes of being determined by the frequency or colour of light.
the energy lumps for a wavelength are typically very The different colour being shone determines the speed
small. of the ejected electrons. The intensity of the light
That is why we do not hear the change in determines the total number of ejected electrons.
volume (amplitude) of a plucked guitar string change
in discrete steps as it really does; our ears cannot pick
up the small changes, as they are not sensitive enough.
This number changes much that we hold
to be self evident, but it’s smallness confines these
changes to the incredibly small realms, just as the
enormity of the speed of light confines relativity to the
realm of the really big.
Einstein later used Planck’s lumpy
description of energy to describe the photoelectric
effect, which is the effect produced when you shine
light at a metal surface. When this is done, electrons
are ejected from the surface. It is this effect that gives
us solar power. Einstein used Planck’s guess of
quantised energy to assume that light particles -
photons - also came in discrete lumps, those lumps

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2 .9 WAAVVEE ORR PAARRTTIICCLLEE?

Around the 1800’s, a debate between scientists Illustration xiv Double Slit Experiment Set-up
was going on about whether light was composed of
tiny clumps of matter, or whether light was a wave.
If one slit was open, and light was a
Both theorems appeared to be correct within their own
particle, we would assume that just like firing a
context.
machine gun at a house with an open front door,
In the early 1800’s, scientist Thomas
where the bullets would hit the wall inside the house
Young devised an experiment called the double slit
in one line - the light particles would make a white
experiment. With this experiment began the second
line on the photographic plate behind the paper.
wave of quantum physics, and everyone’s notions of
And this does happen.
reality got turned upside down.
With light, the experiment is really very
simple. It consists of a light source, a piece of paper
with one or two slits, and a photographic plate. Later
and similar experiments have shown that all particles
behave in the same manner as light does in this
experiment.

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help explain this, imagine moving two of your fingers
through the surface of water. Just as a pebble thrown
in a pool makes ripples on the surface, so would your
fingers.
Illustration xv Double Slit Experiment One Slit

Similarly, if light were a particle, we


would expect that with both slits open, the particles
travelling through the slits in the paper would leave Illustration xvii Trough Meets Crest

two white lines on the photographic plate.


Where two crests meet each other, they
will double their height. Where two troughs meet, they
will double in depth. And where a trough meets a
crest, they will cancel each other out. This is exactly
what happens in the double slit experiment and it is
Illustration xvi Double Slit Experiment 2 Slits False known as an interference pattern.

But this does not happen.


What we find is that the photographic
plate has alternating bands of dark and light lines. To

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interference pattern.
Which is actually quite astonishing. It
means that each individual “particle” is going through
both slits, and interacting with itself to form an

Illustration xviii Double Slit Experiment 2 Slits True interference pattern - which requires an occasional
particle to cancel itself out before reaching the
receptor screen.
Newton’s view of light as being a particle
Conventional science tells us that even if
was destroyed, and the wave nature of light was
light is a wave, each wave packet travelling by itself
finally accepted later by all of the scientific
will either hit the paper, or travel through either the
community, when Maxwell published his findings on
left or the right slit, to produce two white lines on the
electromagnetism.
photographic plate. As when only one slit is open, we
However, using Planck’s model of
do get a white line on the photographic plate.
quantised energy, Einstein appeared to have
So why, when a particle that normally
resurrected the particle nature of light. So is light
would have gone through the left slit with the right slit
really a wave or a particle?
closed, would that same particle going through the left
If we dim the light source so that only
slit behave differently simply because the right slit is
one quanta or particle of light is emitted at any one
now open? In fact, how does the particle “know” that
time, and we wait until a sufficient amount of particles
the right slit is there, and how does it cancel itself out
are recorded by the photographic plate to show the
based on that knowledge?
pattern they fell in, we find that what we see is still the

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If we go back to the machine gun example, it is fire a photon upwards to meet the incoming photon
as if just by having two front doors, individually fired from the original light source. Sensitive detectors will
bullets shot one second apart from each other interact note any deviance of the vertically travelling particles
with themselves and often simply disappear. and we will know which slit the photon passed
Previously, I stated that all matter has a through.
wave/particle nature just like light. Using similar
experiments, the same results occur for all particles!
Roughly speaking, it is because of
Einstein/Planck’s work on quantised packets of energy
being deducible from the frequency of a wave, and
also because e=mc2, that matter should have a
wavelike nature. The wavelength of matter is Illustration xix Double Slit Experiment Sensor Array

proportional to Planck’s constant; the wavelength is


Planck’s constant divided by the matter’s momentum. But what happens is we get the two
As a result, the wavelength of matter is extremely individual white lines; the interference pattern
small. Also, as we saw earlier, motion and mass are as disappears. What is going on? When we are checking
inextricably linked as space and time. which slit the particle is going through, it seems to
So let us explore what occurs if we try to know we will soon check on it, and instead of
determine what slit the particle is going through. We interacting with itself as a wave it acts like a particle
put another weak light source below each slit, and we and chooses only one of the slits. Before we take a

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look at it. Got that? strikes the receptor screen) the interference pattern
When we are “looking” at the photon, it disappears.
stops behaving like a wave and instead acts like a
particle. Which is like covering a bowling alley lane
with sand, and rolling a ball down it. Then while you
are looking it leaves a straight line in the sand. But
then you look away, and it leaves a wave pattern in the
sand instead.

Illustration xx Bowling Alley Illustration xxi Double Slit Experiment Delayed Choice

In another experiment, known as the We have decided, when closing the slits,
delayed-choice experiment, the permanent slits are what path the particle would have taken in the past, at
replaced by ones that can be closed after an emitted the moment we view it in the future.
photon has passed the slits, but before it reaches the That’s like having the choice of driving
photographic plate. When the particle passes the home over two bridges, one leading you home in 5
screen, we now know that it passes as a probability minutes, the other getting you home in 15 minutes.
wave through both slits. But when it has already You choose the scenic route, being a nature lover. But
passed, and we then close one slit (before the particle when you’ve been driving for 5 minutes, a truck

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crossing the same bridge you crossed 5 minutes ago, would have otherwise occurred.
overturns… and you find yourself already home,
sitting on your lounge enjoying a cup of tea.
Thus we can decide, after the fact,
whether a photon behaved as a wave or as a particle.
This demonstrates the fact that elementary phenomena
do not exist as localized particles or waves until they
register by impacting upon a receptor.
If we made the chamber long enough, we
could let the light travel for even a year past the slits,
then close the blinds. Our choice will cause the
probability wave to collapse not just at that moment,
but continuing from that moment on into the past. But
the only pasts available to the particle are ones which
the present settings would have allowed, had those
settings been present at the time that the particle
would have been affected by them.
In other words, we can decide in any
given moment which past will have given rise to the
next moment - so long as we cannot know which past

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2 .1 0 PRROOBBAABBIILLIITTYY magnitude of the wave is large are places where the
electron is more likely to be found; where it is small,
there is less probability of it being found. According
to quantum mechanical theory and as described by 50
German physicist Max Born gave us a view of
years of experimental data, the universe must be
what was occurring in order for all particles to also be
described as having the fundamental property of being
waves. Basically, he introduced the concept of
probabilistic.
probability. His suggestion is extremely strange, but
nevertheless, it is borne out to be completely correct
by incredibly large amounts of experimental data.
Born proposed that along a particle’s
wavelength, there was a certain probability of it being
found in any given location at any given time. This is
Illustration xxii Particle Probability Distribution
not the kind of probability that we encounter in a
game of cards or a roll of a dice. In those cases,
probability reflects our lack of complete knowledge. If For large objects such as our bowling
we knew the exact forces, the density and shape of the ball, the smallness of the wave produced means that
surfaces, etc, we would with enough knowledge be the probability properties are so small as to be
able to use classical physics to determine the result. virtually negligible.
But in the case of a probability wave, we But at the level of particle physics, we
are saying that in the places where the square of the can determine with complete accuracy the probability

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of a certain outcome occurring. And if the experiments
are carried out time and time again, the results
coincide precisely with theory. This theory became
possible with the evolution of Born’s probability wave
into Schrodinger’s wave function, which describes the
shape and evolution of the probability waves, or as
they are also called, wave functions.
For simplicity, imagine a particle that has
Illustration xxiii Particle Probable Paths
a wave function that has two positions that are
available, each of 50% probability. We also assume
The path the particle can take means there
the universe is two-dimensional; there is no up or
is a 12.5% chance of it ending up at any of the above
down. If we fire the particle at a sensor, we are able to
positions. When the particle touches the sensor, the
determine the probable results.
probability becomes 1 as the wave function collapses.
Quantum theory shows that in fact, the
particle can, and does take all possible paths available
to it, until the moment we interact with it. At that point
it either chooses to have had one path, or as an
alternative perspective, we can view only one of many
parallel dimensions that are endlessly branching away
from each other.

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Looking back on the 2-slit experiment 2 .1 1 HAALLFF ANN ELLEECCTTRROONN
with sensor particles, we see we have interacted with
the photon right after it passes through the slits.
Instead of taking all possible paths to the photographic
In 1920, Erwin Schrodinger discovered the
plate, it must then choose one possible course, and its
equations governing the evolution of probable
probability wave as described by Born can no longer
positions over time that a particle could have, thus
interact with itself. Places in its probability wave can
enabling us to determine at any time the exact
no longer cancel each other out, which explains why
probability of finding that particle in any given place.
the interference pattern disappears.
These equations are called wave
functions, and they have the curious property of
‘allowing’ or ‘predicting’ that particles, obeying this
wave-like property, can bend around obstacles in the
same way that sound (also a wave) travels around a
soundproof wall. Despite exhibiting this property,
theorists always assumed that Schrodinger’s wave
functions were only a mathematical representation of
events.
However, Physicist Humphrey Maris
declared 80 years later that an electron can be split
into two halves, each behaving just like a half-

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electron, with half its electric charge, etc. 2 .1 2 MAANNYY WOORRLLDDSS, MAANNYY
Regardless of wether an electron is made
up of yet smaller particles (i.e. every electron could
MIINNDDSS
possibly be made up of two ‘electroeneis’), this
statement has surprising connotations.
What Maris is actually saying is, the thing If you have trouble accepting that a particle can
that can be cut in half is the electron’s wave function, interact with itself, there is a somewhat more palatable
leaving two exactly identical but smaller electron version of events on the offer. According to the many
wave functions. worlds school of thought, every time a particle can be
somewhere, it is. Which means that the places within
the particle’s probability wave actually contain one
version of the particle, one of the many versions
endlessly branching into many parallel universes.
Therefore the particle in the two-slit experiment is
Illustration xxiv Probability Wave Split
actually interacting with another copy of itself in a
reality very close to ours.
So a wave function of an electron is in So does this translate into the
fact an electron, and therefore all particles do not just macroscopic world? If it does, it means that if we look
have a property of being probabilistic; they are at a chair, we are seeing one copy of that chair, which
probability waves! in parallel universes may be somewhere else close by

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in spatial terms. So why don’t we ever see more than “particle”, we can end up asking some peculiar
one chair? Well, in another universe in which we do questions. Such as, if a particle is a probability wave,
see more than one chair, the act of seeing the chair what actually happens when it “collapses”? We are
causes a different state of mind. Different photons condemned to only be able to see one possible
strike our eyes; different synapses fire, different cells manifestation of an evolving branch of possible
synchronise with recognition of the object being a probability waves, simply because of the act of
chair. So we do see many chairs, but we can only have observation.
one state of mind. We cannot be aware of the other It's like touching the leaf of a tree, only to
(parallel) mindstates. have the rest of the tree instantly disappear; leaving
This is comparable to a radio with it’s us holding a mere fragment of what we know is really
quartz crystal tuned to a single frequency, which does there.
not preclude the fact that another radio alongside it And what makes the particle collapse?
can be tuned to a different station or frequency of We know that Schrodinger’s wave functions describe,
radio-waves which occupy the same airspace. The not just predict the evolution of the wave-like nature
radio doesn’t play two stations at once because it of probability. We know that we can use these
resonates only to one frequency on the radio-wave equations to determine with absolute precision the
section of the electromagnetic spectrum at any one most probable place on a screen where a particle will
time. land. We do not know which of the probable points it
Looking back at the probability wave of a will land on in each separate and singular occasion,
particle actually being the true essence of the but we do know that if we repeat the experiment many

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times, we will see a distribution of points that exactly All of a sudden, reality is no longer as
match predictions. solidly defined as it used to be.
So what mechanism determines what part
of an actual probability wave (which we now know is
the true nature of all “particles”) which we see in our
version of reality? What actually determines how the
wave function collapses, or appears to us in our reality
to collapse?
We know that a pin balancing exactly on
its point can and does fall in all directions. Does
interaction with any other particle cause it fall in one
direction only? All other particles are also probability
waves, so the answer to that is no. The only thing that
definitively determines the point of 'collapse' of
probability is the act of observation.
It could even be said that particle
physicists working with a particle accelerator actually
determine which of the possible versions of events
'happened' when they look at the computer screen and
observe the results.

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2 .1 3 UNNCCEERRTTAAIINNTTYY PRRIINNCCIIPPLLEE

What seems to be an issue with quantum physics


is that we can only observe the path of a particle by Illustration xxv Particle Uncertainty Principle

throwing another particle at it. Which makes the study


of their motion difficult. It’s as if every time we look High frequency short wavelength photons
at an object we cause it to deflect from its path. Which will tell us where the electron is with great precision.
would be fun for a while, but it would certainly make If we use low frequency, long wavelength particles we
picking things up problematic. minimise disturbance with regard to the electron’s
The harder we were to hit a particle the direction, but we know less about where it is along the
more we would know about it’s position but the less wavelength.
we could know about it’s direction. Even if we dim In short we cannot, regardless of the
the light, we can only use a minimum of one quanta or experiment used, know both of these features with
one particle. If we use a different frequency (colour) complete precision.
of light, it will pack even less of a punch and make This is known as Hiesenberg’s
even less of a disturbance to the original particle. We Uncertainty Principle. Einstein challenged this
know this because the minimum energy of a particle is principle, saying that the particle does have a definite
proportional to its frequency - plank’s law. motion and position, but that it is a limit of our
abilities alone to make measurements that determines
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that we could not know both position and direction longer to perform.
with total accuracy. As for quantum tunnelling, it seems that
However, recent experiments have shown the energy a particle can have can fluctuate so long as
otherwise. Imagine having a container that houses a it is for a very short time. As this is an intrinsic part of
single particle. Now imagine that the container is the universe, it is allowed. The universe allows a
continually shrinking. As the walls get ever closer, the particle to borrow energy so long as it can give it back
particle will become more and more excited as it within a time frame governed by Hiesenberg’s
bounces off the walls more and more often. We are uncertainty principle.
defining where the particle is, so we can know less This extra energy increases the frequency
about where it is going. As the container gets so small or wavelength of the particle. Which increases the size
that we would soon know both the position and the of the wave function, increasing the probable positions
velocity of the particle, which would be zero, the the particle can have, until the wave function can take
particle will do something known as quantum the particle outside of the container.
tunnelling. It simply transports itself outside of the This does not happen for a ball thrown at
container. a wall, as all of the particle’s probability waves must
This shows that the uncertainty principle all borrow energy simultaneously. The odds of this
is in fact an intrinsic part of nature. Hiesenberg also happening while non-zero are certainly not likely.
showed that his uncertainty principle applied to energy
measurements and how long it took to take the
measurements. Accurate measurements of energy take

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2 .1 4 QUUAANNTTUUM magnetic field, their magnetic charge, mass, spin,
M CEER
RTTA
AIIN
NTTIIEESS
strong and weak charges can be deduced. These
particles fit into three families, and have the following
properties.

Particle accelerators throw particles together at


extremely high speeds and observe the resulting tracks
left by their passing.

Illustration xxvi Particle Accelerator Pattern

The particles leave a line of dots because


Illustration xxvii Fundamental Particle Properties
we cannot know both their position and velocity, and
they appear to fold and unfold from their probability
wave functions. By the path the particles take within a Quantum Physics has been able to deduce

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the above amounts except gravity. If you have noticed
particles such as the neutron and the proton are
missing, it is because they are made up from other
particles such as the quark.
Illustration xxviii Force Particle Properties
There are also (not included) antimatter
particles such as the positron, which has all the
opposite attributes to the electron. A close look at The universe is full of such particles
these particles shows that they appear to be travelling jumping in and out of existence. This roiling of
through the universe in reverse time. One theory also potential throughout 'empty' space is called quantum
predicts ‘mirror’ particles, but we won’t go into that foam. It is enough for us here to simply appreciate that
here, as there a copious amounts of books in print that it is so.
discuss things in much more detail than we need to. Why only those particles? Why do the
The force particles spontaneously particles of mass and force have the values and
materialise due to the uncertainty principle. They attributes that they have, and not any other? Why three
borrow energy from the universe, and can travel a families of particles? Why four forces? Why not
certain distance depending on how much energy they something else?
need to exist, which is their mass. After this time they Quantum physics has been able to
must return and give back their energy. This is why describe interactions of all matter particles and all
the weak force is confined to the nucleus of the atom; force particles except gravity. These equations that
they are 'heavy' force particles. have been developed are somewhat of a “kludge”
though, and involve putting in answers known from
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experimental evidence, and also putting infinity into the observed mass of the particle is correct.
both sides of equations etc in a process called Perhaps the reason quantum physicists
renormalization. So while they work enough to get have been unable to locate the graviton is because of
answers, they fail to show how the forces actually the essentially weak nature of the force. It is so weak
work. in fact, that it takes so little energy to create that the
For example, two electrons travelling past particle can theoretically travel the length of the
each other will each emit a photon. The photon is the universe and back before having to pay back the
messenger particle of the electromagnetic force, and energy it borrowed from the uncertainty principle in
borrows energy from the uncertainty principle to order to exist in the first place.
interact with the other electron via its probability
wave, causing both electrons to repel each other.
However, the virtual photon can in turn emit another
virtual electron, which can in turn emit another virtual
photon, etc. Before the process of normalization, the
energy of an electron and it’s associated
photon/electron cloud is, or theoretically can be,
infinite. This implies an infinite observed mass. This
is solved by giving each electron (or another type of
mass particle that is emitting another force messenger
particle) a virtually infinite negative mass. Therefore

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2 .1 5 QUUAANNTTUUM answer faster you need more sequential operations per
M CO
OMMPPU
UTTEER
RSS
second, and they will be processed in a linear fashion.
But a quantum computer is asked
questions in such a way that the quantum state (a
Quantum computer research is in its infancy. The
superposition of all possible states) of the fundamental
most powerful quantum computers built can so far
particles storing information as 1 and 0
only process a couple of bits, compared to millions of
simultaneously can only return the correct answer.
millions of bits processed by current desktop
Therefore, the computer in the reality that
computers. However, if they can be made to work,
considers the incorrect response cannot return a value;
they would be able to almost instantly compute
the only probability that can be returned from the
problems that would take all the normal computers in
specially constructed questions is the correct one.
existence longer than the predicted lifetime of the
Hence the quantum computer considers all possible
universe.
answers at the same time, simultaneously (1 and 0).
Quantum computers would in theory
Observing the answer collapses the probability wave
divine this extraordinary computational ability by
and returns the only correct answer available, given
using infinite numbers of alternate realities. They
the terms of the question.
would be able to harness the computing power of
Even the very limited ability of current
other versions of themselves in parallel universes.
quantum computers to process information is still an
A normal computer can only work on one
amazing feat; they harness the computing power of
bit at a time, in terms of yes or no, 0 or 1. They
parallel universes.
process information in sequence, so if you want an

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Or, to look at it another way, quantum 2 .1 6 QUUAANNTTUUM
M
computers are mankind’s first success at using the
whole probability wave, before the wave 'collapses'
ENNTTAANNGGLLEEM
MEEN
NTT
and presents us with only one of its many faces.
We touch the leaf, and for the briefest of
moments, the tree remains. Einstein, as we have previously commented,
disagreed with Quantum Physics on just about
everything. His finest objection was made in concert
with two other physicists, Podolsky and Rosen. This
objection became known as the Einstein-Podolsky-
Rosen (EPR) paradox, and many physicists saw it as a
major hurdle to Quantum Physics. As Schrodinger
himself said, “You have publicly caught quantum
mechanics by the throat.”
So, what was their objection all about?
Entanglement. If two particles are created together in
the same collision, or interact with each other at any
level, then their state of being is linked. In short, if we
measure the momentum of one of the particles, we
know the momentum of the other particle. However, it

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was assumed that by measuring the first particle, we
do not affect the second in any way.
They assumed that just like Newton’s
bucket, locality was at work. When measured, the first
Illustration xxix Photon Polarization
particle could not pass the information of having been
observed in a certain state to the second particle
instantly, by having no regard to the separation of According to the orthodox presentation of

distance or the limits imposed by the speed of light. quantum physics, the particle exists in a superposition

The experiment used to confirm of all three available polarizations until we look at it,

Einstein’s “spooky action at a distance” was where a at which point the probability wave function

positron and an electron collide, and cancel each other 'collapses' and it must choose one polarization only.

out. According to quantum mechanics, the two At the same time, the other photon's wave function

photons that are emitted as a result of this interaction also collapses; it must assume one of the other two

will be tangled. This entanglement can be measured states.

within the context of the photon's polarization. By this When we measure the polarization of the

we mean the angle of the wave of the particle as it first photon, we can only ask its state in a limited way.

propagates through space. We can ask the photon if it is polarized vertically; we


will then either know if it is polarized vertically or if it
is not polarized vertically. If it is polarized vertically,
there is a 50/50 chance the other photon will be
polarized either horizontally or diagonally.

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But if we know the first photon is “not
vertical”, then it might be horizontal. If it is, the
second particle will be vertical or diagonal.
Alternatively, if the first particle is diagonal, the
second could be horizontal or vertical. There are Illustration xxx Particle Creation Chamber, Measures Polarization

therefore four possibilities open to the second particle


if the first is “not vertical”. Two of these states are We can ask the particles if one is vertical
vertical, so if the first particle is “not vertical”, there is or not, and if the other is horizontal or not.
a 50% chance of the second particle being vertical, Alternatively, we can ask if the first particle is
and a 25% chance each of the second particle being diagonal or not, and if the second particle is vertical or
horizontal or diagonal. not. By asking these and similar questions repeatedly,
So the experiment that was composed to a statistical pattern will develop. We will know
determine wether two photons choose their exactly how often one photon is vertical, and the other
polarization at the moment of their creation, or wether is not horizontal, one is not diagonal and the other is
they choose their polarization at the moment they are horizontal, one is not horizontal and the other is not
viewed, goes something like this. vertical, etc.
One statistical pattern developing would
have proved that the common sense view expressed by
Einstein would have been correct, and non-locality
would have been sunk.

