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Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme

Ujjain Municipal Corporation 1 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh


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Contents
Contents....................................................................................................................................1
List of Tables............................................................................................................................6
List of figures............................................................................................................................9
List of Maps..............................................................................................................................9
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms ...................................................................................10
1. Introduction...................................................................................................................11
1.1 JNNURM Mission ..................................................................................................11
1.2 Concept and Principles of City Development Plan.................................................13
2. City profile .....................................................................................................................16
2.1 About the past .........................................................................................................16
2.1.1 Ujjain from 600 B.C. till now......................................................................... 17
2.2 Location and regional settings ................................................................................18
2.3 Climate and Geology ..............................................................................................19
2.3.1 Climate............................................................................................................ 19
2.3.2 Topography and soil ....................................................................................... 19
2.4 Demographic profile ...............................................................................................19
2.4.1 Population Density.......................................................................................... 20
2.5 Work force profile...................................................................................................21
2.5.1 Trade and Commerce...................................................................................... 22
2.5.2 An overview on Ujjain city economy............................................................. 23
SWOT analysis.......................................................................................................................24
3. Urban Planning and land Use Management ...............................................................26
3.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................26
3.1.1 Physical Characteristics .................................................................................. 26
3.1.2 Ujjain Development Plan, 1991...................................................................... 27
3.1.3 Land supply and utilization ............................................................................ 29
3.2 Growth pattern of the city.......................................................................................32
3.3 Urban Structure and Image .....................................................................................33
3.4 Key Issues ...............................................................................................................36
3.4.1 Physical planning issues ................................................................................. 36
3.5 Strategies.................................................................................................................37
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 2 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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4. Poverty and Slums.........................................................................................................38
4.1 Status of Poverty in Ujjain......................................................................................38
4.2 Slums in Ujjain........................................................................................................39
4.2.1 General Characteristics of Slums in Ujjain..................................................... 40
4.2.2 Status of Slums in Ujjain................................................................................ 43
4.2.3 Urban Poors Perception of Service Levels in Ujjain..................................... 45
4.2.4 Review of Urban poverty reduction programmes........................................... 45
4.3 Issues.......................................................................................................................46
4.4 Strategies.................................................................................................................46
5. Roads & Transportation...............................................................................................48
5.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................48
5.1.1 Regional linkages............................................................................................ 48
5.2 Public Transport ......................................................................................................50
5.2.1 Travel Characteristics in Ujjain city............................................................... 51
5.3 Issues.......................................................................................................................55
SWOT analysis.......................................................................................................................55
5.4 Strategies.................................................................................................................56
6. City Infrastructure and Services Review....................................................................58
6.1 Water Supply...........................................................................................................58
6.1.1 Development of Water Supply ....................................................................... 58
6.1.2 Water Sources................................................................................................. 60
6.1.3 Recent Projects ............................................................................................... 62
6.1.4 Operation and Maintenance............................................................................ 63
SWOT analysis: .....................................................................................................................64
6.1.5 Future requirement.......................................................................................... 64
6.1.6 Problems and issues........................................................................................ 65
6.2 Sewerage and Sanitation .........................................................................................66
6.2.1 Present status .................................................................................................. 66
6.2.2 Recent projects (Sewerage) ............................................................................ 69
6.3 Social infrastructure ................................................................................................71
6.4 Issues and problems ................................................................................................72
6.5 Storm water Drainage .............................................................................................73
6.6 Issues Identified for City Drainage System............................................................74
6.6.1 Action Plan ..................................................................................................... 74
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 3 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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6.7 Solid Waste Management .......................................................................................75
6.7.1 Waste generation ............................................................................................ 76
6.7.2 Waste collection.............................................................................................. 76
6.7.3 Present status .................................................................................................. 78
6.8 Issues.......................................................................................................................79
6.9 Strategies.................................................................................................................79
6.10 Street Lighting.........................................................................................................80
6.10.1 Recent project: ................................................................................................ 81
7. City Environment ..........................................................................................................82
7.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................82
7.2 Climatic analysis .....................................................................................................83
7.3 Land and physiography...........................................................................................85
7.4 Pollution Profile ......................................................................................................86
7.5 Issues.......................................................................................................................89
7.6 Strategies.................................................................................................................90
8. Heritage and Tourism...................................................................................................92
8.1 Religious Activities.................................................................................................92
8.2 City of temples ........................................................................................................93
8.2.1 Important Temples.......................................................................................... 93
8.2.2 Religious Fairs and Allied Activities.............................................................. 94
8.3 Problems and Issues................................................................................................96
8.4 Strategy ...................................................................................................................97
8.5 Objectives will be: ..................................................................................................98
9. Technical Review Municipal Finance..........................................................................99
9.1 Overview.................................................................................................................99
9.2 Revenue Account ..................................................................................................100
9.2.1 Revenue Income ........................................................................................... 101
9.2.2 Revenue Expenditure.................................................................................... 102
9.3 Capital Account.....................................................................................................103
9.3.1 Capital Income.............................................................................................. 103
9.3.2 Capital Expenditure. ..................................................................................... 104
9.4 Key Financial Indicators .......................................................................................104
9.5 Key Issues and Conclusion ...................................................................................105
10. Ujjain Municipal Corporation Institutional Frame Work..................................107
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 4 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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10.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................107
10.2 Institutions and Organisation ................................................................................108
10.3 Area of Fragmentation ..........................................................................................109
10.3.2 Inter - Agency Issues .................................................................................... 110
10.4 Overview Ujjain Municipal Corporation ..............................................................111
10.4.1 Organisation Structure.................................................................................. 111
10.4.2 Zonal Offices ................................................................................................ 116
10.4.3 Municipal Financial Powers ......................................................................... 116
10.5 Key Observations and Issues ................................................................................118
10.5.1 Issues of Deliberative Wing.......................................................................... 118
10.5.2 Issues of Executive Wing ............................................................................. 118
10.5.3 Observations Regarding Creation of Zonal Offices ..................................... 119
10.5.4 Key Financial Autonomy Issues................................................................... 119
10.6 Strategic Elements for Program Design................................................................120
10.6.1 Strategies for Deliberative Wing .................................................................. 120
10.6.2 Strategies for Executive Wing...................................................................... 120
10.7 Capacity Building .................................................................................................121
10.7.1 Recommendation & Implementation Strategy ............................................. 122
10.8 Ujjain Municipal Governance Overview..............................................................126
10.8.1 Local conditions............................................................................................ 126
10.9 Ujjain Municipal Governance Status ....................................................................130
10.9.1 Effectiveness................................................................................................. 130
10.9.2 Equity............................................................................................................ 131
10.9.3 Participation.................................................................................................. 132
10.9.4 Accountability............................................................................................... 132
10.10 Urban Governance Issues and Strategies..........................................................133
10.11 Conclusion ........................................................................................................136
11. Developing a Vision for the City............................................................................137
11.1 Objectives..............................................................................................................137
12. Ujjain City Investment Plan...................................................................................148
12.1 Project Identification and Costing.........................................................................148
12.1.1 Projects for System and Infrastructure Augmentation.................................. 148
12.1.2 Projects for System and Infrastructure Refurbishment................................. 148
12.1.3 Other Developmental Projects...................................................................... 148
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 5 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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12.2 Sector-wise Project Identification and Costing.....................................................149
12.3 Total Capital Investment Requirement .................................................................158
12.4 Financing Plan.......................................................................................................160
13. Investment Sustenance Plan...................................................................................161
13.1 Overview...............................................................................................................161
13.2 Key Assumptions ..................................................................................................162
13.2.1 Revenue Account.......................................................................................... 162
13.3 Investment Phasing ...............................................................................................169
13.4 Results of FOP ......................................................................................................172
14. Project Impacts and Policy Interventions.............................................................174
14.1 Project Benefits and Impacts.................................................................................174
14.1.1 Financial ....................................................................................................... 174
14.1.2 Economic ...................................................................................................... 174
14.1.3 Social ............................................................................................................ 175
14.1.4 Environmental Examination......................................................................... 175
14.2 Policy Interventions ..............................................................................................176


















Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 6 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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List of Tables
Table 2-1 Climatic components...............................................................................................19
Table 2-2 Projected Population for Ujjain..............................................................................20
Table 2-3 Population Density Trend in UMC .........................................................................20
Table 2-4Other demeographic details of Ujjain city ...............................................................21
Table 2-5 Occupational break up.............................................................................................21
Table 2-6 Economic base of the city Ujjain ............................................................................22
Table 3-1 Components of the Ujjain Development Plan 1991................................................28
Table 3-2 Components of Proposed Master plan Ujjain, 2021................................................29
Table 3-3 Present And Proposed Land Use.............................................................................30
Table 3-4 Developed area under Municipal limits ..................................................................31
Table 4-1 Number of Slums and population............................................................................39
Table 4-2 Slum Infrastructure, water supply ...........................................................................41
Table 4-3 Details of Sewerage and sanitation in Ujjain slums ...............................................41
Table 4-4 Poorly facilitated Slums .........................................................................................42
Table 4-5 Slum Infrastructure, Roads......................................................................................42
Table 4-6 Slum Infrastructure, Electricty ...............................................................................42
Table 4-7 Assess to basic services...........................................................................................43
Table 4-8 ward wise information of slums in Ujjain..............................................................43
Table 5-1 Surface type and Road Stock ..................................................................................49
Table 5-2 Types of Drain and Proportion................................................................................50
Table 6-1 Water Resources Surface resources ........................................................................60
Table 6-2 Water connection Details ........................................................................................61
Table 6-3Annual Cost of O&M for WTP and Distribution System 2004-05..........................63
Table 6-4 Water supply Service indicators..............................................................................63
Table 6-5 Water Supply Service Cost and efficiency.............................................................63
Table 6-6Future Water Supply Requirements .........................................................................64
Table 6-7 Sanitation facilities..................................................................................................69
Table 6-8 City Sewerage Infrastructure...................................................................................70
Table 6-9 Number of Schools in Ujjain City...........................................................................71
Table 6-10 Medical facilities in Ujjain city.............................................................................71
Table 6-11Fire services in Ujjain City.....................................................................................71
Table 6-12 Major City level drains Inventory .........................................................................74
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 7 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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Table 6-13 solid waste details..................................................................................................76
Table 6-14waste collection details in the Ujjain city...............................................................76
Table 6-15Solid Waste Management Staff at Ujjain...............................................................77
Table 6-16Physical Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste of Ujjain..........................................77
Table 6-17 Details of Street lighting in Ujjain City.................................................................80
Table 7-1 Temperature Monthly Averages..............................................................................84
Table 7-2 Mean Wind Speed (km/hr) ......................................................................................85
Table 8-1Temples and their localities......................................................................................93
Table 8-2Important religious events and the expected population in Ujjain...........................94
Table 8-3Floating population in other fairs .............................................................................95
Table 9-1 Summarized Municipal Fiscal Status of Ujjain Municipal Corporation.................99
Table 9-2 Revenue Account Status........................................................................................101
Table 9-3 Ujjain Municipal Corporation Capital Account ....................................................103
Table 9-4: Financial Performance Indicators for Ujjain Municipal Corporation. .................104
Table 10-1: Agency responsibilities for City Services in Ujjain...........................................111
Table 10-2Financial Powers ..................................................................................................116
Table 10-3 Urban Governance and Institutional Strengthening Strategies ...........................133
Table 12-1 Capital Investment Required for Ujjain water supply Project ............................149
Table 12-2: Capital Investment Requirement for Ujjain Sewerage & Sanitation .................150
Table 12-3 Summary of component-wise investment for storm water drainage...................150
Table 12-4: Capital Investment Requirement for Solid Waste Management ........................151
Table 12-5: Norms Adopted for Estimating Investment Requirement in Roads...................153
Table 12-6: Capital investment Requirement for Road Upgradation & Construction ..........153
Table 12-7: Norms Adopted for Estimating Investment Requirement in Street Lighting.....154
Table 12-8: Capital Investment Requirement for Street Lighting.........................................154
Table 12-9: Capital Investment Requirement for Fire Services ............................................155
Table 12-10 Summary of the investment required for city level facilities ............................155
Table 12-11 Summary of the investment required for city Religious core area development
...............................................................................................................................................156
Table 12-12: Capital Investment Requirement for Basic Services to Urban Poor in UMC..157
Table 12-13: Summary of Sector-wise Capital Investment Requirement in UMC...............159
Table 12-14 Project Financing Options plan.........................................................................160
Table 13-1 Key Assumptions for Forecasting income from property tax .............................163
Table 13-2 Key assumptions for forecasting income from water charges.............................164
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 8 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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Table 13-3 Key assumptions for forecasting income from Drainage Charges......................165
Table 13-4 key rate assumptions for income from other own sources ..................................166
Table 13-5 Key growth rate assumptions for forecasting revenue expenditure ....................167
Table 13-6: Basis for Additional Recurring Expenditure due to Envisaged CIP..................168
Table 13-7 Ujjain Investing Phasing for Full capital investment ..........................................169
Table 13-8 Investment Phasing and cash Project cash flow..................................................171




























Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 9 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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List of figures
Figure 2-1 Occupational break up ...........................................................................................22
Figure 3-1 Land use break-up and Proposed land use break up - 2021...................................30
Figure 4-1Map of Ujjain showing Location of Slums.............................................................44
Figure 6-1Water supply coverage............................................................................................62
Figure 7-1Potentiality (use-wise) index for various Ghats and landmarks..............................88
Figure 8-1Simhastha : A Parv Of Religious Importance........................................................92
Figure 8-2Annual distribution of festivals...............................................................................95
Figure 9-1 Revenue Account Income ....................................................................................100
Figure 9-2 Revenue Account-Income Ujjain Municipal Corporation...................................101
Figure 9-3 Revenue Account Expenditure Ujjain Municipal Corporation.........................102
Figure 10-1 Organisational Structure of Deliberative wingExecutive Wing ........................114
Figure 10-2 Organisational Structure of Executive Wing of UMC.......................................115
Figure 12-1 Investment Composition Sector wise.................................................................158
List of Maps
Map -1: Map showing Planning Area and Municipal Boundary...28 (i)
Map 2: Map Showing Location of Slums in the Municipal limit44 (i)
Map 3: Map Showing City Transport routes and traffic volumes49 (i)
Map 4 Map Indicating Water supply Coverage of the city..62 (i)
Map 5: Map Indicating City water Reservoirs62 (ii)
Map - 6: Map Indicating Location of STP and SPS...63 (i)
Map -7: Map Showing Social Infrastructure facilities..72 (i)









Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 10 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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List of Abbreviations and Acronyms
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADP Annual Development Plan
ATR Action taken Report
BPL Below Poverty Line
BOT Built Operate Transfer
CAA Constitutional Amendment Act
CBO Community Based Organisations
CDP City Development Plan
CDS Community Development Society
CII Confederation of Indian Industries
CPHEEO Central Public Health and Environment Engineering Organisation
DDP Draft Development Plan
DFID Department of International Development
DLB Directorate of Local Bodies
DoE Department of Environment
DoHFW Department of Health and Family Welfare
EWS Economically Weaker Sections
GIS Geographical Information System
GoI Government of India
GoMP Government of Madhya Pradesh
H&ED Housing and Environment Department (GoMP)
HUDCO Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd
Kl Kilo liter/ Cubic meter
Km Kilo Meter
LIC Life Insurance Corporation
Lpcd/lcd Liters Per Capita Per Day
M
3
Cubic Meter
M&E Monitoring & Evaluation
MIC Mayor in council
MIS Municipal Information System
Mld Million Liter Per Day
MoRTH Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
MP Madhya Pradesh
MSW Municipal solid Waste
NGO Non Government organisation
NSDP National Slum Development Policy
O & M Operation & Maintenance
PHED Public health Engineering Department
PPP Public Private Partnership
PRA Participatory Rapid Assessment
PWD Public Work Department
SADA Special area Development Authority
SH State Highway
SWM Solid Waste Management
TCPO Town and Country Planning Organisation
UMC Ujjain Municipal Corporation
UADD Urban Administration and Development Department
WRD Water resource Department (GoMP)


Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 11 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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Since independence, India has paved the way through democracy for social development.
India has been implementing national strategies and plans through various multi-faceted
development schemes and programme. These programmes, backed by large human and
financial resources, have been successful in achieving the predetermined goals in the areas of
sustained economic growth, education, health, sanitation, housing and employment, as well
as other related fields, so that minimum needs are duly taken care of and a decent standard of
life attained.
Eradication of poverty and provision of basic minimum services are integral elements of any
strategy to improve the quality of life. No developmental process can be sustainable unless it
leads to visible and widespread improvement in these areas. India believes that poverty
anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere and that concerted international action is
essential to ensure global prosperity and better standards of life for all.
At the focus of urban development in India today are the urban local bodies or municipal
bodies. In a fast urbanising and globalising nation, we can have well managed cities and a
good quality of life only when we have financially healthy municipalities. With the
enactment of the Seventy Fourth Constitution Amendment Act of the year 1992, municipal
bodies have been vested with more powers and provision for receiving more funds by way of
devolution from the centre and the state. It is now being recognised that cities are the engines
of growth at both regional and national level. To facilitate and sustain this growth, cities have
to provide both a high quality of life and an efficient infrastructure for economic activities.
Strategic planning is basically resource generation, resource development and resource
management exercise. The efficiency of urban settlements largely depends upon how well
they are planned, how economically they are developed and how efficiently they are
managed. Planning inputs largely govern the efficiency level of human settlements.
Local bodies play a critical role in the delivery of social, economic and infrastructure services
like public health, sanitation, primary education, water supply, and maintenance of road
networks. The rapid pace of urbanisation in India over the last few decades has led to
pressure increasing on urban local bodies (ULBs) to ensure adequacy of service for a
burgeoning population. According to the 2001 census, Indias urban population stands at
around 28% of the countrys total population, and is estimated to have grown significantly
over the last few years. Population increase apart, a number of other changes have also been
taking place within the ULB domain. As stated earlier, the 74th Constitutional Amendment
(1992) provides, for the first time, constitutional recognition to ULBs, thereby establishing
the legal framework for decentralisation to the level of local government. Simultaneously, the
deteriorating fiscal health of States has limited the access of ULBs to the State budgetary
support mechanism for the funding of capital projects.
1 1. .1 1 J JN NN NU UR RM M M Mi is ss si io on n
Considering cities incompatibility with the countrys socio-economic objectives and Indias
growing role in the world economy, the Government of India has decided to launch, in the
current fiscal year, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM).
1.1.1.1 Focus areas
Aimed at creating economically productive, efficient, equitable, and responsive cities, the
Urban Renewal Mission focuses on
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 12 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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Improving and augmenting the economic and social infrastructure of cities
Ensuring basic services to the urban poor including security of tenure at affordable
prices
Initiating wide-ranging urban sector reforms whose primary aim is to eliminate legal,
institutional and financial constraints that have impeded investment in urban
infrastructure and services.
Strengthening municipal governments functioning in accordance with the provisions
of the Constitution (seventy-fourth) Amendment Act, 1992.
It provides for public disclosure of local spending decisions together with earmarking of
budgetary allocations for basic services to the poor. The Mission rests on the postulate that in
order to make cities work and meaningfully contribute to Indias economic growth and
poverty reduction objectives, it is essential to create incentives and support for urban reforms
both at the state and city levels; develop appropriate enabling frameworks; enhance the
creditworthiness of municipal governments; and integrate the poor with service delivery
systems.
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The objectives of the JNNURM are to ensure that the following are achieved in the urban
sector
Focussed attention to integrated development of infrastructure services in cities
covered under the Mission
Establishment of linkages between asset-creation and asset-management through a
slew of reforms for long-term project sustainability
Ensuring adequate funds to meet the deficiencies in urban infrastructural services
Planned development of identified cities including peri-urban areas, outgrowths and
urban corridors leading to dispersed urbanisation
Scale-up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on
universal access to the urban poor
Special focus on urban renewal programme for the old city areas to reduce congestion
Provision of basic services to the urban poor including security of tenure at affordable
prices, improved housing, water supply and sanitation, and ensuring delivery of other
existing universal services of the government for education, health and social security.
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The JNNURM shall give assistance for infrastructure development in the eligible cities/
Urban Agglomerations (UAs) across States in the country. These cities/ UAs have been
selected based as per the following criteria:
Cities/ UAs with 4 million plus population as per 2001 census .07
Cities/ UAs with 1 million plus but less than 4 million population as per 2001 census..28
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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Selected Cities/ UAs (State Capitals and other cities/ UA of religious/ historic and tourist
importance) .28
1.1.1.2 Selection of Ujjain city
Ujjain is one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus and has got a great religious and cultural
importance. Considering its significant religious and cultural image it has been included in
the list of selected cities under JNNURM scheme.
1 1. .2 2 C Co on nc ce ep pt t a an nd d P Pr ri in nc ci ip pl le es s o of f C Ci it ty y D De ev ve el lo op pm me en nt t P Pl la an n
The city development plan is both a planning process and a product which promotes
partnership among the various stakeholders in a city- the city government, the private
business sector, civil society, academe and national government agencies- to jointly analyze
growth issues, develop a vision for the future, formulate development strategies, design
progrmmes, prioritize projects, mobilize resources, implement, monitor and evaluate
implementation.
The preparation of a City Development Plan can be understood as a consultative process
where the municipality and parastatal agencies responsible for provision of services and
overall development of the city will play a pivotal role. The firms and institutions will be
required to work in partnership and close collaboration with municipal and other related
institutions such as the Water Supply and Sewerage Boards, Development Authorities,
together with other key stakeholders, civil society groups, and non-governmental
organisations.
The CDP will be anchored on the following principals of a sustainable city:
Livability - what can be done to ensure a healthy and dignified standard of living for
the city's residents
Competitiveness - how can the cities be more competitive in the global economy
Bankability - how can the cities be more sustainable?
Good Governance -how can a citiys management be improved? How can
accountability, integrity, and transparency be made an integral part of city's
management.








