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This document expalins how to create surface effective elements in ANSYS & its usefulness in thermal analysis.

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Date Subject Keywords Memo Number April 9, 2000 ANSYS Tips & Tricks: Thermal Surface Effect Elements Surface Effect: Thermal

1. Introduction: Surface effect elements are extremely useful tools in both structural and thermal analyses. These elements provide the user with more flexibility in applying loads to their model. This memo is part 2 in a series which hopes to provide users with more information on the structural and thermal surface effect elements, SURF151-154 in ANSYS 5.5 and 5.6 (similar to SURF19 and SURF22 in ANSYS 5.4). In this memo, the basics of thermal surface effect elements will be reviewed. 2. Background Discussion: Surface effect elements have no physical properties. These elements are generally used for loading purposes only. They are overlaid like a skin on thermal (and structural) element faces. In most thermal applications, only one surface load (SFx) can be applied on any given element face. Also, simple radiation on faces cannot be applied with the SFx family of commands. On the other hand, thermal surface effect elements SURF151/152 allow the user to define multiple heat loads on surfaces, including radiation loads. A summary of the features of SURF151/152 are listed below: Application of convection loads, with or without an extra node to represent bulk temperature. Application of heat flux or heat generation. Application of radiation on load with view factor input as real constant or with cosine effect, using an extra node. Coupling with FLUID116 to account for bulk temperature rise. Use of subroutines USRSURF116 and USERCV for additional functionality. With the above capabilities, multiple surface effect elements can be used to apply various types of heat loads on any element face, and postprocessing of these individual heat sources can be performed (via ETABLE). 3. Example of Generating Surface Effect Elements: The SURF151/152 elements can be used with any lower- and higher-order thermal element, with the exception of axisymmetric-harmonic elements (PLANE75, PLANE78). These surface effect elements are generated on top of existing element faces via ESURF, LMESH/AMESH, or AFSURF/LFSURF commands (or direct generation). For example, the below input file illustrates the two methods of generating surface effect elements:

! ESURF elements /prep7 et,1,90 et,2,152 block,,10,,10,,10 vatt,1,1,1 esize,1 vmesh,all asel,s,loc,y,10 nsla,s,1 ! select nodes for ESURF esel,all ! select elements for ESURF type,2 esurf ! AMESH elements /prep7 et,1,90 et,2,152 block,,10,,10,,10 vatt,1,1,1 esize,1 vmesh,all asel,s,loc,y,10 type,2 amesh,all

As noted in the example, the left-hand side generates surface effect elements via the ESURF command, which directly generates them from selected nodes. ANSYS looks for selected nodes and elements on which to overlay surface effect elements. The selected nodes tell ANSYS which nodes to use to generate surface effect elements. The selected elements tell ANSYS which element faces to use (corresponding to the selected nodes) and how to orient the element z-axis (pointing away from 2303 W. 190 St Redondo Beach, CA 90278 310.896.1230 FAX 310.896.1240 http://www.csi-ansys.com

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solid element). Usually, selecting the nodes is most important, and the user can issue ESEL,ALL for the elements ANSYS will not generate SURF151/152 on all the elements but only those faces whose nodes are selected. The right-hand input shows another way of generating surface effect elements. Because the volume is meshed first, ANSYS knows how to orient the surface effect elements (element z-axis pointing away from volume). Unlike the ESURF command, AMESH allows the surface effect elements to retain associativity with the areas, so instead of EDELE, the user must issue ACLEAR to delete the surface effect elements. Neither of the above methods is necessarily better than the other; it is simply a matter of preference for the user in generating surface effect elements. For coupling SURF151/152 with FLUID116, two additional generation commands are provided, AFSURF and LFSURF. These commands generate surface elements on the surface of existing solid elements and assign the extra node as the closest fluid element node.

/graph,power /view,1,1,2,3 /psym,xnode,1 /pnum,type,1 /num,1 /auto /prep7 et,1,70 et,2,152 keyopt,2,4,1 keyopt,2,5,1 et,3,116

! ! ! ! !

lower-order brick surface effect element use lower-order option use extra node thermal-fluid pipe

k,1,0,15,5 k,2,10,15,5 l,1,2 type,3 esize,1 lmesh,all cm,L_FLUID,line block,,10,,10,,10 type,1 esize,1

The xFSURF family of commands provide a very useful, quick way to generate surface effect elements between the FLUID116 elements and thermal solids. For more information, please refer to the Commands Manual for LFSURF & AFSURF. Include in the online help description is the location of the equivalent xFSURF GUI menu item.