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But nobody told the universe it had to What this means is that when we collapse
follow common sense... The statistical pattern that the probability wave of a particle, we also instantly
develops proves that the particles choose their collapse the probability wave of any and all particles
polarization at the moment the first photon is that it is entangled with, regardless of where those
observed. In other words, situation A occurs less particles are in the universe.
frequently than situation B. Viewed in terms of the many worlds
Sounds ok, but whereas commonsense interpretation of quantum physics, this becomes much
says that the amount of female teenagers in the world easier to understand; when we force a particle to
is less than the amount of all males plus female choose a state of being by viewing it, we actually view
teenagers combined; this experiment is like saying that it in every state, but can only be aware of one reality,
there are actually more female teenagers in the world or one state of mind. Thus the reality we become
than there are teenage girls and men of all ages aware of is the one in which the particle is in the state
combined. Makes me sympathise with Einstein's we view. Thus, any other particles in the universe
objections! whose states are determined by the state of the viewed
Nobody yet knows what this failure of particle, must also go from a multidimensional
common sense over non-locality means, and what the superimposed state, to a singular, uni-dimensional
consequences are, but as Physicist Daniel Greenberger state of being, and they must all do so at the same
said, “'Einstein said that if quantum mechanics were time.
correct, then the world would be crazy. Einstein was It is no longer “spooky action at a
right – the world is crazy”. distance”, but an understandable collapse of parallel

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realities caused by a singular state of mind. The truly 2 .1 7 REELLAATTIIVVEE QUUAANNTTUUM
M
important aspect of this, from my point of view, is that
yet again we see that the wave functions of all
UNNCCEERRTTAAIINNTTIIEESS
particles are their true state, in all realities they can be
in. And when the singular ability of our minds to
experience reality causes the collapse of those When in theory quantum physics is combined
realities, that collapse is uniform across our perceived with relativity, any and all equations foretell infinity.
reality. Which means (just like the “hot oven” problem that
led scientists to the quantum nature of energy) that
quantum physics or relativity is ultimately flawed.
Also, whenever quantum physics is used to describe
distances under Planck length, or in gravitational
fields, it fails as well.
It is as if the principle of light that applies
to a microscope is different to the principle that
applies to a telescope! Quantum physics and relativity
show us the very small of Planck’s constant and the
very large of the speed of light. But like the principles
of optics and light, the principles that apply should be
exactly the same.

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2 .1 8 THHEE BIIGG BAANNGG lithium, deuterium and helium formed. The
temperature was about one billion degrees.
For the next hundred thousand years, the
universe expanded and cooled, but not much else
15 billion years ago, the universe appeared in an
happened. When the temperature was a few thousand
enormous explosion. From this explosion came all
degrees, electrons slowed down enough that hydrogen
energy, matter, space, and even time. Because there
and helium nuclei captured them. Prior to this, the
was no space or time at the bang, you could say that
positively charged nuclei and negatively charged
no matter where you are right now, there is where it
electrons were dense plasma. Photons were bumped
happened. At 10(-43) seconds or Planck time, the
and jostled around, not going very far at all before
universe was about ten trillion trillion times hotter
being absorbed. The universe at the time would have
than the deepest part of our sun.
been opaque. But when electrons began being
About one hundred thousandth of a
absorbed by nuclei, the fog lifted and from that time
second after the bang, the temperature was about a
the universe has been 'visible'.
million times hotter than the sun’s interior. Things
A billion years into it’s creation, galaxies,
were cool enough for clumps to start to form out of the
stars and ultimately planets began to form. The
cosmic plasma.
universe is some 15 billion years of age.
One hundredth of a second later, the
That is the big bang theory. But as we
nuclei of the lightest of the elements in the periodic
will see, it has some holes in it.
table began to form out of the congealing plasma. For
When you pump up a bike tyre, the inner
the next three minutes, the nuclei of hydrogen,

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tube heats up as the pressure increases. In the same 2 .1 9 THHEE HOORRIIZZOONN PRROOBBLLEEM
M
way, as the universe cools, the photons that were
being formed at the beginning of the universe should
now be hanging around in the background at just a
The temperature of the background
few degrees above absolute zero.
radiation, no matter where you look in the universe, is
And indeed, the universe is full of
the same - to around one part in one thousandth of a
microwaves at about 2.7 degrees above absolute zero.
degree. Since, at the beginning of the universe, all
This is attributable to some of the snow that shows up
regions were very close, it seems that this is a
on your TV screen when it is tuned to a dead channel.
reasonable situation. When things were very close, the
temperature of the photons being emitted by the
clumps of plasma would have been evenly distributed.
This is because they would have been able to
communicate that heat easily, given that the distances
were small, right?
But second glance shows us this is not the
case. If we wind back the evolution of the universe
like pressing rewind on a video, we see where the
problem lies. The speed of light sets the maximum to
how fast any information can be transmitted. So there
is a time duration that we must consider as well as a

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distance that the photons must travel in order that they theory back past Planck time, and we begin to
could have transmitted the uniform temperature level. approach zero time, distance becomes zero, and
Considering only two locations that exist density and temperature become infinite. But if
in the universe today that have uniform temperature, density and temperature were infinite, then they would
and giving that they were at one point say, 186 miles still be infinite today. Infinity divided by anything is
apart, we must go to merely one second after the bang. still infinity. So the big bang model of the universe has
But at this point, light would require a whole second truly broken down.
to traverse the distance between the two points. Which There are many other problems with the
would take us to two seconds after the bang. So the big bang theory, and no matter how hard physicists try
heat would not be so constant. and add to their theory, nor how long they wait for
Rewinding further, until all points in the some piece of observation to occur to validate their
universe were a maximum of 186 miles apart takes us failing theory, their ideas are not born from
to less than a thousandth of a second after the bang, observation; they are idealisations of how the universe
and the same situation occurs; they can’t affect each should behave, according to them. They even try and
other in that time. At no point, then, have the say that the speed of light was different in the
conditions been right for sufficient thermal contact to beginning. Like the Catholic Church, they hold to
have been able to cause such a uniform temperature tradition and turn a blind eye to any factual
for the background radiation that is currently evident observations that would cause them to have to re-
in our universe. evaluate their beliefs.
If we take the model of the big bang

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2 .2 0 what is known as a coupling constant, which defines
SSU R STTR
UPPEER RIIN
NGG TH
HEEO
ORRY
Y
how they may interact. It is these properties of string
theory that cause the problems for it being able to
accurately describe the universe. This is simply
Physicists have been developing string theory for
because it is unknown how the dimensions are curled
the past 30 years in answer to the questions that pop
up, how stiff the strings are, etc. Differences in these
up due to inconsistencies and incompatibilities with
values will lead to string theory describing a different
quantum physics and relativity.
yet equally valid universe, but not this universe.
Basically, the most current form of string
The mathematics is also running behind
theory has a few distinct requirements that are vastly
the theory in this case. Just as Einstein would have had
different from any theories that have previously
a hard time explaining his theory of relativity without
existed.
geometry, it is easy to appreciate the difficulties of
String theory requires that everything
geometry involving 11 or more spatial dimensions…
existing be made up out of small vibrating loops of
Because of this, only approximations of the theories
string (and not of atoms or particles or waves of
are known, and those approximations have only been
energy). Hence the name string theory. These strings
partially solved.
are mathematically required to vibrate in ten spatial
The energies involved to experimentally
dimensions and one dimension of time.
prove the existence of strings in a particle accelerator
These extra dimensions are curled up so
would require being able to accelerate an elementary
tightly that we can’t experience them. The strings also
particle to such high speeds that it would weigh as
have a tension; that is, they are stiff. They also have

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much as bacteria. This is quite simply impossible for 2 .2 1 STTRRIINNGGSS
our current and foreseeable technology.
However, what string theory can tell us
about these make-believe universes can at least, by
Let us return to the table of matter and force
inference, tell us much about our own universe, and
particles shown previously; string theory maintains
the reasons that things are the way they are. Simply
that the values and properties of the particles -
spoken, there are many properties of string theory that
including spin, mass, electric charge, etc - are
are not directly reliant upon the unknown values,
determined by the precise resonance of the string as it
which can tell us reliably how things work.
vibrates in the ten spatial dimensions. Just as a guitar
string can have different notes for each string
depending on the number of wavelengths and hence
the resonance pattern of each different vibration.
A greater amplitude and shorter
wavelength thus means a high-energy particle.

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theory to provide a description of what gravity is, as
well as a comprehensive framework within which it
functions.

Illustration xxxi String Vibration Possibilities String theory is different from other
theories in that it says that elementary particles and
forces are all of the same material. Whereas previous
As we know, energy relates to mass, so the more
theories maintained that each particle was made of a
energetic a string - the more mass it has. The gentler it
“different stuff”. So what appear to be different
vibrates, the lighter it’s mass.
fundamental particles are in fact different notes on a
More obtuse reasoning applies to how a
string. Viewed this way, the universe is an enormous
string’s vibration determines it's electric charge, weak
cosmic symphony.
charge and strong charge. There are also strings that
apply to the forces themselves, and the way they
vibrate denotes the properties of each force.
Importantly, among the string vibrational patterns
available, one perfectly matches the graviton.
This is one of the biggest achievements of
string theory. Although it is retrogressive proof, one
can imagine that if string theory had come before
relativity or even Newton, it would have been a huge
discovery. It still is though, because it is the first

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2 .2 2 STTRRIINNGG STTIIFFFFNNEESSSS discrete units of energy. This means the particles,
according to string theory, should come in multiples of
this mass.
And they don’t. So how do we
Because scientists know the energy a graviton
commensurate this fact with the mass of a photon -
should have, they were able to retrogressively
which is zero?
determine the tension of the strings in string theory.
All objects undergo quantum jitter; if they did
Just as in the difference between the tension of a
not, we would know where they were, which would be
guitar string and the string of a piano. What they
in direct contradiction of the uncertainty principle. In
found is that even for the least energetic 'particle', the
effect, theory shows that the quantum jitter of the
tension of the string is one thousand billion billion
strings equates mathematically to an exact
billion billion tonnes. This extreme tension makes
cancellation of energy almost equal to the Planck
each individual string contract to a very small size;
mass. Which leaves us with an observed mass that we
being a Planck length, 10(-33) cm.
actually do find in reality. The vibrational patterns for
This appears to make problems for us.
the string that is a perfect candidate for the graviton
The enormous tension of a string means that the
force/messenger particle has energy cancellations that
energy of a string is equally huge; meaning the mass
are perfect, giving it a zero mass. Which is precisely
of a typical string-particle should be ten billion billion
what we expect, as the graviton travels at the speed of
times the mass of a proton; around the mass of a grain
light.
of sand. This is the minimum energy a particle can
Although it is possible for a particle to be
have (Planck mass); as we know, particles come in

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up to any number times the Planck mass, such strings 2 .2 3 QUUAANNTTUUM
M FO
OA M IN
AM N
would require a huge amount of energy to form; they
would also be inherently unstable and would
STTRRIINNGG THHEEOORRYY
ideologically decay into ever smaller string-particles.

Quantum physics had the failing that when it was


combined with relativity or investigated at below
Planck lengths, the space-time continuum became
violently distorted, creating such turbulence that we
begin to get infinite answers. This was due to the
spontaneous creation and annihilation of virtual
particles.
String theory does not have this problem.
Basically, the minimum energy a string can have
requires that the string be a minimum of a Planck
length. If we were to use this string in a particle
accelerator in an attempt to probe sub-planck lengths,
we would be unable to at the minimum energy. In fact,
even if we increased the energy of the string by
increasing it’s velocity (velocity is mass times speed)

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we would only make the string larger. 2 .2 4 SUUPPEERRSSYYM
MMMEETTR
RYY AN
NDD
Since nothing can be affected or probed
by sub-planck lengths, then nothing can be affected by
SPPIINN
quantum foaming. More than that, it actually shows
that the quantum foam shown by quantum physics in
fact is the result of erroneously assuming that energy All particles have what is called spin. It is
comes in point type particles. somewhat akin to how the earth spins on its axis in
orbit. All matter particles have a spin of -½. Which
means basically, that matter particles have to turn
around twice before they make one revolution. All
force particles have a spin of -1. Except the graviton
particle, which has a spin of -2. And yes, the graviton
particle in string theory has to have a spin of -2,
lending ever more credibility to this work-in-progress
theory.
Supersymmetry is quite simple to
understand but also quite complicated to explain, so I
will not go into it here, beyond saying that there is a
sound mathematical foundation for the inclusion of
supersymmetry in string theory (as well as the pure

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simple ideology of the beauty of symmetry in nature). of sand, even with quantum jitter cancellations.
What I will do is focus on it’s implications. Perhaps, just as particles or strings in
If nature does in truth incorporate super string theory require 9 or more dimensions in which to
symmetrical principles, it would mean that for every vibrate, sparticles vibrate in dimensions that lie behind
particle, there has to be a super partner particle with a the ones that we are aware of. In that case, we would
spin differing by -½. not be aware of them even were we to create them, for
None of the known particles can be super they would fold into that invisible space because their
partner particles of each other. So, for every known high vibration or energy would require it. Thus they
mass or force particle, there should be yet another all may spin on a different plane than other known
almost identical particle with half a unit less spin. particles.
Because these particles have not been In either case, supersymmetry makes the
found, it may be easy to say that supersymmetry then mathematics of string theory sounder; without
is not something that the universe adheres to as a sparticles, adjustments have to be made after the
property. But the reason these particles have not yet equations have been used.
been found is possibly just a limit we have reached in
our technology; the super partner particles, or
sparticles, are extremely high-energy particles. We
simply cannot make them (even if they do exist) with
our current particle accelerators. The smallest should
have as much energy as there is in the mass of a grain

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2 .2 5 TOOOO MUUCCHH 2 .2 6 GAARRDDEENN HOOSSEESS AANNDD ANNTTSS
SUUPPEERRSSYYM
MMMEETTR
RYY

As has been previously mentioned, string theory


requires that there be more than the usual 3 spatial
In 1985, physicists found that
directions in which the strings can travel, or vibrate.
supersymmetry could be incorporated into string
Here we shall explore this idea.
theory in five separate ways. At first, this was
If you were looking at a garden hose from
embarrassing for string theory, because when there are
some distance away that was lying straight from the
five different ways of explaining a situation and all
wall of a house, and you imagined an ant was
five are perfectly sound descriptions of events, one
constrained to live on the surface of that hose, it would
would be wise to begin to doubt the storyteller.
appear that the ant must exist on a two dimensional
Things usually happen one way. So why
plane
does string theory allow for there to be so many
explanations? Each theory is in fact simply another
way to describe something happening in one
overarching theory, called M-theory. Illustration xxxii Ant Garden Hose

In order to specify the ant’s location, you


would only need to give one piece of information; the

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distance from one end of the hose. In our usual world that we are aware of, and particles are the size of or
beyond the garden hose, we would need to specify slightly bigger than tennis balls, we would never be
north south, east west, and a height. aware of them.
When you come closer to the hose, you
see that it has thickness, so the ant can travel left to
right as you previously thought, but also clockwise-
anticlockwise. So now you would need two pieces of
information to specify the ant’s position. The
difference in these two dimensions is that one is easy
to see, and is unfolded. The other is harder to see, and Illustration xxxiii Curled Up Dimensions Spheres

is curled up. In a similar way, string theory proposes


that our universe has the usual extended dimensions We could also imagine standing donuts
that are unfurled, whilst also declaring that it must up side by side, touching each other on the table’s
have more dimensions that are curled up like the hose. surface.
So long as these dimensions are small
enough, nothing rules them out.
You can imagine these dimensions as a
table covered in tennis balls in a single layer, all
touching each other. If these (in this case four) extra
dimensions exist at every point in the 3 dimensions

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Illustration xxxiv Curled Up Dimensions Torus
Illustration xxxv Calabi-Yau Space

However, folding up these extra If we replaced the tennis balls in our


dimensions is in itself a challenge for string theory; mental picture with these shapes, we would see a
how do they fold up? Or in different words, into what visual concept of how string theory requires the
shape do we fold them? It turns out that universe to be; three extended dimensions, and seven
mathematicians had already experimented with curled up dimensions existing at all points in the
folding space into extra dimensions, and suitable spatial fabric of space.
shapes are called Calabi-Yau spaces.

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2 .2 7 BOOW OFF WA
WLLSS O ATTEER
R

If we place water in different shaped bowls, then


strike the bowls with a spoon or a fork, we will see the
ripples formed on the water’s surface taking different
Illustration xxxvi Curled Up Dimensions Calabi-Yau shapes.

But when you consider the infinite


number of ways Calabi-Yau spaces can be folded, you Illustration xxxvii Ripple Patterns Due To Shape
see another difficulty string theory has in describing
the universe. String theorists do not know which of the
In the same way, different Calabi-Yau
infinite shapes is the right one.
spaces mean that the strings in each universe each
shape describes are different. By experimenting with
Calabi-Yau spaces, and determining the particles that
arise from the mathematics governing each shape,
physicists were able to determine that Calabi-Yau
spaces with one hole (like the donut) gave rise to only
one family of particles. Therefore, the Calabi-Yau

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space they were looking for to describe our universe 2 .2 8 WOOUUNNDD AANNDD UNNW
WOOU
UNND
D
would require three donut holes, giving rise to the
three families of particles and forces that we are aware
STTRRIINNGGSS
of.
But that still leaves an infinite number of
three-holed Calabi-Yau spaces… however; the one For the sake of simplicity, we return to the
stunning achievement of string theory is that in all garden hose universe to look at the two different
three holed Calabi-Yau universes, a particle that fits flavours that strings can have. Strings can be either
the description of the graviton must always exist. unwound, or wound.
String theory may also one day explain
why exactly each particle must have a certain mass,
and a certain charge etc. It all depends on the shape of
our universe, mathematically speaking.

Illustration xxxviii Wound And Unwound Strings

In both situations, these strings can move


along the hose, or around the hose. Unwound strings
have a small minimum size (but non-zero, as this
would be returning to point-particles) and wound

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strings have a larger minimum size which is directly 2 .2 9 THHEE BIIGG BOOUUNNCCEE
determined by the size of the circular dimension and
the number of times the string wraps around it. The
size of such a string is directly proportional to the
Remember our earlier discussions of big bang
amount of energy it can have, which equates to mass.
theory from quantum mechanics? In quantum physical
So wound strings have a minimum mass
and relativistic terms, the universe will either continue
determined by the radius of the circular dimension. It
to expand forever, reach an equilibrium, or if there is
would then seem that the smaller unwound type of
enough mass, gravity will cause the universe to
string would have a smaller minimum mass.
contract – causing a big crunch.
As the universe (space) gets smaller in
string theory, both wound and unwound strings are
more constricted, and react according to the
uncertainty principle. String theory claims that all
physical processes in the universe when it is shrinking
to the Planck length and smaller are exactly identical
to another circular universe that is expanding from
Planck length and larger. In other words, the universe
can for all intents and purposes, be seen to be
contracting to Planck length as well as expanding.
Both situations are the same.

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This is because of the difference between being any number, then the universe with radius r is
the energy of wound as compared to unwound strings. exactly identical. A universe of 2 Planck lengths is the
A smaller radius confines a string, so it has more same universe as one with ½ a Planck length as its
motion; normal oscillations of a string as it slides radius.
along the circular dimensions are inversely Therefore, our universe is exactly the
proportional to the size of the radius of the dimension. same being the size it is, or being an infinitesimal
The wound energy of a string is directly degree of a Planck length (an already incredibly small
proportional the size of the dimension; the smaller the number). An extremely small universe is exactly the
circular dimension, the smaller the amount of energy same as an extremely large universe. You simply
held by a wound string. So a thin garden hose universe wouldn’t be aware of the difference, sitting here
will have a small wound energy and a large unwound reading this.
energy. A thick garden hose universe will have large
wound energy and a small-unwound energy.
Without going into technicalities and
deep hard-to-understand examples and analogies, I
will say here that what this means is that in a
particular small radius universe, the energy of strings
and all their characteristics are exactly the same as the
energy and characteristics of a particular large garden
hose universe. In fact, if the smaller radius is /r , r

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2 .3 0 we obtain. Using our analogy, the more effort we put
W
WH Y NO
HY OTT?
into our drawing, the more precise and life-like is the
picture that emerges.
However, particularly in reference to the
A good question! We will take a look at
planck length, we know that as we add more energy to
why, but first we have to take a look at how we make
a string, we can ‘define’ it’s probability wave to a
measurements. Imagine that we have a peach pit in a
certain extent, making it akin to a surgeon with a
vice, and we want to measure its size and map it’s
shaky hand and a surgeon with a steady hand making
shape by hitting it with projectiles. If we use large
an incision in a patient. But as we add even more
projectiles, we will get a vague notion of the shape. If
energy, the string must expand again in size due to the
we use marbles, we will get a much better idea, and if
uncertainty principle. And since a string can only give
we use grains of sand, we will be able to measure
us definition of the ‘peach-pit’ according to it’s size, a
deflections and deviations of each particle with much
bigger high-energy string actually gives us a less
more accuracy, and develop a very detailed map of the
defined, less accurate ‘measurement’.
peach pit's surface. This is just like drawing with a
fine pencil or a magic marker; one allows us to draw
in much more detail.
Again, the same as with point particles in
quantum physics regarding measurements made with
particles in accelerators; the more energy we put into
the projectiles motion, the more accurate the picture

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2 .3 1 DOOEESS SIIZZEE MAATTTTEERR? day-to-day lives? When we measure our universe, we
get an answer of 90 billion trillion miles. This is as far
as we can see, the size of the visible universe.
Obviously this means our universe is r, not /r ? Not
So what is the difference between using the
necessarily.
wound or unwound mode of string motion to measure
We are making our measurements using
the garden hose universe? Unwound strings are free to
the unwound mode. We are even using ‘light’
move around and along the circular dimension; they
unwound strings. When we obtain an answer of r, we
can measure a length proportional to r, and have an
have used low energy unwound mode strings. They
amount of energy inversely proportional to r, being
only require /r energy, much smaller than r. If we
1/r.
were to use wound strings, we would get /r as our
A wound string has energies directly
answer.
proportional to r, and the uncertainty principle tells us
If the universe were to shrink below
that they are sensitive to the reciprocal of this value,
Planck lengths, wound strings would be less energetic;
being /r . Therefore, given a universe of radius r,
hence lighter, and we would use these to make our
measurements made using wound energies will yield a
measurements - again returning an answer of r, using
value of /r , and unwound energies will return a value
/r energy in the process.
of r. String theory says that depending on the probe we
Therefore, it is quite okay according to
use to measure the radius (size) of the universe, we get
string theory to imagine that the universe is a planck
a different but equally correct answer.
sized presence, so small as to be almost a point, and
Why have we not encountered this in our

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that our reality is contained within this point; so long 2 .3 2 WHHYY THHRREEEE DIIM
MEEN
NSSIIO
ONNSS?
as we keep in mind we must measure using high
energy wound strings in this instance!