Bankability Livability
Competitiveness Managability
Sustainable City
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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a) Develop a consensus building process to establish the city's priority strategies and
actions
b) To formulate strategies that deal specifically with issues affecting the urban poor
c) Assist local authorities outline their financing and investment strategies
d) Build local capacity for more effective urban management
e) The goals of a city development plan include a collective city vision and action plan
aimed at improving the Infrastructure, urban governance and management and
systematic and sustained reductions in urban poverty. Ultimately, it is expected that
the CDP will result in strategic platform, which facilitates development, decision
making, investment programming, the efficient allocation of resources and in city
ownership of their own economic and social development process.























Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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Framework adopted for the preparation of
City development plan Ujjain

Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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Ujjain (also known as Ujaini, Avanti) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region
of Madhya Pradesh. Situated on the eastern bank
of the Kshipra River, the city was called
Ujjayini in ancient times and is referred to as
Ozene by Ptolemy. It is one of the seven sacred
cities of the Hindus, and the Kumbh Mela
religious festival is held here every twelve years.
It is also a home to one of the twelve Jyotirlinga
shrines to the god Shiva. Ujjain, the city of
Mahakal has been a seat of learning where all
disciplines of knowledge have flourished since
time immemorial. Great poets like Vedavyasa
and Kalidasa have eulogize the city.
Vikramaditya, the legendary emperor, ruled the
city with his famous Navratnas (nine jewels)
including Kalidasa.
2 2. .1 1 A Ab bo ou ut t t th he e p pa as st t
The early history of Ujjain is shrouded in the Puranic traditions. According to a tale, Yadu
warriors Krishna and Balarama came to Ujjain to learn various sciences as the disciples of
the great Guru Sandipani. The epic Mahabharata narrates that two warriors kings of Ujjain
Vinda and Anuvinda took part in the battle and were killed fighting against the Pandavas.
Excavations conducted at Garh area in Ujjain reveal the existence of Ujjain in the 6th and
7th, century AD. During this period in 6th century BC Ujjain was the capital of Avanti
Janapada.
In the pre independence era Ujjain witnessed the scenes of socio cultural rejuvenation,
industrial and commercial growth on modern pattern and the struggle for the freedom. In
1948 the Shinde regime came to an end as the Gwalior state merged into the newly formed
Madhya Bharat. Presently, Ujjain is a Commissionary and districts headquarter in the state of
Madhya Pradesh.
Figure Map of Ujjain city
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2 2. .1 1. .1 1 U Uj jj ja ai in n f fr ro om m 6 60 00 0 B B. .C C. . t ti il ll l n no ow w

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2 2. .2 2 L Lo oc ca at ti io on n a an nd d r re eg gi io on na al l s se et tt ti in ng gs s
Ujjain is situated on a unique geographical location from where tropic of cancer passes. It is
the 'Greenwich Mean Time 'of India for Panchang. The tilting of earth at angle of 23 on
its axis and geographical line of tropic of cancer has special cosmic influence making it fit for
absolute time location. Situated on the bank of river Kshipra, the only river that travels
straight from South to North, Ujjain reflects distinct character of socio-religious cultural
ethos.






A broad delineation of Ujjain region
would include the seven districts of
Indore, Ujjain, Dewas, Mandsaur,

Along with Indore and Dewas, Ujjain is among the three most important centres in this
region. Bhopal Ratlam broad gauge railway line passes through it and the NH3 is only 35
kms, away. Besides these national connections, there are many state level highways linking it
to the major regional and state centres.
















Distance of Ujjain from major cities
Cities Distance
Bhopal 183 kms
Indore 50 kms
Ahemdabad 402 kms
Mumbai 655 kms
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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2 2. .3 3 C Cl li im ma at te e a an nd d G Ge eo ol lo og gy y
2 2. .3 3. .1 1 C Cl li im ma at te e
The city of Ujjain comes under Malwa region which is famous for its climate, which permits
normal activities all the year round. The following table gives the overall climatic picture of
the city:
Table 2-1 Climatic components

Geographical location 23 -11 Northern
Latitude
75 -45 Eastern
Longitude
Unique geographical location from where tropic
of cancer passes
Maximum temperature 39 The hottest months are April to June
Minimum temperature 5 Coolest months are from December to February
Average annual rainfall 900 mm

Shallow ground water(pre
monsoon)
20 mts
Shallow ground water(post
monsoon)
8 mts
2 2. .3 3. .2 2 T To op po og gr ra ap ph hy y a an nd d s so oi il l
The city of Ujjain is divided into Pedeplain (shallow, deep & moderate), Denudational hill;
Residual hill, Valley fills, Flood plain etc, out of which geomorphic features like pedeplain
(deep) & valley fills have good ground water potentials. Low drainage density in the
pedeplain deep and flood plains indicates that these geomorphic features are good recharge
zones. On the other hand pedeplain shallow, denudational hill and residual hill indicates poor
recharge conditions due to hard and compact lithology.
Geologically the city is, by and large, monotonous. Deccan traps, which lie over the older
formations, consist of massive, zeolitic and vesicular basaltic flows of varying thickness.
Generally, the hard massive trap is underlain by zeolitic and vesicular trap. Various flows are
at times inter bedded with inter trappean. The common sedimentary rock of thin inter
trappean is limestone which is generally siliceous. At places alluvium has also been noticed
in the valley of the rivers Khan and Shipra. The geological formations underlying the Ujjain
area are largely sandstone.
Soils of the region are of mixed type and there is no distinct boundary between any two types
of soil. Tonal variation in the satellite data indicates the difference in soil texture, intensity of
weathering and mineral composition of soil. Deep black soil, Lateritic soil and Alluvial soil
are the three different types of soils identified in the study area. Deep black soil, which is
fertile in nature, occupies major part of the district. Black cotton soil is generally found with
depth of 1to 3mts
2 2. .4 4 D De em mo og gr ra ap ph hi ic c p pr ro of fi il le e
The city of Ujjain has seen an average growth rate of 31.8% in the last four decades. The
growth rate decreased from 44.7% (1971-1981) to 18.69%(1991-2001).The major reason
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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Decadal growth
11
44.7
35.31
28.5
18.69
59.74
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1,29,817 1,44,161 2,08,561 2,82,207 3,62,633 4,30,427
1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
behind this has been the economic stagnancy, closing down of industries and decreased birth
rate.
The current census (2001) population of UMC
is 4.3 lakhs and the total number of wards are
54. The city has experienced relatively
moderate growth rates in population during
the last two decades- 1981-91 & 1991-2001
(28.50 and 18.69 per cent, respectively)
The reduced growth rates in population during
the last two decades are attributed to the slow-
down in the local economy, especially
between 1991 and 2001. This is evident from
the fact that the total workforce participation
rate (main workers and marginal workers as a
percentage of the total population) was stagnant at 27 per cent during 1991 and 2001. The
next decadal growth rate of the city shall get increased as a result of financial boost up in the
economy due to Sinhastha.
Table 2-2 Projected Population for Ujjain
Source:UMC

2 2. .4 4. .1 1 P Po op pu ul la at ti io on n D De en ns si it ty y
Population density is an important demographic index, particularly from the point of view of
exploitation of the resources of the area. The density has increased three-fold from 2192
persons/ sq. km in 1961 to 4644 persons/ sq. km in 2001. area under UMC has been constant
and the density has raised by 8% in the last decade.Table 2-3 displays the change in
population density trends in UMC area.
Table 2-3 Population Density Trend in UMC
Year Population
in Lakhs
Area in
Sq. Km
Population
Density
1971 246433 n.a 2050
1981 282203 n.a. 2940
1991 362633 92.68 3913
2001 430669 92.68 4644
Source: Municipal Corporation of Ujjain, 2001

Year Madhya Pradesh Ujjain City Decadal growth
1951 1,86,14,931 1,29,817 59.74
1961 2,32,17,910 1,44,161 11.00
1971 3,00,16,625 2,08,561 44.70
1981 3,81,68,507 2,82,207 35.31
1991 4,85,66,242 3,62,633 28.50
2001 6,03,85,118 4,30,427 18.69
2006 4,78000(estimated)
2011 5,03000(estimated)
2021 6,88000(estimated)
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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Table 2-4Other demeographic details of Ujjain city
Census 2001details Nos.
Population below 7 years age 55,619
SC Population 75,946.00
ST Population 8,316.00
Male Population 223,745
Female Population 206,188
Male Litrates 173,508
Female Litrates 134,248
No. of Census Houses 77,099
No. of Occupied Houses 75,548
Source: Municipal Corporation of Ujjain, 2001
The above table shows that Ujjain has nearly 20 percent of SC population. The sex ratio can
be said to be satisfactory. The male literacy level is quite high, that is 77% in comparison to
female literacy rate of 65%.
2 2. .5 5 W Wo or rk k f fo or rc ce e p pr ro of fi il le e
Ujjain which is a regional and tourist centre and has good linkages by way of road and
railway has grown to become a trading and tourist centre in the region. The industrial
character has been waning during the last two decades.
Ujjain houses the offices of the headquarters of several district and regional level government
offices. A considerable proportion of the citys workforce is engaged in these establishments,
whereas a large proportion of population is involved in trade and commerce. This is clearly
evident from the workforce participation structure of the city, discussed in subsequent
sections of this note. The primary drivers of the economy of Ujjain are the Primary sector,
service sector (mainly public sector establishments) and trade and commerce. Manufacturing
and processing industries, especially household and small-scale engineering industries, also
contribute to the citys economy, though marginally. Among the poor households, the core
poor had the highest proportion of main income earners in informal employment. The mean
household income for the city has been recorded to be at Rs.4102 and expenditure at
Rs.3501. the table given below shows the major occupational structure of the city.
Table 2-5 Occupational break up
Occupation category No.of workers in lakh % Total
Primary sector 0.24 17
Household industry 0.2 14
Manufacturing 0.15 11
Electricity,gas and water supply 0.03 2
Construction 0.05 4
Transport,storage and communication 0.08 6
Banking and insurance 0.01 1
Trade and business 0.49 34
Services 0.15 11
Total 1.4 100
Source: Municipal Corporation of Ujjain, 2001
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Banking and insurance
1%
Transport,storage and
communication
6%
Manufacturing
11%
Electricity,gas and water
supply
2%
Construction
4%
Household industry
14%
Primary sector
17%
Services
11%
Trade and business
34%
Figure 2-1 Occupational break up











Table 2-6 Economic base of the city Ujjain
Economic base Years
2001 2005 (estimated)
Manufacturing 1800 2227
Employment 12500 15270
Production 700 870
Value added
Services
Employment
Production of quantum of
business

Value added
2 2. .5 5. .1 1 T Tr ra ad de e a an nd d C Co om mm me er rc ce e
A large proportion of the citys population thrives on wholesale and retail trade and
commerce. The city serves as a regional wholesale market for food grains and other
commodities. It also serves as a market centre for agricultural produce such as soyabean,
wheat, rice, pulses, oilseeds, maize, etc., which are cultivated in the rural hinterland. Ujjain
also functions as a distributing centre for agriculture implements, fertilizers, drugs and
medicines, iron and steel, cement and minerals, petroleum products and forest produces such
as timber, etc. and ready made garments and textiles.
The commercial activities have diffused along most of the main roads of the city, although
the character of these activities is not similar throughout the city. Ujjain functions as the most
important centre for trade and commerce in the district. In 1991, 21.5% of the main work
force was engaged in trade and commerce activities.(District census handbook, Ujjain, 1991)
In 1975, the land utilization rate for commercial use was 0.19 hectares per 1000 persons,
which is inadequate. In terms of workers in trade and commerce, commercial area is 3.8
hectares per 1000 workers. It was estimated that Ujjain required nearly 7.5 hectares per 1000
workers. This would satisfy the floating population visiting the city during religious festivals.
The commercial activities nearly double during the Kumbh mela. (Ujjain Development Plan,
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1975).The present land utilization rate has been discussed later in the chapter on land use and
management.
Markets for specific commodities have flourished in groups along certain roads such as
general shopping is however; spread all along the main roads, wholesale and retail
transactions in various commodities take place in these areas. Except Freeganj market, no
market seems to be well-planned .All the other markets have come up due to organic growth
of the town in a ribbon development fashion. Most of the markets are located on both sides of
the roads leading to temples. There are no exclusively specialized markets. Shopping is
mainly in the form of bazaars .In 1971, Ujjain housed nearly 5000 establishments classified
as shops and other business establishments, which increased to 7649 in 1985.
2 2. .5 5. .2 2 A An n o ov ve er rv vi ie ew w o on n U Uj jj ja ai in n c ci it ty y e ec co on no om my y
Ujjain, once the seat of the ancient kingdom of Vikramaditya is an important religious,
educational and cultural centre and a destination for millions of Hindu pilgrims. As well as
regular visitors, (about 200,000-300,000 per year), once every 12 years, there is a flood of
devotees to the city (5 million in 2004).
About an hour by road (56km) from Indore, the city, once important for cotton manufacture
has suffered considerable decline. All four of the cotton mills closed over ten years ago and
there is little alternative for the 7,000 strong workforce retrenched. Religious tourism,
services for the local population and some small scale industries including power and hand
looms and packaging are the mainstays of the city's economy.
The industrial areas within the city are Maksi Road and Dewas Road. Numbers of businesses
are reported to be 458 in Maksi road but of those only 200 are actually operating. This would
indicate that more than 50% had either closed down or were sick.
About 200 are reported at Dewas Road. It is not known how many of these are actually in
operation. Power supply and skill level of the workforce are just some of the problems that
exist. Outside the city, some small industrial areas with less than 10 units include Bandka
Tehsil,Ghatiya, Padya Kalan and Birlagram and another semi urban area at Mahidpur with
around 40. Industrial prodcus/sectors include cotton cloth, incense sticks, tiles, chemicals,
packaging, yarn manufacture and food processing. Proximity to Indore and the industrial
estates nearby with better infrastructure means that Ujjain is not and is even less likely to
become a favoured destination for manufacturing units.
Private and public services registered are reported by CII(Confederation of Indian Industries).
Banking and insurance (122 establishments), hotels and restaurants (1890); hospitals and
clinics (50); educational establishments (970) and shops (18,100). Government run health
institutions are reported to be struggling in comparison to privately run hospitals and nursing
homes which are performing reasonably well. Informal sector activities include cloth printing
which is reported to employ over 1,700 persons.
2.5.2.1 Tourism
Ujjain, the summer capital of yesteryears is a popular
tourist destination today. Although permanent population
of Ujjain is low it receives large number of tourists. During
peak days, on an average 3000 tourists visit the place.
Apart from this, on the occasions of religious fairs held on
Nagpanchmi and Mahashivratri nearly 3 to 5 lakhs
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pilgrims come to Ujjain. Study of past data indicates that the number of foreign tourist
visiting Ujjain is negligible. The average number of such tourists is nearly 100 per annum.
The tourism potential of Ujjain has not been exploited to its fullest. There are many
interesting tourist attractions in and around Ujjain,which if exploited will give boost to the
local economy.
SWOT analysis
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Close proximity to Indore and successful industrial area of Dewas
Strong tourist potential
Great historic and religious image
Tourist attractions (religious tourism, main function of the city)
Communal harmony
Surplus labour
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Tourist potential remains unexploited
Weak local economy
Low literacy levels
Low pace of industrial development
Poor sanitation and solid waste management and inadequate street lighting
Poor public transport
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Development of Ujjain as a major tourist attraction, expanding on its current draw as a
place for pilgrimage
Development of supporting service sector for the tourism industry
Development of educational training centres, (although the reasoning behind this is
not clear)
Agri-processing and marketing, soybean in particular, which is one of the main crops
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Lack of education of population leading to narrow thinking and lack of
entrepreneurship
City planning has failed - the city could have been developed to be more attractive,
particularly given the number of temples and buildings of architectural interest
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Lack of airport a constraint in the development potential for tourism and the
benefits of being more accessible to the international visitor
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The major reason behind the slow pace of development of the city can be analysed as its
weak economy. The city has a strong religious image and tremendous tourist potential but
still no efforts have been incorporated for the exploitation of these resources. The city can
achieve an image of global tourist destination if proper strategies are incorporated.

























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3 3. .1 1 I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n
The study of land use and growth pattern gives an idea of the trends the city is following as
well as the future demands of the city. In the following chapter an analysis of the growth
pattern, land use and land management has been done for Ujjain city. The City is a popular
religious centre, well known for its temples. It is a major trading centre in agriculture produce
such as food grains, vegetables and fruits. Ujjain is the second largest city of "Indore Agro
Industrial Region" notified under MPTown & Country Planning Act (1973) which consists of
six other districts viz. Indore, Dewas, Ratlam, Mandsaur, Dhar and Jhabua.
3 3. .1 1. .1 1 P Ph hy ys si ic ca al l C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er ri is st ti ic cs s
The city is well connected by roads and railways with important urban centres and is
connected by a broad gauge railway to Bhopal, Indore, Dewas, Nagda and Ratlam and by a
meter gauge line to Indore, Badnagar and Ratlam.
The city situated on the banks of Shipra, is one of the seven most important religious centres
in the country. There are many ghats on the eastern bank of the river viz. Gaughat, Narsingh
ghat, Ram ghat, Chhatri ghat, Ganga ghat, Mangalnath ghatand Sidhwat ghat.
Places of historical importance are: Bharthari Caves, Choubis Khamba Gate, Bina-niv-ki
Masjid, Kaliadeh, water palace, the old sarai and Jaisingh Observatory. Religious temples
include: Mahakal Gopal temple, Harisiddhi and Triveni
3.1.1.1 Ujjain planning area and Municipal area
Ujjain planning area is 15182.52 hectare and had a population of 441840 according to 2001
census. The Ujjain municipal area has 54 wards with a total area of 9268.10 hectare (92.68
sq.kms) and population of 430427 according to 2001 census.
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Pre 1938 period: During this period, Ujjain was the capital of Lashkar or Gwalior. It
was under the rule of Scindias. The city received maximum attention under the
Scindias. This period witnessed various developments like pucca roads, railway links,
hospitals, etc. Ujjain developed its identity as a great religious and cultural centre as
well as an emerging centre for the textile industry (establishment of 4 textile mills in
1915, development of Freeganj area as an octroi free area in 1930 and development of
several cotton and spinning factories on Agar road from 1920 to 1930 ).
1938 to 1968: Maximum development in SE part in terms of residential and
institutional land use followed by NW part in residential use took place in this period.
These developments can be accredited to various factors. This phase saw the
emergence of Freeganj area as a major commercial area. Major educational
institutions like Vikram University, Government polytechnic, Engineering College
and Industrial Training Institute also came up.
The development of Vikram Vatika catered to the need for greens in the city.
Establishment of various large-scale industries like Dalda factory, Spun pipe factory
on Dewas road, etc also contributed to the development. The addition of broad gauge
railway line connecting Ujjain, Dewas and Indore led to new industrial developments
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in the region. Several new housing and rehabilitation schemes were also implemented
in this time. The establishment of Chimangunj Mandi for agricultural produce also led
to a major commercial change in the 60s.
1968 to 1979: Major development in SE part of the city in terms of residential and
industrial areas was followed by developments in NE and NW parts. These
developments trace their origin to certain activities, which took place during this
period. This period saw the establishment of several educational institutions like girls
inter college, government middle school and junior college, etc. A 33 KV power
supply station was also set up near Freeganj area, which helped, in the further spread
of industrial and residential areas.
The establishment of Ujjain bus depot made commuting easier and faster and the
industrial estate on Maksi road further propagated industrial development. Several
major housing projects and private residential colonies were also taken up like:
Lakshmi Nagar. Development of cultural complex and archaeological museum near
the university were also contributors to the residential developments. Brick quarrying
areas were provided along the SE banks of Kshipra. But this led to the development of
squatters in the area. An ancillary industrial estate was also established in NE.
1979 to 1985: Marked development in residential, institutional and industrial areas
occurred in the northeast followed by development in residential areas increase in the
southeast. This period saw the development of Urban Development Authority in late
70s. Thus, public housing became a major criterion for development. New private
residential colonies started coming up.
New roads were formed joining Vikram Vatika to Maksi road. This enabled the
development of residential colonies in the vacant land North of Vikram Vatika.
Soyabean extraction plants were set up on Dewas road. Cultural institutions like
Kalidas Academy were set up. Development of office complexes on Dewas road and
development of several private colonies and slums and squatter development
programmes were also taken up. Development of road connecting Gopal mandi and
Hari Phatak Crossing made the old city accessible for development. A wholesale cloth
market was also set up near Lajpat Rai Marg and the development of shopping
complexes by UDA led to development of the industrial sector.
3 3. .1 1. .2 2 U Uj jj ja ai in n D De ev ve el lo op pm me en nt t P Pl la an n, , 1 19 99 91 1
The Ujjain Development Plan 1991published in 1975 under the provision of section 23 (2)
read with section 18 (1) of MP Town & country Planning Act, and approved by the State
Government under section 19 of MP Town & Country Planning Act in 1973. The plan of
1975 identifies goals for a well-planned city and accordingly proposes future landuse. City's
Functions identified in the UDP 1991;
Religious Centre
Trade and Commerce Centre
Industrial Centre
Educational Centre

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UDP 1991 indicates all the use zones (divisions) such as residential, commercial,
industrial, public and semi-public, recreational, transportation and agriculture.
UDP 1991 has projected a population of 4.5 lakhs by 1991 and 7 lakhs by 2001for the
entire planning area.
UDP 1991 indicates all the use zones (divisions) such as residential, commercial,
industrial, public and semi-public, recreational, transportation and agriculture.
UDP 1991 has projected a population of 4.5 lakhs by 1991 and 7 lakhs by 2001for the
entire planning area.
UDP 1991 plan has wide ranging proposals for road widening in the old city area,
which, due to practical reasons, have been very difficult to implement as they involved
extensive acquisition of private properties where the land value is very high and
development is dense. Rather, innovative and more practical approaches to de-
congestion of public streets by adopting a mix of options such as pedestrianization,
traffic routing systems, and limited road widening would have been appropriate.
On the whole, the Ujjain Development Plan, 1991, is over optimistic. This, coupled with
inadequate implementation capacities of the implementing agencies, resulted in large-scale
variations between the planned development for 1991 and the actual development by 1994, as
evidenced from the table below:
Table 3-1 Components of the Ujjain Development Plan 1991
S.No. Component Key provisions in UDP1991 Comments
1. Area and
Housing In
Development

In 1971, housing shortage was
8255 housing units. It includes
backlog up to 1971, houses unfit
for human habilitation
and areas with poor living
condition.
Future residential development
was mainly planned in the eastern
part of Sanwer road and northern
side of existing mill area.
Some residential areas have also
been proposed:
behind Chimanganj mandi,
on the westem side of Sanwer road
onthe easternside of Vikram
University.
Behind the railway track near the
proposed industrial area.
Nearly 35000 persons are living in
slums.
The plan identifies slum areas for
clearance rehabilitation and
improvement .