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4. Example of Convection and Heat Flux on Face: Below is a simple example of a bar with one end constrained (TEMP=20) and another end with both heat flux and convection loading, using surface effect elements.

finish /clear WIDTH = 0.01 ELEMSIZE = WIDTH/5 /graph,power /triad,lbot /view,1,1,2,3 /auto /pnum,type,1 /num,1 /psym,xnode,1 /prep7 et,1,70 et,2,152 keyopt,2,4,1 ! keyopt,2,5,0 ! keyopt,2,8,1 ! et,3,152 keyopt,3,4,1 ! keyopt,3,5,1 ! keyopt,3,8,2 ! mp,kxx ,1,156 block,,WIDTH,,10*WIDTH,,WIDTH esize,ELEMSIZE vmesh,all asel,s,loc,y,10*WIDTH nsla,s,1 esel,s,type,,1 type,2 esurf n,1e6,0.5*WIDTH,15*WIDTH,0.5*WIDTH esel,s,type,,1 type,3 esurf,1e6 finish /solu asel,s,loc,y,0 nsla,s,1 d,all,temp,20 esel,s,type,,2 sfe,all,1,hflux,,10/(WIDTH*WIDTH) esel,s,type,,3 sfe,all,1,conv,1,20 lower-order no extra node use heat flux only lower-order use extra node, bulk temp use convection only nsel,all d,1e6,temp,200 allsel,all solve finish /post1 set,last esel,s,type,,1 nsle plnsol,temp esel,s,type,,2 ! get surf eff only esel,a,type,,3 etable,HGTOT ,smisc,1 ! should be 0 etable,HFCTOT,smisc,2 ! hflux and conv etable,HRTOT ,smisc,3 ! should be 0 pretab

The resulting temperature profile is shown on the right. Using element tables (ETABLE), one can verify the heat flux and convection loads on the surface effect elements. For the applied heat flux, 10 W was applied on the area. As a result, each element (25 elements total) should have 0.4 W, and this is reflected in the results (PRETAB). For the convection load, we find that the total heat flow due to convection is hAT or 0.22886 W. For 25 elements, the heat flow rate is 9.1544e-3 which is also verified in the results (PRETAB). [Note that the heat flow is negative since it is leaving the surface effect element] These elements not only allow for multiple heat loads on the same face (using two sets of surface effect elements, in this specific case), but one can use ETABLE to selectively postprocess the amount of heat leaving/entering each element. This helps confirm values with hand calculations as well as determining which heat path is most critical in a system.

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5. Example of Heat Generation: The following is an example of using SURF152 for surface heat generation. A thickness is given to SURF152, and a heat generation rate (Power/Volume) is applied on SURF152 only.

THICKNSS WIDTH HEIGHT S_VOLUME = = = = 0.001 0.01 0.1 THICKNSS*WIDTH**2 esurf finish /solu asel,s,loc,y,0 nsla,s,1 d,all,temp,20 esel,s,type,,2 nsle,s,1 bfe,all,hgen,,10/S_VOLUME allsel,all solve finish /post1 set,last esel,s,type,,1 nsle plnsol,temp esel,s,type,,2 etable,HGTOT ,smisc,1 etable,HFCTOT,smisc,2 etable,HRTOT ,smisc,3 pretab prrsol

/prep7 et,1,70 et,2,152 keyopt,2,4,1 keyopt,2,5,0 keyopt,2,8,0 mp,kxx ,1,156 r,2, rmodif,2,7,THICKNSS block,,WIDTH,,HEIGHT,,WIDTH esize,WIDTH/5 vmesh,all asel,s,loc,y,HEIGHT nsla,s,1 type,2 real,2

By using the element tables (PRETAB), we see that only heat generation is used on the element. The heat generation is 10W divided by the 25 elements, or 0.4W, which is verified in the element table. If we consider Fouriers Law, the answer to this simple problem is:

T x Te = qx / kA + Tb q = kA = 64.1 + 20

The resulting answer is that the end should be 84.10256 C, as shown in the temperature profile at right. This verifies that the heat generation is applied as expected. To verify that the thickness of the SURF152 is not physical (i.e., does contribute to the thermal field calculations), one can change the THICKNSS variable from 0.001 to 10 and rerun the analysis. The same results should be shown since, as noted in Section 2, surface effect elements have no physical significance. The thickness of the surface effect elements are used in mass and heat generation calculations only; the surface effect elements do not conduct heat as a regular thermal shell element does. This feature of the surface effect elements make them very attractive. In some instances, it may be easier to apply heat generation instead of heat flux, but both options are available with SURF151/152.

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6. Radiation with Cosine Effect: Surface effect elements provide simple radiation boundary conditions, i.e., node-to-surface radiation. The form factor can be user-defined (as in a real constant) or calculated from the cosine 1 effect, using the position of the extra node.

WIDTH = 0.01 esurf,1e6 finish /solu eqslv,jcg nsubst,2,10,2 asel,s,loc,x,0 !asel,a,loc,y,0 !asel,a,loc,z,0 nsla,s,1 d,all,temp,20 nsel,s,node,,1e6 d,all,temp,1000 allsel,all solve finish /post1 set,last esel,s,type,,1 nsle plnsol,temp esel,s,type,,2 nsle etable,HGTOT ,smisc,1 etable,HFCTOT,smisc,2 etable,HRTOT ,smisc,3 pretab etable,FORMF ,nmisc,16 pletab,FORMF

/graph,power /triad,lbot /view,1,1,2,3 /auto /pnum,type,1 /num,1 /prep7 et,1,87 et,2,152 keyopt,2,4,0 keyopt,2,5,1 keyopt,2,9,3 ! radiation, cosine eff mp,kxx ,1,156 mp,emis,2,0.8 r,2, rmodif,2,2,5.67e-8 toffst,273.15 block,,WIDTH,,WIDTH,,WIDTH esize,WIDTH/7 vmesh,all asel,s,ext nsla,s,1 n,1e6,2*WIDTH,2*WIDTH,WIDTH/2 type,2 real,2 mat,2

The above example demonstrates some of the radiation capabilities of the thermal surface effect elements. A simple block with 20 C imposed at one end is subject to radiation from a space node which is at 1000 C. Radiation form factors are calculated from the cosine of the normal to the extra (space) node. Any negative view factors are neglected and set to zero (KEYOPT(9)=3). The average form factors for each element are stored in an element tables and plotted at right. The extra space node lies at a corner edge of the block, so four of the sides of the cube should have no radiation (shown in blue). Simple hand calculations verify that the form factors should lie between 0.5 and 0.7.

See Theory Manual, Ch. 14.152.3 for information on cosine effect calculation.

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7. Conclusion/Recommendations: Thermal surface effect elements provide greater flexibility than standard SFx commands in heat transfer problems, both for multiple surface load application and postprocessing. As noted from the input files, it is easiest to select surface effect elements, then apply finite element loads to the SURF151/152 elements (on face 1). While one can use solid model loads, one must use care to ensure that solid model loads are not transferred to the underlying SOLID (or SHELL) elements, so the author recommends applying loads directly on the elements to ensure that no problems arise. To verify the applied loads, besides viewing them with /PSF and /PBF plot control commands, one can postprocess these results after solution. Using the SURF151/152 ETABLE values allow a user to (a) verify that correct heat flow rates are applied to each type of surface effect elements and (b) determine what are the most significant heat paths in ones system for design considerations. As in the case with structural surface effect elements, there are many keyoptions for these thermal elements. The user is asked to create simple models to familiarize oneself with thermal surface effect elements prior to including them in production models. Future memos are planned to discuss the usage of FLUID116 with SURF151/152 to model simple fluid-flow elements and convection of the fluid to thermal solids. This memo only serves as an introduction to some of the more commonly-used options for thermal surface effect elements.

__________________________ Sheldon Imaoka Collaborative Solutions, Inc. (LA Office) Engineering Consultant

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