Why did only three dimensions become


unfolded, why not only one or two? Why not five?
Let’s continue with our Planck sized
universe, and see what happens when none of the
dimensions are unfolded.
The wrapped strings surround all of the
dimensions, like rubber bands around a sausage
balloon. The balloon is constricted in that it cannot
expand because to do so would increase the minimum
energy of all the wound strings constricting it, without
supplying the energy to do so.
However, if a string and its anti-string
partner (wrapped the opposite way) should meet, they
cancel each other out, (like the light waves in the two-
slit experiment ‘cancelled each other out’) making an
unwound string. If this happens with sufficient
rapidity, enough of the rubber band constrictions are

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removed, and the dimension is able to expand. strings will cancel each other out, as in order to wrap
In one dimension, wrapped strings are around the expanding dimensions they would require
like two points travelling along a line. So long as the far less likely and quite massive amounts of energy.
two points are travelling at different velocities, they From this point, the observable
will eventually meet and annihilate each other. In two dimensions continue to evolve in much the same way
dimensions, they are still likely to meet, as also is the as described previously in the big bang section of this
case in three dimensions. Thereafter, if the two points book. The only difference is that the problems have
are allowed to traverse the four-dimensional space of a been solved; there is no infinite amount of energy, and
hypercube, it is unlikely that they will ever meet background radiation and heat would be constant in all
precisely enough along their wavelengths to cancel areas, thus consistent with observation.
each other; beyond 3 dimensions, string particles stay
wound.
So what happens to our planck sized
universe is that the high temperatures (lots of strings
in a small space equals lots of movement due to
uncertainty principle, hence lots of heat) drive all
dimensions to expand; sooner or later, wound strings
and their anti-string partners cancel each other out,
allowing the three dimensions to expand. As they do
expand, it becomes less and less likely that more

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2 .3 3 SPPOONNTTAANNEEOOUUSS STTRRIINNGGSS waves in the area is zero. But the more we know about
the amplitude of a string, the less we know about how
the amplitude is changing, a.k.a Hiesenberg’s
uncertainty principle. What this means is that the
Let us consider what constitutes space. By this
amplitude must always constantly be changing, with
we mean distance, volume, area - independent of there
the proviso that the sum of the total amplitude at any
being anything within it. We know that all the matter
moment is still zero. In any region of empty
strings spontaneously emit force strings. So we know
space, there must be a constant creation of string and
that for example a planet warps the fabric of space-
anti-string pairs, and their constant annihilation. The
time by bending space around itself. This bending is a
energy to do this comes from borrowing a definite
product of a coherent and constant, organised stream
amount of energy from the universe, and then paying
of gravity strings. The same goes for zero-mass matter
it back quick enough to satisfy the uncertainty
such as light strings, which emit electron strings.
principle.
Space then is composed of force strings vibrating in an
Viewing the universe in such a way,
organised way, much like the threads of fabric in a
being a cosmic carpet of threads, still leaves us
blanket.
wondering what strings are themselves “made of”.
But what happened before the threads
Space would not have existed before strings came
organised themselves into this cosmic carpet? What
about, space being made of strings as we have seen.
happens in empty space, with no evident force strings?
Therefore there can have been no time,
Well, if there is an area of space that we know has no
time being a product of space, and vice versa. This
strings, then we can say that the amplitude of all the

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also means that there is not even any real notion of 2 .3 4 NOOTTHHIINNGG
‘before’. So all we can indeed say is that strings seem
to be shards of the space-time continuum.

Before there was something, it seems logical to


assume that there was nothing. Of course it is difficult
to visualise that ‘nothing’. But nevertheless, let us
continue with the thought that it is so. ‘Nothing’
presupposes uncertainty, and potential. If you are
doing nothing, you could be doing anything. But as
soon as you are doing something, you cannot be doing
anything else.
If the universe does indeed originate from this
sort of primordial state, it would continue to embody
the same underlying principles that gave it being.
There would be no conceivable reason to assume
anything would change, as all states of being (time,
space, force and matter) would be self-contained
within the universe. Outside influence is impossible,
as there is no ‘outside’.
So when we see that the universe obeys

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principles of uncertainty and exhibits innate would necessarily be unaware of them.
probabilistic principles, it becomes more and more
reasonable to assume that the universe did indeed
come from ‘nothing’.
As soon as there was nothing, there could
have been ‘anything’ and therefore, everything already
was. It is as if the universe we currently enjoy being a
part of was created simply because there was a
possibility that it could be so.
The reason the universe is the way it is, is
because of all the Calabi-Yau shapes for the universe
to take, this one is at least one of the possible shapes
which can and did give rise to force and matter strings
which were able to give rise to intelligent life. Simply
put, if it were any different, we would not be here to
ask why it is so.
There may well be other universes (going
along our current train of thought, there has to be),
which have a different shape, giving rise to similar
and also vastly different string combinations, but we

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2 .3 5 CHHAAOOSS; THHEE BUUTTTTEERRFFLLYY therefore must be able to be understood and their
evolution over time is therefore theoretically
EFFFFEECCTT predictable.
Meteorology, the study of predicting
weather evolved chaos theory and it is in weather that
In all the preceding text, we have sought we will seek our initial explanation of chaos.
to understand everything, but have only managed to For example, let’s look at why the
investigate simple systems. That is, it is fine to weather forecast in the short term is generally correct,
understand how one or two particles, or one or two but extended forecasts are generally incorrect to an
planets interact, but using the ideas and mathematics increasing degree. Pretend, for example, that we were
so far covered would be virtually impossible when able to place small measuring units in each cubic
encountering complex evolving systems such as meter of the earth’s atmosphere, (gathering air
clouds or weather systems. pressure information, direction, speed, temperature,
The main principle of chaos theory is that humidity, pollution and dust levels etc) and we put all
all systems of great complexity appear chaotic and the information gathered into a supercomputer running
therefore are unpredictable. However, each unit absolutely accurate weather prediction algorithms. We
(particle) in that system in its simplest form can be would find our predictions to be very accurate in the
understood and is following laws that can be immediate and short term.
determined scientifically. Therefore the sum of all But over time small indescrepencies
these parts must be operating by the same laws, and between our computer model and reality would begin

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to appear. This is because small and almost billionths of a second.
undetectable changes in air temperature, wind Chaos theorists attempt to extract order
directions etc have consequences that also start tiny, from apparent randomness and disorder using
but over time extend their area of influence and degree mathematics. They claim that if one had enough
of severity at an exponential rate, until the computer knowledge, one could indeed predict the change in
model would be completely removed from actuality. shape of a cloud over time.
For example, a butterfly flaps its wings or Chaos theory has helped define
someone sneezes, and this information was not thermodynamics, given birth to meteorology and
represented in our computer, leading quite surprisingly contributed to the understanding of the motion of
quickly to extreme deviation. electrons in plasma, among other things.
Even more amazing is a statement in a
book concerning probability, written in 1924 by
French mathematician Emile Borel. He stated that if
one gram of matter were moved by a few centimetres
within the Sirius star system, the microscopic state of
a gas on earth would change in the time it took the
effect of the shifted mass to reach Earth. Furthermore,
that time period is exactly the same amount of time it
takes a couple of those gas molecules to bounce off
each other a few times, which is around a few

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2 .3 6 RAANNDDOOM Given ten rolls of a ten-sided dice with
MNNEESSSS
the numbers 0-9 we will obtain a ten number
sequence, such as 0284714338. This is a random
number sequence. Over time, each number will appear
Randomness is the name we give that property of
10% of the time. Consider the number 88215246.
the universe that causes unpredictable events, or that
While it too appears random, if we knew that it was a
causes us to be unable to make accurate predictions. In
product of a sequence of mathematical processes, we
a closed system, for example the tossing of a coin or
would in theory be able to predict what it started as,
rolling of a dice or following the path of a photon, we
and if the processes remain constant or understandable
can predict the probability of any given outcome
we would be able to determine what it will be next.
actually occurring over time.
This same assumption was used to break
In each individual situation, there is a
the codes that the Axis used in WW2. Using a system
certain element of surprise. Toss a coin an infinite
of cogs and wheels, letters entered into these machines
number of times, and it will always land as heads 50%
came out as other letters. For example ATTACK
of the time. The more we toss the coin, the more it
HERE might have been sent out as ORAWQK KAQP.
will exhibit this property of being a 50% probability.
But each day, a new starting position for each cog was
But there would be sequences which when viewed
sent out, and this was used to set all machines ready to
alone would not appear to be 50/50. Such as
decipher messages sent and received.
HHTHHHTTHHHT. Over an infinite time, the
The Allied forces noticed that this setting
probability of any given sequence – say, one hundred
was sent as two repeated digits at the start of each
heads in a row – becomes one.

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message. From this, great minds were actually able to B
reconstruct these machines, allowing them to Some letters would occur more often
unscramble all the messages that Germany sent. together like q and u, sh, th, c and h, some more
Going back to the last number, it came frequently and therefore being an e, t, or s. Using this
from the square of my birth date. I then I added the order, one could with sufficient effort determine the
first 8 digits to the last 8 digits, arriving at 88215246. original message.
So the number sequence is no longer random. A complex process using a rolled dice to
Therefore, something is random only determine how many places each letter was moved to
because we lack the knowledge of the process it is the right in each individual circumstance would
undergoing or has undergone. The only exception is necessarily create a high level of disorder. Without
where a consciousness influences a system or process knowing the accompanying numbers, it would be
in an unpredictable way. impossible to unscramble, even if you knew it was
Simple processes give us a low degree of coded this way.
randomness. For example a message coded by moving The letters in this coding system became
each letter right along the alphabet two places would apparently random when their meaning and structure
still exhibit properties of structure that are inherent in became hidden. From this we can conclude that
our language. randomness is the lack of apparent order. We also
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY know that there exist different levels of randomness;
Z the more complex or non-linear a system is, the higher
CDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZA the level of chaos and unpredictability that results.

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2 .3 7 ORRDDEERR particular subject of interest. The colour system does
not have much meaning to us even though it is highly
ordered. However, if we wanted to find a book with a
dark red cover, it would again have meaning to us.
What then, is order? If a sequence becomes
Therefore meaning is linked to the wants
random when structure and meaning become hidden,
of the observer, their perceptions and judgments. From
then order is a sequence that has an apparent structure
a mathematical point of view, structure is more closely
or meaning.
linked to order, while meaning is transitory and
For example, a library full of books has
ephemeral, depending upon the observer.
those books placed in a sequence that is based on the
If we throw a box of 200 compact disks
arrangement of letters in the alphabet, as well as by
onto the floor, then swirl them around we have applied
the subject or information content of the book.
a process to them that is random (their movement) and
Because the arrangement of the books has meaning to
therefore lacking in order.
us, we find it relatively easy to find what we want. We
If we arrange them in clumps, and then
expend less energy looking for a book because more
stacks of ten, there can be said to be some order
initial energy was expended creating structure and
present. Align the edges to make neater stacks and we
meaning.
have introduced more order. Arrange them by colour,
If we arranged the books by the colour of
type of content or alphabetically and we have created
their covers, from red to violet in the manner of a
more order still.
rainbow, and also from light to dark, we would have
So the degree of order can be seen as
to expend much more energy to find a book on a

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being directly related to the complexity of the Disorder occurs when a structure or
structure imposed upon the system. sequence either has no apparent meaning to the
However, as the complexity of the observer, or has undergone a hidden process, or one so
structure increases, our ability to understand that complex that it appears chaotic.
structure decreases. For a toddler, stacks of coloured So we can now say, “ Order is any
cd’s would have more meaning than arrangement, structure, process or sequence that has
content/subject/alphabet oriented structure. For an meaning. Order can be simple or complex.”
artist, abstract meaning may be imposed upon the On the flipside, we can also say, “ Any
arrangement of the cd’s by using their colour to make structure, arrangement, process or sequence that
a collage of a face or some other picture. appears random is in fact an example of order that has
As our understanding of the process used become hidden, and it’s meaning has subsequently
to create the structure (or our understanding of the been lost”.
structure used to create the process) decreases, the A complex system has more hidden
more that process appears random (or the structure order, and less apparent order, whilst a simple system
appears to lack order). has more apparent order and less hidden order. This
Order is then a sequence or structure that means that what we call chaos and order are in fact
has meaning. Order can have a high or low amount of different levels of order, hidden or apparent.
relevant meaning, and this is loosely related to how
simple or complex that structure is, and our
understanding of that structure.

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2 .3 8 GLLYYCCEERRIINNEE TUUBBEE the surface of the glycerine and turn the inner cylinder
in a clockwise direction, the drop of ink will gradually
disperse amongst the glycerine.
In the beginning there was a simple order,
In an attempt to better understand all of this, we
being that the ink drop was separate from the
will describe another experiment. Imagine two clear
glycerine. In the end there appears to be a loss of
glass cylinders each with one closed end and one open
order; the ink molecules appear randomly dispersed
end. One tube has a smaller diameter and is slightly
amongst the glycerine.
longer.
However if the inner tube is turned back
anti-clockwise, the apparently random movement of
the glycerine causes the ink molecules to gather back
into a droplet exactly as is was at the beginning. By
doing this continually, we can cause the ink to fold
and unfold from hidden to apparent order and back.
Now, if all we could see were the two-
dimensional view from above the experiment looking

Illustration xxxix Glycerine Tube Experiment


down, we would see only a disappearing reappearing
dot. In 2 dimensions, what is hidden order is in 3
dimensions revealed as a more complex, apparent
The space in-between the two cylinders is
order.
filled with glycerine. If we then place a drop of ink on

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2 .3 9 SYYNNCCHHRROONNIISSEEDD
OSSCCIILLLLAATTOORRSS

We will now leave the notions of order and


disorder to discuss sync and later return to explore
Illustration xl Synchronised Pendulums
more of chaos, before returning to explore a less
subtle concept of disorder; entropy.
In 1665, the Dutch physicist Christiaan But so long as the pendulums swung

Hyugens noticed that two pendulum clocks in his parallel to each other while close, any attempts to

room (that he invented 20 years earlier) synchronised disturb their swing out of synchrony with the other

their movements. The pendulums swung first towards pendulum would rectify itself in a short time. Hyugens

each other, then in the opposite direction away. himself was not impressed by this act of sync, as it

When he moved them 6 feet from each other, or meant that his clocks were too sensitive to be used at

turned one at right angles to the other (with regards to sea (he wanted to solve the problem of longitude

the direction of the movement of the pendulums), any measurements).

disturbance would permanently disrupt their However, sync in many forms is indeed

synchrony. Left on their own in this position, he noted impressive; we humans seem almost mesmerised by it.

that they fell out of synchrony by themselves. In our music and dance, we appreciate synchrony of
movement and sound, abhorring discordant patterns.
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All you need to do is imagine what would happen if to achieve sync are non-linear. We will return to this
you gave a bunch of toddlers soup spoons and metal concept soon.
pots and ask them to make music and dance. Compare
that to watching rhythmic gymnastics at the Olympics,
or listening to an orchestra playing Bach.
Mathematicians and physicists
throughout the world have studied the property of
sync to the limits of understanding. From the
biocycles of plants, animals and humans, to studying
flows of traffic, to the way nerves synchronise the
firing of heart muscles (or fail, thus causing
arrhythmia or heart attack), to how fireflies ‘know’ to
flash in unison, or how nerves in the brain fire in
unison when we recognise a shape or remember a
word. As a result of such research we have CD
players, laser-eye surgery, and supermarket checkout
scanners, to name just a few of the technologies that
have been developed.
The important part to remember here is
that it appears that all systems that display the ability

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2 .4 0 CHHAAOOSS REETTUURRNNSS Linear relationships are easy to
investigate, as they can be taken to pieces. These
pieces can be worked out individually and put back
together. However, the studies of linear relationships
The first revolution of chaos was when Lorenz
are confined to the states of systems when they are in
developed his non-linear equations governing the
equilibrium. Linear equations simply break down in
evolution of weather patterns, and in so doing,
the extremes; for example, an engineer can predict the
discovered chaos. Once his papers were recognised,
movement and strain of a bridge in strong winds, but
chaos theorists picked up the slack and investigated
may be at a loss to describe what may happen in the
chaotic systems everywhere. Biologists found chaos in
event of an earthquake. This is because most linear
population levels and their unpredictable swells and
equations are approximations of real systems.
falls. Others found it in fluid dynamics and electric
An example of non-linearity is the psych;
circuits that overload.
if you mix your favourite food with your favourite
The problem they encountered was that
drink, it will most likely not be twice as enjoyable. For
most complicated systems (even synchronised
me, coke and lasagne puree does not seem at all
oscillators) were non-linear. To explain non-linearity,
palatable.
it may be easiest to first briefly describe linearity. A
Non-linear systems are hard to
linear relationship is easily described by the
understand because the sums of their parts do not add
relationship between stretching a spring by one
up as in the case of linear systems. Non-linear systems
centimetre or two. In the latter case, the metal will pull
must be understood or studied in terms of the whole
back twice as hard.

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sum of their parts, because those parts each order to even the most disordered states.
individually affect the operation of all other parts in But one depressing thought still occupied
different measures. the minds of most chaos theorists. Because very small
Lorenz’s equations gave much promise to differences or disturbances in chaotic systems grow
future understanding of chaotic systems, because they exponentially fast, it was supposed that chaotic
showed that simple non-linear systems could portray systems could never develop synchrony with each
very complicated behaviour. This meant that other. No matter how careful you were, two systems
complicated systems could possibly be governed by started in the same way would inexorably evolve apart
simple rules. Rules which themselves could be in a very short time.
understood, even if the complicated system they If you wanted to double the time that they
represented could not. stayed in sync, you had to times your efforts (to ensure
The second wave of interest in chaos the same starting configuration) by a factor of ten.
theory revealed that complicated chaotic systems all Three times as long, a hundred times more effort. For
contained a specific kind of order. The physicist four times, a thousand. This length of time is known
Mitchell Feigenbaum showed that there are universal as the Lyapunov time. For weather predictions, this
laws governing exactly how systems can make the time is just a few days. For our solar system it is about
transit from regular to chaotic behaviour. Completely five million years; beyond the Lyapunov time,
different systems go from a normal state of operation predictions are no longer accurate.
to one displaying chaotic behaviour, in the same way. However, this nagging doubt did not
This shows that there is a definite underlying rule of persist for long; it was soon discovered that two

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chaotic systems could synchronise. The amazing thing 2 .4 1 SPPIINNNNIINNGG WAATTEERRW
WHHEEEELL
about this is that two systems can evolve in complete
unpredictability, while being perfectly synchronised.
But before we get on to describe exactly
Ok, time yet again to turn on your imagination.
how they can synchronise, let us first go back over
Picture a cup with a small hole poked in the bottom.
exactly what a chaotic system is, and how it acts.
Now picture many such cups arranged in a circle, and
rigged in such a way that the whole circle of cups are
able to spin around the centre of the circle much like a
merry-go-round. Now imagine a perforated hose that
leaks water into some of the cups, faster than the water
falls out of the holes in the bottom.

Illustration xli Waterwheel Experiment Set-up

Now imagine tipping the


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whole mechanism, raising the perforated hose and the and bottom-most cups will determine wether the circle
circle of cups on the end with the perforated hose, will spin clockwise or counter-clockwise.
dipping the opposite end lower. What would now It could go half a turn clockwise, one full
happen is that the cups that had begun to fill would turn anti-clockwise, a quarter turn clockwise, pause,
rotate to the back, which is lower, because of the and then another quarter anti-clockwise.
gravitational pull on the water. New, previously empty The waterwheel is an example of a
cups will start to fill with water. chaotic system. It is erratic, seemingly random and
ultimately unpredictable. Although we can in theory
determine its evolution on a computer, using known
physics, in practice it will never do the same thing
twice. Even if we could set it up exactly the same as a
previous run, it may follow the same pattern for a
period of time. However small differences in; air
pressure, an observer coughing, the tide (because of
Illustration xlii Waterwheel Experiment Running the moon's gravitational pull), or one gram of matter
being moved in the Sirius star system, will eventually
cause a slight departure from the previous run, which
And so on and so forth; the circle of cups will
will in turn affect the evolution of the pattern
continue to spin, as the cups that were once heaviest
exhibited by the system at an exponential rate.
empty of water and become lighter. Differences in the
amounts of water in cups to either side of the top-most

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2 .4 2 STTRRAANNGGEE ATTTTRRAACCTTOORRSS is called the state space. If we drew a line along all the
points governing the evolving state of the waterwheel,
we could see the chaotic motion developing.
The line would never be able to cross its
If we were to make a graph of the state of the
own path, because every point along the line defines
waterwheel in each moment, we would have to use
where the system will go next. It is as if every point
three dimensions; one to show the direction and speed
has a signpost pointing to the next point along the line.
of the wheel, while the other two axis show one aspect
Chaos never repeats itself, never takes up periodic
each of how the water is distributed around the rim.
motion because a period, such as a circle, represents
the linear development of a cycle.
So what does chaos look like? The line
representing the evolving state of the system must
wander forever along an extremely elaborate path,
never intersecting itself and never repeating. It can
never collapse into a point, nor can it expand into
infinity; it must stay within the state space defined by

Illustration xliii 3D Axis State Space Graph


the maximum of the variables that the axis of our
graph represents. It is tempting to imagine that it
would appear to be somewhat like a ball of twine, with
The three dimensional space that will
no structure.
show the state of the waterwheel in any given moment

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However, what actually develops is that be made up of infinitely thin sheets, else the system
the line moves in a highly organised way, exploring would intersect itself in the state space, and repeat,
only a tiny portion of the space available to it. The line which it never does. This infinite complex of surfaces
seems to be attracted to a particular surface; a is what is called a strange attractor. Different chaotic
microscopically thin membrane that ironically systems have differently shaped strange attractors, but
resembles a pair of butterfly wings. The trajectory all have them. Although the trajectory is unpredictable
traces a path of one of the wings, spiralling out from in its evolving motion, it must always stay in the
the centre, then when it gets close to the outer edge of region of the strange attractor. Thus there is order
the first wing, it speeds over to the centre of the next hidden in chaos.
wing, and begins spiralling out again. The trajectory
makes an unpredictable number of loops on one wing
surface before making an unpredictable number of
loops on the other wing; just as the waterwheel makes
an unpredictable number of turns in one direction
before turning around the other way.