No reliable data available about the
Development nature of housing need
and supply.
In south of Ujjain (new Ujjain), UDA
has been developing residential
areas.
Two major centrally sponsored slum
improvement & poverty
alleviation programmes implemented
by UMC namely
the Swarna Jayanti
SahariRozgarYojana
(SJSRY)and the National Slum
Development Programme.
2. Industrial
Development
Heavy industries including
extensive industries were proposed
Most of the industries are closed and
sick in Makshi road industrial area.
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on Agar road (mill area), Maksi
Road and Dewas Road.
Medium and small scale industries
were earmarked on Maksi Road,
Dewas Road and Agar Road.
Very few industries have come up in
Nagziri industrial area.

3. Traffic &
Transport

Development of bypass and new
roads.
Development of regional bus
station and terminal
Development of city bus terminal
Provision of parking facilities at
critical locations.

Very little has been done on the
implementation of transport
development proposals except
regional bus terminal

Source: ADB,IUDMP report 2002
3 3. .1 1. .3 3 L La an nd d s su up pp pl ly y a an nd d u ut ti il li iz za at ti io on n
As per the survey results, the total developed area in the Ujjain planning area, which includes
the fringe areas outside the UMC limits was about 2857 Ha in 2004.The total land under
residential use in the Ujjain Planning area was 51 per cent, with a net residential density of
about 273 persons per Ha in 1994.
About 19 per cent was under roads while, 16 per cent fell under the category of public facility
and utility services. Land utilization status;
Table 3-2 Components of Proposed Master plan Ujjain, 2021
No. Landuse
Proposed area in 1991( ha)) Developed
area 2005
( ha)
Land utilized(%)
1 Residential 1460 1300 89.04
2 Commercial 205 164 80.00
3 Industrial 450 330 73.33
4 Recreational 540 103 19.07
5 Public & Semi- public 2645(includes mela area) 2150 90.90
6 Circulation 675 510 75.56
Developed Area 3825 2857 74.69
Source :Ujjain Development plan ,2021
The above table shows that nearly seventy five percent of land has been developed from the
proposed plan. In 1991 the proposed land utilization rate per person for the commercial use
was estimated to be 0.45 ha/person which came out to be 8.23ha/person in the year 2002.The
proposed industrial land was estimated with 1.0 ha/1000persons and which was coming as
450ha.but with the slow pace of industrial development only 330 ha land got utilized.





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Recreation
al
4%
Industrial
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Commercial
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Residential
45%
Circulation
17%
-Public Semi
public
16%
Recreation
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17%
-Public Semi
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16%
Circulation
19%
Residential
46%
Commercial
6%
Industrial
8%
Figure 3-1 Land use break-up and Proposed land use break up - 2021

Table 3-3 Present And Proposed Land Use
No. Landuse Area in 2004 Proposed for 2021
Existing Proposed
Sq.km % Sq.km %
1 Residential 13.00 45.50 37.00 46.41
2 Commercial 1.64 5.74 2.74 3.44
3 Industrial 3.30 11.55 6.10 7.65
4 Recreational 1.03 3.61 13.38 16.78
5 Public & Semi- public 4.50 15.75 5.40 6.77
6 Circulation 5.10 17.85 15.10 18.94
Developed Area 28.57 100.00 79.72 100.00
Source: Ujjain Development plan ,2005
The total land under residential use in the Ujjain Planning area is 45 per cent, which is nearly
the same for proposed 2021year. About 17per cent is under roads (proposed land use under
circulation comes out to be 19 %) while, 16 per cent fell under the category of public facility
and utility services.
The land use proposed for industrial activities has been decreased
from 12 % to 8% which might be a step in the direction of conserving
environment but would definitely reduce the local employment
opportunities.
Land allocated for commercial activities has been kept constant and
on the other hand the recreational land allocation has been increased
from 4% to 17%.it may have been done with a perspective of future
Ujjain as a tourist city. The present land utilization rate is 6.14 hectare
per thousand persons which has been increased to 11.38 hectare per
thousand persons.
Residential use All the major residential development can be seen in between Indore and
Dewas road .Areas such as Vivekanand nagar,Sant nagar ,Shastri nagar are high density
residential areas. Mixed land use can be observed along some of the roads in these areas.the
The CBD area of
Ujjain -Freeganj
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residential density in some of these areas is so high and settlements are congested which
results in to pressure on infrastructure and at the same time it becomes very difficult to
initiate reform works.
Commercial use The major commercial activities can be observed near areas such as
freeganj ,shaheed park ,sabji mandi .This area can be considered as the main CBD area of the
city
Sensitive areas some parts of the city are under sensitive zone.Mela ground ,Shipra ghats
and some areas in the core city are some of the sensitive areas .
Industrial use- Most of the industries are sick or closed in the Makshi Road Industrial
Area.Very few industries have been established in the Nagziri Industrial area The condition
of roads in this area' is very poor. This is a non performing asset that is not taxed. Existing
industrial layouts that are unoccupied should be priority areas to accommodate further
industrial land demand or converted to any other appropriate use
3.1.3.1 Developed area
The present percentage of land developed in UMC comes out to be 30.82% which is nearly
constant as compared to 2001.The main reason behind the low developed area is the
restriction of any development in sensitive zones (mela ground etc.).
Table 3-4 Developed area under Municipal limits
Year Developed land (hectare) Undeveloped land(hectare)
2001/2002 2830 6438
2002/2003 2830 6438
2003/2004 2845 6423
2004/2005 2857 6411
Source:UMC,Ujjain
3.1.3.2 Area and Housing Development
Development is being undertaken by the Ujjain Development Authority (UDA) and the MP
Housing Board (MPHB) for their colonies or commercial centres etc. as well as by the
private sector on land allotted by the UDA or on privately owned land. At present, MP
Housing Board does not have any scheme due to the non-availability of land within the
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Due to the development of newer and planned colonies outside the core old city, the
residential density has gone down considerably. But due to increase in the population, the
urban density of the area has shown an increase. Urban density (Persons/sqkm);
Year Density (p/sqkm)
1971 2050
1981 2940
1991 3913
2001 4644
Source: UMC,Ujjain


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The housing scenario in Ujjain reveals that at present there is a shortage of 19652 housing
units. The estimated housing demand for the year 2011 is 33000 housing units.
3 3. .2 2 G Gr ro ow wt th h p pa at tt te er rn n o of f t th he e c ci it ty y
The city of Ujjain is shaped by several factors. The main features which have shaped the
development of Ujjain are its topography and transportation routes. The city has developed in
the form of sectors. The city can be clearly divided into two parts:
One being the old city, which lies north of the Broad gauge railway line: This comprises of
the old historic and religious area along with the old industrial area. This area is characterized
by indigenous pattern of more or less organic development. The city here has a very dense
and close-knit fabric. The population density in this area is very high compared to the newer
areas.The development of this area has been dictated by the flow of river Kshipra, the
location and pilgrimage routes of the historic temples.
The other being the new area: This comprises of the area lying south and south east of the
railway line. This area started developing with the construction of the railway bridge in
1930s. The area was thus made accessible and within reach. It catered to the need for the
city to expand beyond the boundaries, which existed at that time. Development in this area
started with the development of Freegunj area as a residential and commercial area,
accessible by three major roads: Dewas road, Maksi road and Indore road. This area thus
became the nucleus for future expansion of the city.
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The city core was full of incompatible land uses, i.e., land uses which do not fit in the
environment of the area in which they are located due to several factors like traffic hazards,
not in harmony with the surrounding land uses. For example: industrial land uses were
located right in the city centre. The goods traffic generated by these factories leads to
cluttering of the already narrow streets of the city. This was a major contributor to the city
traffic. Such incompatible land uses had to be relocated in order to make them merge
harmoniously with their surroundings but now most of the large units have closed down
giving an end to the problem.
Another major disadvantage is that the due to the high density of the city core, several land
uses are ill housed, especially public and semi public uses, majority of which operate in
unhygienic crammed up areas. Several commercial uses are also housed in residential
buildings.
The increasing population has overburdened the citys transport network. The city core
provides minimal scope for widening of streets. Thus, all the major streets are congested





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3 3. .3 3 U Ur rb ba an n S St tr ru uc ct tu ur re e a an nd d I Im ma ag ge e
The built form of Ujjain is mosaic of
various periods of building construction.
Though most of the heritage has not
survived, few buildings show the traces of
the old glory that it once had in their times.
In terms of an image, the city can be divided
into the old city which lies on northern side
as the Core City and the recent
developments seen during last 50 years
which is mostly on South side. The
difference between the two is quite stark.
The old city is organic development
congested with densely located buildings which open out on narrow
streets. The heights vary from ground to three storied structures. Most of the building shows
amalgamation of Maratha and Rajput architecture with timber
detailing. Urban development is taking
over most of the historical core with old
buildings being demolished and new
constructed with no regards to the old
fabric of the city.





The city started developing on southern side during Scindia period with the development of
Freeganj. It has grown in a horizontal or ribbon like form along the railway line. The
architectural style shows influence of the British planning with wide roads and large open
areas. Freeganj developed as commercial area has grid iron layout with shops lined on either
side of wide road with Clock Tower forming the focus. The Kothi Palace of Scindias is an
amalgamation of Rajput and gothic styles and has an entrance influenced by the Buckingham
palace.








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3.3.1.1 Agencies for Plan Preparation and Implementation in Ujjain
The responsibility for preparation of a master plan or development plan rests with the Town
and Country Planning Organization (TCPO) of the Government of Madhya Pradesh, while
plan implementation rests with the Municipal Corporation of Ujjain and the Ujjain
Development Authority.
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The TCPO is governed by the provisions of the Madhya Pradesh Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh
Niyam 1973 (the Act). The State Government, as per the provisions of the Act, can declare
an area as a region and define its limit. Such areas are then taken for development and a
development plan for the region is prepared by the TCPO. The main function of the
department is to carry out a survey of the region, prepare an existing landuse map, and
propose a development plan or regional plan as the case may be.
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The Ujjain Development Authority (UDA) formed under the Madhya Pradesh Nagar Tatha
Gram Nivesh Niyam 1973 (the Act) is responsible for the implementation of major proposals
of the Development Plan prepared by the TCPO. The main objective of the UDA is to
implement various schemes, by way of acquiring and developing land in line with the
proposals of the development plan. Such developments are planned keeping in view the
growth of the town. The primary functions of the UDA as per the Act are:
Acquisition, development and sale or leasing of land for the purpose of town
expansion;
Acquisition, relaying, rebuilding, or relocating areas which have been badly laid out or
which have developed or degenerated into slums;
Acquisition and development of land for public purposes such as housing
development, development of shopping centers, cultural centers, administrative
centers, etc;
Acquisition and development of areas for commercial and industrial purposes;
Undertaking of such building or construction work as may be necessary to provide
housing, shopping, commercial and other facilities;
Acquisition and development of land for the purpose of laying out or re-modeling of
road and street patterns;
Acquisition and development of land for playgrounds, parks, recreation centers and
stadia;
Reconstruction of plots for the purpose of buildings, roads, drains, sewage lines and
other similar amenities; and
Any other work of a nature such that would bring about environmental improvements,
which may be taken up by the authority with the prior approval of the State
Government.
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However, UDA has been functioning more as a colonizer (developer of serviced land and
housing) than as an implementation agency of the citywide development plan for roads, parks
and play grounds, and other public and social amenities.
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The Ujjain Municipal Corporation (UMC) is one of the key actors in developing and
maintaining the city. Governed by the Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1956, its
functions include provision of core civic services and maintenance of public places, including
roads and streets. The UMC is also responsible for regulating the construction of buildings
and colonies within its territorial jurisdiction, according to the provisions of the Development
Plan proposals and the Development Control Regulations prepared by the TCPO. Another
major role recently entrusted to the UMC is that of regularizing the unauthorized colonies
that have come up in the city, which as per the statute is one of the primary functions of the
UDA. However, under the 74th Constitution Amendment Act, 1992, the Municipal
Corporation would be fully authorized to prepare a development plan for the area under its
jurisdiction, including local area plans in the form of zonal plans or town planning schemes.
In such a case, the UMC would need to seek substantial technical assistance and build up a
cadre of municipal, planners and other professionals within its organization set-up.
One of the major criteria for a successful development plan is to be able to contain land
development within the planning limit and not to allow growth outside the proposed limit.
This means the plan has to fit within the area available and should take into account the
current direction of growth. The modified development plan for 2021compromises on the
earlier concept of a clear-cut pattern of road network and provision of higher order social
facilities and amenities. Land requirements appear to have been worked out without
considering the extent of vacant land that is generally present in a developing area. Hence,
the land requirement envisaged is on the low side, while development has already occurred
outside the proposed developable areas.
3.3.1.2 Role of UMC in planning Ujjain Development Plan, 2021
The role of UMC in town planning activities is more in the form of regulation of
development activities occurring within its jurisdiction rather than actual planning activities.
The Development Plan and the DCR form the basis for regulation. Accordingly, the role of
UMC in plan implementation includes:
Drawing up of town planning schemes;
Sanctioning of building plans and construction;
Issue of completion certificates;
Sanctioning of colony layout plans; and
Regularization of unauthorized developments.




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3 3. .4 4 K Ke ey y I Is ss su ue es s
Development Pattern The major issues in development pattern emerging from the
past and current trends are discussed below:
Pressure of urban development towards south of Ujjain: Development by UDA is,
principally, towards the south side of Ujjain, as well as between Indore Road and
Dewas Road. Some development is also occurring along the Aagar road and Makshi
road.
Pressure on existing infrastructure: During religious occasions, there is a tremendous
pressure on the existing infrastructure. The variation in floating population during
various religious occasions is vast. The town has many narrow and unasphalted roads,
especially within the central area. Encroachments in the main city centre area reduce
the road width, which leads to congestion and pollution.
No urban growth in Mela ground area: One of the physical constraints to future urban
growth is the Mela ground to the west of Ujjain. The existing development plan 1991
has recommended "no development in the area". However, illegal structures are
coming up in these areas.
Underutilised industrial areas:Most of the industries are sick or closed in the Makshi
Road Industrial Area.Very few industries have been established in the Nagziri
Industrial area The condition of roads in this area' is very poor. This is a non
performing asset that is not taxed. Existing industrial layouts that are unoccupied
should be priority areas to accommodate further industrial land demand or converted
to any other appropriate use
Concentration of illegal colonies: The city has many illegal colonies, which are mainly
concentrated towards the north of the city
Concentration of slums The city has 113 notified and 16 unapproved slums with a
population of nearly 1.3 lakhs, many of which lack basic infrastructure facilities.Slums
are scattered are densely concentrated in the north of the city.
It is acknowledged that past events and the on-going momentum of development generated
by both public and private sectors in Ujjain, are not necessarily contrary to strategic
objectives of the UDP. However, many of the issues cited above are (a) due to lack of sector
co-ordination in service provision, and (b) inadequate enforcement of building by-laws and
development controls.
3 3. .4 4. .1 1 P Ph hy ys si ic ca al l p pl la an nn ni in ng g i is ss su ue es s
The primary issue with regards physical planning and growth management in Ujjain physical
development and growth is haphazard and uncontrolled. The city is increasingly
experiencing wide proliferation of unauthorized colonies across the city, flouting zoning and
development control regulations and having minimal infrastructure facilities.
Lack of planned interventions in the past and Unregulated physical development
Increasing congestion in core areas (around Mahakaal)
Lack of adequate organized recreational spaces and green belts decreasing percentage
of open spaces due to fast growth of population in the past and likely growth due to
induced opportunities through externalities
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Increasing commercial establishments and institutional use within core areas with
inadequate infrastructure and services coupled with narrow lanes.
Management issues
Lack of ownership of the plan and absence of clear implementation accountability
among TCPO, UDA and UMC, resulting in haphazard and uncontrolled development
Overlapping implementation jurisdictions of UMC and UDA resulting in shunning of
responsibility by either agency
Current conventional development control regulations focusing on density and
physical parameters of development, they lack provisions that would
facilitate/promote alternate and innovative non-conventional development
mechanisms
Inadequate organizational and human resource capability within UMC to carry out
comprehensive planning for development and growth management.
3 3. .5 5 S St tr ra at te eg gi ie es s
New commercial areas could be encouraged in the developing parts of the city to
decrease the load in a few areas of the north
The underutilized industrial areas south of the railway line could be made to use as
museums, auditoriums, cine-complex or any other cultural or recreational use. The
area north to the railway line could be developed as landscaped parks a huge necessity
in the congested areas of the north
Development restrictions in Specific areas: Restricting development in specific areas
like open spaces, cultural resources, sensitive land etc. shall be taken up by finalizing
TP schemes with provisions for open/ green spaces acting as buffer zones
Decentralised planning and increased citizens involvement in Development planning
process. Public participation and consultation at neighbourhood level regarding the
land use and growth patterns shall create social benefits and avoid non-conforming
land uses. Increased citizens involvement in the development planning process shall
be pursued actively to achieve the above mentioned social benefits
Optimum use of Municipal Land and Inviting private sector to act coherently in the
development work with the public sector. The land and real estate owned by the
corporation in the city shall be utilized for commercial development either by
themselves or through leasing out to private parties. This shall mobilise financial
resources for implementation of the Capital Improvement Programme of the
corporation
Core area development plan is needed



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When the rural migrant family arrives in the city, they discover that the housing, jobs,
incomes and amenities that had 'pulled' them to the city are not available or are inaccessible.
The authorities are not willing to help them find the 'dream' they aspired for, or simply ignore
them. As a result, in cities of most developing countries, 30 to 75 percent of the population
work and live in squatter settlements making a living with the few informal resources that is
accessible to them. It is indispensable to analyse status of poverty for any city development
exercise. Besides it becomes more important in the state like Madhya Pradesh where level of
poverty is relatively higher.
This section deals with the access of urban poor in Ujjain to basic services, drawing from
secondary information as well as site visits to slums in the city, and interaction with local
residents. It also reviews past and present programs for service delivery to urban poor in the
city. The aim is to identify key issues in service delivery to the poor in Ujjain and suggest
strategies that would enable the Ujjain Municipal Corporation (UMC) to address issues and
fulfill its mandate of providing basic services to the poor in the city.
4 4. .1 1 S St ta at tu us s o of f P Po ov ve er rt ty y i in n U Uj jj ja ai in n
Various estimates of poverty in Ujjain have converged to between 30 and 35 per cent of the
urban population. As per the latest estimate made available by MCJ and TCPO Ujjain, the
slum population in the city stands at 1,32,139 34 per cent of total city population. Apart
from this, the city also has a population of pavement dwellers or homeless population, who
are among the poorest in the city - there is no available estimate of the size of this population.
It is now widely understood that poverty is experienced through a variety of dimensions of
which low income is only one. Further that within the poor, there are important differences in
depths of poverty, the ability of poor households to graduate from poverty and the relative
vulnerability of different groups to withstand risks to livelihood such as unemployment,
sickness and eviction. Effective poverty reduction programmes need to be able to
differentiate these groups and design appropriate and targeted responses. A typology of three
groups has been defined by the ADB1 as:
Transitional Poor Those households, whose monthly per capita income is between
the Poverty Line and 1.5 times the Poverty line, are likely to own productive assets
and have access to basic services. They move in and out of poverty depending on
particular and periodic circumstance.
Intermediate Poor those households whose income is between half the Poverty Line
and the PL itself, and have limited access to basic services.
Core Poor those households whose income is less than half of the Poverty Line and
who live in extreme poverty and vulnerability.
A total of 1,89,387 persons in Ujjain have been identified as those living Below Poverty Line
(as per the UMC). This would mean that more than 40 per cent of total population in the city
is living Below Poverty Line.