<insert butterfly wing strange attractor picture>

The only problem with this visual


representation is it is misleading; the membrane must

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2 .4 3 CHHAAOOSS INN SYYNNCC moment to moment, as they can never repeat their
actions, and their performance is never the same from
night to night (because of the butterfly effect)
although it is reminiscent of other performances
For this example, we replace the physical
because it must follow the infinite surface of the
waterwheel with an electronic device that operates
strange attractor.
according to the Lorenz equations that govern the
Now imagine that three other dancers are
actual waterwheel.
performing across town, according to the same set of
Imagine that our variables (x1, y1, and
rules upon another stage. We will call them x2, y2,
z1) described by the axis determining the state space
and z2, and they represent another electronic device
of the waterwheel are dancers upon a stage; they never
also operating according to the Lorenz equations that
occupy exactly the same space more than once as they
govern the waterwheel system.
dance. They look to each other, playing off one
Now something strange happens; x2
another while each responds to the slightest cue from
disappears off the stage he was on, and is replaced by
the other two. They are not moving to a
a hologram showing the exact movements of x1. Y2
choreographed routine, nor are they simply
and z2 do not know this; all they know is that x1 has
improvising.
stopped responding to their cues. The hologram that
They each react to the other two according to a
replaced x1 is showing what x2 is doing across town,
strict set of rules. Nothing in their performance is left
dancing in response to cues from y1 and z1. However,
to chance, and no movement is random. The rules
according to the rules of their dance (the Lorenz
ensure that the dancers' movements are different from

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equations), y2 and z2 must begin making their 2 .4 4 ENNTTRROOPPYY
movements according to the hologram of x1.
Unbeknownst to y2 and z2, they are now making
exactly the same movements as y1 and z1.
The second law of thermodynamics states that in
Once this has happened, we can graph the
any closed system, the level of organization in that
state of y1 and y2, or z1 and z2 on a two dimensional
system will always decrease over time. Even when life
axis, and we will see a 45 degree line, showing that x1
takes its surroundings and manipulates them thus
and x2 or z1 and z2, etc, are in perfect harmony.
increasing order, wether it be a plant or a person, the
Synchronised Chaos brings us face to
energy used creates a total increase in the amount of
face with the fact that synchrony is not only associated
disorder in the system. Energy is lost as heat, sound,
with rhythmicity, with its cycles, loops and repetition.
and movement etc, the end result always being more
Synchronised chaos forces us to realise a new kind of
total disorder.
order in the universe, exposing sync as being more
The level of entropy in the universe,
pervasive and subtle than we ever previously
according to the second law of thermodynamics, will
expected.
always increase. When you drop a camera from a tall
building onto the pavement, it unfortunately does not
turn into an expensive DVD; it just smashes.
According to the principle of entropy, it is
mathematically more likely that the entire universe
with every single atom where it is, (including your

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own, and the arrangement of molecules in your brain you to take up the loose ends that both scientific
determining the memories you possess of the past ever history and my explanations of it have left lying
having occurred etc) just spontaneously manifested as around. What have they disregarded? In order to give
they are in this very moment, instead of evolving your brain the opportunity to piece together the
through from the big bang to now. In fact, the evidence on its own, I will leave off tying everything
likelihood of matter evolving to achieve the level of together for now, and skip ahead.
complexity that is found in you or the entire universe
for that matter is so incredibly small that it is virtually
impossible.
But we know that it did happen. And
because it did, the probability of it happening is in this
moment, 1. This leads me to the conclusion that
scientists are missing something. Entropy is a real
provable law, but there must be situations in which it
is not applicable. There must be another process at
work, which invalidates and supersedes it, tending
instead towards complexity and order. The universe
cannot be a closed system; an external process must be
acting upon it.
In an effort to find the missing link, I urge

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3.0 SECTION TWO: 3 .1 WHHAATT ISS COONNSSCCIIOOUUSSNNEESSSS?

METAPHYSICS
Most scientists believe that consciousness is the
product of material evolution. They argue that the
universe evolved for billions of years before life and
consciousness began to appear. This view of
consciousness, like any other scientific theory, has its
'a priori' assumptions. And the first step in the formal
presentation of any scientific theory is to enumerate
the 'a priori' assumptions upon which the theory is
based.
Surprisingly, perhaps the most basic
assumption of all that is made by the current scientific
paradigm is rarely ever actually mentioned, because it
seems to be so obviously true that most scientists see
no need to include it explicitly in the written accounts
of their work. This rarely mentioned assumption is
that physical reality is independent of consciousness.
In the formulation of the theory of

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relativity, Albert Einstein spelled out the assumptions consciousness that is ultimately responsible for the
of there being a constant light speed and assumed no reduction of the wave packet."
preferred frame of reference, but he saw no need to So what is consciousness? In the last ten
mention mind-matter independence. Einstein was years or so, an impressive amount of careful, detailed
certainly aware of this underlying assumption, but to research has successfully correlated many Neuro-
find his acknowledgement of it, we have to turn to his physiological structures and complexes in the brain
more general writings. In James Clerke Maxwell: A with processes and experiences associated with
Commemorative Volume, he said, "The belief in an consciousness.
external world independent of the perceiving subject is Certain features of physical reality at the
the basis of all natural science." quantum level revealed by Bell's theorem and the
Yet we now have both empirical evidence Aspect experiment, namely nonlocality, suggest to
and logical proof that this assumption is incorrect. some researchers that the functioning of consciousness
Bell's Theorem and the Aspect Experiment provide can best be explained in terms of quantum brain
persuasive evidence that, at the most basic level of dynamics.
physical reality, this assumption does not hold. For example, Stuart Hameroff and Roger
John Bell, the author of Bell's Theorem, Penrose, in their paper, 'Orchestrated Reduction of
said that he shares with most other physicists "…a Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: a Model
degree of embarrassment at consciousness being for Consciousness', argued that quantum processes,
dragged into physics…" And yet, he continues: "It including the much discussed quantum-wave collapse,
remains a logical possibility that it is the act of can affect larger-scale physical structures like the

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brain. They proposed the hypothesis that such effects attempting to do, will we really have explained
are found in the form of orchestrated objective consciousness?
reduction (Orch OR) of cyctoskeletal microtubules in While research into the details of
the brain. neurological processes and quantum brain dynamics is
They concluded that “Orch Or in brain very worthwhile, the approach is an attempt to explain
microtubules is the most specific and plausible model consciousness in terms of matter and energy. It may
for consciousness yet proposed.” This orchestrated well be that consciousness can never be explained in
objective reduction is thought to be based on nonlocal this way; any attempt to identify consciousness with
entanglement of quanta, resulting in a quantum-level specific physical structures leads to an infinite descent
coherence that can sweep through the brain, thus that ends in logical contradiction.
giving rise to a global awareness, i.e., the functioning The act of observation divides the world
of consciousness. into two parts: the observer and the observed. The
Researchers have made great progress flow of information is traced, through the mechanism
toward identifying physical activities in the brain that of reflected elementary particles (photons), from the
correlate with conscious experiences, such as thoughts object to the receptive structures of the eye of the
and other mental activities. But, even if every known observer, and then, through the optic nerve and brain,
function of consciousness can be paired with parallel a series of elementary particles (electrons) carry the
matter-energy transfers in the brain, and those events information to the consciousness of the observer.
detailed down to the level of quantum processes, as Finally, the observer's conscious perception
scientists like Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff are involves the creation of mental images that 'parallel'

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features existing in the external world. quanta? If so, what is the consciousness, the final
However, quantum physics requires that receptor, that perceives this image? Is it also made up
an elementary particle has no localized form until it of quanta of matter and energy?
impacts upon a receptor. As Physicist John Wheeler If this is so, then the elementary particles
said: "No elementary phenomenon is a phenomenon of which it is composed also had no local physical
until it is a registered phenomenon." form until they registered on a prior receptor. And that
Quantum physics also tells us that mass prior receptor, if it was composed of quanta of matter
and energy exist only in multiples of minimum and energy, also had to have had a prior receptor, and
quantities (quanta). Since the physical structure of the so on. Thus the quest for the first receptor becomes an
brain is finite, the information transfer must end with a infinite regression in time and space.
final receptor. But what is the final receptor? If it is a But science tells us that the time and
physical structure, it is made of elementary particles; space available in the universe and in the finite
quanta of matter and energy. physical structure of the brain of a sentient being is
If the information of the incoming quanta limited: the infinite regress or descent is impossible,
is absorbed by physical particles, how can we account and we have a logical contradiction. Therefore, the
for the internal image (the picture you 'see' that is final receptor cannot be composed of quanta of matter
manufactured by your brain) of the object of and energy.
observation that gives rise to consciousness? Identifying the connection between
Is it composed of patterns of matter and quantum processes and brain functions may yield
energy formed by the information in the incoming valuable practical applications in biology, medicine

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and psychology, but does it bring us any closer to 3 .2 THHOOUUGGHHTT FOORRM
MSS A
ANND
D
understanding what consciousness is?
It seems we are in fact still where
BEELLIIEEFF COONNCCEEPPTTSS
Leibnitz was three hundred years ago when he said
that even if we could magnify a human being to the
point that we could walk inside and observe every Let us determine thought to be the idea of any
moving part, we still would not find anything called thing or process that can be fathomed by the mind.
consciousness. Thought has no perceivable mass, nor does it exhibit
as a force that can be measured by any of our current
devices.
Our beliefs are collections of thoughts
describing a thing or a process, or a prediction of a
given outcome of a situation that we have decided is
reasonably repeatable as an experience.
Beliefs can be likened to a groove that
wears deep in the mind as a result of repeated use; like
the needle of a record player, it needs to be bumped
with considerable force in order jump out of the
groove.
A thought form is a pattern of thought as

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it typically progresses, for the same reasons as 3 .3 THHEE MIINNDD
described for belief concepts.

The human mind is generally agreed by


psychologists to come in three distinctive parts or
areas of activity, being the conscious, subconscious
and the unconscious mind. The conscious mind is that
part which catches and processes incoming sensory
data from the world, and processes this in relation to
its perceived value and by the work of the intellect.
The subconscious mind takes the
information provided by the conscious mind and links
it to emotions, attitudes and behaviours, creating
patterned responses. For example when we encounter
a smell that triggers a memory of a situation and the
mood that we were in at the time of the memory. This
is an activated thought-form.
Memory is within the subconscious, and
the inability of the conscious mind to access memories
can be the result of subconscious decisions to avoid

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those memories such as in the case of repressed 3 .4 SUURRVVIIVVAALL AANNDD WIISSDDOOM
M
memories of abuse or denial in it’s many forms.
Dreams are predominantly the
COONNCCEEPPTTSS
subconscious mind working with prevalent thoughts
of aims, goals, problems, fears or desires, testing how
the belief concepts it has formed or is forming are The human mind can be seen as continually
helping or coping with what life can present it in the trying to achieve a state of happiness. Some of the
waking world. choices we make are of an immediate nature, like
The unconscious assesses the sensory and choosing to eat something delicious. Other choices are
emotional experiences of the conscious and more long term such as going to work in order to save
subconscious mind and is the area of activity that up for a holiday. Some decisions affect the way in
determines a person’s belief concepts. which we allow ourselves to think, what we allow
ourselves to notice or allow our minds to dwell on,
including the re-experiencing of fond memories.
A wisdom concept is one that allows
positive, expansive realizations about life. It will
correct faulty concepts that are of little use in the
pursuit of happiness. An example of this is a person
who is betrayed by a friend; they may learn to be more
discriminating about who they trust or perhaps realise

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that they themselves avoid reading the warning signs depression. One child sees their parent and decides
in people they like who actually have limited ability to that life is painful and that sadness is the best level of
be trusted. Wisdom concepts lead to a deeper fulfilment that can be achieved. Another child may
reflection about what is important about life. reject this response as completely unviable in their
A survival concept is one that brings a quest for happiness and begin suppressing any
form of substitute happiness or relief from stress or unhappiness they experience, and avoiding conflict.
sadness. They are reactionary and limiting; they fail to Yet another child may realise their parent is simply
bring a person to a greater understanding of life. Their unable to see the beauty in their life, and then ensure
basic emotional response will then determine their that they will always take the time to appreciate
future responses to similar events. The pain may have beauty in their own life.
overwhelmed the person who was betrayed by a These types of decisions and perceptions
friend, and in looking for a way to avoid betrayal they are ones we carry with us through life until they are
decide never to trust anyone again. Or perhaps they called to our attention in some way and we reconsider
will start testing their friends in order to expose the them. They have the power to influence the direction
untrustworthy. They may avoid future feelings of of our conscious mind in our day-to-day life, without
powerlessness by responding to people they let close our conscious knowledge.
to them by being quick to anger to make others fearful
of disrespecting them.
Consider a family composed of three
children and a single mother who suffers from

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3 .5 JUUNNGG’SS SYYNNCCHHRROONNIICCIITTYY He was just about to tell her this when
something tapped on the window, and he looked up to
see a gold-green scarab on the other side of the glass.
When he let it into the room and told her what he had
been thinking the woman was so stunned that she
Carl Jung is one of the forefathers of modern tempered her excessive rationality and began
psychology. He was a great believer in synchronicity, benefiting from therapy.
or what I term synchronous coincidence. It is when we While Jung was unable to explain the
experience an unlikely event that manifests in seeming mechanism through which synchronicity acted, he
correspondence to another preceding event or thought- encountered so many examples of it that he did term it
form. to be an 'acausal response to heightened psychological
Jung was once treating a woman whose or emotional states'.
staunchly rational approach to life made it difficult for
her to benefit from his therapy. After a number of
frustrating sessions the woman told Jung about a
dream she had about a scarab beetle. Jung knew that in
Egyptian mythology, the scarab beetle represented
rebirth and wondered if the woman’s unconscious
mind was symbolically announcing that she was about
to undergo a period of rebirth psychologically.

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3 .6 RAANNDDOOM course of hundreds of thousands of trails, they found
M EV
VEEN
NTT
that through concentration alone the volunteers were
GEENNEERRAATTOORRSS able to have a small but statistically significant effect
on the REG’s output. The ability to produce the effect
was found to be present in the majority of those tested
Robert G Jahn is a professor of aerospace to some degree, and they discovered that those
sciences of the school of engineering and applied volunteers appeared to have a “signature”. That is,
science at Princeton University. His experiments with each volunteer consistently reproduced individually
random event generators led him to co found, with distinctive results.
clinical psychologist Brenda Dunne, the Princeton Further experiments tested the ability of
Engineering Anomalies Research lab in 1979. subjects to influence a device that allowed 9000 three-
By relying on unpredictable occurrences quarter inch marbles to circulate around 330 nylon
such as radioactive decay, he used computers to pegs and collect into 19 collecting bins at the bottom.
generate random sequences of numbers such as 1 and Not only were the subjects able to noticeably affect
2. Such a sequence may have been the distribution of the marbles, but also, each person’s
1222111212121211112221212121. signature or ability to affect probability was
What they did is have people sit in front maintained.
of the random number generator and have them Further experiments (performed by
concentrate on visualising the machine producing an others) involved recording an REG session on disk,
abnormally large number of ones or twos. Over the without observing or being aware of the results. The

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disk is then held by the subject (up to a year after the 3 .7 TIIM
MEESS MA
AGGA
AZZIIN
NEE
numbers were recorded) and the person again
concentrates on a particular number. What occurs
ARRTTIICCLLEE REEFFEERREENNCCEE HEERREE
when the numbers are then viewed is akin to the
delayed choice double slit experiment. So it appears a
decision made now can affect the past, by collapsing a
probability wave. The difference is that with this, as
opposed to the delayed choice experiment, we see a
quantum mechanical principle manifesting in our day-
to-day world.

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3 .8 MOONNKKEEYY MIINNDD concept felt like around 10 seconds, but I usually
manage 5 seconds, before I think of how long it’s
been. I believe entering a trance would enable a more
long-term single mindedness. As an aside, I find it
What gives people different signatures? Belief as
almost impossible with the TV on, so find a quiet
we have seen constrains thought processes and hence
room.
would play a part. In fact in psychic studies, it is
frequently found that those who do not believe they
can influence or predict occurrences actually perform
below probability, as if they have a negative signature.
Another contributing factor could be the
inability of most people to truly concentrate on only
one thing for any given length of time. I challenge you
to think of an unlit cigarette on a black coffee table
continuously without having any other thought or
image coming into your mind. Pink Elephants and
golden circles, fruit.
How long do you last? Even thinking of
thinking of it, or remembering not to be distracted, are
diversions. Myself, the longest I have achieved one
pointed concentration upon one idea, sound, image or

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3 .9 LOOOOSSEE ENNDDSS I believe that these wound strings attract
or cause the occurrence of objects and situations in the
physical world which are contrary to the mathematical
probability of that occurrence otherwise happening.
Do you remember the descriptions of
To help visualise this, imagine a streambed with fast
super partner particles? Wound strings vs. unwound
flowing water running over a bed of rocks. In some
strings; universes with dimensions of r/1 being
places the rocks would cause standing waves in the
identical to universes with 1/r dimensions?
water. Now imagine that these standing waves are the
I theorise that high energy wound strings have
physical, unwound element of strings. If we removed
minus 1/2 ‘spin’ less than normal particles. And that
the rock (stringy wound element) the standing wave
these wound strings cannot, unlike unwound force and
would disappear, or decay.
mass strings, become manifest in the 3 spatial
dimensions that we can see and touch, despite
surrounding and permeating them.
This is because wound strings still
contain the dimensions they are wound around Illustration xliv Standing Wave River Rocks
<remember the stringy version of the big bang>.
Wound strings measure the entire physical universe as
I believe that wound strings are thought
being infinitesimally small whereas unwound strings
particles, and that the idea of any object or situation is
when used to examine the size of the universe
actually made of super-partner particles. I believe that
determine it to be incredibly large.

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everything that has form is held in form by that form’s have enough energy, and without the guiding hand of
consciousness of itself. When that consciousness wound strings, unwound strings lead to greater
departs the form, the form breaks down and decays. entropy.
Hence a flower is aware of itself, plants are aware, as Conversely, creating matter or force with
are stones. They have a consciousness of being. The the wound (thought) variety of strings, is a much
physical, chemical and electrical processes in our more (albeit still unlikely mathematically) probable
brains are guided on a quantum level to represent the situation to consider. One wound string needs to meet
path intended by the mind or consciousness, unless the it’s antistring particle in a sea of movement in 11
brain’s chemistry is being influenced, either by dimensions, leaving an unwound string.
chemical deficiencies or chemical additions. Or by This may be unlikely, but certainly is not
physical injuries to the brain’s structure. prohibited. This is what stopped happening after there
Thought and consciousness would then were three spatial dimensions; it became unlikely, and
be the guiding hand that overcomes entropy and the rest of the dimensions remained curled up,
decay. restrained by wound ‘thought’ or superstring particles
In short, energy follows consciousness. (sparticles).
The reason we have remained ignorant of The next section of this manuscript will
this for so long is simply that the energy required to explore the ramifications of this concept, and we will
create wound strings (thought particles) is beyond the discover by what mechanism our thoughts are
ability of matter/force strings (and our current and reaching out and affecting our reality by disturbing
foreseeable technology). Unwound strings just don’t probability.

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However, for now, the idea that two It could also be the method by which
wound string / anti-string 'particles' can annihilate several personages in history have unwittingly used to
each other in the 11 dimensions of string theory, thus sustain themselves without eating or drinking. One
creating an unwound string is indeed relevant. Perhaps such person, Therese Neumann, stopped eating or
this possibility is what is manipulated when Yogi's drinking in 1927. Her local bishop in Regensburg sent
such as Sathiya Sai Baba produce objects out of thin four fransiscan nursing sisters under the supervision of
air... a medical doctor named Seidl. They watched her
Sai Baba has been known to be able to movements day and night from July 14th 1927, to July
produce one fruit that is actually two halves of two 29, 1927; a period of 16 days. In this period, they
different fruits when the skin is peeled. He produces remained completely convinced that Therese neither
these and many other objects on demand or at request. ate nor drank. The human body cannot last this long
Everything that he does shows up on film when tapes without water.
of these acts are replayed. No one has ever come After a six-week period, she went to the
forward with any credible evidence that Sai Baba is toilet only once. When examined by a Dr. Reismanns,
faking his abilities. the stool contained only traces of bile and mucus, but
In his book, Autobiography of a Yogi, no traces of food.
Paramahansa Yogananda said in regards to such And although she lost 9 kilos of blood as
powers or siddis, “The world [is] nothing but an a result of the weekly opening of her stigmata, her
objectivised dream, whatever your powerful mind weight remained constant. Therese continued to
believes very intensely instantly comes to pass”. display inedia for another 35 years.

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3 .1 0 VAALLUUEE sense of values, judgments and beliefs, we seek to
change that validity.
Nobody wants weeds in their garden,
people don’t like flies inside their houses, we don’t
What is value? In human terms, a value is
mind if the new puppy chews a bone we gave it but
basically a moral or cultural belief which determines
we don’t want it chewing our shoes. Our shoes are
the perceived worth of a situation, or of the absence of
expensive and hence valuable after all, aren’t they?
that situation.
Other than when we assign apparent
Without humanity and our conscious or
value and worth to an object or situation, the things we
unconscious programming, there wouldn’t be any
value are assigned meaning by us which is mostly
judgment regarding the validity of situations. If
over and above their actual worth in a universal sense.
scientists were able to predict that a certain star was
Which is indeed a valid point, but where am I going
going to supernova and that it would be visible to the
with this?
naked eye, many people would gather to watch. There
would be lots of oohs and aahs and a majority would
decide it was indeed a beautiful thing.
But if they said that our sun was that star,
there would be mass panic and fear. Without human
perception, a supernova anywhere in the universe is
perfectly valid. There is no one to pass judgment.
However, with humanity in the equation, with our

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3 .1 1 A SEETT OFF SCCAALLEESS

I once noticed that a person’s sense of value


appears to distort their perception of events. By this I
mean, for example, somebody who dislikes single
mothers (whatever their reasons) will see them, and
take note of them. They may actively pass judgment
Illustration xlv Applied Value Scales Unbalanced
within their own heads, or they may be actively rude
to the single mum, etc.
This is a different situation than one where a Therefore, the less value we assign
person is without that particular judgment. This person something, the more frequently we perceive it. In the
may notice the single mum or they may not. same way, the more we value something the less
frequently we perceive it, because we actually value
its lack less; hence we perceive its lack more
frequently. The above scales then have one thing on
one side, and the lack of that thing on the other side.
So long as there is a different value assigned to
each, the frequency of perception of one will always
increase in direct proportion to the difference in

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assigned value.
For example, the more we value our
experience of time, the less we feel we have of that
time. In this situation, we are valuing the lack of time
less, and we experience lacking time more. Again, the
less we value our time, the more of it there seems to
be. This is reflected in two common sayings; “Time
flies when you’re having fun” and “A watched pot
Illustration xlvi Supply Demand Vs Perception Value
never boils”.
We have an intrinsic understanding of
this concept, and we echo this understanding in our However, where a person has an activated
economies around the world by the concept of supply thought form that does not have a value assigned to it,
and demand. The more something is wanted or the an increase in perception of that thought form also
more people who want it (high demand) the higher the occurs.
price, and when things are in short supply (such as How many times have you come across a
gold or antiques) they tend to cost more. new occurrence only to notice a marked increase in
that occurrence around you? Consider when you or
someone you know buys a new car; you begin to
notice that type of car more frequently.
I recently acquired crutches after
breaking my leg, and my girlfriend began noticing
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other people on crutches whenever she went out. After
she mentioned this to me, I too began to notice people
on crutches; at least one each time I went out. Before
this I had not noticed any. Now that I have outgrown
Illustration xlvii Percieved Value Scale Balanced
the use of crutches, I use a walking stick; and I see
people with walking sticks now, but I have not seen
So, one could say that an increase in
any one on crutches for weeks!
assigned value may decrease the frequency of
So what is the difference between a
perception and vice versa. Without assigned value, a
thought form that is being projected by a person in
thought form appears to be free to increase the
each of these two cases? In one case, a conscious or
frequency of perception where it occurs. With both the
unconscious belief (the sense of value or worth)
absence of an assigned value and an absence of an
underlies the active thought form. In the other, a sense
activated thought form, frequency of perception is
of value does not underlie the thought form. There is
neither increased nor decreased.
also the third case briefly mentioned where there was
When there is no underlying belief
no activated thought form and no interfering value
concerning the apparent value of a situation or
system.
occurrence, our perception of its frequency of
occurrence does not initially change. Then where there
is an activated thought form of the situation, the
thought form increases our frequency of perception.
Complicated, but true.