1 Reducing Poverty in Urban India, ADB TA 3480-IND
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Table 4-1 Number of Slums and population
Year Number of poor Total present pop.
1993/94 25280
1999/00 144705
2004/05(estimated) 189387 4.65 (estimated)
Source: UMC
Although the figures available suggest that a majority of slum dwellers in Ujjain are living
Below Poverty Line. It can be analysed from the above table that nearly half of the
population in the Ujjain city is below poverty line .A major poor population lives in the old
city areas where they have ancestral shelter to live in but are unemployed .
4 4. .2 2 S Sl lu um ms s i in n U Uj jj ja ai in n
Slums and squatter settlements are
essentially products of urban poverty.
In the context of urban basic service
delivery, almost by definition, the
population living in slums lacks access
to basic infrastructure services like
safe water, sanitation, solid waste
collection and disposal, drainage,
access roads, street lights,
neighborhood amenities like safe play
areas for children and community
facilities, and electricity connections.
Hence, for the assessment of service
accessibility by the urban poor, slum
settlements have been considered as an
appropriate representation of the urban
poor.The M.P Gandi Basti Kshetra (Sudhar tatha Nirmulan) Act, 1976 (M.P slum Area-
Improvement & Relocation Act) defines slums in a similar fashion, taking housing conditions
and access to services as the basic criteria for defining an area as a slum.2
A survey of slums conducted by UMC in 2004-2005 identified 129 slums, of which some
slums now need to be de-notified (since they possess the requisite basic services) while new
slums that have mushroomed, need to be notified.
A large number of slums and slum population in Ujjain, some of which are as yet,
unidentified squatters without any legal standing or secure tenure, translate into miserable
and unhealthy living conditions, which affects the slum dwellers economic productivity and
cumulatively, that of the city as a whole. The absence of water supply, disposal of human
waste and garbage collection may be identified as the three most important factors that

2 The M.P Gandi Basti Kshetra (Sudhar tatha Nirmulan) Act, 1976 (M.P Slum Area - Improvement & Relocation Act)
specifies that where the competent authority is satisfied in respect of buildings in an area that the buildings in that area
are in any respect unfit for human habitation; or are by reason of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement of
streets, lack of ventilation, light or sanitation facilities, or any combination of these factors, are detrimental to safety,
health or morals - it may, by notification, declare such area to be a slum area. Further, to specify that a building is unfit
for human habitation, the criteria to be considered are repair, stability, freedom from damp, natural light and air,
water supply, drainage and sanitary conveniences, facilities for storage, preparation and cooking of food and for the
disposal of waste water.
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Kutchha
type,
6924
Pucca
type,
7685
Kutchha type
Pucca type
endanger the health and wellbeing of people living in slums. Provision of these basic urban
services has traditionally been a municipal function. Hence, in this context, it is important to
examine characteristics of slums and slum population in Ujjain, and most importantly, the
level of access to basic services and how best Municipal Corporation can deliver quality
services to its urban poor, effectively and efficiently.
Provisional results from the 2005 (UMC surveys) indicate that Ujjain had a slum population
of 1,32,139 or 34% of the total population. This is high compared with the the state average
of 15.16%. It may be mentioned that actual slum estimates depend much on how
Municipalities have defined and notified informal settlements within their urban areas.
Demographic characteristics like concentration of slum population, Service levels
(percentage of households in a slum having access to a service like water supply, toilets,
electricity, and percentage of pucca roads in a slum) in all 129 slums have also been looked
into, in detail.
4 4. .2 2. .1 1 G Ge en ne er ra al l C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er ri is st ti ic cs s o of f S Sl lu um ms s i in n U Uj jj ja ai in n
The following observations are derived from the secondary data obtained for 129slums in
Ujjain. Following are the major points analysed for Ujjain slums :
4.2.1.1 Social Set-up
The social composition of a majority of slums comprises Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes
and other backward castes. Most of the slums or mohallas have predominantly one caste
staying in it, for example, Patels or Chamars/Harijans or Bain Samaj or, people from one
place of origin. However, in some of the slums, the original settlement housed a single caste
or social group, but later, other social groups also started moving in, creating a wider social
mix.
4.2.1.2 Employment
The main income earner in 35.8% of all poor households is in informal employment .A
majority of the working population in slums is engaged in works like rickshaw pulling,
construction laborers and daily wagers. Informal activities like roadside food and pan stalls,
and home-based small businesses. Ladies are mainly engaged in incense stick making works.
4.2.1.3 Average Household Size
The average household size in slums in Ujjain is 5.74 versus 5.57 for the city as a whole. In
Muslim households in slums, the average household size ranges from 10 to 12.
4.2.1.4 Average Household Income
On an average, slum households have a monthly income of
Rs. 1500 per month, the range being Rs. 600 to Rs. 5,000.
4.2.1.5 Housing Type
The analysis of housing types done is based on the different
types of housing conditions. The housing conditions are
divided in to Kutchha and Pucca type .The analysis shows the
following results.
Nearly 50% of the slum dwellers live in temporary shelters
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Most of the houses are entirely made of makeshift materials wood, bamboo and
plastic/tarpaulin sheets
Ujjain will definitely need schemes like low cost housing for slum free environment
4.2.1.6 Basic services to Slums
Access to basic services is now deemed a criterion for identification of the poor and poor
areas in a city (essentially slums). The responsibility for service provision in an equitable
manner lies with municipal government, which finds it difficult to meet growing gaps in
service levels of a burgeoning urban poor population.
Information on access to services in slums within municipal limits in Ujjain has been
collected from a variety of sources. This section first analyses overall levels of access of slum
settlements in Ujjain to basic services like:
Water supply
Sanitation
Roads
Electricity
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Access to individual water connections (which is ideal) in Ujjain slums is low and most slum
households do not have easy access to public sources of supply (public stand post taps/hand
pumps/wells) within 100 meters of their dwellings (UNCHS Habitats norm of 200 meters).
The accessibility comes out to be one source of water per 150 persons, which is very low.
Table 4-2 Slum Infrastructure, water supply
No.of slums No.of
household
Population Area
(acres)
Hand pumps Stand posts
113 14580 114279 812.66 184 412
16
(unapproved)
2113 17860 82.65 17 35
Source: UMC
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The overall picture shows that less than 10% of the total slum dwellers in Ujjain have
individual toilets while rest of the population is using public toilets (it comes out to be
1public toilet per 175 persons).
Table 4-3 Details of Sewerage and sanitation in Ujjain slums
No.of
slums
No.of
househol
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Population Are
a
(acr
es)
Individual
toilets
Public
toilets
Sewer line
113 14580 114279 812.66 8384 679 -
16
(unapprove
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2113 17860 82.65 1240 24 -
Source: UMC
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Lack of access to sanitation (toilets) is a universal problem faced by the slum population
across almost all slums in the city. Sanitation facilities are very poor in some of the slums
where the population neither has individual latrines nor they have public toilet facilities.
Some of the poorly facilitated slums are:
Table 4-4 Poorly facilitated Slums
Name of
slum
No. of
household
Population Individual
toilets
Public toilets Sewer line
Bherugarh
naka
30 200 10 - -
Ahukhana 70 350 15 - -
Jogipura
Gaundsamaj
103 524 - 6 -
Source: UMC
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By and large, most slums in the core area of the city have been provided Pucca roads under
the National Slum Development Program.
Table 4-5 Slum Infrastructure, Roads
No.of slums No.of household Population Area
(acres)
Surfaced
roads(kms)
113 14580 114279 812.66 67.10
16
(unapproved)
2113 17860 82.65 7.14




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The data available reveal that a majority of slums in Ujjain have access to electricity.
Table 4-6 Slum Infrastructure, Electricty
No.of slums No.of
household
Population Area
(acres)
Domestic
connection.
streetlights
113 14580 114279 812.66 14486 888
16
(unapproved)
2113 17860 82.65 2113 105
Source: UMC
4.2.1.7 Overview on access to basic services
The following table gives an overall picture of accessibility of slum dwellers to the basic
services:


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Table 4-7 Assess to basic services
Percentage of slum dwellers having access to Year No. of slum
dwellers Water supply Drainage
system
Waste service
collection
1991 108 20% 20% 35%
2001 113 30% 30% 40%
2005(estimated) 129 40% 50% 50%
Source: Ujjain City, IDUMP Report, 2002
It can be analysed that nearly half of the slum population in Ujjain dont have accessibility to
the basic services. There is an increase in the coverage of basic services to the slum dwellers
but lack of intrest among dweller to take legal connections is the major problem.
4 4. .2 2. .2 2 S St ta at tu us s o of f S Sl lu um ms s i in n U Uj jj ja ai in n
The following section analyses the status of slums in Ujjain in terms of location,
concentration of slum population, land ownership and tenure status and access to basic urban
services. It collates secondary information collected for each of the 129 slums in the city and
presents a picture of poverty and slums in the city of Ujjain.
4.2.2.1 Location of Slums
Table 4-8 ward wise information of slums in Ujjain
Ward No. No.H/H Slum H/H No. of slums Slum P Total P % to Total
Ward No.1 1364 741 8 3600 9477 38
Ward No.2 2123 1275 7 6710 11242 60
Ward No.3 2449 675 3 3965 13171 30
Ward No.4 1127 260 2 1600 6610 24
Ward No.5 2288 565 4 3550 13146 27
Ward No.6 914 215 1 1302 5715 23
Ward No.7 1008 233 1 1547 5969 26
Ward No.9 1298 605 4 4200 9643 44
Ward No.11 1859 1022 7 6209 10929 57
Ward No.24 1559 450 1 250 9061 3
Ward No.25 1652 490 4 3150 8955 35
Ward No.26 1228 300 1 2000 6386 31
Ward No.27 3526 1760 9 9618 18427 52
Ward No.28 1934 322 3 1865 9991 19
Ward No.32 1067 44 1 259 7013 4
Ward No.33 1303 235 1 1409 8694 16
Ward No.35 1590 397 7 2006 8847 23
Ward No.36 2010 526 3 2833 11672 24
Ward No.37 2208 657 6 4264 11857 36
Ward No.38 1804 595 5 3675 9425 39
Ward No.39 2570 151 2 875 13707 6
Ward No.41 1524 140 1 1064 7307 15
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Ward No.42 2143 55 1 275 9729 3
Ward No.43 3341 180 1 1060 15558 7
Ward No.46 1808 136 3 570 9536 6
Ward No.48 978 140 1 600 5398 11
Ward No.49 1629 438 2 1656 9121 18
Ward No.50 1650 189 1 766 8740 9
Ward No.52 1474 427 3 1364 7665 18
Ward No.53 2095 1665 11 9785 10925 90
Ward No.54 2673 1801 11 10362 14350 72
Source: UMC
4.2.2.2 Concentration of Slums
Slums in Ujjain are spread all over the city, with the maximum number located in Wards 53
(having 11 slums), 54 (having 11 slums), 11 and 27(7 and 9 slums each). The map below fig-
4.1presents the ward-wise concentration of slum population.
Figure 4-1Map of Ujjain showing Location of Slums


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Most slums in Ujain are located on government and private lands. Government land includes
land belonging to the central, state or municipal government. Private land, on the other hand,
belongs to individuals. Certain slums are spread over adjacent government and private lands.
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Though all the slum areas are on encroached public or private land, Government has from
time-to-time issued the slum households (legal ownership/title of land), as part of its policy to
ensure tenure security to the poor and landless.
4.2.2.3 Unapproved Slums and Homeless Population
While the identified slums have some security of tenure and fall under the purview of
municipal service provision, the unidentified or informal slums and peri-urban settlements
fall outside the net of formal service provision. People living either in unrecognized slum
settlements or on pavements, live in virtual absence of basic services. There is no available
estimate of this population in the city, or the coping strategies adopted by them.

4 4. .2 2. .3 3 U Ur rb ba an n P Po oo or r s s P Pe er rc ce ep pt ti io on n o of f S Se er rv vi ic ce e L Le ev ve el ls s i in n U Uj jj ja ai in n
The views of poor households in Ujjain must influence the strategy for improvement of
service levels in slums. Studies done on the slums in Ujjain and informal group discussions
with the community revealed:
Virtually very less attempts have been made to assess the needs and priorities of people
living in slums prior to provision of basic services. Community Participation or
involvement in slum improvement is therefore lacking
In terms of satisfaction of the urban poor with the levels of basic services, electricity is the
only service that they have few complaints about
Sanitation is the least satisfactory of all public services. Women, in particular, articulated the
need for functional public toilets close to their slum. Some also desire individual low cost
toilets. The need to clean the open drains regularly was another expressed need
Responsiveness of UMC to needs (e.g., complaints lodged for regular cleaning, or, stated
need for functional public toilets, or, pucca inner lanes, or, for larger number of standposts) is
stated as unsatisfactory by the urban poor in most of the slums visited
4 4. .2 2. .4 4 R Re ev vi ie ew w o of f U Ur rb ba an n p po ov ve er rt ty y r re ed du uc ct ti io on n p pr ro og gr ra am mm me es s
There are mainly four programmes going on for poverty reduction /slum improvement in the
city. They can be divided mainly in to two types according to the objectives and focus areas
of the programmes:
Employment generation programmes...SJSRY
Programmes for provision of infrastructure/ shelter...NSDP, ILCS, VAMBAY
Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana: SJSRY is a centrally sponsored programme and it
mainly emphasizes on the poverty reduction through employment generation. Main target
groups of the programme are: Urban poor, Women, SC/ST, Disabled
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Programmes for slum improvement / provision of basic urban services: NSDP: A Centrally
assisted Slum Development Programme NSDP is mainly for improvement in the
environment in the slums as a broader objective through provision of infrastructure facilities
and shelter for improving living conditions in the slums ILCS. This scheme is for low cost
sanitation in the slum areas
VAMBAY: Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (WMBAY) is a central government scheme to
provide housing to the poor. It was launched in the state of MP in the year 2001. Under
WMBAY scheme, an amount of Rs. 50,000 is extended to a beneficiary in a city with more
than 10 lacs population while in cities having population less than 10 lacs, each beneficiary
gets Rs. 40,000. Fifty percent of the amount is central government grant while the rest could
be taken as loan from HUDCO/other nationalized banks, state government/Urban local
bodies
Recently initiated programmes Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) under Jawaharlal
Lal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) beginning from the year 2005-2006
JNNURM is a 7 year mission. The major objectives for the BSUP programme are:
Focused attention to integrated development of basic services to the poor.
The basic services include security of tenure at affordable prices, improving housing,
water supply, and sanitation.
Secure effective linkages between asset creation and asset management so that the
basic services to the urban poor created in the cities, are not only maintained
efficiently but also become self sustaining over time.
The projects on further augmentation, construction and maintainace of basic infrastructure
projects shall come under the financial provisions of the JNNURM project fund.
4 4. .3 3 I Is ss su ue es s
Following are the issues based on the analysis done through secondary sources as well as
observations and discussions with government officials, community based organizations and
slum dwellers .Major issues in brief are given below:
Increasing size of BPL and vulnerable population
The rapid increase in the density as well as number of slums has made the available
infrastructure inadequate and overstressed
Lack of comprehensive urban poverty reduction strategy
In absence of proper strategy and policies to create affordable housing stock for the
urban poor in the city, the growth of new slums will remain unabated
Unregulated physical development
Lack of planned interventions in the past has led to the growth of squatter settlements
on public lands. the present scenario shows increased inadequate serviced land for
housing within municipal limits
4 4. .4 4 S St tr ra at te eg gi ie es s
Effective Implementation of the Slum Networking Project
Involvement of NGOs for speedier implementation of the SNP.
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Explore options for private sector participation in this project
Evolve strategies for provision of housing for the Economically Weaker Sections to
accommodate the urban poor in proximity to major industrial areas, commercial hubs
etc., by reserving adequate lands for EWS housing.
Channelise all programs and activities of various government agencies for the urban
poor through the Special Purpose Vehicle.
Motivate private sector to participate in slup upgradation projects.


