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3 .1 2 PRROOGGRREESSSSIIOONN one of those numbers, and each present on separate
occasions, may be present during a time in which their
assigned number increases in actual occurrence above
10%.
We have seen one situation where our
Therefore it is also possible from one
unconscious or conscious beliefs and judgments
person’s perception as they go from room to room,
appear to increase or decrease our perception of
with each room performing the same experiment, that
occurrences. We have also seen how in the absence of
relative to the universe they are aware of, each number
values and judgments, a sustained activated thought
does not occur 10% of the time from their perspective.
form of something always increases how often we
Their number always appears to occur more
perceive it.
frequently, to them.
But as found in the experiments mentioned
previously with random event generators, can we truly
push these concepts so far as to claim that thought
forms cause an actual (not just a perceived) shift in
occurrences?
It is mathematically essential that over an
infinite amount of time a random event generator will
produce the numbers 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 each 10%
percent of the time. And it has been shown that it is
possible that ten people each concentrating only on

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3 .1 3 TEESSTTIINNGG, TEESSTTIINNGG of mind than when I’m running late for work, I just
spilt coffee on my only clean business shirt, I’m
hungry, my toddler has hold of my pant leg and my
newborn child has started crying in the other room.
Take the example of toast falling buttered
So the difference is the initial state of
side down. Using math, toast should land buttered side
mind, or the intent with which I approach my actions.
down 50% of the time. If we tested this, as if we were
It seems therefore that we must always
flipping a coin, over time we would indeed find each
look at the reason why; the emotion that lies behind
occurrence approaching 50%.
the thought. Not just my intent, but also the reason
This does not disprove individual
why I have that intention.
situations where there may indeed be more than 50%
Once we know that information we see
of occurrences of toast landing buttered side down.
what the active thought form actually is, and therefore
Here is why. We are investigating not only the
should be able to predict a situation occurring outside
occurrence, but also that occurrence’s relationship to
of probability.
the thought patterns and the emotional state of the
Mathematics and experiment, which in this case
person to which it is occurring.
could supposedly disprove the phenomena, simply
Once we test the situation, we are
does not include enough information to cover every
changing it on a fundamental level. It is no longer the
situation that springs from a universe that is
same situation.
fundamentally inclusive of thought and consciousness.
When we test something we are going to
see what occurs. It is a more passive inquisitive state

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3 .1 4 PAANNDDOORRAA’SS BOOXX could still be alive. According to science, both
realities exist in a superposition of states, one growing
more 'probable' over time, and one less probable.
When we open the lid, we force the universe to
Pandora’s box is a classic example of a thought
provide only one reality, and we find the cat alive or
experiment and it is also one with no certain answer.
dead.
Quantum physics says that a particle is present at
If we were to place a camera in the box
every possible location along its wavelength until we
before closing the lid to see what happened, we would
interact with it or we view it. At that point it must
have many probable situations being taped by many
exist at only one location.
probable cameras. When we view the tape, all we are
There are two schools of thought about
doing is viewing one possible past. The rest remain,
what is happening. One theory is that we view one of
although we can no longer experience them.
many endlessly branching realities; the other is that
the probability wave simply collapses at the point of
observation.
Pandora’s box embodies the concept of
what occurs before the point of observation. We place
a fragile glass tube containing cyanide gas inside a
box, and then put a cat inside the same box. When we
place a lid on the box, we do not know the state of the
cat. It could have stepped on the tube and died, or it

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3 .1 5 TOO TEESSTT ORR NOOTT TOO will see more 4WD’s and vans around a school at 9am
or 3-4pm.
TEESSTT? So all we have that is useful to us is a
number observed by our participant. How do we
compare this number to something? Say we dismiss
Let us go back to the example where a person the participant once he has served his purpose, and set
who buys a new car begins noticing them on the road. up a camera to tape the cars as they pass along the
Consider how to test wether this is simply an road. No people, so no activated thought-form, right?
activation of awareness or wether the person is Wrong.
drawing more of those cars out of the randomness of In the delayed choice experiment we
the universe when they are present. found that we could influence the past by choices
We could keep a record of the numbers made now. Therefore like Pandora’s box, we
when the person is present, just like the random determine what the camera recorded when we view it,
number generator tests, and find out the percentage of because we view it with intent. Our thoughts have
the target cars owned, as compared to all other cars. determined or affected what we will find.
This would give us a comparative number, but the Perhaps you will remember that I said in
percentage of these cars owned is a useless number to the introduction, “The only limit this idea of the
us. The demographic of the area, type of commercial universe that I will present has, is that it is self-
or industrial area, price of residential property, style, supporting”. Perhaps now you see what this limit is. If
use and price of the car all matter. For instance, we it is true that our thoughts affect what we observe like

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ripples on a pond, then it is true. If it is not true, then it 3 .1 6 SUUM
MMMIIN
NGG UPP
is not true. Therefore the truth of the theory can only
be determined by individual experience. You must
make a decision yourself by being completely honest,
The universe, everything that can be experienced
watching your thoughts always and noting what you
or imagined, is all vibrating energy. All matter is held
observe. Be clear about what really drives your
in form by consciousness, both matter and
thoughts and actions, be clear about what you believe,
consciousness vibrating at the same frequency as each
and where your prejudices lie.
other in each individual case.
You need to watch for ripples while
These frequencies differ in
knowing that the act of watching is in itself causing
the mathematical sense only. All possible situations
reality to ripple.
and experiences within the cosmic symphony of
From hereon in, I will assume the truth of the
energy are equally valid. They exist with equal worth,
theory and explore what the consequences of it’s truth
else they would not be.
would be, and also explore how our thoughts would
When in its ignorance, a consciousness
affect or determine our experience.
disregards this truth and separates one polarity of
experience from another and accords one aspect of
experience more worth than the other, the innate
balance of probability is upset. Thus the eternal
struggle between good and evil is a struggle of the
wounded intellect using weapons of fear and judgment

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against itself. The universe is then forced to echo this 3 .1 7 I AM
M TH
HEE LEEN
NSS TH
HRRO
OUUG
GHH
struggle in physical experience according to the
person's perspective.
WHHIICCHH I VIIEEW
W TH
HEE WO
ORRLLD
D

Perception has an important role to play in this.


People’s experiences colour their view of what they
see. A person who is happy sees opportunities for
happiness. A person with depression sees those same
opportunities as reasons to be further depressed.
Manipulative deceitful people project their motives
upon others, and see deceit where there is none. So
these three people may experience the same situation,
even be standing in the same room together, and all
three will walk away from it with their perceptions of
reality reinforced.
We see what we want to see, or what we
don’t want to see, depending on the situation and how
we relate to it. This circular pattern of belief
reinforcing perception reinforcing belief is a common

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theme in our experience of reality. Not only do we 3 .1 8 BEELLIIEEFF
project our beliefs onto our experiences, (the notion of
some-one having rose-tinted glasses is essentially due
to this) but also on another level, we have discovered
Beliefs are thought forms that have been
that our beliefs cause us to be, by chance, around
activated and played out so many times that they have
situations that occur more frequently to us simply
become the groove that the needle of our
because we believe they are possible.
consciousness travels through automatically. As we
saw from the section on survival concepts and wisdom
concepts, some beliefs are the result of a fear reaction
and cause a contraction and repetition of experience.
Other beliefs allow an expansion of experience and
propel us to new levels of understanding.
But it goes further than that. Our beliefs
determine our experience of reality. What we do not
believe in, we cannot experience. The reason for this
is evident in a universe where energy follows, or
mirrors consciousness. If we do not believe in
something, we cannot be aware of it, except as an
intellectual concept. So I do not believe in a vengeful
god, but I am aware that some people do. Without

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thought there is no form, as form will decay when its 3 .1 9 1000 MOONNKKEEYYSS
consciousness is absent.
Therefore, wether by conscious choice or
a fear response, unconscious belief or judgment,
Researchers studying the behaviour of monkeys
everything we experience or become aware of has
on a group of islands noticed that on one island, a
been in part created or allowed to become manifest
particular monkey worked out how to use grass straws
within our awareness by our belief in it.
to eat termites, sucking them from their nests. As other
We are responsible for the manner of our lives in
monkeys on the same island began to copy the first, a
a very direct and intimate way. Not only do our
peculiar thing began to happen. Far away on other
perceptions colour our experiences, but also those
islands, all the monkeys of that species began to use
experiences can occur only because we allowed them
the same tool to eat termites.
to occur on some level. If we believe we live in an
Situations similar to this in nature have strongly
unsafe world, our world is able to manifest 'unsafe'
suggested that there is a communal consciousness or
experiences within our realm of observance and
group mind that exists in all animals. And that if
personal experience.
something becomes known by a certain percentage of
animals, the knowledge becomes accessible by all of
the species.
The human mind’s complexity surpasses
that of all other animals, drowning out the voice of
instinct, which we have left behind in favour of the

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ability to pursue individual conscious choice. 3 .2 0 MOOTTIIOONN AANNDD EM
MOOTTIIO
ONN
But it still remains that the group
consciousness of humanity is a concept that is openly
accepted by many schools of psychology. Jung for
Several times through out recent chapters, I have
example found that the human mind often borrowed
used the term “activated thought-form”. It is important
concepts from which it could have otherwise had no
that I expand on and further explain this concept. To
knowledge.
make things easy, we will begin our discussion on
The relevance this has to our current
activated thought-forms with well-defined thoughts.
discussion is that communal belief plays a large part in
We will explicitly concentrate on memories that are
our ability to freely follow our own thought patterns.
activated by the word embarrassment. Think of times
We do have an edge on other species, but it cannot be
in your life when you remember being embarrassed.
ignored that communal belief plays a part in our
Stop reading, close your eyes, and remember.
experience of reality.
The thought of these events alone are inactive.
Theoretically, if enough people believe in
However, if you were to lie back and recreate the
something, that belief infiltrates the collective
events that led to the embarrassing situation (using
unconscious, and can influence the reality of people
your imagination), you will find you are able to
who are not even actively aware of having the belief.
recapture the feeling, to re-experience it. This is an
activated thought-form.
Here, we may discover that what we
thought was a mere preference to avoid embarrassing

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situations actually comes from a fear of ridicule, or of 3 .2 1 PRROOBBAABBIILLIITTYY REEVVIISSIITTEEDD
being exposed. Hence, any activation (a choice
followed by physical action or inaction) of our
'preference' to avoid embarrassing situations is fuelled
Let us take another look at the concept of
at least in part by these fears. Hence in this case the
probability, this time in the mathematical sense. If I
action of preference is actually an expression of fear.
roll a dice, I understand that I have a one in six chance
(This concept is not too far removed from our
of rolling any one of six numbers.
everyday reality. People search for companionship
In a more complex situation, we drop a
sometimes from preference, sometimes from not
simple pin from a sufficient height onto a hard wood
wanting to feel alone. Other people practice kindness
floor, and record the number of times it bounces
and compassion because of an underlying fear of
divided by the number of cracks between the planks
being rejected by others whom they fear would
that the pin bounces over. Random number? No. If we
otherwise not like them.)
repeat the experiment about ten thousand times we
Whatever the underlying reason, an
will see a pattern emerging.
activated thought-form is one that engages one or
The average of all the apparently random
more of our emotions, whatever they may be.
numbers we have recorded approaches an increasingly
accurate value of pi.
Despite the difference in situation, in
each case it is the method that determines the
probability of each separate outcome. A dice has six

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sides, and comes to rest on one. A pin bounces 3 .2 2 RUUSSSSIIAANN ROOUULLEETTTTEE
randomly but is a cylinder that is an express
manifestation of pi, which it betrays in the
accumulative data, showing us a glimpse of the hidden
In a case much like Schrodinger’s cat (in
order behind the apparent randomness of it’s action.
that it seeks to explain a quantum mechanical
paradox), we see the many worlds theorem of the
branching probability conundrum. In this thought
experiment, we have a person playing Russian roulette
with a six shot pistol which has only one chamber
loaded. Each time our unfortunate person rolls the
chamber round, and pulls the trigger (without
observing it’s position) then like Schrodinger's cat,
there is a certain chance he will live or that he will die,
in this case being one in six.
In a bizarre twist of logic, it does not
become more and more likely (mathematically, due to
the fact that we are including all parallel universes)
with each spin that he will die. The first time he pulls
the trigger, there are five universes in which he is
alive, only one in which he is not. The next time he

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plays this foolish game, there are ten universes would have to be a cool customer indeed, not to for
whereupon he is alive, and only two where he is not. one single moment have any doubts, fears, or
We now have a workable theory, which trepidations. Neither would he be able to afford to
says that the reason any one particular result have something to prove, or to test. He would not be
eventuates at each moment of culmination (such as able to let the focus of his thoughts wander to
when the die stops rolling), out of all the probable or encompass even a whiff of the concept of chance, bad
possible results, is because of the prevailing luck, irony or ill fate.
atmosphere of thought and emotion (of the observers
of -including people experiencing- the situation)
regarding the event. This prevailing atmosphere is not
limited to (but is definitely influenced by) the
prevailing thought-forms of the moment. Past and
future thought-forms also contribute in equal measures
to the collapse of probability into one observable
outcome, as thoughts are not bound by the constraints
of time.
Thus in the case of the Russian roulette
paradox, our foolhardy participant could by fierce
concentration of will, belief and focus, while
maintaining the appropriate mind state, never lose. He

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3 .2 3 REESSOONNAATTIINNGG RAADDIIOOSS If we balance a ball perfectly on top of a
cone and then it falls, quantum many worlds theory
says that the ball simultaneously falls in all directions.
If we were to see photons from more than one version
Hark back to the many worlds theory of quantum
of the falling ball, the same neurons in our brain
physics, picture a radio crystal immersed within an
would have to fire in different ways. For each version
invisible sea of radio waves that carry the frequencies
of the ball, there would be a version of our brain that
of many radio stations. Depending upon the frequency
perceives it, but our brain simply cannot function in
with which we vibrate the radio crystal, we will hear
more than one version of reality. The scientific name
only one of many available frequencies. The rest we
for this is environmentally induced coherence.
are simply unaware of.
The philosophy behind this ‘determining
In exactly the same manner, our gun-toting
atmosphere’ of conditions is what I endeavour herein
madman created the possible outcomes by active or
to explore, and the results both simple and yet
passive belief. Of all possible outcomes, the one he
amazing.
resonates most closely with (the one which matches
Everything we imagine exists in a space
the frequency of his thoughts etc) is the one he will
and time as a reality. Then by conscious or
experience, or be attuned to. His other possible selves
unconscious beliefs, fears, judgments, perceptions,
either cease to exist at the point of culmination or
biases, thoughts, wisdom and survival concepts, we
observance/experience, or like the particle in the
'vibrate' at a frequency most strongly like only one of
double slit experiment his other selves branch off into
the possible versions of experience, and this is the one
other universes.

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we become aware of. “In other words, we can decide in any
Also, in each moment that we become given moment (even in the future) which past will
aware of past events, we determine which of the have given rise to the next moment - so long as we
possible pasts we experience the effects of, by the cannot know which past would have otherwise
culmination of thought frequencies that we resonate occurred.”
at; so long as we could not previously have
determined (known) which of the possible series of
events (pasts) were possible.
The nature of particles as extremely
warped points in space-time has been explored
previously in the section on general relativity, and
despite the fact that we experience time as a forward
flowing linear sequence, we found that particles defy
the notion of causality; they can be influenced by
‘events’ in the past, and also in the future. We now
understand that these ‘events’ can include the guiding
hand of consciousness in the form of super energetic
‘strings’, vibrating energy, which both envelop our
observed dimensions, and permeate every space and
time.

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3 .2 4 PSSYYCCHHOOLLOOGGIICCAALL VSS gravitated towards managerial roles, which in turn re-
enforced his convictions.
ACCTTUUAALL The woman’s mother was a meek little
lady, very Christian and humble. The force of her
father’s personality was quite strong, and her mother’s
Take a moment, if you will, to consider the will was often crushed under the weight of his desires.
following situation. A man and a woman fall deeply Her father’s ‘forceful personality’ extended to a
and incredibly in love. As a result of their previous life ‘forceful’ way of dealing with people, which he found
experiences they both react to life in accordance to effective in his youth with five brothers.
their perceptions and in sympathy with their survival Encouraged by the success of subduing
and wisdom concepts. his wife (thus making him feel powerfully masculine),
The man’s father left when he was young, his behaviour became increasingly physical and
and he feels rejection keenly (often seeing it through directly violent, as he lost his business and was fired
sheer force of imagination). When his father left, his from another job.
mother fell apart – falling increasingly into substance As a consequence of her experience of
abuse, her life spiralling out of control. As a young life thus far, the woman saw the meekness and
man, he saw this and decided that the most important inaction of her mother as a cause of her mother’s
thing to avoid is loss of control. Lack of control over unhappiness; thus to be avoided in her own life. As a
one’s emotions and one’s environment leads to way of avoiding her father’s rage, she elected instead
unhappiness. As his life progressed, this man to avoid confrontation wherever possible, to say one

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thing and think another. However in dealings with her it’s sphere of influence. He begins calling her to check
friends, she found happiness in bulldozing them, where she is several times through the day (he is the
manipulating them to back her opinions and decisions sole breadwinner, a responsibility taken upon by
– giving her a sense of power (and validation of self himself in order to prove that his father’s failure as a
worth), where at home she felt none. In her teenage family man would not be his failure too). He even
years, her lack of respect for her father (male role begins calling her friends.
model) and desire for self-assurance led her to lead a The oppressive atmosphere is making the
somewhat promiscuous and flirtatious lifestyle. woman feel claustrophobic and powerless despite her
When our hypothetical man and woman deep love for her husband. She unwittingly begins
meet, they both feel as if they have met their soul avoiding confronting him on the issue, but does not
mate, for surely they were meant to be together. They wish to become meek like her own mother was. One
both saw aspects in each other that they admired and night, full of alcohol and resentment she sleeps with
respected, and all was well. They married. one of her male friends at a party at her house. He
However, one night the man sees his wife finds out.
(innocently and subconsciously; a residual vestige of What we see here is two people, products
her past promiscuity) flirting with another man, a of previous experiences, acting according to their
work colleague. The man moves in, taking ‘control’ of wants, fears, and ‘programming’; learnt behaviours.
the situation and telling his new wife to come home. The psychological reasons for their
Emboldened by repeated successes in ‘controlling’ actions, and the reasonable consequences of their
aspects of his life, his ‘controlling’ begins to widen in actions given their partner’s programming (thought

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patterns), their prejudices, fears, judgments, values The frequency of the man and woman’s
and expectations from life are but one determining consciousness caused the ‘random and chaotic’
aspect of their experience. Life is hard, nothing comes universe to oscillate in sync with them; the
easy, and something always goes wrong when you psychological and sociological ramifications of their
least expect it, men are controlling, and women are actions are but one facet of the phenomena of the
weak. Beyond these psychological reasons, they also inducive resonance of their consciousness and energy.
manifested these situations and experiences into their
lives through their resonance of belief. These events
then correspond to a certain total frequency of
vibration.
Their own thought cycles are resonant
(consciously and unconsciously) with the same
frequency as their experience, as the consciousness of
a form is equivalent of the thought of that form. One is
high energy and folded both within and beyond the
other, which is a lower energy. The form (force or
situation), thought of the form, and the consciousness
of the form are all vibrations or states of energy,
which vibrate in sync, and in harmony with each
other.

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3 .2 5 INNTTEENNTT ANNDD FOOCCUUSS what we desire. In this case, the stronger of the two
thought-forms will occur with greater frequency. A
study of our beliefs can give a strong indication of the
way the probability will sway; does the person feel
The man believed he was acting with the intent
they are worth receiving what they are consciously
of controlling his environment. So why did he
asking for? What other beliefs may influence the path
manifest the antithesis of his desire for control? His
their desires can take in order to come about?
desire to manifest control stemmed from his focus on
“I can’t leave my job because I have a
lack of control, fear (invalidation and judgment) of
responsibility to my family” “I work hard for my
losing control, and fear of rejection or desertion. In
money”, “I don’t accept money from strangers” and
this way, his attempts to gain control of his
“nobody really respects me” would all be thought
environment were expressions of his fear of losing
forms that would definitely be counterproductive to a
control.
desire to earn more money.
It is quite important then, to be aware of
Consider the concept of the direction of
the reasons why a person pursues certain goals; the
focused attention. This can also affect our ability to
reason that lies behind the apparent intent – in order to
manifest desires. Consider that I just left my job and
be aware of what experience they are making more
planned to take a small holiday using my savings,
likely.
before finding other employment. All is well and
Our thought patterns can also be in
good. I seem to be putting out positive thoughts. But
competition; we can be attempting (knowingly or
what if my car was to require repairs, prompting me to
unknowingly) to create both what we fear and also

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worry about how much it cost, and then I began While I’m away, my house is broken into
worrying about using up all my savings? Ok, then I and several items are stolen. I sit down (on the floor –
would cut short my holiday and concentrate on getting no more chairs), take out the book my friend gave me,
another job. Where is my focus? Am I simply and read on to find what it has to say about all this.
planning to get another job, or am focusing on and The true reason I put up the talisman, was
thus creating (or at least making more likely) the lack to protect me and mine. For me to feel the need to
of money in my life? protect my property, I must a) believe that someone
Another situation; I have hung a runic may destroy or steal my property. b) Invalidate that
talisman of protection on my front door because a part experience and c) fear, however subtly, that this will
of me believes it may actually protect me and mine. come to pass. By putting up the talisman, I was
But shortly before I go to visit family over Christmas, expressing my belief in the need for it.
a friend gives me a book all about how we can create The reason I was robbed when I took it
our reality directly by the sum of our beliefs and our down is that a) my beliefs/fears concerning my
thoughts (it’s a really good book, by the way). I read property did not change, and b) I stopped believing
some, but can’t finish it all before I must leave. But I that the talisman would work. My beliefs once held
figure from what I managed to cover, that the talisman one another in check, but then no longer did. As a
is just a representation or outward symbol of thought result, a robber vibrating at the frequency of what I
patterns I already have. I will take it down now, as I feared randomly chose my house.
realise I don’t need it any longer; I create my own
reality absolutely!

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3 .2 6 REESSIISSTTAANNCCEE a belief) can cause resistance to achieve it’s intent.
However, each time doubt enters my mind, the
original mind state – the reason that lies behind my
intent – causes whatever I am resisting to increase in
Does resistance always achieve the opposite of
my awareness.
intent? In the above case, my need for protection was
Hence why it may appear that whenever I
an expression of my perceived need for that
take an umbrella to work I won’t need it, but if I forget
protection. If I build a wall against something, I will
to bring it one day, it is more likely to rain (as far as I
have the need of that wall. The act of building it was
perceive it).
an expression of my perception of needing it.
Resistance is but fear by degree, and what
Therefore I have done two things; I have declared that
we fear we draw to us.
I believe in what I have built against, that it is real,
and also that I both fear and invalidate what I built it
against.
My wall will work if I continue to believe
in it’s efficacy; if I hadn’t have taken the talisman
down it would have continued to ‘protect’ me. But it
will need to continue doing this, and I will continue to
experience needing my wall – wether I am aware or
unaware of it being needed.
So an act of faith (or in the previous case,

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3 .2 7 PRREEFFEERREENNCCEE AANNDD umbrella on the days they will require one, or they
will already be inside when it starts to rain. They may
JUUDDGGM
MEEN
NTT get wet, but so long as they continue to move on from
getting wet and not focussing on it as an
inconvenience, it will not continue to be an
The difference in state of mind that will inconvenience for them.
cause some people to have had sympathy for the If however they did feel highly
previous statement regarding the umbrella, and for inconvenienced and, as a result of the odd dousing,
others to have felt it was ridiculous is a measure of the began to focus/obsess about the phenomena of being
level of obsession that they have with the concept. On ‘jinxed’ (always forgetting to bring an umbrella when
one level this means that a person who obsesses about they needed one) then you would say their
synchronicity will see it everywhere. ‘preference’ has turned into a judgment.
That does not necessarily mean it actually The umbrella of course is arbitrary; we
is everywhere, but they will take note, and possibly could be discussing any situation. But the thing about
tell all their friends. But the odd thing I have observed judgment (in the manner that I am using the word) is
is that synchronicity does indeed occur with more that it predicates a strong system of perceived value.
regularity to those who have it on their mind. The stronger the judgment, the stronger the difference
So what have preference and judgment between the aspect that is valued and the aspect that is
got to do with this? The odds are that someone who not valued. In short, a preference will not usually rock
would prefer not to get wet will either remember an the boat. We can use our discernment to our heart’s

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content. But judgment tips the scales; the frequency of 3 .2 8 STTAATTEESS OOFF MIINNDD
perception is directly related to our assignation of
value.

Which brings me to my next point of


observation. Judgment and preference are merely
states of mind. The universe does not judge; it’s just
energy. Although it makes sense that an activated
thought-form (one with emotion) can influence events,
how can it appear that the universe responds to my
judgments or my values, when the universe as a
mechanism knows no judgment, excludes no thing,
and accepts all circumstances as valid? The sun shone
just as brightly on Hitler as it did on Mother Teresa.
So surely the notion of it responding to our sense of
value is purely nonsensical?
Everything that has been discussed in the
last few pages just describes a difference in a state of
mind. Because we see some things with different
shades of validity depending upon our judgments and
values, it is easy to see a universe that reacts in the

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same way. We’ve been giving our creators (God) and way, it is likely that I am thinking, “I wish the bus
our systems (karma) the characteristics of ‘good’ and would come”. Lo and behold, this is what I am
‘bad’, ‘reward’ and ‘punishment’ for as long as human experiencing. It is as if the universe sees my thoughts,
memory. But is it really the case? Let’s see. and says, “Okay then”.
My values may be different to yours in a What about after I light up? Let’s say I
given situation, but the reason for the difference in our have stopped waiting, as my mind has been distracted.
perception of the situation is not the situation itself, as Or perhaps I simply hope that the bus doesn’t come
it is the same situation for both of us. The only real now before I finish my cigarette, because they cost a
difference is our state of mind. lot nowadays, and I don’t want to waste money.
Personally, whenever I am waiting for a The bus arrives.
bus or a train, it is when I light a cigarette that the bus I’ve wasted my cigarette. Yet again, it is
or train comes. Does that mean when I light up that I as if the universe saw my thoughts, and said, “Okay
cause the bus to come? Not particularly. But what is then”. Of course in all the examples I have been
the difference in my state of mind before and after I giving, such as the bus example just now, I have
light up? seriously limited the variables. Anything that is
First, we are going to assume I do not different causes a different state of mind.
know the time, nor do I know when the bus will come. In fact, once I noticed that the bus came
Else-wise my state of mind is more complex than it when I lit up, I started lighting up to make the bus
needs to be for this example. Initially, I am patiently come. The reason for lighting up was now an
or impatiently waiting for the bus to arrive. Either expression of the initial state of mind of wishing the

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bus would arrive; the bus did not come as a result. The 3 .2 9 COOIINNCCIIDDEENNCCEE
only exception to this was when I realised my mind
state was not changing (from wishing the bus would
come) once I lit up. And in that moment, by self-
There are people who may read that and say, but
reflection my mind state altered yet again.
it’s sheer coincidence. You cannot prove that a
particular mind state alters a person’s experience of
reality in such a definable way. The bus was coming
long before you even arrived at the bus station! The
fact that it appeared to happen the way you say is mere
delusion on your part; you’ve lost me. And I agree.
Someone with that degree of certainty in his or her
refutation must certainly be a great believer in
coincidence. I am very sure that they see coincidence
everywhere, even when there was no such
coincidence.
Perhaps that someone you just met and
were thinking about merely ‘bumped into you’ at the
shops without anything to do with consciousness
predetermining it at all, that it occurred by blind
chance. After all, you say, I bump into many people at

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the shops, and I don’t remark on that, do I? Where’s If a particle is a space-time loop, (as
your mind state theory now? proposed by physicist Mark Hadley; Einstein and
The more you believe this mindset, the other physicists following this line of thought refused
more you will see it. Coincidence, chance, to violate causality by considering the ‘time’ in space-
randomness... whatever the concepts are to you, you time) then a particle can not only be affected by an
will experience them. Your beliefs will allow nothing event in it’s past, but also in it’s future. It can be
less. argued that this fact unites the general theory of
As an aside, what are all the other ‘many’ relativity with quantum physics on a fundamental
strangers at the shops thinking? As a clue, they all level. The uncertainty with which we be able to
went to the shops. Why would they all be determine the exact position of a particle using
experiencing the same situation? We will come back relativity and ‘time-loop-particles’ means we cannot
to this concept, when we more fully explore co- say what future events are influencing the current
creation. moment, and the universe thus has an inherent
“In theory, if particles are tiny areas of probabilistic tendency.”
warped space-time then not only are they loops in The bus takes thousands of different trips
space, but also in time. That seems perfectly okay at according to the many worlds theorem of quantum
first glance, but it really mucks around with causality, physics. In some worlds, people hop on while in
which is the idea that an effect follows a cause, the others it is empty. In some it is five minutes early. In
cause always preceding an effect. Otherwise, you some it is ten minutes late. What determines which
could get to the shops before you left. world merges with mine is my consciousness or my

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state of mind. My mind state affects the past that I am the essence of the situation remains.
unaware of.
Other people may be waiting with me.
Their mind states may be influencing mine as well.
We cover the modus operandi of this in a later section,
but my mind state also influenced the probability that
these specific people waiting with me would be there
with me. So indirectly, despite their current impact on
my state of mind, my own state of mind contributed to
the ability of theirs to be present to affect mine in the
first place.
A future mind state can even affect my
past, just as a past I am aware of may influence my
current mind state. My current mind state means I can
only be aware of the one possible past that I am aware
of. Not only that, my thoughts know no time, and all
points in space-time (matter or force) have windows to
both the past and the future, let alone parallel pasts
and futures.
Again, it all gets very complicated, but

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3 .3 0 UNNIIVVEERRSSAALL VAALLIIDDAATTIIOONN note of what you think about, why you think about it,
and which beliefs you hold that apply to the situation.
If you were to write this all down, along with what
you experienced – then what you think about it in
The universe is quite a literal beast. It does not
hindsight, you will most likely see a cycle of
care for your judgments or your values. The example
validations of your thoughts, beliefs, hopes, fears and
of the unbalanced scales (previously explored) is still
reflections and the reasons you have them. This cycle
a fine tool; it will help you to determine your state of
of experience determining belief determining
mind based on your evaluation of the validity of your
experience, is what holds some of us in repetitive
experiences.
cycles in our lives.
The universe also does not care which
emotions fuel your thoughts. It will give you what you
fear just as surely as what you love or desire.
It does react to what you believe and to
what you think, but most importantly, we cannot fool
it like we fool ourselves. The universe is impartial,
and it knows the reason why we think what we think;
we resonate at a fundamental level with the true
reasons for why we do things. The universe simply
has no choice but to support us.
Watch your thoughts for a few days; take

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3 .3 1 NEEEEDDSS ANNDD WAANNTTSS 3 .3 2 PUURRPPOOSSEEFFUULL ACCTTIIOONN

As we saw previously, the universe is indeed It is one thing to think or feel a fear or desire for
literal. If I think, “I want more money” the universe a particular experience, and yet another to show that
says, “Okay, you want more money”, and I will fear or desire through our actions. What we do and the
experience situations which cause me to want more steps we take, or fear to take, in actualising those
money. experiences are also the results of our thoughts. If our
This is due to my psychological state of actions undermine our desires, or if we find a sudden
wanting more money, and therefore seeing that want ability to take an action we feared we would not be
in my experience of reality, as well as a propensity to able to take when the corresponding situation or
affect the randomness of the universe in accordance option becomes available to us, we are re-defining our
with my vibrating at the frequency of want. My desire thoughts in the moment of that action.
for money may be simply a desire for more, or my As such, though our previous thoughts
want may be motivated from a focus on my current may remain in enough residue (perhaps the doubt that
lack of money. Either way, the intent that lies behind our actions would suffice) to continue to determine the
my want is what I experience. outcome of that moment, we have set a new course of
The same is true of need. Any time you possibility that the future can take. We can close this
are sending need to the universe, you reinforce the new possibility down or reduce the chance that it will
probability that you will experience that need. come to being by succumbing to this residual belief,

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or by redefining it based on reflections upon the past, having the epiphany is making the choice to stop the
or by developing the same beliefs again through a cycle of self-destruction in their life, by overcoming
comparative experience. their drug addiction and putting a stop to their criminal
One could almost assume that the behaviours. However, they stay in frequent contact
universe tests our resolve to newly made resolutions with the people they know who continue to partake in
by giving us experiences that offer us the choice to this lifestyle.
maintain our new perceptions, or to choose to cling to So, they have made an intellectual
the old. This assumption would however be false. By decision, but by their actions are continuing to
making the choice to change our perception in some associate with the destructive attitudes and energies
way, we are broadcasting this change, and therefore they were decided against.
we experience a manifestation of our choice to This may otherwise be a less extreme
change. situation in which someone near to us makes a
So our resolve is indeed tested, but it is comment or verbally expresses a belief that we
our selves who inadvertently create the test. Our disagree with, and if we are silent both mentally and
decision to hold to or change our stance on our desires verbally about our opposition to or discernment
or fears is a continual choice that is made by us alone. concerning their expressed belief, we are tacitly and
Some people may fail this ‘test of subversively agreeing with them. We passively allow
resolve’ even more innocently. Consider a situation their beliefs and perceptions to become our own.
where a person intends to change the direction their In this way, many couples or long-term
life is heading. In this case we will suppose the person friends find that over time their stance on issues tend

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to merge in a middle ground, unless those perceptions 3 .3 3 MIIRRRROORR, MIIRRRROORR, ONN THHEE
are diametrically opposed; in that case we are more
likely to mentally or verbally decree our disagreement,
WAALLLL
thus reinforcing our inner opposition to the other's
viewpoint.
Perhaps you are seeing that our mental state
continually and comprehensively governs our
perception of events, and also the probability that we
will experience situations that directly resonate to
those perceptions.
The universe then is in effect a mirror that
we cause to be held up to ourselves, showing us our
state of consciousness and state of being, our hopes
and our fears.
If we change how we are as a person, we
cease being held in a static state of experience, as our
new beingness is ultimately reflected back to us in the
form of experience. Because of this, if the people or
situations that we have gathered around us can no
longer resonate at our new frequency, we find that

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they lose their ability to hold form with respect to our 3 .3 4 ACCTT ONNEE, SCCEENNEE TW
WOO
observed reality. They may very well continue, not
breaking up, but to us they lose their power to be, and
they pass from our experience.
An example of this is an experience I
When we flee from the mirror we have
myself have had as a result of my physical wanderings
held up to ourselves without changing the sum of our
around Australia. Each time I have moved house
mind state, we simply create more opportunities for
(averaging once or more times per year – I went to 9
more of the same situations to arise.
schools), I have seen the same characters emerge.
Some were so similar to past characters that the
resemblance became uncanny. I would even remember
their names based on who they reminded me of most,
both by appearance and by aspects of their
personalities that I actively experienced in my
relationships with them.
Yet each time that one of those pivotal
moments occurred in my life in which an experience
gave rise to a new perception, or the endless delving
into the nature of my thought patterns caused me to
realise a limited concept and thus formulate another
more wise way of seeing or interpreting my reality,

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the characters that reflected to me that erroneous state yet move on.
of mind most closely, fell away. Which brings me to an interesting
The person you hate or love most in life analogy. We are the directors, writers, support staff
is yourself; if you hold up a light to another person, and actors of a play which takes the form of our
you see yourself, or the seed of yourself in them. By choosing, wether that choice be conscious or
seed, I am referring to the situation whereupon we unconscious, as the result of a love or a fear (or one of
find ourselves around a person of a particular energy the many other emotions which can be loosely fitted
who is for example manipulative; if we realise that under the heading of those two) and the thoughts,
they have value, and every right to be, but choose not bias', judgments, values and perceptions that find their
to associate with them – then no problem. being in them. That play is our life.
But if we cast judgment upon them, we are also
casting judgment on ourselves, were we to be like
them. At this point, our opposition to their way of
being may have internalised within ourselves. We may
attract more similar people, and / or we may begin to
react to those people in a similar pattern of behaviour
to theirs. In this case, the cycle of perception leading
to belief leading to increased perception could
possibly build or snowball until this pattern becomes
central to our reality, or we embrace it's validity and

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3 .3 5 JUUSSTTIIFFIICCAATTIIOONN young woman has just found out that her boyfriend
has cheated on her, and her friends have come over to
offer their support. Her friends assure her that she has
every right to be upset considering what was done to
We now know that by invalidating something, we
her, and she agrees, feeling momentarily better.
empower it in the sense that we make it more probable
In this situation, it is the emotion of
that we would come across its occurrence. We
sadness that has been justified and thus invalidated. In
invalidate something by giving it less value, directly
which case, it is the emotion, not the situation, which
by conscious choice or through indirect means i.e.
she has unwittingly made more probable in the future.
perhaps by simply trying to avoid it. What we try to
Similarly, to forgive someone for an
avoid, we must necessarily value less than what we
action or inaction implies that the action or inaction
attempt to encourage.
has the need to be forgiven. Hence we have
Or on another level, the extremely literal universe
invalidated it, and empowered it to re-occur.
says, “ok, you will try to avoid it”, so we experience
This is not to be confused with the
that trying.
realisation of the value of that person’s actions in
In the same sense, whenever we justify a
hindsight, leading to a more wholesome perception,
feeling or an action or inaction on our part, that act of
and a liberation from the judgmental thought form in
justification arises as a result of invalidating the act we
the judging person’s mind.
are justifying. Otherwise, we would have no need to
Both of these situations are subtly but essentially
justify it to others or ourselves.
different. The difference is perception.
Consider the situation whereupon a

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3 .3 6 TRRYY ASS YOOUU MIIGGHHTT whatever you wanted, so long as you do not want it.
Like Alice In Wonderland who found that the Queen's
army got closer the more she ran away, and farther
away the more she ran towards them.
We've heard a lot about how our thoughts and
But this implies that there is a path that
beliefs affect our reality, but so far not much has been
can be taken whereby we can influence probability
said about how one may take conscious control of this
reliably, on a conscious level. First, we would be
phenomenon. The method to achieve this does become
required to suspend our judgments and values. But we
quite complicated and in the beginning can be quite
must not fall into the trap of deeming judgments and
frustrating.
values to be bad, because that would in itself be a
First and foremost, the things that we
judgment of value, and an invalidation of both.
wish to create are things to which we assign greater
So, realising equal validity of all things
value than the value we assign to the lack of that
(including failing to obtain our desire), we suspend
thing, or vice versa. Hence the very attempt to create a
belief (or disbelief) and suffuse our being with intense
greater possibility of that thing occurring may come
emotion and focused thought of the thing in question.
from a focus on the lack of that thing. In this sense,
At this point, the reality we have carefully imagined
despite a concerted effort to develop a well articulated
does indeed exist.
thought form embodied in an emotion, and despite
However, every time we doubt our ability
avoiding other 'traps' I will attempt to cover, we really
to create what we have desired, we are sabotaging all
create the lack of the thing we were trying for.
of our good work! So, seeing the validity of the lesson
It would seem then that you could have

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we have learnt, the next time we experience less WILL achieve or actualise our reality in the way we
doubt. imagined.
Our next lesson comes when we realise What do you do when you sit at home,
we suffused our being with the desire for the thing, and desire a hamburger? You do not doubt your ability
which becomes apparent when the universe obediently to get one. You act according to the belief that you
ensured that we experience exactly that: we may have one, and you go for a walk or a drive, and
experience manifestation of our desire for that thing! you get it.
So, we go back to the drawing board. We Also, by imagining a particular way in
imagine our joy of having the thing, and see ourselves which whatever you are imagining will come to be, or
using/doing/having what we desired. a particular person who it must come from, you are
Two more traps to quickly consider; if we closing down possibilities. You would do better to be
imagine having the thing in the future, we will open to it coming in every way that it can. If a
experience having it in the future. And since tomorrow situation or circumstance in your life is not allowing
never comes, neither does the experience. Therefore your desired experience to come through, be prepared
when we imagine the thing, we would benefit from for that limiting thing to go through a period of
imagining the experience of already having it. destruction. You have to tear down the old before you
Then, as we carry on through the days can build the new.
and weeks we may fall into waiting for the thing to If you go forth to test any of the ideas
appear. By now you should realise what would be the covered here, you will find that it does not work.
result of doing that. We have to carry on as if we Because if you are in the mindset of testing you are

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most likely doubting, at least in part, that it will 3 .3 7 COO-CCRREEAATTIIOONN
actually work i.e. you may be expressing, “I fear it
will not be so”.
Also, as a handy hint, the word 'will'
A while back, I briefly discussed the
embodies a no nonsense concept which I find most
situation of people shopping. Everyone we meet there
helpful to use whenever I realise I am 'wanting' or
is not a random encounter for us, as everyone there is
'needing'. I also appreciate it because a phrase such as
holding the idea of shopping in their minds. This
“I will do this” takes on a whole new meaning when
concept stands true for all group interactions on some
considered with respect to this chapter, such as “my
level. Thought is premeditated experience!
will is that this be done”.
The only victims are volunteers for the
experience. That may sound harsh and uncaring, but I
say this fully appreciating the role of being the victim
of abuse and of playing the part of victimization. Put
simply, the people who were mean, abusive or
uncaring were just reflecting a self-perception and
mental/ emotional state to me that I may not have
realised I had at the time, but in retrospect it has
become quite obvious to me my part in the experience.
Consider the difference between denying
myself my own desire to play and have fun, or a

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mother spanking a child in a shopping centre for 3 .3 8 THHAANNKKYYOOUU VEERRYY MUUCCHH!
playing with the toys. It is the same process, the same
consciousness.

In a previous section we came across the


dichotomy of being able to have whatever we want, so
long as we do not want it. While on first glance this
appears to be an unavoidable conundrum, with careful
consideration it becomes evident that the impetus
behind wanting is the actual cause of the dichotomy. It
presupposes an initial focus on lack, and thus predicts
a furtherance of our experience of that lack.
How then do we maintain a focus on
abundance? By imagining abundance coming to us,
we might still be coming from an initial focus on lack.
In the same way, worry or excessive concern that is
beyond careful consideration or discernment, is also a
focus upon lack. It is that very lack that gave rise to
our desire for abundance and therefore every action
we take in response to our desire for abundance is fact
an expression of our focus on lack. Tricky, huh?