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5 5. .1 1 I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n
Transport infrastructure forms the backbone of any economy and plays an important role in
the development of a region. It is also one of the most important infrastructure facilities of
any city. The objective of studying the transport sector is to analyze and understand the role
of transport in the present scenario of the city and the surrounding and to understand the
existing potentials, strengths weaknesses and constraints of the Transport sector and
consequently arrive at strategies and projects which will form an integral part of the City
Development Strategy.
Road and Rail sector occupy the significant roles in the transport sector in Ujjain and
surrounding areas. By and large, all the major travel and movement for both goods and
passenger traffic is being met by roads. The status of road transport sector has been analyzed
under the following aspects: (a) Network and traffic characteristics (b) growth of vehicles (c)
Parking scenario; and (d) Public Transport system. The analysis is based on the secondary
data collected from UMC and surveyed data based on study conducted by TCPO.
5 5. .1 1. .1 1 R Re eg gi io on na al l l li in nk ka ag ge es s
A broad delineation of Ujjain region would include the seven districts of Indore, Ujjain,
Dewas, Mandsaur, Ratlam, Dhar and Jhabua. Along with Indore and Dewas, Ujjain is among
the three most important centers in this region. Bhopal Ratlam broad gauge railway line
passes through it and the NH3 is only 35 kms, away. Besides these national connections,
there are many state level highways linking it to the major regional and state centers.Within
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this region, Ujjain is the only place of great sanctity and hence attracts devotees for almost all
the major festivals like Amavasya, Shivaratri, Panchakroshi, Nagpanchami etc. Thus, there
are occasional peak demands on the transport network. Ujjain city is connected to various
major nodes in the region through five radial roads and a broad gauge railway line to Bhopal.
The state highways / MDRs connecting the city are Indore Road, Dewas Road, Agar Road,
Maxi Road and Badnagar Road. Out of the five roads Agar Road, Dewas Road and Indore
Road carry maximum amount of regional traffic. There is no bypass / ring road for the city
except for a very small portion connecting Indore Road through an ROB.
5.1.1.1 City level road network
The urban structure of Ujjain reflects a linear form, which has been formed by its restricted
road network due to Shipra River. The road network of the city is unorganized with more of
intercity and local roads. Moreover, there is no definite hierarchy of the road system with
most of the city roads also serving the intercity traffic.
The city is distinctly divided into two parts, with the old city housing all the major religious
and trading activities and the newly developed portion south of the railway tracks. The
connectivity for both parts is only through an ROB near railway station. Due to this, it has to
carry a huge amount of traffic comprising of significant slow traffic. The road network of
Ujjain is mostly North-South oriented, Agar Road passing in front of railway station, bus
stand, agricultural grain market etc and skirting the old city area is busy and congested almost
throughout the day. The other important roads are Indore Road and Dewas Road which are in
East-West direction.
Like all other cities the road network in the old city area, with little or no scope for widening,
is quite inefficient and inadequate for the present day traffic. Moreover, there is a very high
degree of pedestrian traffic; commercial activities including the informal sector, absence of
any organised parking space make the situation worse. Though some traffic management
measures in the form of banning of heavy vehicles, one-way operation etc. are in place, but
due to lack of strict enforcement measures it fails to give any relief to the core area.
5.1.1.2 Type of road construction
Ujjain has a total road network length of nearly 350 kms and most of the roads in the city are
tar roads, accounting for nearly 86% of the total road length. Concrete roads account for
nearly 13% and nearly 1% is earthen and other roads.
Table 5-1 Surface type and Road Stock
Surface Type length (km) Total road length proportion
Concrete 42.25 12.12%
Black Topped /Tar 301.73 86.53%
WBM 2.40 0.69%
Stone Paved - 0.00%
Earthern & Others 2.30 0.66%
Total 348.68 Kms
Source: T&CPD and UMC
The per capita road length comes out to be 0.81 meters. The total drain percentage in
comparison to the road is coming out to be 118% which should be 130% for a satisfactory
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condition. Thus there is presently a gap of nearly 12% .The already existing drains are also
not in a good condition and require restoration.
Table 5-2 Types of Drain and Proportion
Component Proportion (out of 200%)
% Total Drains to Total Road Length 118.72
% Pucca Drains to Total Road Length 110.63
5 5. .2 2 P Pu ub bl li ic c T Tr ra an ns sp po or rt t
Railway station is situated in the core area of the city; There are two major bus terminals.
One is at Dewas gate which is near to the railway station and the other is at Nanakheda.
Presently the Dewas gate bus stand is very congested since all the buses plying to Mehidpur,
Badnagar, Agar, Dewas, Maksi, Indore and Tarana start from this terminal. Nanakheda bus
stand came up during the Simhastha 1992 for the convenience of the tourists and pilgrims. It
also aimed in reducing the load of the dewas gate bus stand, with an aim to cater to the traffic
going and coming to Indore and Dewas. There are very few tempo stands in the city. Tempos
running on the road do not stop at the designed stops due to which the flow of traffic is
disturbed. The present tempo stands are haphazard and do not occur within a regularized
interval.
Intersections: Few intersections where congestion has been observed are:
Kamari Marg Chauraha: vehicles coming from the Dani gate, K.D.Gate, Patni Bazaar,
Gopal Mandir and Tanki Chauraha lead to the congestion problem
Bhargav Tiraha: Vehcles coming from K.D.Gate, Tanki chauraha, Budhwaria and
Khajurwali Masjid give rise to the problem of traffic.
Chamunda Mata Chauraha: the presence of a park, std booth interrupts the flow of
traffic at this junction.
K.D.gate: the presence of temple at the intersection interrupts the flow of traffic
Tanki Chauraha
Indore gate and Dewas gate
Fawara chowk
Teen batti chauraha
Chhatri chowk
Tower chowk
Gol chauraha
At present there are few roads in the city which are busy and congested. These roads are:
Daulatganj to Mallipura Dewas gate, Mahakal ghati to Topkhana Daulat ganj, Kanthal to Sati
gate, Patni Bazaar, K.D.Gate to Bhargav Tiraha, Dani gate to Tanki Chauraha, Tanki
Chauraha to Khazurwali Masjid, Road passing through Madhav College, Road passing
through the Daulat Ganj sabzi mandi.
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5 5. .2 2. .1 1 T Tr ra av ve el l C Ch ha ar ra ac ct te er ri is st ti ic cs s i in n U Uj jj ja ai in n c ci it ty y
The city of Ujjain is served by 6 regional roads namely Dewas Road, Indore Road,
Badnagar Road, Unhel Road, Agar Road and Maksi Road. Out of the five roads ,Agar road,
Indore road and Dewas road carry maximum amount of regional traffic. Agar road passing in
front of the Railway station, bus stand, agricultural grain market and skirting the old city is
busy and congested(peak hour traffic volume count is nearly 6000 PCU .Indore road and
Dewas road within the city carry peak hour traffic of about 3000 PCU and 2200 PCU.
Percentage of the slow moving traffic is higher in the part of the city lying north of the
railway line, while the southern part of the city has a higher percentage of the fast moving
traffic.
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The predominant mode of travel (motorized)
in Ujjain, is two-wheelers and private
transport. As per discussions with the
authority, nearly 23 per cent of the
respondents use non-motorized modes of
travel to work place (by walk, bicycles,cycle
rickshaw and tongas). About 32 per cent use
two-wheelers and 45 per cent of the
respondents depend on private transport. Thus a major working population uses private
transport for their workplace which is definitely not a good indication for the future traffic
management proposals.
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The transport system in the city, comprises
mainly of 3-wheeler tempos auto rickshaws,
cycle rickshaws and tongas. One of the major
problem in the mass transit system is the
absence of public transport facility. There are
many unplanned routes for tempos, mostly
originating from the city center and connecting
to the fringe areas of the city.
However, operation of tempos does have many
problems such as:
Not an environmentally friendly public transport
Lack of proper tempo stops with basic amenities
Reckless driving by private operators
Rampant overcrowding of tempos
Commuter safety is totally ignored
Slow moving transport system
Poor quality of service and comfort to passengers
Mode of travel to work place
Non
motorised
45%
Two
wheelers
32%
Private
transit
23%
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Tourism and transportation
Being a religious city, thousands of pilgrims and tourists visit Ujjain approximately once in
every 15 days and hundreds of pilgrims visit the city daily. Presently, there are as such no
arrangements done by the concerned authorities for tourism transportation. Also, there are no
facilities like tourist information centre, tourist buses etc. Keeping in mind the vision of the
city and future prospects Ujjain would definitely need a proper tourist transportation system.
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There are no organized on-street marked parking
arrangements in any of the major commercial areas of the
city. Most of the core market areas of the city are
characterized by narrow roads with a high proportion of
pedestrian and slow moving traffic. Even if the there has
been traffic restriction on the road in front of Mahakal
temple ,it is still under the immense pressure of traffic and
crowd due to which on and off it needs repair and it is
very difficult to do it frequently. Similarly unorganized
parking and shops lead to the heterogeneous crowding of
vehicles and people in clusters. In this context existing road parking and shopping area is
proposed to be organised, widened and improved.
The capacity of the roads is further reduced by vehicles parked on the roadsides. This, in
fact, is one of the major bottlenecks to smooth flow of road traffic.
Following areas were identified as the places which can be developed as the parking areas in
order to reduce the congestion on streets as well as to manage the future vehicular growth
Dussera maidan
Freeganj commercial area
Maksi road,sabji mandi
Bharatpuri administration area
Kothi area
Mahakaal commercial area
Traffic Elements
A city street comprises four components. The first is the pavement, which is a civil
engineering element. The second is the traffic that runs on it. The third is the traffic
policeman that controls traffic and the fourth is traffic furniture, signages and road markings.
The fourth element is nearly missing in Ujjain. This element is the most visible, and not only
lends character and aesthetics to the city, but plays a major role in making the road safe for
its users. Some of the serious shortcomings that have been observed are:
Footpaths are missing in most of the roads
Where footpaths are provided, pedestrian railings are missing
Improper channel islands at junctions
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Absence of road markings
Absence of signages
Absence of street name boards
Absence of organized and marked on-street parking.
5.2.1.1 Core area
Considering the perspective of Ujjains historical, cultural and religious importance, the road
and transportation projects need to be incorporated in the core area. The area mainly covered
under core city can be roughly delineated as Chardham to Har Siddhi temple road on west
side, Ramghat road an north side, Hariphatak bridge road on east side and Jaisingh pura road
on southside. Following major pilgrim tourist spots fall in the delineated area and are as
follows:
Mahakal Temple
Ramghat
Har Siddhi Temple
Chardham Temple
Bada Ganpati
Ram Mandir etc.
This area is about 2 Sq.Km
in which the estimated
existing population
remains about 15000 and
floating population varies
from 10,000 to 10,0000 per
day on festive occasions
and during Simhastha it
ranges from 10,00,000 to
15,00,000 people per day.
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With respect to the present traffic and transportation systems following problems are
analysed
Congested approach roads, inadequate for heavy vehicles.
Inadequate drainage, poor lighting and encroachment on approach roads.
Improper zigzag shape on turnings causes hindrance to the smooth traffic flow
Unorganized insufficient parking spaces.
Lacking signage system, leads to accidents
Traffic system is not properly organized
Need of new roads to be developed to cater increased traffic demands
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Dilapidated existing roads need repair improvement
Looking to the problems following projects should be incorporated:
Approch and Parking provision near Mahakal Temple
Improvement of existing road in front of Mahakal Temple
Improvement of existing road on south side of Mahakal Temple
Improvement of south approach road to Ramghat
Development of parking area at south side of Ramghat
Development of parking area at north side of Ramghat
Improvement of Chaubis Khamba marg
Improvement of Ramghat marg
Widening of existing Harsiddhi marg
Improvement of Mahakal to Bada Ganpati road
Construction of Rudra Sagar east embankment road
Construction of Rudra Sagar west embankment road
Improvement of Bhagat Singh marg
Improvement of Jaisingh pura road
Improvement of Mahakal marg from kot mohalla square to Mahakal
Construction of new road linking, proposed parking near Mahakal to Rudra
embankment
Sagar embankment road
Development of parking at north side of ramghat near chardham mandi
5.2.1.2 Future Requirement
To meet the growing demand of an efficient city road network, UMC through inputs from the
CDP workshop, and an internal assessment has identified the requisite road works to be
undertaken. It is proposed to increase the area under roads in the city by linking up the poorly
connected areas of Ujjain, restoring and widening up the major roads, which would help
relieve congestion.
However, a broad phasing has been done as per which in the first phase, Rs 2045 lakhs has
been estimated,Rs15084 in the second phase and 2871 lakhs in the third phase has been
estimated,which includes strengthening and widening of roads along with provision of
medians/footpaths and street lighting.
Based on public consultation and meeting with UMC officials, several junction
improvements and traffic management are being undertaken. Several road improvement
projects, bridges and other development projects have been proposed phasewise for the next
16 years up to 2021 to improve the traffic scenario in Ujjain. These are listed in Table and the
total project cost is estimated to be Rs 20,000 lakhs.
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5 5. .3 3 I Is ss su ue es s
The key issues regarding planning and providing for traffic and transportation in Ujjain city
are:
Lack of coordination among agencies involved in planning and providing for traffic
and transportation;
Reduced capacities of major corridors and roads in core city and market areas due to
encroachments, high proportion of slow-moving traffic and absence of pedestrian
paths and organized parking facilities
Limited coverage of public transport system and poor quality of service and
associated infrastructure (like bus terminals and tempo stops)
Absence of a comprehensive and scientific traffic management system existing
traffic management measures arbitrary (one-way systems in core city and market areas
and ban on truck entry into city) and signals improperly designed;
Absence of appropriate safety and visibility enhancement parameters like signages,
markings, channel islands, street name boards and other street furniture
Inadequate organizational and human resource capacity and lack of finances in UMC
to plan and provide for traffic and transportation facilities.
SWOT analysis
Issue strength weakness opportunity Threat

City road network

The Citv has Good
road network that
covers most part
of the city


The road network
of the town is
unplanned


The transport
infrastructure can
be strengthened
under the
JNNURM scheme

Most of the
intersections in the
city are
characterised by
poor geometries
and y Shape'
which increases
conflicts and is not
conducive to
smooth traffic
movement.
Road condition Most of the roads
are in satisfactory
condition
presently
Improper
maintenance and
on road parking
Maintenance and
road development
projects will get a
boost under the
above scheme
-
Absence of
Authorized
parking facility in
UMC

If properly
undertaken, UMC
can generate good
revenue out of it.
Haphazard
parking all along
the main roads

Thousands of
tourist visit the
city daily, the
better parking
options can exploit
the chance
The present
parking scenario is
constantly
reducing the
existing road
capacity.
Absence of an
integrated public
transport
transport system
Most people of the
city are dependent
on mass transit
system
No initiative in the
field of public
transport
Daily available
tourist passengers
Public transport,if
not initiated the
private transport
providers can start
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in the city

doing monopoly .
5 5. .4 4 S St tr ra at te eg gi ie es s
The strategies are towards covering the entire area and population of the city with an
effective road network by 2021 and improving the surface conditions of the roads to
withstand all weathers by 2021. Infact keeping in mind the next Simhastha the basic transport
infrastructure must be finished before 2016.
A
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Action - While the peripheral areas are to be provided with surfaced roads, up-grading of the
existing roads shall be taken up to extend, renovate and enhance the roads (with an emphasis
on Dewas, Indore, Agar and Maksi road ). Plans shall be taken up in a phased manner so as to
optimise cost and surface condition. The programme shall also include completion of the ring
road and avoid discontinuity.
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.
Action - With due consideration to growing traffic intensity, major roads, corridors in the
city are to be extended and expanded. This shall involve construction of fly-overs, bridges
etc., the proposal works on which are already in progress. This shall also involve removal of
encroachments on margins of the roads and strengthening of road structures with pavements,
footpaths.
T
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Action - Channelizers, Traffic islands, Traffic Signals, Dividers, Lane separators and Traffic
Police Control shall be introduced at all important junctions based on Traffic Management
Plan The study has proposed detailed improvement designs/plans for the junctions in the
city.
I
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es
s
s.
.
.
Action - All new commercial developments would have to adhere to the minimum provision
of parking facilities. Apart from providing public parking spaces on important roads steps
shall be initiated to avoid parking at junctions. Footpaths of enough width, pedestrian
crosswalks and subways should be introduced and vehicular traffic should be banned and
made limited to just access lanes in certain stretches of the CBD and core city areas near
Mahakaal where the Bus Stand and Railway station exists.
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Action - A study needs to be undertaken on traffic and transportation as a whole. Earlier
study was largely focussing on the intersections. In order to look into the problem
holistically, it is imperative to take all the parameters in consideration at one time and evolve
an overall traffic and transportation management plan for the city.

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D
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Action - Proposals shall be drawn to decongest the core and CBD, which has a mix of
commercial and public activities taking place inviting a lot of traffic. Options at alternate site
location for the existing Bus Stand shall be explored. The existing terminal can be utilised as
an alighting point. Also possibilities of shifting certain wholesale activities to new locations
can be explored.
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Transport Sector is a very important sector for the development of the city owing to the
Strategic location. However the current status and trend of growth in Ujjain reveals the
inherent problems and issues in the transportation system. It is needless to remind that an
inefficient transport system causes avoidable social, economic and financial wastage,
increasing the costs and driving out investments. To achieve the principle of Livability in the
concept of CDS, it is important to improve the transport infrastructure, which is a basic and
critical component of the overall infrastructure sector. And it is essentially needed to cut
costs for the economy and improve competitive position of the region.





















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Availability and adequacy of urban services are important indicators to assess the livability
principle of city. They act as catalysts for economic development. Thus, infrastructure may
be defined as the basic facilities, which any developed area requires in sustaining the
activities being carried out in it. Therefore, infrastructure facilities play an important role in
fostering economic growth and enhancing public welfare. By and large, the infrastructure
may be divided into two categories: (a) Physical infrastructure including Water supply,
Drainage, Sewerage, Solid Waste management and Street lighting, Fire Services and so forth;
and (b) Social infrastructure including Education, Health, Markets Recreational facilities etc.
This chapter attempts to present the status of urban infrastructure and services in the Ujjain
City. The analysis is based on the secondary data collected from various Parastatal agencies
such as Ujjain Municipal Corporation, Health and Sanitation Department, Public works
Department, Electricity Board and from SJDA. The study approach shows all the sub sectors
of urban services covered in the chapter. Firstly, the status of all the sub sectors is discussed
and detailed, followed by Performance indicators, SWOT and Problems and Issues.
6 6. .1 1 W Wa at te er r S Su up pp pl ly y
At the city level, the institution responsible for delivery of water supply is UMC the fig
below shows the various functions performed by UMC in Water Supply delivery and their
linkages. The decision to undertake the project is taken by UMC. The plan preparation,
construction of reservoirs, laying of transmission lines and distribution lines,their
maintenance and financial inputs are all bear by UMC and State Government. The UMC is
also involved in providing house connections and collection of registration and user charges.
6 6. .1 1. .1 1 D De ev ve el lo op pm me en nt t o of f W Wa at te er r S Su up pp pl ly y
Ujjain is situated on the bank of river Kshipra from where the city used to obtain its water. A
water treatment plant (WTP) was built on the bank of this river in 1952 for 27 Mld capacity.
The river is, however, not perennial and the flow significantly reduces from the month of
April until arrival of monsoon in July.
With progressive development of Ujjain and the increase in population the water supply was
augmented in 1967 by a 4.5 Mld capacity WTP with water from the Undasa irrigation tank
which was mainly done for the industrial area.. However, only a small portion of the city
could be served by this scheme. The tank is entirely rain dependent and unreliable. With the
city facing acute water shortages the authority decided to collect water from a dam
constructed on the river Gambhira by PHE department 21 km from the city. A 23 Mld WTP
was constructed in 1980 with a distribution system serving un-served areas. Subsequently the
authority installed a new WTP of 4.5 Mld with raw water from Sahebkheri Irrigation Tank
and augmented the Gambhira WTP to 57 Mld in 1984 and 1992 respectively. The schemes
included laying of new distribution lines to new areas. Although the river Gambhir is non-
perennial and the flow is dependent on rain, due to its large catchment area and dead storage
capacityenough water is stored to fulfil both irrigation and city water supply requirements.
Most of city is now provided with a piped water supply.


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6 6. .1 1. .2 2 W Wa at te er r S So ou ur rc ce es s
The major water resources in the city are mainly Gambhir dam and Undasa tank. However
the city has got the advantage of Shipra River in the vicinity, it remains unaccounted for
water supply. The following section deals with the various water supply resources in the city.
The city mainly depends on surface subsurface and other sources for water supply.
6.1.2.1 Surface sources
There are two major surface water supply sources in Ujjain,out of which gambhir dam
accounts for nearly 96 % of water supply to the city while Undasa tank caters to the rest 4%
of the population. Shipra river and sahebkari tank are the other surface resources but are rain
dependent .Another problem with the river Shipra is that it gets mixed with the river Khan
near Triveni (Ujjain) and gets polluted from the industrial waste. However there are water
treatment plants installed near the river but still the water gives the problems of bad odour
and pale colour.
Table 6-1 Water Resources Surface resources
Surface Source Capacity in MLD Percentage coverage
Source 1 Gambhir Dam 90.00 95.24%
Source 2 Undasa Tank 4.50 4.76%
Total 94.50
6.1.2.2 Storage and Distribution System
At present, there is reluctance among the people to adapt to protected water supply, and as a
result, the household connections are less. Nearly half of the Ujjains population is dependent
on standposts and handpumps as source for water. However, other water requirement of
water for other purposes in such houses is met with individual water supply like tube-well or
dug-wells fitted with small pumps.
The Ujjain Municipal Corporation is divided into 54 wards. The total number of households
in the city is about 77,099 of which 45,403 (67%) have house connections. Supply is also
made available to the public through 3,000community stand posts and 885 handposts. A
further 872 connections are made to commercial and industrial establishments. In addition,
the municipal authority estimates that there are about 10,000 unregistered connections. The
water supply to all these consumers is provided through 25 overhead service reservoirs and
about 400 km of distribution network.
There are 25 overhead reservoirs in the city having a total capacity of 30.26 ML. Presently
there are no ground level service reservoirs in the city. The distribution system has a total
length of 472 kms including distribution mains of 400 kms and Clear Water Transmission
Mains of 72 kms. Also, the production capacity in the treatment plants appears to be much
lower than the installed capacity due to reduction in the efficiency of the equipment. In
addition, there appears to be considerable losses from the distribution pipelines. As a result
the authority only supplies water for about 1 (one) hour a day and during scarcity it is
curtailed to 1hour every alternate day.
Although the production capacity of treated water is 93 Mld, the quantity reaching the
437,410 population of the city after offsetting the production deficiency and all losses is
about 34 Mld or 83 lcpd which is less than the recommended minimum norm of CPHEEO for
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having a sewerage system. During summer months, due to depletion in the sources, water
production is restricted and the supply rate becomes insufficient. The total storage capacity in
service reservoirs (24.75 Ml) is adequate but their connection to water deficient areas is
required.
Table 6-2 Water connection Details
Metered No.of connections Proportion
a Domestic/ Residential - 0.00%
b Non Domestic/ Commercial 259 75.29%
c Industrial 85 24.71%
d Institutional - 0.00%
Total- Metered 344
Unmetered
a Domestic/ Residential 45,059 100.00%
b Non Domestic/ Commercial - 0.00%
c Industrial - 0.00%
d Institutional - 0.00%
Total- Unmetered 45,059
Total Water Connections 45,403
6.1.2.3 Public Standposts
The number of beneficiaries per stand post is about 43, which is much less than the EIUS
recommendations. But, it is necessary to restrict the stand posts in the city in view of large
wastage arising out of these outlets. The number of individual house connections should be
increased and standposts restricted to where physically necessary, perhaps only serving slums
and economically weaker sections (EWS).
6.1.2.4 Unaccounted For Water (UFW)
There is substantial wastage in the public standposts during supply hours. In addition, there
are significant leakages from the pipelines on which there is no systematic flow recording.
However on the basis of limited investigation and discussions with the O&M staff, the total
water loss in the distribution system is estimated to be not less than 23%. Taking into account
of loss of water in process, transmission, wastage in standposts, unauthorised connections,
the unaccounted for water (UFW) estimated by the authority is not less than 64%.








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Figure 6-1Water supply coverage

6 6. .1 1. .3 3 R Re ec ce en nt t P Pr ro oj je ec ct ts s
For the commencement of Simhasta festival in 2004 (a special religious feature in Ujjain
once in every 12 years), the State government sanctioned a project for Rs.23.93 crores as
grant to the municipality to augment the water. Under this project it was proposed to build a
27 Mld capacity WTP by the side of existing Kshipra WTP with raw water drawn from
Gambhir dam for both the existing and new plants. Laying of a 21 km long 800 mm dia
DICL rising main from Gambhira dam to the WTP site was done. Raw water pumps at intake
well near gambhir dam, Clear water pumps at new WTP along with adequate clear water
feeder mains to the existing overhead tanks, electric substation at intake well and new water
treatment plant were included in this project. The project does not include any new service
reservoir or distribution pipelines. The work got completed by March 2004.
With the completion of the Simhasta water supply project, the quantity of treated water is
reported to be sufficient to serve the 2021 projected city population of 688,000 with more
than recommended norm of 135 lcpd and after allowance for losses.
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6 6. .1 1. .4 4 O Op pe er ra at ti io on n a an nd d M Ma ai in nt te en na an nc ce e
The production rate faced by UMC comes out to be Rs 4.26 per 1000 lts.The UMC is
charging a flat rate of Rs.60 per domestic connection per month which should be Rs 130 for
successful maintenance of water works.The operation and maintenance (O&M) of the
treatment plants and distribution system is undertaken by the municipality. There are about
914 staff, including 21 of engineering cadre, provided under the UMC for O&M of the
headwork and distribution system. The annual cost structure of O&M is shown in Table
below:
Table 6-3Annual Cost of O&M for WTP and Distribution System 2004-05
Sl.
No.
Cost Head Cost per Annum
(Rs. In lakh)
1 Raw Water Charge 20.02
2 Leak & Other Repairs 389.46
3 Chemicals 34.30
4 Energy 446.77
5 Staff Salary & Administration 524.08
Total Cost of O&M 1414.63
Table 6-4 Water supply Service indicators
Per Capita Water Supply- Gross (2001 Population) value unit
Normal Season 231.17 lpcd
Dry Season lpcd
Weighted Average lpcd
Distribution Network Coverage (w.r.t Road Length) 135.37 %
Houses/PT Assessments with Water Connection 62.94 %
Non-domestic Connections to Total Connections - %
Slum Population per Public Standpost (PSP) 43.07 Nos.
Table 6-5 Water Supply Service Cost and efficiency
Service Cost & Efficiency Indicators value unit
a Expenditure per 1000 Litres of Water Produced 1087.29 Rs./KL
b Expenditure per House Service Connection - Rs. p.m.
c Revenue per 1000 Litres of Water Produced 316.17 Rs./KL
d Revenue per House Service Connection 692883.73 Rs. p.m.
g Share of Estab. Expen. in Water Expenditure 37.47 %
h % Cost Recovered through Water Charges (General & Special) 37.70 %


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SWOT analysis:
Issue Strength Opportunity Weakness Threat
The water supply
systems does not
cover 100 %
population
The city has
adequate water
capacity up to
2020
The JNNURM
mission will play a
major role for
implementation of
water supply projects
Poor condition of
existing water
supply lines
People are not
willing to pay for
the individual
household
connections
No domestic
metered
connections

Condition of
Water supply
pipelines are
below standards
The network
coverage is
sufficient
300 -400 mm
pipelines are
further branched
which results in
improper water
supply
Improper
maintenance of
supply system
Lack of
interlinked
networking
Ambodia and
shipra are the
two major supply
systems
The whole city can
be catered without
failure if the systems
are linked
The systems are
not linked .Half of
the city lacks
water supply in
case one of the
two systems fail

Shipra river is
still not a
dependable
source due to
poor water
quality
Water
availability
throughout the
year due to stop
dam
Financial assistance
will help in
combating the
existing hurdles

Even if there is
Water treatment
plant, the supplied
water fails colour
and odour
standards
Khan river mixes
with shipra near
Triveni (Ujjain)
and pollutes the
river with
industrial waste
6 6. .1 1. .5 5 F Fu ut tu ur re e r re eq qu ui ir re em me en nt t
Based on the projected population of 2011, the water demand is expected to rise to 82.15
MLD in 2011 @155 lpcd. To make available the required quantity of water, the existing
sources will be sufficient
Gambhir dam
Undasa tank
A broad estimate of 4143.10 lakh has been prepared by UMC to cater the future water
demand which involves the following components:
Table 6-6Future Water Supply Requirements
Present demand
(2005)
Current Supply
Status
Future Demand (2011) Gap
90MLD (90 MLD)
(90MLD) covered
82.15 MLD -
Note : Presently the water supply is been done at a rate of 180 lpcd and the future demand has been estimated at
a rate of 155 lpcd.

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Present
demand(2005)
Current Supply
Status
Future Demand (2021) Gap
90MLD (90 MLD)

(90MLD) covered
106.67 MLD 20%
Thus it can be concluded from the above results that there will be as such no water scarcity in
Ujjain city till 2021.the above calculations have been done with an excess provision of water
per capita.it can be analysed that the city will also be capable to provide sufficient water for
the floating population during Simhastha.
6 6. .1 1. .6 6 P Pr ro ob bl le em ms s a an nd d i is ss su ue es s
The key issues regarding water supply in Ujjain are:
Inadequate water supply coverage despite availability of surface water source in
Shipra River /Gambhir dam
Inequitable distribution of existing water, due to leakage, inadequate distribution
network capacity, old pipelines and in-appropriate zoning system
Large number of un-registered/ un-authorized connections (estimated at 15,000
connections) and public stand posts resulting in untapped cost-recovery potential
Dilapidated condition/mal-functioning of plant and equipment- flow recorders, meters,
dosing equipment and choked sand beds at filter-plants
Arbitrary trial-and-error based deviations in the water supply zoning and operating
system in order to attempt equitable and timely supply; and
Absence of a formal operation and maintenance manual and negligent preventive
maintenance- basic information on the water supply network, like pipe diameters,
material, location on map, age, etc., not available
The number of household connections by protected water supply in UMC are very low
There is a general reluctance amongst many to adopt piped water connection for their
houses
A large number of commercial establishments, hotels, restaurants do not have water
connections
Some of the distribution pipelines are very old and have become hydraulically
inefficient.
Objectives of Efficient / Sufficient Water Supply
The overall analysis problems and issues shows that despite of water adequacy in the city,
there is a problem of proper coverage and service. Looking at Ujjain citys future as a pilgrim
centre and a place with great religious sanctity it will be required that the city should have
proper infrastructure for its inhabitants and the floating population. Following are the
objectives to achieve the required goal:


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Objectives
To give access to safe water supply to all communities
To initiate community involvement for the rational use of water
To initiate programmes for Rain water harvesing for recharge of ground water

Action plan
Roof top Rainwater harvesting can be made mandatory especially in the shallow aquifer zone and against
any new boring wells
Regulations and control of unregistered connections is the need of the day
The water taxes applied should be at an affordable range for all communities
Repair of leakages and reduction in stand posts wherever required must be undertaken
A Distribution network mapping and analysis is required for the entire area Based on the record plans a
hydraulic analysis should then be done to allow proper design of any future system expansion
Educational Programmes for the rational use of water must be propagated. Encouragement for research and
training in new techniques of water conservation
Political will must be mobilized Sufficient levels of investment should be made
6 6. .2 2 S Se ew we er ra ag ge e a an nd d S Sa an ni it ta at ti io on n
Of many things that can make for healthy cities, clean living conditions are very important.
'Sanitation is a basic component for development .It is not only the problem of keeping
clean , it is also an economic and social problem of raising production and promoting a
good life.' (Pathak)
At present, Ujjain city lacks the Sewerage
network. Under the predominant system of sewage
disposal, therefore, the untreated effluent over
flowing from soak-pits and draining into the citys
drainage system tends to pollute the water
considerably apart from emanating foul smell into
the atmosphere.
All the sewage thus generated in the city flows
through the open drains and discharged to nallahs
and ultimately to the river Kshipra. In the old
areas of the city an attempt was made for laying some sewers about 60 years back, but is only
about 7 km in length.
6 6. .2 2. .1 1 P Pr re es se en nt t s st ta at tu us s
The city of Ujjain is partially covered by underground sewer system which is about 7 kms in
length(recently laid 3.5 kms line), and most parts of the city depends on septic tanks. Many
of the houses use septic tanks that are inadequately designed and the partly treated effluent
from these tanks is allowed to flow into the open drains. Unhygienic dry latrines and open
defecation is common in several areas. Open drains carry waste water from kitchens and
bathrooms. There are eleven main nallas flowing through the city. These nallas carry sullage
water and discharge the same into the river Kshipra and thus contaminate the river. In order
to intercept the flow of these nallas, skeleton sewer lines were laid from time to time
particularly on the advent of Simhastha fair, so that the offensive sullage could be pumped
away from ghats into farms.
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A scheme for prevention due to pollution on bathing ghats of Kshipra river amounting to
Rs.18.05 lakhs was prepared by P. H. E. Department; and executed by Municipal Corporation
during the year 1968-69. Under the above scheme laying of ghat sewers on Somwaria nalla,
construction of Chakratirth pumping station with pumping machinaries and 24" pumping
main etc. were executed. A scheme for prevention of pollution of river Kshipra due to
Hanuman nalla, was prepared by P. H. E. Department at an estimated cost of 4.63 lakhs. It
was executed during the years 1966-69. Before the construction of this sewer, sullage carried
by Hanuman nalla was discharging into the river Kshipra on its upstream side of the existing
water works intake causing contamination of the source of water supply. Diversion of this
nalla prevented the contamination of river to a large extent. The above sewers have reduced
to a great extent the pollution of Kshipra. A complete underground drainage system is
essential to improve the sanitation of the city particularly the central area which has highest
densities and most unsanitary conditions.

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6.2.1.1 Earlier efforts
In the earliar efforts the following sewers were laid:
One 225 to 300mm diameter laid from Dewas gate, Gudri crossing, Kartic chowk to
old sump well (2180m)
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300 to 375mm diameter sewer runs from Bheru, Helawadi, Sumwariya to old sump
well (lenth 3000m)
Smaller length (161m) sewer joining to new sump well.
These sewer lines are in dilapidated condition and most parts of the city are thus dependent
on individual or community septic tanks. The new colonies such a Indira nagar, Sandipani
nagar are completely dependent on septic tanks. The waste which is carried by the sewer
system and the nallahs is taken to the nine pumping stations,namely at Ram ghat, Badnagar
Bridge, Chakratirth, Rudra Sagar, Manshaman Ganesh,Gaughat, Dani gate,
Somwariya,Ayurvedic college and Bhairavgarh. The sewage is then pumped up to the
sewage farms.
Ujjain has a present population of 464,000(estimated) distributed in 54 wards. Of this about
40% is living in the core area and 28% in the surrounding developing area, while the balance
32% live in rural areas. The sanitation in the rural areas with low population density (19
persons/ha) is not critical that in the densely populated city core area (420 persons/ha) and in
the developing areas with medium population density (225 persons/ha). It is therefore
required to provide sewerage to the entire core area (100%) first and part coverage (80%) to
the developing areas later.
6 6. .2 2. .2 2 R Re ec ce en nt t p pr ro oj je ec ct ts s ( (S Se ew we er ra ag ge e) )
Ujjain is a religious city, which attracts about half a million of pilgrims every year. The River
Kshipra flowing through the heart of the city is regarded as a holy river and plays an
important role for the religious pilgrims. In view of the potential health risk to bathers the
GoI undertook a project to stop the pollution of the River Kshipra under the National River
Conservation Programme (NRCP). The GoI provided a grant of Rs.140 million to the PHED
for intercepting sewage flow in the major water channels discharging to the river. The
intercepted sewage is pumped to a STP, treated and discharged for irrigation. Under this
scheme there was no provision for providing sewerage within the city. On completion of the
scheme the river is substantially free of pollution but there is little appreciable improvement
to the city sanitation.
6.2.2.1 Detail of Sewerage system in the city
Septic tank is the most common mode of disposal of sanitary waste disposal in Ujjain. The
other modes of disposal and household distribution are shown in Table below. It is evident
that about 85% of households have an access to Safe mode of sanitary disposal i.e. by the
means of Septic tanks, Dug latrines. However, about 15% of households do not have an
access to safe mode of sanitation.
Table 6-7 Sanitation facilities
Sanitation Facilities Population
covered
(no. of units)
a Septic Tanks 397000 65000.00
b Public Conveniences 21000 850.00
c Low Cost Sanitation units 12000 7554.00
d Dry Latrines - 0.00
e Others - 0.00
Total 430000 73,404
Source:UMC, PHED
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Considering the large number of floating population there is a need for provision of Public
toilets and Pay and Use toilets especially in the commercial localities and other public places
like bus stand, rickshaw stand, etc. public amenities such as these are essential in order to
keep the surrounding clean and environment healthy.
Table 6-8 City Sewerage Infrastructure
s.no. Sewage Pumping Details
1 No. of Pumping Stations 8.00
2 No. of Booster Stations 1.00
3 No. of Pumps 39.00
5 Total- Pumping Capacity (MLD) 57.50
6 Total- Pumping Capacity (HP) 2461.65
7 Total- Sewage Pumped (MLD) 17.25
Source:UMC, PHED
6.2.2.2 Present status of sewage generation
The present status of sewage generation is as follows:
Total population of Ujjain = 4.65 lakh
Water supply= 64.53 MLD
Considering 80% of water supply as disposed sewage, total sewage generated = 52.75
Mld/day
6.2.2.3 Future Requirement
It is estimated that around 57.24 MLD sewage would be generated in 2011. To have an
efficient sewerage system, it would require to lay a complete sewer network for the entire
city which comes out to be 139.5 kms. For fulfilling the future sewage treatment demand an
additional sewage treatment plant of 22 MLD is proposed.

Components Year Total generation in MLD
Future Sewerage Generation 2011 57.24 MLD
2021 73.40 MLD

Components Standard Present Capacity Future Demand Gap
Sewerage network 100% of the area - Entire city to be
sewered
100%
Sewage Treatment 100% of waste 52.75 MLD 73.40 21.55MLD




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6 6. .3 3 S So oc ci ia al l i in nf fr ra as st tr ru uc ct tu ur re e
Table 6-9 Number of Schools in Ujjain City
Government Schools
a No. of Schools 145
b No. of Class Rooms 533.00
c No. of Students 25,419
d No. of Teachers 1,032
Private/ Voluntary Organisation Schools
a No. of Institutions 285
b No. of Class Rooms 1,073
c No. of Students 64,175
d No. of Teachers 2,921
Table 6-10 Medical facilities in Ujjain city
Medical Facilities
Municipal Medical Facilities
a No.of Medical Centres/Clinic/Dispensaries 7
b No. of Doctors 5
c No. of Nurses/ Compounders 3
d No. of Beds -
e Avg. No. of Patients per Day 550.00
Non-Municipal Medical Centres
Medical Centres Run by:
a Government 16
b Private Sector 25
Total 41
Doctors
a Government 114
b Private Sector 102
Total 216
Table 6-11Fire services in Ujjain City
Number of Fire Tenders by Type
a Fire Water Tender Nos 6
b Water Tanker Cum Fire Tender (local make) Nos 6
c Jeep Mini Fire Tender Nos -
d Fire Tender Nos 1
e Others Nos -
Total Nos 13
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Other Equipment Nos
a Hydraulic Platform Nos -
b Portable Pump Nos 2.00
c Trailer Pumps Nos 1.00
d Lader Nos 7.00
6 6. .4 4 I Is ss su ue es s a an nd d p pr ro ob bl le em ms s
No underground sewerage System Coverage: There is no sewerage network in Ujjain
presently and some of the population even dont have sanitation facilities.
Septic tank is the major mode of disposal which may pollute the shallow ground water
with microbial pollution.
In some parts of the city the effluent from the soak pits is directly being disposed into
the river.
Public conveniences are not adequate in the city.
Mixing of storm water with sewerage during monsoons: Infiltration of rainwater into
the sewage lines in some areas further aggravates the problem during the monsoon
months.
Unhygienic dry latrines or open defecation still exists.
The partly or wholly untreated effluent flows into open drains.
Absence of a proper drainage system in the older and even newer areas of the city.
Objectives of proposing sewerage and sanitation facilities
A city can grow better only if has healthy citizens. With a vision to bring Ujjain on the
world map as a city with great religious image it is must to develop it as a clean and
hygienic city first. Following will be the objectives for sanitation provision in the city
Access to safe sanitation systems must be ensured for all communities
Sanitation systems being implemented must be safe and adapted to the economic
means of the users.
Genuine community involvement must take place in both planning and management
of systems.
The sanitation systems should not lead to water or land degradation.
The systems should be designed to recycle to the maximum extent the renewable
resources, such as water and nutrients present in human excreta, as well as non-
renewable resources.
Strategies
To promote indigenous and low cost sanitation technologies-like the sulabh flush
compost toilet at household level
Sulabh flush compost toilet is a two-pit pour flush toilet technology
Easy to construct with locally available materials
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The design and specifications can be altered to suit the needs and paying capacity of
the user
Can be located in the house
Can be constructed in different physical, geological and hydro geological conditions
Does not pollute surface and ground water, Maintenance is simple
Does not require the services of a scavenger or large volumes of water
High potentials of up gradation, can be connected to sewers in future
Additionally, fertilizer is made available.
Harnessing non-conventional energy sources from human waste to save fuel and
forests, like for example, biogas generation from the excreta at public toilets
To educate people not to defecate in the open and prevent environmental pollution
Building community toilets with bathing, washing, urinal facilities on pay-and-use
basis at public places
Cross subsidization of public toilets in the rural areas with urban areas
Procure manure from public toilets to use for agricultural practices. Effluent after
treatment can also be used in the agricultural farms, for gardening or discharge in the
water bodies.
6 6. .5 5 S St to or rm m w wa at te er r D Dr ra ai in na ag ge e
There is no planned storm water disposal system in the city. Small and medium surface
drains constructed along the roads carry household
wastewater and discharge it to open areas or small
water courses like Hanuman nallah, Sombaria
nallah, etc. These nallahs in turn discharge to the
river Kshipra.
None of the city nallahs are capable of carrying
storm water and overflow immediately after heavy
rain. Further, due to construction activities without
proper regard to the drainage there are several
disruptions in the alignment leading to stagnation
of water in residential and business areas. The situation is aggravated due to dumping of solid
waste in the drains, blocking the flow.
There are about 12 major flood prone areas in the city such as Somwaria, Kartik Chowk,
Begampura, Singpuri, Khatriwadi, Sakhipura, Jasingpura, Awantipura, Ramghat, Indore Gate
where drainage is inadequate with flooding at least 4 to 5 times in every year lasting from 4
to 6 hrs.
The average rainfall in Ujjain in monsoon months (June-September) is 952 mm.
approximately 30% of the tertiary and secondary drains require re-sectioning and re-grading
to improve their performance.


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Table 6-12 Major City level drains Inventory

S.no

Nallah

Observed Flow (Mld)

Design Flow (Mld)
1996 2011
1. Nanakheda 2.75 3.36
2 Alakhadham 3.03 3.71
3 Shastrinagar 3.55 4.34
4 Hanuman naka 7.73 9.45
5 Rajivratna 0.82 1.00
6 Somwaria 8.34 10.20
7 Piplinaka 3.88 6.34
8 Hammalwadi 3.17 3.93
9 Indira nagar 1.93 2.28
10 Siddhawat 1.80 2.20
11 Jaisinghpura 0.08 0.09
The major cause for overflow and flooding is silting and blockages by solid waste. The
performance of the drains can be significantly improved with better management. About 20%
of the total drain length is kutccha, which should be lined after proper de-silting. There is no
storm water drainage master plan prepared for Ujjain based on which the development can be
guided.
6 6. .6 6 I Is ss su ue es s I Id de en nt ti if fi ie ed d f fo or r C Ci it ty y D Dr ra ai in na ag ge e S Sy ys st te em m
Clogging of drains occur due to encroachment over the
drains in old areas not allowing regular cleaning and
dumping of solid waste in open drains.
Ground and surface water contamination occur due to
transfer and disposal of the wastewater through
unlined canals; Hanuman, Sombaria and Ganda nallah
into the River Kshipra.
Water logging occurs due to inadequacy and
inefficiency of storm water drains at Somwaria, Kartik
Chowk, Begampura, Singpuri, Khatriwadi, Sakhipura,
Jaisinghpura, Awantipura, Ramghat and Indore Gate.
Approximately 20 % of the total drain length is kutccha.
Construction activities without proper regard to drainage lead to stagnation of
wastewater in the drains and also cause flooding.
6 6. .6 6. .1 1 A Ac ct ti io on n P Pl la an n
Laying of new drains to carry waste water and storm water wherever required
Covering of open drains at all the uncovered stretches
Removal of encroachment over the drains in the commercial areas above the railway
line
Regular cleaning of existing drains
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Proper lining of drains to reduce contamination.
Waste water recycling through root zone treatment, underground treatment etc.
6.6.1.1 Drainage Rehabilitation Programme
Under this programme, a study shall be taken up to identify the flood spots within the city.
This shall be based on the past history of floods and survey of all the drains in the city and
their conditions. Mere cleaning of the drains could drain most of the flood spots. In almost all
the cases, strengthening of the drains and construction of leading drains will have to be taken
up. Desilting exercise has to be taken up in all the natural and open drains. Based on the
requirements that arise out of the study, the drains are to be remodeled from the origin to the
outfall.
6.6.1.2 Construction of Roadside drains.
Priority has to be given to the construction of roadside storm water drains (both open and
closed) to facilitate proper draining of storm water into natural drains.
6 6. .7 7 S So ol li id d W Wa as st te e M Ma an na ag ge em me en nt t
Historically health and safety have been the major concern in waste management. Today,
society demands more than this as well as being safe, waste management must also be
sustainable. Sustainable Development as defined by Brundtland Commission emphasis the
synergy between economic development, social equity and environment.
Sustainable waste management should be economically affordable, socially acceptable
and environmentally effective.
Solid waste management is an urban service that requires a lot of attention and is one
of the very important obligatory functions of any urban local body.
The Ujjain municipal Corporation estimates that 160 T/day of solid waste is generated in the
urban area, which includes the impact of the floating population drawn to Ujjain as a city of
great religious significance. Most waste seems to end up on open land or outside the
containers. Waste generation estimates suggest that about 83% of generated waste is actually
removed. There is a strong decline in the standard of services with respect to collection,
transportation and disposal. Presently municipal waste is simply dumped at MR-V Agar
Road trenching ground, at about 4 km from the city.
Corporation data, discussion with UMC authorities and visits to the disposal site all indicate
inadequate solid waste management. Municipal waste as collected is mixed in nature
including bio-waste, night-soil waste and septic tank sludge. Storage facilities are inadequate,
solid waste accumulates in the city and is not removed regularly. Primary collection involves
multiple-handling, and is not synchronized with transportation, using inadequate manual
loading unloading methods. Waste transportation is often by open trucks.
The overall waste generation and related available facilities and equipment with UMC are
summarised in Tables below. Table indicates the total staff engaged in solid waste
management.. Transportation facilities, which include type and age of vehicles, number of
trips and distance covered, are summarised in Table later.