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The answer then must be to maintain 3 .3 9 FLLOOW R ESSSSEEN
WEER NCCEESS
focus on the abundance we already have, and to be
thankful for what we already have. By focusing our
will on abundance, while feeling the joy of that
Everything has a point for its existence, a
abundance, we are creating exactly that: joyful
reason for being. If a thing fulfils a certain purpose,
abundance!
that thing in truth embodies that purpose in its
The only trap here is that if we focus on
consciousness of being – even if that thing is unaware
abundance in this way in order to create it, we are still
of any more than its own beingness.
maintaining our focus on lack. The dichotomy still
Plants have a 'signature' as defined by
remains that in order to truly create abundance, we
their shape, manner of being, methods of survival, and
must in actuality be truly thankful for what we
the environment it requires to grow. Their flowers are
currently have and what we receive. If that is what we
the solution to the problems they have evolved to
resonate at, then that is what we will experience.
overcome, and the triumph over the limitations of the
methods they have developed in order to ensure their
survival.
It is only logical that at least some species
of plant will have flowers that are the solution to
particular states of consciousness that also find their
expression in the human vehicle and mind.
Using flowers to aid a change in

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consciousness, or broadening of perspective etc, has this frequency, may disturb you. If so, please take note
been the common practice of many cultures. Some of the following claims made by prominent physicist,
Australian Aborigine tribes, Ancient Egyptians, Dr Jacques Benveniste, Director of research at
Malaysian Buddhist Monks, British physician Dr INSERM Digital Biology Laboratory, Clamart,
Edward Bach, and Vasudeva and Kadambii Barnao France. His claim was first rejected but then verified
were or are some of the people and cultures to realise by the scientific community.
this phenomena. “Our present research follows what has
I mention this here not only because I been named "the memory of water". First we
myself am a Flower Essence Practitioner, but also empirically observed that highly dilute (i.e. in the
because I feel the technique of using flowers to absence of any physical molecule) biological agents
stabilise negative mental and emotional states and triggered relevant biological systems. Some of these
thought patterns, to modify destructive behaviours, experiments were reproduced in three external
relieve stress and physical pain and to gain laboratories that co-authored an article on the subject
perspective, is of great benefit to humanity. I hope that (Nature, 1988, 333, 816-818). Next, blind experiments
one day it will be more widely known and accepted. with an external team showed that the activity of
For those who are interested, you can find more highly dilute agonists was abolished by an oscillating
information by going to www.livingessences.com.au. magnetic field, which had no comparable effect on the
The idea of there being a mechanism of genuine molecules. [i.e. A magnetic field removes the
storing the signature of the consciousness of a form in 'memory' in water] Later, several hundred experiments
another medium such as water, and then preserving have confirmed our ability to transfer to water, using

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an amplifier, the specific molecular activity of more reality of the high dilution phenomenon and allow for
than 30 substances, such as physiological and the transmission and detection at a distance of any
pharmacological agonists, antibodies (purified or in normal or pathological molecular activity. At most,
whole serum), antigens and even the specific signal of they could profoundly change biology and medicine.”
bacteria. In our most recent experiments, we digitally This was referred to by another prominent
recorded (sampling 44 kHz) specific biological physicist in a statement published in The Independent,
activities on a computer. When "replayed" to water, March 22nd, 1999 by Professor Brian Josephson,
plasma, target organs, cells, or to an antigen-antibody Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics,
reaction, the recorded signal induced an effect University of Cambridge; under the title “Molecular
characteristic of the original substance.” memory”.
These results strongly suggested the “ Sir: Lionel Milgrom's account of
electromagnetic nature of molecular signalling, Jacques Benveniste's research ("The memory of
heretofore unknown. This signal, that is "memorized" molecules", 19 March) failed to make it clear that the
and then carried by water, most likely enables in vivo experiment discussed, where a biological signal is
transmission of the molecular specific information. recorded, transmitted over the Internet, and applied to
We have recently obtained direct evidence for the water elsewhere to regenerate the biological effects of
critical role of water in the transmission of the the source, is not just an idea but rather an experiment
molecular signal, at the usual concentration as well as that has already been carried out, with impressive
at high dilution. results (see Benveniste's web pages at
At the least, these advances indicate the http://www.digibio.com/).”

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Myself, I can think of no other 'invisible' Another interesting inference made in the
(i.e. shows up as just water when viewed under the preceding accounts of water memory was a brief
microscope) agent which can be at the cause of this mention of the effect produced by broadcasting
phenomena except consciousness / superpartner molecular activity recorded by a computer through a
particles / wound strings. And while I do not know 44hz speaker, directly to cells and tissues. This
why water itself can achieve this feat, it's own apparently had the same effect as exposing cultures to
consciousness would be indicated by it's function as I water with the same frequency memory.
theorise is the case with all forms. Water is the It is therefore also evident that sound also
Universal Solvent, and is the main life supporting / can carry the consciousness of a thing. We can
sustaining compound known to mankind. This extrapolate this trend to colours and smells and the
property extends into water's existence on the level of like; everything has a resonance of consciousness.
it's consciousness particles. So while no physical
unwound string particles (of the antigens etc) remain
in the water, wound strings do remain in the non-
extended dimensions; their 'consciousness' is
maintained in solution.
It is curious to note that electromagnetic
fields will destroy this connection, implying that
consciousness is affected by the electromagnetic
spectrum or force.

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3 .4 0 MUULLTTIIPPLLEE PEERRSSOONNAALLIITTIIEESS light makes the theory of relativity obvious only in the
extremes of size and speed, the exception to the rule is
always a sign that the rule itself (eg: Newtonian
Physics) only appears correct in the vast majority of
For whatever reason that the occurrence of
cases.
multiple personalities develops in a person, whatever
We will get to those extremes soon, but
the mechanism that supports the having of more than
for now, let's take a look at what exactly is going on in
one personality actually is, the fact remains that the
people with multiple personalities. 97% of all
effects of the phenomenon itself are quite extreme in
'multiples' have experienced extreme childhood sexual
their implications, and are ultimately unexplainable to
and psychological abuse, and psychologists think that
modern science and medicine.
it is the psyche’s way of dealing with unbearable
But as I have always held, it is the
levels of trauma and pain. Multiples average between
exception that proves the rule; if a rule breaks down, it
eight and thirteen personalities, and each of the
is because it is only an approximation of the true
separate personalities is unaware of their condition;
nature of reality. Just like linear equations are
they (all) believe that they suffer from periods of
approximations of non-linear systems, and only apply
amnesia or spells of blackout.
so long as the system is in its normal range of
Each personality is whole, with its own
operation. The rule is confined to an approximation of
traits, motives, values, desires and thought patterns.
reality only, because we do not see enough of the
However each personality's traits are linked to the
picture to ask the right questions.
original personality, indicating that the process of
Just like the hugeness of the speed of

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division is of a holographic nature, each individually Dr Francine Howland is a Yale
comprising the whole. psychiatrist who specialises in treating multiples. On
An unusual feature is that each one occasion a multiple arrived for a session having
personality has its own brain wave pattern. This is been stung by a wasp, and was experiencing quite
extraordinary in that normal non-multiple people's severe swelling; his eyes had completely shut.
brain wave patterns do not change even in times of Howland realised the man needed help and called an
extreme emotion or stress. In short, when presented Ophthalmologist, but one was not available for
with each separate personality's brain wave scans, another hour. Because the patient was in so much
even an accomplished doctor may not realise that they pain, Howland decided to try inducing one of the
all came from the same brain. man’s personalities who was an 'anaesthetic
Each personality has his or her own personality', a specific multiple personality type that
name, age, memories and abilities. They often also feels absolutely no pain.
have different handwriting, announced gender, But by the time this personality reached
cultural and racial background, even their own IQ and the ophthalmologist, his swelling had completely
ability to speak different languages. gone, and the ophthalmologist sent him home.
Most noteworthy (here comes the However after some time had passed, the anaesthetic
extreme I was talking about), each separate personality relinquished control of the man’s body,
personality frequently has their own illnesses, allergies and the swelling and pain returned.
and other medical conditions which disappear Drugs also affect multiples differently. In
altogether when another personality takes over. another recorded case, one personality was sufficiently

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sedated by 5ml of diazepam, a tranquilliser, but control.
another of the same person's personalities showed no It is even theorised that multiples do not
appreciable effects after 100ml of the same drug. age as fast as normal people, and most heal much
If one of the multiple's personalities is a quicker than is usually possible.
child, as is often the case, the arrival of the child
personality can lead to an overdose when the dosage is
too high for a child. Other personalities have awoken
on the operating table because a particular personality
does not respond to anaesthetics.
Some multiples need several different
prescriptions of glasses to cope with each personality's
differing visual acuity. Scars and burn marks, cysts
and left or right handedness all come and go
depending on who has control. Some women even
have several menstruations each month because each
personality has a different cycle.
Yet another case baffled doctors when a
multiple with diabetes arrived at hospital for a series
of diabetes tests, which showed she was not at all
diabetic; one of her 'non-diabetic' personalities was in

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3 .4 1 INN SIICCKKNNEESSSS ANNDD INN destructive in nature, or that continually suppresses or
invalidates an emotive state – may find expression in
HEEAALLTTHH the organ or area in the body that has a consciousness
or function that most closely relates to the negative
mind state.
All things which have a form have a Perhaps that is why those who beat
consciousness which embodies the essence of a cancer also gain a more insightful perspective on life,
particular thought pattern or state of being, depending while for those who do not change their perspective or
on that form's function or purpose. In fact we can way of life the cancer is more likely to return.
extrapolate that concept to declare that all energy is It also may explain why some people can
resonance of consciousness; all sound, colour, shape smoke cigarettes into old age without ever developing
and smell – as well as form. associated problems, while a non-smoker may
This of course must include our internal succumb to those same illnesses before ever reaching
organs and external appendages; all of the parts of the old age.
human body. Each part has a function to perform, and In this case smoking cigarettes introduces
its function in turn necessitates that its consciousness carcinogens into the body, thus providing a catalyst to
of self (that holds it in form) is the essence of that disease. Perhaps then the thought forms and behaviour
embodiment of purpose. patterns of those who become diseased are what make
Is possible that over time a thought the disease possible, or more probable; Just as iron
pattern embodied by a person which is negative or (Fe) must be exposed to oxygen (O2) to rust (FeO2)

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making Ferris Oxide. But exposure to salt (NaCl), a 3 .4 2 DIIVVIINNAATTIIOONN
catalyst, causes rust to form more readily.
Due to this phenomenon of diseases being
the result of a sympathetic vibration to both the
Another arena of experience that falls under the
diseased area and the mindset that gave rise to it's
influence of a universe in which consciousness gives
possibility, the disease or affliction will affect the
rise to form and experience, is that chance and
person in the same manner that brought it about. This
probability will always be affected with respect to the
is another example of the cycle of experience /
observer's mind state. It is even more likely if the
perception / experience.
process producing the chance outcome has a highly
For example, consider a person who
random element.
suffers from facial acne. They will most likely have
Therefore, when we shuffle tarot cards or
been shy, and worried what others thought of them.
randomly open a page of a quotation book with a
Self doubt sets in, and they feel hesitant to show face.
question in mind, we have a higher than probable
Pun intended. Unfortunately for them, the presence of
chance of encountering cards or messages which
acne leads them to feel more self-conscious.
reflect our situation, if our beliefs allow this process.
As our current mind state is what developed from past
experiences, and is what makes the future we will
experience more likely to occur, the chance spread of
cards is likely to represent our situation
(past/present/future).

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The act of divination should however be This is important. If the act of observation
as random as is possible, and be conducted in the causes the collapse of realities, then meaning
presence of the inquiring party's attention over a short determines which of all the realities that are possible is
time period. It is more likely for us to be able to actually observed in each separate instance. Meaning,
influence chance, or a random event generator, to which is held and defined by the observer (or more
create a short sequence of anomalies as opposed to a specifically by the consciousness of the observer)
much greater deviation of probability. causes the actualisation of the particular universe
How are random actions, such as experienced in each separate instance. Hence
shuffling, supposed to influence the occurrence or consciousness is the factor that determines the
pattern of the cards? The meaning of the cards (or collapse of probability in every separate instance,
runes or suchlike) is determined in the act of dependent on the meaning it has to the observer.
observation, which causes the collapse of many The other deciding factor could be that
possible realities that are occurring concurrently. It is the cards (or runes or whatever is used) that represent
when we come to realise the meaning of the cards, that a certain concept or occurrence become 'charged' (in
we then become aware of only one string of events, the same way that water has been shown to 'remember'
and one past. This past will be the one that was most the properties of elements, antigens, and even
likely according to our current mental state because it bacteria) by the act of observance, and the continual
is meaning that defines order. This same meaning recognition or mindful activation of that concept at the
governs the evolution of chance and chaos because as time of observation.
we have seen, energy follows consciousness. There are many people who can reliably

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intuit an object's past or past owner, or 'remember' 3 .4 3 THHEE MEETTAAVVEERRSSEE ANNDD THHEE
emotionally charged events that the object was
associated with. Some of these people even know
PSSYYCCHHIICC GEENNEE
when they are doing it. This phenomenon of residual
memory of experiences that gathers on objects or in a
specific area is what may be the cause of some ghost As we saw in the sections about quantum
stories, and of places that give us the spooks. It also mechanics, the probability distribution of a particle's
explains why a happy home feels nice to walk into, wave function is it's true form. The particle's
etc. probability wave evolves in space over time to include
It also lends credence to the idea of parallel dimensions, and we have even seen that a
talismans, or objects created with a focused thought particle may interfere with itself from one of these
form kept in mind during their creation. Ritual and parallel dimensions. Also, if we collapse one part of
chanting are sufficiently effective ways to entrance the the particle's probability wave, then we collapse the
mind, and allow a longer maintenance of, and a firmer whole equation that has determined its state in that
dedication to, a particular mind state; Hence the myth moment. This includes the state of all particles it has
surrounding stories of mages and magic. interacted with up to that point.
If you attempt this, be sure you are
coming from the right place, and that the mind state
that gave rise to your desires comes from a balanced
perspective!

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would have the same graph. A bunch of possible pasts
leading to a precise present amongst all parallel
present states of mind, and a variety of possible
futures, some of which could only be experienced
from the current reality, some only by parallel states

Illustration xlviii Particle State Reality Graph of mind.


Depending on the state of mind we
become aware of, all states of mind that are also tied
The graph shown here is an aid to
to ours (entanglement), become defined in our reality
visualising this phenomenon. The Y-axis shows the
at that same moment. Hence any person's mind state
particle's state, while the X-axis shows the evolution
that is entangled or determined by our own becomes
over time. If O is the particle we view in one point,
one-dimensional, with respect to our experienced
then COD is the possible 'pasts' of the particle. Hence
reality, at the same time that our mind-state becomes
from the point of viewing the particle, AOB is the
determined as a singular state.
places the particle may go to in the future. Midway
That person's mind state is in actuality
between AC and BD, in line horizontally with O is the
multidimensional; they may have fine tuned their
particle's current parallel realities.
experience of reality into the experience of another
The particle is actually the entire grey
parallel dimension, but the mind state they have in our
smear, being that the grey smear is the true nature of
reality is determined in part by our mind state.
the particle: it's wave function. If we graphed all the
The true multidimensional fabric and
possible states of mind of viewing the particle, we

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nature of the universe is evident with the discovery and images in the clairvoyant's subconscious mind,
and development of quantum computers, which in a and become activated as they resonate with the
sense show that the quantum nature of the brain as subjects’ multidimensional nature.
guided by the person's consciousness can also be The only limitation of this is that the
multidimensional in its workings. clairvoyant must learn to effectively quiet his or her
Basically, wound string thought particles own mind, and maintain a neutral undefined state of
exist in the wound up dimensions, permeating within being. Any time they react according to their own
and surrounding the three observed dimensions, but in concepts or experiences (hopes, fears), the conscious
so being, they are not subject to space-time like images and concepts that ripple along the surface of
unwound strings are. Thoughts are not confined to their mind will obscure the more subtle emanations of
time, thus the imagination is able to grasp aspects of reality they perceived from the other person.
the multidimensional nature of the universe that the
singular nature of experience, the five senses, cannot.
Thus the ability of a clairvoyant who can
pick up or intuit the energy determining a person's
past and possible future (by their thought patterns,
beliefs, etc). By quieting the ripples in the surface of
our own minds, we notice the emanations of the other
person's ripples; these ripples have a frequency and
nature that resonates at a similar frequency to concepts

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3 .4 4 MIINNDD BUUBBBBLLEESS 3 .4 5 REEM
MOOTTEE VIIEEW
WIIN
NGG

A way of viewing this is if we picture our mind Remote viewing, as used by the
to be a bubble. In the world of thought, there is no American government due to its reliability in terms of
space or time; therefore by thinking of someone, our spying and obtaining otherwise unobtainable
mind bubble is instantly ‘near, that person’s information, is also possible within the same context.
consciousness or mind. If we think of a thing, we vibrate at its frequency,
If you look at the surface of a large because the concept of a thing is similar to its
bubble, you see swirling rainbows moving over the consciousness (so long as we suspend our passions,
surface in a chaotic pattern. If you press on the surface values, or any pre-determined notions which would
of the bubble, the pressure alters the bubble's shape, alter our perception of the true nature of the thing
and the swirling of the surface changed. This being imagined). Therefore, with a quietness of mind,
occurrence is analogous to our mind touching the we would be able to be aware of the state of that thing,
surface of the mind of the person we are thinking of. regardless of its position in space or in time.
Each chaotic flow of movement of the Mental Telepathy, both receiving and
rainbows of colour that play over both surfaces are sending, can be determined by the acute mind by
now in sync; they are affected by each other as a using the same concepts.
whole, and can no longer be understood only in terms
of their individual properties.

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3 .4 6 RAAJJAA YOOGGAA Given the right transmission to the
physical brain of that which has been perceived, the
testimony of the sixth sense is correctly interpreted,
and the evidence is transmitted with occult accuracy.
I wanted to include a brief description of Raja
The end result of which is the correct reaction of the
Yoga, as it is one of the means that I am aware of that
physical brain to the transmitted knowledge.
calms and trains the unruly human 'monkey mind'.
Raja Yoga is based upon an
Through this form of mental yoga or meditation, the
understanding of the nature, purpose and function of
mind is trained to stillness.
the mind. The ability of the mind to attract experience
The student of ‘Raja Yoga’ or 'mental
is then more likely to be under your conscious control.
training’ has to realize that the mind is available as an
Picture this:
organ of perception. The process to be followed is first
A chariot (the physical body);
to gain right control of the thinking principle. Second
The charioteer (the mind);
is to stabilize the mind so that it can be used as an
The rider (the Inner Self);
organ of vision, a sixth sense, and the synthesis of all
The reigns (the intellect);
the other five senses.
The horses (the five senses).
This will result in correct knowledge and
Only the charioteer (the mind) can communicate
the right use of the perceiving faculty, so that the new
with the rider, the Inner Self. When the horses (five
field of knowledge that is now contacted is seen as it
senses) are well trained, and the reigns (intellect) are
truly is. That which is perceived is rightly interpreted,
strong and kept well in the hands of the charioteer (the
through the subsequent assent of intuition and reason.

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mind), then the rider reaches his goal. 3 .4 7 DN A
But when the horses (five senses) are not
controlled, and the reigns (intellect) too weak and not
well managed, then the horses run wild and lead all
I have no evidence for the following, just
including the rider to destruction of the ability to
a sneaking suspicion, and that when the pieces of the
perceive the true nature of reality.
puzzle are placed in this manner, a clear and sensible
picture appears.
I believe that the genetic information
contained in the DNA of all species also has a certain
non-physical quality. This quality is in my opinion of
an electromagnetic nature.
Where people live near or under high-
tension powerlines, cancer is more prevalent. I do not
remember the exact source of this fact, just a memory
of it being on the news in the manner of another the-
government-knows-but-won't-tell story.
The only other evidence immediately
apparent is what we know about the ability of water to
maintain the properties and consciousness of whatever
is held in solution in it, or that is transferred to it via

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sound or other electromagnetic radiation of energy. theory be used to transfer that resonance, using a
We also know that the memory can be erased from strong but very fine tuned delivery system (in the
water with an oscillating electromagnetic field. manner of a powerful magnetic field), to a not quite so
However this aspect of DNA will healthy person. Perhaps even aging could be reset.
certainly in time be found. The effect of our having
knowledge of this aspect of DNA will inevitably lead
to the ability to manipulate DNA with
electromagnetism.
It also brings to mind that our genetic
health is determined initially by our parents; without
ever knowing them, we would necessarily have a body
and mind map that precluded us to certain types of
perception and thought patterns, and the emotional
and physical weaknesses that result from their own
DNA.
Once the consciousness of DNA is
mapped electromagnetically, (for any scientists
reading this, take a look at a Josephson Array or other
type of magnetic resonance imaging device) then the
map taken of a healthy person's resonance could in

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4.0 SECTION THREE; 4 .1 TEESSTT TUUBBEE UNNIIVVEERRSSEE

PHILOSOPHY
I did not think that I would have science
to fall back on for any of this section on my
philosophical musings. However, as I reached the
writing of this section I came across some validation
from a peculiar source.
As I have previously stated, if any of the
laws governing our Universe were minutely different,
if the mass or force particles were not exactly what
they are, we would not be here to ask why it is so.
Ed Harrison, formerly of the University
of Massachusetts at Amhurst, has proposed that our
universe could have the life-supporting qualities that it
has, because it was designed to have them. In terms of
String Theory, our Universe has the 'shape' that it has,
giving rise to the mass and force messenger particles
because it was made to be that shape.
Harrison theorises that the Universe could

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have been made by intelligent beings in another knowledge knows why anti-matter is not more
Universe. This is not as far-fetched as it may seem; for abundantly evident in the universe. Imagine holding a
more than a decade, physicists have known how to $50 note between the points of your two index fingers.
trigger the birth of another universe. Now imagine pulling your fingers apart and having
The 'how' was discovered independently the space between them filled with more notes.
by two different physicists, Alexie Starobinsky from According to these Physicists, as little as
Russia in 1979, and Alan Guth from America in 1981. one thousandth of a gram of matter is all that is
They both began to wonder about the necessary to start another universe. Just squish that
state of the universe in the first instant of its creation. mass into such a small point that it's gravitational field
Specifically, they wondered about the state of the grows to the strength of a black hole. This would tear
vacuum, which we know now is anything but empty. a hole in the fabric of space.
Particles or strings are constantly created and In essence, a membrane can contain the
annihilated in a vacuum due to Hiesenberg’s hole or tear in the Calabi-Yau space. The Calabi-Yau
Uncertainty Principle. shape then morphs into a different yet equally valid
The thing that would have happened in form, successfully healing the puncture and creating
the universe's first moments is that it would have another universe with a different set of laws.
expanded so fast that the string – anti-string particles According to Guth's theory, the point of
that spontaneously burst into being did not have the the black-hole space will immediately expand just like
time or the opportunity to cancel each other out. in our own big bang. But it will expand into itself,
Energy simply came from nowhere. No one to my before disappearing from our Universe. Tiny black

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holes have a habit of doing this; they disappear in a 4 .2 THHEE ALLLL-KNNOOW
WIIN
NGG
puff of something called Hawking Radiation. But that
is a different story for another time.
COONNSSCCIIOOUUSSNNEESSSS
Harrison is quoted as saying, “If
intelligent beings know how to create universes, they
might also know how to explore and occupy them... In The closest concept we have to an initial
my scheme, God starts things. Thereafter, however, state for the (our) universe to have is found in the
superior beings in universes take over the creation of moment before the big bang. According to string
other universes.” theory, this moment has the property that all of the
The philosopher David Hume wrote, in dimensions are curled up into an infinitely small point.
1779, “Numerous universes might have been botched Space and time would have no meaning.
and bungled throughout an eternity ere this system We have also previously discussed the
was struck out; much labour lost, many fruitless trials multidimensional nature of particles; that our
made, and a slow but continual improvement carried awareness of energy is limited to only one reality. But
out during infinite ages in the art of world-making”. we understand that beyond this reality there are many
versions of our particle, in parallel, future and past
realities.
If a consciousness were to exist in the
initial state of the universe, in the moments before the
big bang, we can theorise that its nature would be