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Table 6-13 solid waste details
Waste Generation source(tons) Waste Generation source(tons) Proportion
a Domestic 66.00 41.51%
b Commercial & Trade 50.00 31.45%
c Industrial 5.00 3.14%
d Hospital 1.00 0.63%
e Construction and Demolision 30.00 18.87%
f Others (Floating Poulation) 7.00 4.40%
Total 159.00
6 6. .7 7. .1 1 W Wa as st te e g ge en ne er ra at ti io on n
The above table shows that the major contributors of solid waste are domestic and
commercial places, which combinable account for more than 70 % of solid waste. The city
has adequate dustbins covering nearly 85% of the city area. The average dustbin spacing is
nearly 500 mts the expenditure per capita on conservancy comes out to be Rs.2.5 for every
meter.
6 6. .7 7. .2 2 W Wa as st te e c co ol ll le ec ct ti io on n
Table 6-14waste collection details in the Ujjain city
Primary Waste Collection
a Community Bins
4.5 cum. community bins- nos. 110.00
Others- nos. 599.00
Total- nos. 709.00
Total Waste Collected (kgs) 136,355.00
b Handcarts
Nos. 103.00
Capacity (kgs) 20,000.00
Secondary Waste Collection
a Vehicles Nos.
LMV- 1 ( 2.5 ton) 7
Total 7.00
Loader- 1 (2 ton) 2
Total 2.00
HMV- 1 (2 ton) 5
HMV- 2 (4 ton) 6
Total 11.00
b Average Distance (km) 20.00
d Total- Vehicle Capacity (tons) 132.00
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Disposal of municipal waste is by open dumping at MR-V Agar Road to the south-west of
the city, which generate obnoxious odours,
blowing of litter and breeding of vectors. Burning
of the waste at disposal site is very common,
which generate poisonous hydrocarbons such as
carcinogenic dioxins. Two new disposal sites has
been identified but not yet acquired: at Jalankheri,
to the west of the city. The other site is in the
East-south direction at Manpura village.

Table 6-15Solid Waste Management Staff at Ujjain
Zone Wise Distribution of Staff Sl.
No.
Staff Total
Strengt
h
1 2 3 4
1 Chief Health Officer Nil - - - -
2 Health Officer 1 - - - -
3 Chief Sanitary Inspectors 1 - - - -
4 Sanitary Inspectors 5 2 1 1 1
5 Sanitary Supervisors 5 2 1 1 1
6 Jamadars 34 9 9 8 8
7 Ward Supervisors Nil - - - -
8 Safai Karamcharis 1064 274 242 222 215
9 Drivers 7 2 2 2 1
Table 6-16Physical Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste of Ujjain
(All the Values are in Percentage on wet weight basis)
Sl.
N
o
Items Bio-
degrada
ble of
Organic
Fraction
Pape
r &
Card
boar
d
Pla
stic
Me
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s
Bio-
resist
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Glass
&
Cera
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Inert
(Ston
e,
Brick
s)
Fine
Earth
<20
mm
Othe
rs
1 Commercial
Area
18.02 3.09 9.8
6
0.5
6
10.97 2.82 15.24 39.44 -
2 Indra Nagar 52.88 13.56 2.3
7
- 6.79 1.35 6.78 16.27 -
3 HIG Rishi
Nagar
27.08 16.66 12.
53
0.8
3
14.58 1.66 10.00 16.66 -
4 Mandir Area
Mahakal
68.65 8.49 6.7
8
- 3.39 - 1.69 11.00 -
5 Disposal Site 24.79 2.14 5.1
3
1.2
8
16.45 0.85 9.19 40.17 -
6 Industrial Area
Dawagar Rd
30.03 5.53 13.
21
2.4
6
9.91 - 1.23 37.63 -
7 Slum Area
Bhroo Nallaha
(LIG)
31.36 2.25 8.0
4
0.3
7
7.88 0.75 8.04 41.31 -
8 Commercial 39.09 16.47 4.9 4.6 11.88 - 15.33 7.66 -
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9 MIG Indra
Nagar
45.08 4.35 2.7
2
0.9
9
7.95 0.49 5.68 32.74 -
10 Veg. Market 88.59 1.20 1.2
0
0.60 - - 8.41 -
11 Industrial Area 28.70 1.22 2.8
3
1.6
2
13.24 - 8.24 44.15 -
12 Disposal Site 22.47 4.92 5.1
7
0.5
2
6.72 2.58 15.50 42.12 -
13 Sindhi Colony 18.63 6.34 6.3
4
- 6.98 2.54 20.49 38.68 -
14 Disposal Site 17.28 7.83 4.8
8
1.9
5
4.87 1.95 20.27 40.97 -
15 Juna Samwaria
(LIG)
25.77 2.58 7.0
3
1.1
7
3.75 0.47 12.18 47.05 -
16 MIG Outside
Area
38.48 2.03 3.2
5
0.6
5
5.23 0.73 16.68 32.95 -
17 Mandir Area 69.55 2.76 1.6
6
- 3.88 - 6.10 16.05 -
18 Veg. Market 64.45 3.99 3.1
3
0.8
8
3.99 1.06 0.88 21.62 -
19 Hospital Waste 18.50 18.00 16.
75
1.2
5
22.50 12.50 - 10.50 -
20 Hospital Waste 17.57 12.12 11.
11
2.0
2
44.05 4.04 - 9.09 -
Organic fraction - Leaves, fruits waste, flower, food waste, hay & straw etc.
Textiles, leather, rubber, wood and synthetics etc.
6 6. .7 7. .3 3 P Pr re es se en nt t s st ta at tu us s
In Ujjain the main source of waste generation is from households, hotels and market. Waste
generated from hospital and clinics, which could be toxic/hazardous in nature, is currently
not separated from domestic waste. There are no industries in the area hence the problem of
industrial waste is non-existent. Solid waste generated in civil area is not segregated into
biodegradable and non-biodegradable category. Waste is collected in open trolleys/tractors
daily in the morning hours. It is dumped together and burnt intermittently along with
biomedical waste. After burning ash remains as it is at the disposal site. People including
hoteliers dump the waste near or outside the community stand posts but rarely inside it. After
collecting the waste from community stand post in the cantonment area waste is disposed in
the final dumping site. Basic three stages of any waste management system in Ujjain
comprise collection, transportation and disposal which is discussed in the following
paragraph.
6.7.3.1 Collection
Household waste is disposed of either via door-to-door collection, which is quite uncommon,
or in the primary collection points or dustbins provided by Municipal Corporation. Excluding
posh residential colonies most of the households, shops and other commercial establishment
like hotels, waste is generally thrown on streets, open spaces and drains as and when it is
generated. At some places where primary collection bins, (concrete/plastic) have been
provided they are either placed at a distance or their size is too small. According to the
authorities it was found that a large number of community bins are either dilapidated or
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managed poorly. In some of the bins garbage was found to be spilling over. During the visit it
was also observed that unhygienic condition compelled people to throw waste from a
distance. Stray animals like cows, buffaloes, pigs and dogs spread the waste from the bins.
As small number of people have to cover large area for cleaning and sweeping certain
important roads and market area, are swept daily and some are swept on alternate days
depending on importance, concentration of population and type of activity. Rag picker cum
waste material merchant of Ujjain picks material from waste having recyclable value.
6.7.3.2 Transportation
After street sweeping and primary collection waste is normally dumped in the community
concrete garbage bins by the primary collector with the help of hand cart. From here it is
transported to disposal site. In Ujjain manual methods are used for loading of waste which is
than transported through tricycle, tractor trolleys and trucks. Various trips are made to collect
the waste from primary collection points and dump it at the garbage yard. It was observed
that vehicles are often under loaded. Complete waste is also not lifted on daily basis creating
backlogs particularly on holidays. Information provided by the UMC suggest that all types of
waste, be it from house hold, slaughter house, commercial waste, hospital waste or
construction gets invariably mixed while transporting.
6.7.3.3 Disposal
In general parlance disposal of waste means dumping. In Ujjain in general waste is simply
dumped in an abandoned area it is learnt that every fortnight layer of lime is sprayed over the
dumping site to prevent infection. However no composting is done with soil or using
machines. They invariably burn the waste in small heaps on roadside. Waste collected at the
community dust bins is also either burnt or used for reclamation of low lying pits as there is
no identified major dumping site.
6 6. .8 8 I Is ss su ue es s
Number of community dustbins need to be increased, simultaneously existing bins
should be maintained properly. Dustbins should be designed in such a way that they
are beyond the reach of stray animals.
Dumping of waste is not disposal of waste. In Ujjain this is perhaps the weakest link
in the waste management system. Existing dumping site is merely a garbage yard. By
no means it can be considered as a sanitary land fill (SLF) which is a scientific method
of refuse disposal.
Existing open dumping system may cause not only health hazards and fire, but is
potential breeding ground of vectors and diseases. It may also contaminate ground
water if the rock profile allows the leachets to percolate.
Waste is burnt at the dumping site.
6 6. .9 9 S St tr ra at te eg gi ie es s
With the above cardinal points in mind, following specific measures are recommended for
improving solid waste management practices in Ujjain.
All households may be encouraged not to throw any solid waste in their
neighbourhood, on the street, open spaces, and vacant plots or into drains and keep the
food waste/ bio-degradable as and when generated, in any type of domestic waste
container, preferably with a cover, and keep dry/ recyclable wastes separately.
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All shops and establishments may be asked to refrain from throwing their solid waste/
sweeping etc. on the footpaths, streets, open spaces and keep their waste on-site as and
when generated in a suitable container until the time of doorstep collection.
Similarly all hotels and restaurants should be directed to refrain from throwing their
dry and wet solid waste/ sweeping on the footpath, streets, open spaces or drains. They
should store their waste on-site in sturdy containers. The container should have
appropriate handles on the top or side and rim at the bottom for ease of emptying.
All street food vendors may be directed not to throw any waste on the street or
pavement. They must keep bins or bags for the storage of waste that is generate during
their activity. Their handcarts must have a shelf or sac below for storage of waste
generated in the course of business. If required a total ban on use of polythene bags
and other plastic packaging material be imposed in the eco-city area. Government of
Madhya Pradesh is also coming up with a regulatory provision to ban use of polythene
of less than 20 micron.
Segregation of recyclable/ non biodegradable waste: It is essential to save the
recyclable waste material from going to the waste processing and disposal sites and
using up landfill space. Salvaging it at source for recycling could make profitable use
of such material. The Municipal Corporation towards segregation of recyclable waste
may take following measures.
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Provision of litterbags/ Garbage Stations: For keeping the streets clean it is necessary to
provide facilities of litter bins all over the town so that people can deposit the litter in hand
into such bins while on the move and keep the streets litter-free.
6 6. .1 10 0 S St tr re ee et t L Li ig gh ht ti in ng g
Compared to the total road length of 348.68 KMS the number of poles is around 16,478,
which is found to be quite adequate for the city. There is no lighting in 10% of the road
network, mostly falling in slums, illegal colonies and peri-urban areas. The illumination type
consists of tube lights, mercury vapour lamps and sodium vapour lamps.
Table 6-17 Details of Street lighting in Ujjain City
Street Lighting Nos. Proportion
Type (nos.)
a High Mast Lamps 14 0.08%
b Halogen Lamps - 0.00%
c Mercury Vapour Lamps - 0.00%
d Sodium Vapour Lamps 9,526 57.81%
e Tubelights 6,924 42.02%
f Others (CFL) 14 0.08%
Total 16,478
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6 6. .1 10 0. .1 1 R Re ec ce en nt t p pr ro oj je ec ct t: :
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The project was initiated in the month of Dec 2003. The work were executed in the month of
Nov 2004 and completed in the month of January 2005 .In this project total tube lights which
were installed previously were replaced by waterproof tube light with a load of only 32 watt
without choke. The load monitoring system with micro process was also installed at 119
switching points. The no. of tubelights replaced was about 6000.The consultant for whole
project was Econoler international Canada. The savings were measured as 35 % in street
tubelights. Saving on by LMS is about 18 to 25 %.The total cost of this project was Rs 2.5
crores. The project cost will be given to the company by revenue earned by energy saving as
explained. Consultancy and project fee will be paid by 80% of the expenditure saved by
UMC.
Results achieved- Presently UMC is successful in minimizing its expenditure on streetlights by nearly 10 lakhs.























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7 7. .1 1 I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n
The rapid increase in industrial and economic development has led to severe environmental
degradation that undermines the environmental resource base upon which sustainable
development depends. The economics of environmental pollution, depletion and degradation
of resources has infact been neglected as compared to the issues of growth and expansion.
Historically health and safety have been the major concern in the field of environment
management. Sustainable Development as defined by Brundtland Commission emphasis the
synergy between economic development, social equity and environment.
The exponential growth together with rapid urbanization and tourist pressure in Ujjain over
the years has substantial impact on the environment management of this city. Ujjain is a place
of great sanctity and hence attracts devotees for almost all the major festivals like Amavasya,
Shivaratri, Panchakroshi, Nagpanchami etc. Thus, there is always a great pressure on the
environment of the city.

Urban environment is an important component for the sustainable development of a city. This
chapter attempts to assess the existing status of the urban environment of the Ujjain City.
This chapter has been structured into five sections. The first section gives the study approach
followed in analyzing the urban environment; fig below shows the study approach. The
second section gives the status of the components of the environment, the third section
assesses the environmental status using the selected parameters, which helps in evolving
ecologically sensitive zones and protected zones. The fourth section gives the problems and
issues related to these sensitive zones. The policies and Environmental Management
strategies needed for these ecologically sensitive zones are discussed later.
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7 7. .2 2 C Cl li im ma at ti ic c a an na al ly ys si is s
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May is the hottest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at 40 c and mean daily
minimum at 24 c. Days are extremely hot with temperature rising to 45 c. With the onset of
monsoon by about second week of June there is considerable drop in the temperature. After
the withdrawal of monsoon there is slight increase in the day temperature but the nights are
progressively cooler. After October, both day and night temperature decrease. January is the
coldest month with mean daily maximum temperature at 26 c and mean daily minimum
temperature at 8 c. cold waves affect the district in the rear of western disturbances passing
across north India during the cold season. The table below shows average temperature for
each month in Ujjain.

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Table 7-1 Temperature Monthly Averages
The climate of this region on the whole is dry except during the south- west monsoon season.
The year can be divided into four seasons:
Cold season, from December to February
Hot season, March to middle of June
South west monsoon season, till September end
Post monsoon season, October and November
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Records of rainfall in the district are available for 5 stations. The average annual rainfall in
the district is 892.9 mm. The rainfall increases from West to East. About 92% of the annual
rainfall is received during the monsoon months, July being the rainiest month. On an average
there are 42 rainy days (250cm or more) in a year in the district. The average rainfall for the
city is 900 mm. Ujjain witnessed very low rainfall in the year 2000-01.
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During the monsoon season winds blow from directions between northwest and south west.
In the post monsoon and cold seasons winds are easterly and north easterly in the mornings
and blow from directions between southwest and northeast through west in the afternoons. In
the summer winds are predominantly from west or North West.

Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Temp
c
17.8 19.9 24.5 29.0 32.3 30 26.05 25.1 25.15 24.15 20.45 24.4
0
500
1000
1500
2000
1
9
6
5
-
6
6
1
9
6
8
-
6
9
1
9
7
1
-
7
2
1
9
7
4
-
7
5
1
9
7
7
-
7
8
1
9
8
0
-
8
1
1
9
8
3
-
8
4
1
9
8
6
-
8
7
1
9
8
9
-
9
0
1
9
9
2
-
9
3
1
9
9
5
-
9
6
1
9
9
8
-
9
9
2
0
0
1
-
0
2
Year
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(
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Table 7-2 Mean Wind Speed (km/hr)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
5.5 5.8 7.1 9.1 15.7 20.5 17.6 15.6 10.7 4.6 4.1 4.8 10.1
Source: IMD , New Delhi
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Except during the monsoon season the air is dry, afternoons being drier than the mornings. In
the post monsoon and winter months, relative humidity in the afternoon is between 30 to 40%
while in the summer season the relative humidity is less than 20%.
7 7. .3 3 L La an nd d a an nd d p ph hy ys si io og gr ra ap ph hy y
The city lies on the Malwa Plateau at a general level of 500m. The slope is very gentle being
about 2-3 .The variations of the altitude ranges from 450m in north to 558m at southern
isolated peaks. The present city occupies relatively plain land with few hillocks like
Jogeshwar, Tekri, Mashya Tekri and cut up along river Kshipra .The general slope of the city
is towards the North.
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The whole area is covered with Black cotton soil underlain by basaltic lava and trap rocks on
mounds and hills residues along the water divides. The presence of alluvium along the river
and basaltic lava with varying degree of vesicular determines the rate of percolation of water.
The western part of the Ujjain urban area has a thick alluvium cover of 10 to 20 m. Alluvial
soil with sticky clay does not allow surface water to percolate down. The North-Western
parts of the area near Chakrawada ,Azampura ,Jogikheri has basaltic lava flows containing
thick massive basalt and fragmentary basalt which has less vesicularity. The south-eastern
and eastern parts which have vesicular basalt in each lava flow is suitable for artificial
recharge. The eastern parts upto 5 km away from River Kshipra have basaltic lava flow with
thick vesicular basalt and thick weathered massive basalt.
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The lava flows of Upper Cretaceous to Eocene age collectively named as Deccan trap and
locally in Madhya Pradesh as Malwa trap form one of the most prominent and widely spread
rock formation in the region. The lava flows are generally 10 to 20 m in thickness of which
top 25 to 40% is vesicular/ fragmentary. The vesicles are filled with secondary minerals like
calcite and zeolites. The characteristic red bole beds form the marker horizons between
successive lava flows.
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General slope of the land is towards the northern side. The important rivers in this region are
Chambal, Gambhir, Kshipra, Khan, Choti Kali Sindh etc with their tributaries flowing from
south to north. The other rivers are Chamla ,Lakhunder, Kudel and Bageri. Kshipra also
known as Avanti nadi flows through Khachrod, Ujjain, and Mehidpur tehsils in the district
and finally joins Chambal. Its not navigable and the water of Kshipra is used for irrigation as
well as drinking purpose. River Khan which is a tributary of Kshipra carries industrial waste
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of Indore and pollutes River Kshipra. The city drains its stream water and sullage water
through nallahs locally known as Hanuman nalla, Sombaria and Grand nalla into river
Kshipra on the downstream side. During rainy season the low-lying areas of Ramghat,
Indore gate, Railway colony, Kartik Chowk, part of Harsiddhi etc are flooded.
Water bodies called sagars are conspicuous by their presence in Ujjain. Rudra Sagar,
Pushkara Sagar, Ksheer Sagar, Govardhan Sagar, Purushottam Sagar, Vishnu Sagar,
Ratnakar Sagar are the seven sagars. Among these, Ksheer Sagar has been partially reclaimed
and converted into a playing field; Pushkara Sagar is also under the process of reclamation.
Rudra Sagar has become a part of the inhabited area
Most of these Sagars and Kunds rely on rainfall. Some of them have inlet only at one foot
below, to drain the water during the rainy season.
Water table varies from 15 to 40' deep in Ujjain. Good aquifer exists from Freeganj to
Chhatri Chowk with a width of 0.8 km and with a thickness of 35.
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Around 80 types of trees are present in Ujjain. Amongst them seven of them are commonly
found in the region: Mango (Mangifera woka), Shisham (Delbergia sisoo), Gulmohar
(Delonix regia), Ashoka (Saraca indica), Kachmar (Bauhinia acuminata), Champa (Bauhinia
pwipurea), Neem (Azadirachta indica)
The general composition is disturbed by nature on few sandstone hill tops and moist areas.
Under former conditions Salai (Boswellia serrata), Dhaora (Anogeissus latifolia), jhingan
(Lannea grandis)and Khair (Acacia catechu) are seen. In the moist areas Chhind (Phoenix
acauhlis) and Jamun (Eugenia jambolana) are seen.
The streets in central areas have no vegetation, they are only found in and around the city
limits and along the road leading to Dewas, Indore, Maksi and Kotni. In organized open
spaces the common shrubs which can be identified are: Hemeroeallis, Gramineae, Rose,
Euphorbia cease, Aspala, Compasitae. Gondrali(Anthistiria ciliata), Phuli(Apluda aristata),
Bhur bhusi (Erogrostis tenella) Paonia(Sehima sulkata) are the common species. ( Ujjain
Development Plan,1991)
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The faunal composition comprises of mainly terrestrial species and aquatic species. As a
result of pollution in river Kshipra due to domestic and industrial wastes and due to stagnated
water in waterbodies, the aquatic life has reduced greatly. Only few wild animals are
occasionally seen. Amongst the birds Peacock, Bhat titar, Kabutar are most common.
Common amongst them are fowl and semi aquatic type of ducks. Sarus crane is common in
the fields. Bugla is common in the watercourses and ponds. Common pet birds are Parakeet
and Grey Partridge.
7 7. .4 4 P Po ol ll lu ut ti io on n P Pr ro of fi il le e
The burgeoning population and various human activities have led to the concentration of
pollutants in our natural resources. Pollution of air and water is detrimental to our health
since these two elements are vital for our survival.