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dictated by its ability to determine itself. This Lacking knowledge of the structure of
determination comes about in the same way that the limited experience, it would not have predetermined
medium determines how a force travelling through notions of its experience. This is because it does not
that medium will be affected in its motion (by the know time, and does not know anything other than the
nature or consistency of the medium). For example, true state of being of every vibration of consciousness.
sound will travel faster in some mediums than others. It would never be able to approach an
So, a consciousness in this state of being experience with preconceived ideas, as our all-
would be like the quantum computer discussed knowing consciousness simply knows no 'pre'.
previously, in that it would instantly be able to access Therefore every experience would be purely knowing,
all versions of itself. So we are talking about an purely embodying the frequency of it's own thoughts,
incredibly intelligent being. It would be aware of all and of it's own being. It would be whatever it was
realities simultaneously, and thus would be 'thinking'.
omniscient. Surely, in our super consciousnesses
This super consciousness would be able experience of it's eternal now moment, it would
to instantly know itself; any thoughts it had would be wonder what not knowing would be like.
directly experienced by itself in the same eternal now In the epic of Troy, popularised recently
of its experience. So, the super consciousness would as a movie, Achilles remarks to Briseis the following:
be desireless. It would know no want, know no fear, “I'll tell you a secret... something they do not
trepidation, attachment, concern, worry, loss, or even teach you in your temple: The gods envy us. They
wonderment. envy us because we are mortal: Because any moment

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may be our last. Everything's more beautiful because 4 .3 THHEE FAALLLL
we're doomed. You will never be lovelier than you are
now. We will never be here again.”
It is this state of mind, erroneous or not,
Because our super consciousness creates or
that a super consciousness would not know, nor be
experiences it's thoughts directly and completely, it
able to comprehend.
forgets itself as the universe rearranges to support the
idea of not knowing. Of course, this would encompass
only part of it's experience of self: the part that
'forgets' does so in space and time, which it's true self
and beingness would not be affected by, as it's initial
timeless nature is not constrained in the same manner.
It always was, is and will be.
The super consciousness’s concept of not
knowing is an idea of limitations, of sequential
experience and of exploring the experience of
limitations within a structure that embodies the same
properties i.e. the fabric of space-time. Thus also the
illusion of separateness of consciousness and matter,
and the illusion of singular experience.
I say illusion because it is consciousness

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that determines reality. And while that consciousness 4 .4 DIIVVIINNEE INNTTEERRVVEENNTTIIOONN?
must obey certain rules of manifestation of form, such
as what some people view as karma (but we have
theorised must be more akin to reflective resonance),
In the year 533 ad, the Ecumenical
it is always consciousness that determines experience.
Council of the Catholic Church, under Emperor
Therefore any experience of separateness is initially a
Justinian, removed the teachings concerning
result of separateness of consciousness, not vice versa.
reincarnation from the Church's scriptures. With the
Thus, if a consciousness released the concept of
teachings intact, the idea of a god to be feared would
separateness, separateness would no longer be its
not have lent the Church the amount of power and
experience.
control over people that it managed to acquire with the
In reality however, whilst this concept
alternate concept of the actions of one finite life
allows for the immediate 'enlightenment' of any
leading to an eternity in heaven or hell.
consciousness in a single moment, we as humans are
It is not the purpose of this book to enter
addicted to the experience of drama, desire, and fear.
into a religious argument, but if this one decision was
In short, most of us are so taken up by our notions of
made in error (i.e. not under the divine inspiration of
what is and can be, that we are too busy creating
god, who was correcting a false teaching of his son)
ourselves in continuance with what we have always
then we have a huge majority of all religious observers
known. We've chosen on some level to be here for the
upon this earth who should technically believe in
purposes of being a part of the illusion. Everything is
reincarnation.
valid.
Also, a man named Thorwald Dethlefson

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documented experiments regarding reincarnation, 4 .5 A FIIRRSSTT BRREEAATTHH
using non-hypnotic methods, in a therapeutic
environment in his clinic in Munich, Germany. Under
strict scientific conditions, he successfully regressed
Imagine a consciousness that still knows
hundreds of patients. Publications detailing his work
no separation from its original state, despite being able
are available.
to interact with those who are 'fallen'. Suppose that
this being is called to help some of the fallen, and to
take them someplace safe while their playground of
experience is reset.
So the super being transports all but one
of the fallen. The one that remains behind does so out
of a mother's love for her child. The child's body mind
connection is new and undeveloped, and cannot cope
with relocation; the baby would 'die' if its relocation
were attempted.
The super being lacks understanding of
the concept of attachment, and therefore is not able to
understand why the mother chooses to remain. As a
result, the super being decides to experience being
fallen, just like the mother and the child, in order to

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come to understand this phenomenon of attachment gained by mere contemplation upon the same.
and it's accompanying experience of fear of loss.
In it's first incarnations, the soul reacts
instinctively, attempting to find itself and it's
connection to it's initial state – by acquiring material
affects, because of an intuitive understanding that the
resonance of form is the same as the resonance of the
consciousness of that form.
In the case described, the main theme of
the first incarnations is attachment, as this was the first
intent of the consciousness.
However, judgments, invalidations and
fears etc, as well as just wondering 'what if' can and do
influence the journey of the soul, and may mean a
short or long term distraction from the original life
plan.
The end result of the cycle of rebirth, and
the experiences we gain as a result, will inevitably be
an enlightened understanding concerning the true
nature of Self and of experience, that could not be

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4 .6 REEIINNCCAARRNNAATTIIOONN repay, or games to play.
In the same sense, a soul that wishes to
spend a life as a governor may first spend a lifetime or
two as a simple fisherman in order to develop the
The continually incarnating soul will be
needed compassion for those he wishes to govern. But
attracted to a specific life by the state of its
in the life where this soul becomes a governor as
consciousness. Wether by conscious agreement, or
planned, the soul may well choose a body with a
alternately by unconscious agreement, it reincarnates
predisposition to sea sickness, on the off chance that
into a family and body that is most closely able to
the life of the sea becomes too attractive.
provide the intended (or perhaps unintended) life path.
Continuing with this idea, a
The consciousness' mental body would
consciousness may have 'decided' to resolve a cycle of
logically be formed when it's intent was formed, or in
experience by expressing the completion of a cycle of
our imaginary case, when the consciousness's
manifestation through sickness and disease, instead of
curiosity was piqued. The emotional body referred to
consciously transmuting or healing the behavioural or
as the astral by some mystics and spiritualists would
emotional cause.
have been formed when the consciousness found the
If the person were to leave by a method
idea emotionally engaging in some way.
such as euthanasia, and they were not able to
A coarse DNA structure, a body with
otherwise consciously work through the related issues
disabilities, or one with a predisposition to physical
that caused the initial propensity towards having the
prowess would all resonate to incarnating
disease, then they may well come into their next life
consciousnesses with particular needs, wants, debts to

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having or developing the same disease. 4 .7 COONNCCLLUUSSIIOONN
In fact, any issues that were not resolved
in life, that are also not resolved between lives will
most likely carry over into the next incarnation.
Given the culmination of all that has been
herein discussed, I do not feel that anyone could
completely discount the efficacy of the main and
underlying theme, other than through sheer denial.
And if it cannot be completely discounted that energy
does indeed follow consciousness, then yet again the
exception must prove the rule.
Science can no longer ignore the fact that
consciousness is a definite and integral aspect of
reality, of equal importance to the subject matter that
it has otherwise historically investigated. The observer
cannot be separated from the observed, and the act of
observance cannot be separated from the causes that
give rise to the observed effects.
Consciousness is indeed the only aspect
of the universe with which we have the option of
experiencing intimately and directly. All else is

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indirectly inferred by the consciousness.
So, as the prime instigator of experience,
and as the final receptor in the processing of that
experience, consciousness and self reflection are (in
the hierarchy of the available deterministic and
causational principles of the universe) the most
reliable method of inferring or acquiring knowledge of
all things other than, and including, the Self.

You are the lens through which you view the


world, and by coming to know your Self, you know all
else.

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4 .8 BIIBBLLIIOOGGRRAAPPHHYY Routledge, United Kingdom, 1995
Bohm, David, Wholeness and the Implicit Order,
Routledge & Kegan Paul, United Kingdom, 1980
Cairns-Smith, A G Alexander, Evolving the
Aczel, Amir D., En Tanglement, the greatest
Mind, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996
mystery in physics, Four Walls Eight Windows, 2001
Carter, Rita, Mapping the Mind, University of
Aziz, Robert, C.G. Jung's Psychology of Religion
California Press, Unknown, 2000
and Synchronicity, SUNY Press, Unknown, 1990
Casti, John L., Complexification, Harper Collins,
Bailey, Alice A., The Light of The Soul, Lucis
United States, 1994
Publishing Company, New York, 1927
Chown, Marcus, The Universe Next Door,
Barnao, Vasudeva & Kadambii, Australian
Headline Book Publishing, London, 2002
Flower Essences for the 21st Century, Australian
Cook, Nick, The Hunt for Zero Point: the race to
Flower Essence Academy, Australia, 1997
uncover the source of energy beyond nuclear, Century,
Bohm, David, & Peat, David F., Science, Order
London, 2001
and Creativity, Routledge, United Kingdom, 2000
Davies, P. C. W. & Brown, Julian, Superstrings,
Bohm, David, Causality and Chance in Modern
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988
Physics, University of Pennsylvania Press,
Erbe, Peter O., God I Am, TRIAD Publishers,
Pennsylvania, 1971
Australia, 1998
Bohm, David, The Special Theory of Relativity,
Fordham, Michael, Freud, Jung, Klein-The
Routledge, United Kingdom, 1996
Fenceless Field, Routledge, United Kingdom, 1998
Bohm, David, The Undivided Universe,

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Fradkkov, Alexander L, Introduction to Control Slethaug, Gordon E, Beautiful Chaos, SUNY
of Oscillations and Chaos, World Scientific, Press, Unknown, 2000 Strogatz, Steven, Sync, the
Unknown, 1997 emerging science of spontaneous order, Penguin
Greene, Brian R., The Elegant Universe, Vintage Books Ltd, London, 2003
2000, London, 1999 Talbot, Michael, The Holographic Universe,
Gribbin, John & Mary, Schrodinger's Kittens, Harper Collins Publishers, Great Britain, 1991
Orion Publishing Group, London, 2001 Thalbourne, Michael A, & Storm, Lance,
Gribbin, John, Q is for Quantum, Weidenfield Parapsychology in the Twenty-First Century,
and Nicholson, Great Britain, 1998 McFarland & Company, Unknown, 2004
Gribbon, John, In Search of SUSY, Yogananda, Paramahansa, Autobiography of a
supersymmetry, string and the theory of everything, Yogi, Self-Realization Fellowship, Unknown, 1979
Penguin, London, 1998 Zukav, Gary, The Dancing Wu Li Masters, an
Jacobi, Jolande, Psychology of C G Jung, overview of the new physics, William Morrow and
Routledge, United Kingdom, 1999 Company, New York, 1979
Ketron, Sri Joseph M, Raja Yoga, iUniverse, Zwiebach, Barton, A First Course in String
Unknown, 2003 Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
Leskowitz, Eric D, Transpersonal Hypnosis, 2004
CRC Press, Unknown, 1999 Index
Murphet, Howard, Sai Baba, Man of Miracles, a priori 169 activated thought-form179, 213,
absolute zero 86 223, 224, 249
Wieser, Unknown, 1977 abundance 279, 280 Alan Guth 316

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Alexie Starobinsky 316 Christiaan Hyugens 146 Dr Jacques Benveniste 283 fear198, 215, 219, 220, 224, 240,
amplitude28, 29, 30, 34, 35, 36, conscious172, 173, 179, 180, Ed Harrison 315 243, 244, 245, 258, 261, 269,
93, 126 183, 198, 204, 206, 220, 222, Einstein15, 11, 21, 26, 36, 42, 44, 276, 320, 324, 328
Amplitude 28 231, 269, 270, 272, 273, 296, 63, 75, 76, 79, 80, 91, 170, five senses 304, 308, 309, 310
antimatter 68 305, 309, 330 255 flowers 281, 282
anti-string 123, 127, 196, 316 ccoonnsscciioouussnneessss0, 14, 18, 20, 138, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen 75 force particles 68, 69, 101
Aspect Experiment 170 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, electromagnetic9, 10, 16, 30, 58, forces24, 50, 69, 70, 94, 95, 112,
atom 35, 68, 165 175, 176, 194, 209, 215, 219, 70, 284, 286, 311, 312 137, 164
background radiation 87, 88, 125 221, 222, 232, 238, 239, 253, electromagnetic spectrum10, 16, Francine Howland 291
Belief 177, 190, 219 255, 265, 278, 281, 282, 286, 58, 286 frequency28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35,
Bell's Theorem 170 287, 294, 295, 297, 298, 299, electron51, 55, 56, 63, 68, 70, 76, 37, 44, 58, 62, 63, 65, 201,
Benveniste 285 304, 307, 311, 312, 319, 320, 126 205, 215, 230, 231, 238, 239,
big bang85, 88, 89, 115, 125, 321, 322, 323, 324, 327, 328, Emile Borel 134 241, 243, 248, 260, 265, 283,
166, 192, 317, 319 330, 331, 333, 334 emotion14, 209, 228, 249, 271, 287, 304, 307, 321
Born 50, 52, 54 cosmic symphony 95, 215 272, 273, 290 garden hose105, 106, 113, 116,
Brian Josephson 285 crest 29, 41 Emperor Justinian 325 120
Butterfly 132 Daniel Greenberger 80 energy0, 14, 20, 3, 18, 24, 30, 31, George Berkley 7
Calabi-Yau108, 109, 110, 111, David Hume 318 34, 35, 36, 42, 44, 62, 64, 65, gravitational17, 18, 21, 24, 25,
112, 130, 317 delayed-choice experiment 46 68, 70, 71, 83, 84, 90, 93, 94, 83, 156, 157, 317
Carl Jung 184 desire236, 240, 241, 258, 260, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, gravity2, 8, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23,
catalyst 295 261, 273, 274, 275, 277, 279, 114, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 68, 69, 95, 115, 126
chaos14, 19, 132, 133, 139, 143, 324 122, 123, 125, 127, 140, 165, Harrison 315, 318
146, 150, 152, 153, 159, 161, dimensions90, 91, 93, 103, 106, 172, 173, 174, 175, 192, 194, Hawking Radiation 318
164, 298 108, 109, 116, 123, 124, 125, 215, 219, 232, 238, 239, 249, Hiesenberg 63, 64, 65, 127, 316
Chaos132, 135, 150, 159, 162, 145, 158, 192, 195, 196, 232, 268, 294, 298, 304, 312, 319, Hiesenberg’s Uncertainty
164, 338, 339 286, 301, 304, 319 333, 337 Principle 63, 316
chaos theory 132, 133, 152 DNA 311, 312, 330 Entanglement 75 Humphrey Maris 55
chaotic132, 143, 150, 152, 153, double slit experiment38, 41, entropy 146, 165, 194, 195 Hyugens 147
154, 157, 159, 161, 239, 306 188, 230 Erwin Schrodinger 55 illusion 323, 324

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interference pattern41, 43, 45, 47, 180, 181, 183, 184, 190, 194, parallel universes 57, 72, 73, 227 231, 234, 262, 263, 264, 265,
54 196, 199, 221, 222, 245, 246, Paramahansa Yogananda 196 269
invalidate 244, 270 249, 251, 252, 253, 256, 281, particle13, 23, 24, 26, 39, 40, 42, periodic table 84
Isaac Newton 1, 4 297, 300, 302, 303, 305, 306, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, personality235, 288, 289, 290,
Jacques Benveniste 285 307, 308, 309, 312, 327 52, 53, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 291, 292
James Maxwell 9 mind state252, 266, 295, 297, 63, 64, 65, 70, 71, 75, 76, 77, perspective14, 53, 207, 216, 282,
John Bell 170 300, 303 78, 79, 81, 91, 93, 95, 96, 97, 295, 300
Judgment 246, 249 Molecular memory 285 99, 101, 102, 112, 118, 132, philosophy 231
judgments141, 199, 206, 231, molecular signalling 284 174, 195, 210, 230, 255, 301, photoelectric effect 36
238, 249, 258, 269, 273, 328 multidimensional81, 303, 304, 302, 319 photon12, 13, 14, 15, 45, 46, 48,
Jung 184, 185, 222, 336, 337, 338 305, 319 Particle accelerators 66 54, 70, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 97,
karma 16, 250, 324 multiple personalities 288, 289 particles16, 24, 25, 26, 36, 38, 136
lack50, 138, 139, 142, 201, 202, multiples97, 174, 289, 291, 292, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 48, 50, 54, Physicist 55, 80, 174
236, 240, 242, 260, 272, 279, 293 55, 56, 60, 63, 66, 68, 69, 73, Planck35, 36, 42, 44, 83, 84, 89,
280 neutron 68 75, 79, 80, 81, 82, 90, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 115, 117, 121,
Leibnitz 176 Newton 19, 3, 4, 6, 11, 21, 42, 94 96, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 123
linear27, 73, 150, 151, 159, 232, non-linear139, 149, 150, 152, 103, 107, 111, 113, 118, 124, Planck’s constant 35, 44, 83
288 288 132, 173, 174, 175, 192, 193, plasma 84, 85, 87, 135, 284
Lionel Milgrom 285 non-locality 79, 80 194, 195, 196, 232, 254, 255, polarization 76, 77, 78, 80
Lorenz 150, 152, 162, 163 nuclei 84, 85 286, 301, 304, 315, 316, 319 possibility130, 170, 196, 261,
Lyapunov 153 nucleus 35, 68 Particles 316 272, 296
magnetic field 9, 67, 283, 313 order14, 19, 13, 50, 71, 88, 105, pendulum 146, 147 possible realities 298
many worlds57, 81, 227, 230, 125, 135, 139, 140, 141, 142, perception17, 18, 11, 173, 198, predisposition 330, 331
231, 255 143, 145, 146, 152, 161, 164, 200, 201, 203, 205, 206, 207, Principia 4
matter particles 101 165, 166, 167, 177, 181, 182, 217, 244, 248, 250, 262, 265, probabilistic 26, 51, 56, 130, 255
Max Born 50 226, 237, 240, 241, 280, 281, 267, 268, 271, 296, 307, 308, probability18, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52,
Maxwell 34, 42, 170 298, 327, 331, 339 312 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60,
Maxwell Planck 34 Pandora’s box 210, 213 Perception 203, 217 65, 66, 70, 73, 74, 77, 81,
mind14, 58, 122, 170, 177, 179, parallel dimensions 53, 301 perceptions141, 183, 217, 220, 119, 134, 136, 166, 187, 188,

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190, 193, 195, 209, 210, 215, Randomness 136 string19, 29, 36, 90, 92, 93, 94, synchronous coincidence 184
225, 227, 228, 241, 256, 260, relativity17, 19, 13, 26, 36, 83, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 103, synchrony 146, 147, 153, 164
265, 273, 297, 298, 299, 301 90, 94, 99, 232, 255 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, theory of relativity15, 11, 26, 91,
probability wave 54, 59, 81, 301 renormalization 70 112, 114, 115, 116, 119, 120, 170, 255, 289
proton 68, 96 resistance 26, 244, 245 121, 123, 124, 127, 130, 195, Therese Neumann 197
quanta 42, 62, 172, 174, 175 ripple 214, 305 196, 286, 298, 304, 316, 319, thermodynamics 30, 31, 135, 165
Quantum Coherence 171 ripples 41, 111, 214, 304 338 Thomas Young 38
Quantum computer 72 Robert G Jahn 186 string theory19, 90, 92, 93, 94, Thorwald Dethlefson 325
quantum foam 69, 100 Roger Penrose 171, 172 96, 97, 101, 103, 104, 105, thought form177, 203, 204, 205,
quantum mechanics75, 76, 80, Russian roulette 227, 228 106, 108, 109, 110, 112, 115, 206, 209, 271, 272, 300
115, 301 Sathiya Sai Baba 196 121, 196, 319 thought forms14, 16, 206, 219,
quantum physicists 71 Schrodinger’s 3, 52, 55, 59, 227 String Theory 90, 99, 315, 339 241, 295
quantum physics17, 19, 3, 26, 38, Schrodinger’s wave functions 3, strings90, 91, 94, 96, 97, 98, 103, thought pattern 294
62, 77, 81, 83, 90, 100, 118, 55, 59 105, 111, 113, 114, 115, 116, thought patterns208, 222, 238,
230, 255 signature 187, 190, 281, 282 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 240, 242, 267, 282, 289, 304,
Quantum physics69, 83, 99, 174, space-time8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 127, 128, 130, 192, 193, 194, 312
210 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 99, 195, 232, 286, 304, 316 trough 29, 41
Quantum Physics 67, 75 126, 128, 232, 254, 255, 256, structure14, 16, 2, 138, 139, 140, uncertainty principle64, 65, 68,
Quantum theory 53 304, 323 141, 142, 143, 159, 174, 175, 70, 71, 97, 115, 119, 120,
quark 68 sparticles 102, 103, 195 194, 321, 323, 330 124, 127
Raja Yoga 308, 309, 338 speed of light13, 14, 15, 18, 19, Stuart Hameroff 171, 172 unconscious179, 180, 184, 198,
random137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 21, 24, 36, 76, 83, 87, 89, 97, subconscious 179, 180, 305 204, 206, 220, 222, 231, 269,
142, 143, 145, 157, 162, 186, 289 super partner particles 102 330
206, 212, 225, 239, 277, 297, standing waves 193 Supersymmetry 101, 104 universal frame of reference 4, 6
298 state of mind58, 81, 82, 209, 246, survival concept 182 universe15, 18, 19, 2, 3, 7, 8, 19,
random event generator 206, 298 249, 250, 251, 256, 258, 268, sync146, 147, 148, 149, 153, 23, 24, 26, 27, 51, 52, 58, 65,
random number generator 186, 303, 322 164, 238, 239, 306 68, 69, 71, 72, 80, 81, 84, 85,
212 state space 159, 161, 162 synchronicity 184, 185, 246 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 95,
random number sequence 137 strange attractor 160, 161, 163 Synchronised 146, 147, 164 102, 106, 109, 110, 111, 112,

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113, 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, waterwheel157, 158, 160, 162,
123, 124, 127, 129, 130, 136, 163
164, 165, 166, 169, 175, 192, wave3, 17, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 38,
198, 207, 209, 211, 212, 213, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51,
215, 216, 219, 239, 249, 251, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59,
255, 258, 260, 262, 265, 270, 60, 65, 66, 70, 73, 74, 76, 77,
274, 297, 299, 304, 315, 316,
317, 319, 323, 333, 334
unwound string 123, 195, 196
81, 82, 119, 152, 171, 188,
193, 210, 290, 301, 302
wave functions 52, 56
THE RIPPLE
valid91, 198, 199, 215, 249, 317, wavelength28, 30, 33, 35, 36, 44,
324 50, 63, 65, 93, 210
validity198, 199, 249, 258, 268, wavelengths 29, 31, 32, 93, 124
273
value25, 73, 120, 179, 198, 199,
200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205,
waves3, 9, 10, 28, 30, 34, 35, 48,
50, 52, 56, 58, 59, 60, 65, 90,
123, 127, 193, 230
EFFECT
225, 247, 249, 268, 270, 271, weak force 68
272, 273 William of Occam 16
values69, 91, 92, 93, 199, 206, wisdom concept 181
238, 249, 250, 258, 269, 273, wound string 116
289, 307
vibration93, 94, 103, 238, 296,
321

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