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DO level at Ramghat and Mangalnath is very low which is unsuitable for the survival
of most plants and animals living in water.
Decrease in DO levels at Ramghat and Mangalnath is due to slow moving water,
discharge of sewage decaying plants and animals and religious waste.
High DO levels at u/s and d/s is due to moving water and the availability of more
water for dilution of wastes coming into it.
Total hardness is within the limits and thus safe. The hardness values increases at
Gaughat and Mangalnath, which is due to domestic and industrial discharge coming
from khilchipur nallah at Mangalnath
Chloride values are safe within limits from upstream to down stream of the river.
Ramghat has the highest chloride value along the river which is due to discharge of
domestic waste which contains human excreta (6mg/day/person). Chloride ions are
due to dissolutions of salt deposits, discharge of effluents from industries, irrigation
drainage.
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River Kshipra faces serious problems of pollution and consequent decrease and
deterioration of water quality and quantity respectively. The sources of pollution can
be classified as follows:
Pollution due to Khan riverRiver Khan joins Kshipra at Triveni. At times, during
mansoon season, the discharge in river Khan is more than that of Kshipra. Khan
carries industrial waste and domestic sewage of Indore town.
Religious functions Lakhs of devotees come to take a dip in the sacred rive all the year
round. The river ablution is also an important factor for various festivals where a large
number of devotees throng the river for a dip. Also, Ujjain being a major centre for
after death rituals large no of people visit Ujjain for post cremation rituals like pind-
dan in river Kshipra with a belief of attaining moksha to the departed.
Flow in the river seizes few months after monsoons and religious ceremonies in the
stagnant water further deteriorate the water quality. Cremation along the river front
adds to the pollution profile of the river.
Religious waste is a major contributor to the river pollution with almost all the
religious offerings from flowers, hair, ashes to post cremation waste being thrown in
the river.
Discharge of sewage: Earlier a lot of sewage was discharged directly into the river
from many nallahs. With NRCP project it was minimized reducing pollution loads on
river Kshipra.

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Agricultural practices : River also gets contaminated by the chemical fertilizers used in the
surrounding agricultural fields which flow in the river during monsoon. Though no
comprehensive data is available but considerable impact on the river is seen.
Others sources :Brick kilns at Datta Aakhada Kshetra dump the waste into the river and also
pump out water from the river at different points. A study done by Pollution Control Board
revealed that the most critical points in terms of pollution are Gaughat, Ramghat and
Mangalnath. This might be due to high religious potentiality of this area which is visited by
maximum religious tourist.
Potential Areas for Intervention and Development
For determining the most critical area various parameters studied were superimposed as
shown in the graph.
Figure 7-1Potentiality (use-wise) index for various Ghats and landmarks

The above analysis shows that Triveni, Ramghat and Mangalnath are the major areas of
concern
Sewage pumping station for Somwaria nallah at Chakratirth Ghat
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2
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Accessibility
Popularity
Existing Use
Infrastructure (Amenities)
Infrastructure (Toilets +
Changing Rooms)
Existing Condition -
Maintenance
Relative Importance
River Water Availability
Po t ent i al
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Rudra Sagar is situated on the west side of the Mahakaal Temple Complex. Being part of the
Sapta Sarovar the tank has a great religious and historical significance. During fetivals like
Panchkroshi Yatra and Simhastha it is ritual to take holy dip in the lake.Apart from this
Rudrasagar acts as recharge zone. At present the tank has a densely populated slum area on
its southern side, Mahakal Temple Complex on eastern side, Settlements and temple
complexes on western side and Ramghat on North West side.
Due to rapid urbanization and absence of public sewerage and drainage system in Ujjain, the
tank at present is converted in to a collection tank of the dirty water. The present system of
carrying the sewerage is not functioning properly due to many reasons. Out of those most
important are mixing of solid and liquid waste and inadequate sizes at the disposal points.
UMC took the initiative for revitalization of the Rudra Sagar recently.
7 7. .5 5 I Is ss su ue es s
Sustainable Riverfront Development: The stress of the city is being felt on the river
and development is likely to continue all along the river which would have large scale
impact on the river.
Pollution Due To Religious Activities: This is major issue threatening the survival of
the river and is closely linked to the religious nature and functions of the city.
Water augmentation throughout the year: Low rainfall, lack of flow in the river
substantiates the pollution problems and also threatens the religiosity of the city which
is closely linked with the river.
Other major issues of the city
No proper collection of solid wastes.
Direct mixing of untreated sewage.
Direct disposal of solid waste on streets and drwns.
Solid waste disposal site cre"ting air and land polhltion.
Open defecation on riverbed.
Continuous honking of tlckshaw arotUld hospit,us and schools.
High noise pollution.
High RSPM, during peak hrs.
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Erosion of soil from the banks of the rivers.
Intensive agricultural land use along the river and high dependency on river water for
irrigation.
Utilization of ghats for washing and bathing.
High levels of use for religious activities like mass bathing, pind-daan etc.
Polluting activities like cremation, commercial washing of clothes.
Water resourcing for brick kilns and agricultural purposes.
High siltation rate due to erosion prone area
After death ritual along the ghats resultant in religious waste being thrown directly in
the river.
7 7. .6 6 S St tr ra at te eg gi ie es s
Strategy -1 Prevention of Localized Damage to the River
Action
Manage and control developmental activities at the waterfront.
Manage and prevent polluting factors and activities on the riverfront with alternatives
for disposal methods.
Religious activities- Many alternatives measures for preventing throwing of religious
waste has been taken by providing kunds for disposal ,it has been not very successful
due to lack of awareness and strict enforcement. Strict enforcement and penalty for the
polluter should be taken as a measure for prevention of this.
Dhobighat - Though new structures for it have been built as a part plan of NRCP,
water supply and other facilities need to be provided at these points
Cremation - Awareness to use the electrical crematorium should be done. Practices
like dumping of the ashes directly in the river need to be controlled.
Awareness within the local population
Awareness programmes and creation of local groups for action against polluting
activities can be done.
Regular cleaning and maintenance
Maintenance should not be concern only for Municipal Commission but peoples
participation programmes should be worked for cleaning of river Kshipra.
Strategy 2- Erosion control and Control of usage of water from the river for agricultural and
other activities.
Action
Afforestation for prevention of soil erosion from the banks of the river could be done .Since
most of the land is under agricultural holdings agro-forestry can be propagated with high fruit
yielding trees of local variety of fruiting trees depending on the market salebility of the agro
products.
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Strict enforcement should be done for prevention of water usage for agriculture practices.
People should be encouraged to have Dabri system ponds to conserve water and use it
judiciously for the agriculture
Strict enforcement for prohibition of sand mining practices.
Strategy 3 -Maintaining a minimum flow in the river for pollution abetment
Action
No pollution prevention scheme can be effective if some flow is not maintained in the
river. This would require a detailed study and analysis of the river bed, depth, flow
velocity etc. a working and management system of check dams and release of water
should be designed to maintain the flow throughout the year.

























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Pilgrims at river shipra for the holy dip
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Ujjain city, located on the banks of River Kshipra, is one of the seven important religious
centers in India. The others being Ayodhya, Mathura, Maya, Kashi, Kanchi, Avantika and
Puri. The religious importance of Ujjain town has been attributed to the presence of deity
Mahakaleshwar on the banks of holy river Kshipra. Mahakaleshwar is considered as one of
the twelve jyotirlings in India. Several religious congregations are held throughout the year
in the city. After every 12 years Kumbh mela, also known as Simhastha, is held during which
a large number of pilgrims visit Ujjain.
8 8. .1 1 R Re el li ig gi io ou us s A Ac ct ti iv vi it ti ie es s
One of the most important functions
of the city of Ujjain is to cater to
religious pursuits. A large number of
persons come to the city during
religious fairs such as Simhastha and
cultural functions like Kalidas
Samaroh. The influx of people from
outside ranges between 25 thousand
to a lakh depending on the
importance of the function and fair.
During such gathering the existing
services and amenities are restrained
to a breaking point causing
inconvenience to the visitors and
anxiety to the administration. It is
therefore need to state it in detail Figure 8-1Simhastha : A Parv Of Religious Importance
Simhastha is the great bathing festival of Ujjain.
It is celebrated in a cycle of twelve years when
Jupiter enters the Leo sign of the zodiac, known
as Simha Rashi. Ceremonial bathing in the holy
waters of Kshipra begins with the full moon day
of Chaitra month and continues throughout the
successive month of Vaishakh culminating on
tenth full moon day.
Tradition calls for ten different factors to be
located for the grand festival at Ujjain.
According to the Puranas, the legendary
churning of the ocean by the gods (Devas) and
demons (Danavas) yielded, amongst other
things, a jar (Kumbha) full of nectar (Amrita).
Gods did not like to share it with demons. At the instance of Indra, his son Jayanta tried to
run away with the jar and was naturally followed by some of the demons. During the struggle
for its possession lasting over twelve days in heaven, a few drops of the nectar dropped at the
four places, corresponding with Haridwar, Prayag, Ujjain and Nasik on the earth. The drops
of nectar were received by the holy rivers at these places. As the struggle for the possession
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of the nectar-jar (Amrita-Kumbha) lasted for twelve days in heaven, the equivalent time
being twelve years on the earth.
The festival at the other three places is known by the more popular name Kumbha. The cycle
of twelve Years is common to all the four places. Different planetary positions, like the
crossing of Jupiter into Leo sign and certain other conjunctions for the fair at Ujjain, are
noted for the kumbha-fair at these other places also. Besides being a city of remarkable
cultural traditions, Ujjain is cited among the seven cities of sacred merit in India.
8 8. .2 2 C Ci it ty y o of f t te em mp pl le es s
Ujjain is appropriately known as a city of temples. It is one of the highly worshiped seven
sacred places of Hindu religion. The city has nearly 2000 temples. Some of the most
important temples in the city area Mahakal, Harshiddhi, Gopal Mandir, Siddhawat,
Mangalnath etc. The distribution of recorded temples in various areas is given below:
Table 8-1Temples and their localities
Localities No. of Temples
Daulatganj 36
Maharajwada 122
Kartik Chawk 124
Safara 98
Jiwajiganj 180
Madhavnagar 13
Total 573
Source: Ujjain Developmental Plan,1975
8 8. .2 2. .1 1 I Im mp po or rt ta an nt t T Te em mp pl le es s
Mahakal and Harsiddhi : Mahakal is a temple of lord Shiva for
which Ujjain is famous. Its description is found in many
Puranas and Sanskrit literature. The temple of Goddess
Harshiddhi is situated on the western bank of Rudra sagar. The
scattered temples of Mahakal, Harshiddi, Ganpati as well as
Rudra Sagar need integrated development.
Siddhawat : is a big campus around a Bargad tree with
temples of Lord Shiva. A small old dharamashala is the only
shelter available near this place. A very small length of pucca
ghat is available for taking bath. During monsoons the whole
area turns into a big mud pond.
Mangalnath : It is situated near Ankpat on the bank of river
Kshipra. The site provides a good panoramic view of the river.
Triveni (Navgraha) : It is situated at the confluence of the three
rivers. A group of temple with Navgraha Mandir as the main
temple is situated at this place. It receives large number of
pilgrims particularly during poornima /amavasya when people take their holy bath in the
triveni sangam and perform religious rites. During Simhastha (Kumbh) mela, the place
receives large influx of people.
Mahakal temple
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Kal Bhairav : It is situated away from the town on the banks of river Kshipra. This spot too
has the same importance and character as Triveni.
Gopal Mandir : Maharani Jayaji Bai Scindia constructed the temple. This is situated in the
heart of the city and is a very popular temple of Radha krishna.
Garh Kalika Temple : It is situated 3 km away from the present city. The old city of Avantika
stood here. It is probable that traces of the old city may be found underneath. Kalidas
worshipped the Goddess of this temple around 606 A.D.This temple was renovated by Harsh
Vardhan . There are Hanuman and Ganpati temple in front and back of it.
Bada Ganeshji : It is situated near Mahakaleswar temple. The road passing by the side of this
temple is on a lower level, which needs to be slightly elevated.
Chitragupta Mandir : It is an old temple of Chitragupta situated on way to Mangalnath roasd.
In olden times there was a tank also. According to Padmapuran Chitraguptaji mediated at this
place.and God Brahma was pleased to give him darshan. It is an important religion place
for Kayasthas
Digambar Jain Temples : There are 25 temples in Ujjain, out of which Avanti Parasnath is
the main. In Daulatganj new temples has been constructed. The temple of Jaisinghpara is a
famous one and in the rear of this temple, there is one archeological museum worth visiting.
8 8. .2 2. .2 2 R Re el li ig gi io ou us s F Fa ai ir rs s a an nd d A Al ll li ie ed d A Ac ct ti iv vi it ti ie es s
The city attracts large number of pilgrims and tourists throughout the year. Religious fairs
and melas are held on religious occasions when a large number of persons visit the city. The
important fairs are Kumbha Mela. Kartik Poornima, Ganga Mela, Nav Durga Maha-Shivratri
etc.
The fairs and festivals take place weekly, fortnightly, yearly and periodically in Ujjain. Some
are considered very auspicious. The month wise distribution of these festivals and the
estimated floating population on these occasions are shown in table below
Table 8-2Important religious events and the expected population in Ujjain
S no Festival/Mela
Period
(month)
Duration
(days)
Place Estimated
population
1. Simhastha/Kumbh After every 12
yrs
30 Mela ground 1-2 crore
2. Vaishakah Snan Chaitra purnima
Vaishakah
purnima

30
Near Badnagar
bridge,Ramghat
and triveni

20-25,000
3. Panchkroshi Yatra Vaishakah 5 Mangalnath 25-50,000
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4. Ganga Pujan
Ganga Snan
Ganga Dashehra
Vaishakah Jaisth
9-11

Ramghat
Ganga Ghat
20-25,000
20-25,000
5. Durga Shivavratra Ashadh 10 Gar kalika 20-25,000
6. Kartik Snan Kartik purnima
to
agrahayan
Purnima

30
Near Badnagar 50-75,000
7. Makar Sankranti Paush 1-2 Mahakal temple 25-30,000
8. Magh Snan Magh Purnima
Phalgun purnima

30
Near Badnagar
Bridge and
Triveni
20-25,000
9. Maha Shivratri Magh/Phalgun 1-2 Mahakal Temple
50-75,000
Figure 8-2Annual distribution of festivals
Table 8-3Floating population in other fairs
Total Registered tourists 1825000
Nag panchami 100000
Amavasya purnima snan 600000
Varoni fest 10000
Anant chaturdashi 500000
Mahakal savan sawari 700000

J A N F E B M A R A P R M A Y J U N E J U L Y A U G S E P T O C T N O V D E C
M A R G H S I R S H K A R T IK A S H W I N B H A DR P A D S H A W A N A S H A DH J A I S T H V A I S H A K C H A IT Y A F A L G U N M A G H
2,500
5,000
7,500
10,000
12,500
15,000
17,500
20,000
22,500
25,000
27,500
30,000
32,500
35,000
37,500
40,000 75,000 P / 2 DA Y S
30,000 P / 2 DA Y S
25,000 P / 30 DA Y S
25,000 P / 5 DA Y S
50,000 P / 5 DA Y S
25,000 P / 10 DAY S
50,000 P / 11 DA Y S
75,000 P / 30 DA Y S
P O U S H P O U S H
45,000
42,500
V A I S H A K S N A N
K A R T IK S N A N
D U R G A
H A V R A T R I
G A N G A
P U J A /S N A N /DA S H E R A
P A N C H K R O S H I Y A T R A
S IM H A S T H A
M A G H S N A N
M A H A S H IV R A T R I
M A K A R S A N K R A N T I
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8.2.2.1 Activities Centred around Mela and Festivals
Akhadas : Sadhus of different sects constitute a high percentage of the total pilgrim. They are
Naga Samprayadaya, Udasi sampradya,Nath sampradaya,Achrya sampradya etc.
Dharmshalas,Hotels &lodges : There are 25 dharmashalas and 14 hotels and lodges. But
these are not sufficient to accommodate the large floating population. Another major problem
is that they remain vacant in rest of the period when no activities are taking place.
Camping Ground : Staying in open space has become an usual feature during the important
melas as it is free and is near to temples and ghats. Although temporary arrangement
regarding drinking water supply, drainage lighting etc are made by the mela authority, but it
often proves to be inadequate. Most of the pilgrims bring food materials with them for being
cooked in the open space. So, the entire area becomes dirty and filthy.
Ghats : Image of Ujjain is contributed by two
elements temples and river Kshipra. Image of the
river is read from its Ghats, the water city
interface. Most of the Ghats were built by
Marathas on pre-existed consolidated river banks.
There are about 15 Ghats along river Kshipra. At
Ramghat steps, landing strips, projecting
platforms and temples present themselves in
various combinations to create a changing
scenario along the length of the Ghats creating a
sculptural appearance. Most of the other ghats are
newly built and unsympathetic towards the traditional designs and only done to fulfill
functional aspects of the Ghats.
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The core area having tremendous tourist pressure can be delineated by Chardham to Har
Siddhi temple road on west side, Ramghat road an north side, Hariphatak bridge road on east
side and Jaisingh pura road on Southside. Following major tourist spots fall in the delineated
area and are as follows
Mahakal Temple
Ramghat
Har Siddhi Temple
Chardham Temple
Bada Ganpati
Ram Mandir etc.

8 8. .3 3 P Pr ro ob bl le em ms s a an nd d I Is ss su ue es s
Traffic Congestion: Vehicular traffic has predominantly increased through the years creating
problems of parking, thus, blocking the visibility and accessibility of heritage buildings. Air
pollution from vehicular exhaust is on an increase, causing an irreparable damage to the
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heritage resources. Further widening of roads with insensitive design layout has caused
increase in traffic problems eventually disrupting the total fabric.
Encroachments: The visual character and aesthetic ambience of the heritage buildings/
precincts is totally engulfed by intense commercial activity, signboards etc. This is coupled
with actual physical encroachments around these historic precincts.
Inadequate Municipal Services: Inadequate and inappropriately located facilities for garbage
collection, inadequate fire services due to congested lanes, shortage of water supply, storm
water and sewerage connections has lead to overall deterioration of the urban fabric.
8 8. .4 4 S St tr ra at te eg gy y
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Shri mahakaal mandir -One of the seven Jyotirlinga, this temple has got
great religious importance. The scattered temples of Mahakal,
Harshiddi, Ganpati as well as Rudra Sagar need integrated development.
Bharthari caves this cave is the remains of an 11th century temple .its
conservation has been taking place since last many years.Present status
the structure needs restoration and the area needs to be conserved
Ramghat -Needs revitalization
Kaal bhairav temple Needs restoration
Shri shani temple
Chaurasi Mahadev
Mangalnaath temple
Sapta sagar development
Development of observatory
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The city on the Northern side lacks open spaces and also has maximum tourism potential as
discussed further. Riverfront has a great potential to cater to this need of recreation area for
the residents. This could also work as a development control limiting
the development on the river and maintain its sanctity.
Religious tourism exceeds other kind of tourism in Ujjain
Mass tourism is prominent and potential for high end tourism
Area opposite to Ramghat on the Datta Akhada Kshetra is
already developed as Kalidas Udyan which could be further
developed as comprehensive green space for the city. This
could also work as a cultural area for tourism with Ramghat as backdrop for cultural
events.
A master plan should be prepared for comprehensive development of this area with
following things in mind:
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Redevelopment and restoration of ghats should be done from tourism point.
Pedestrian and vehicular circuit should be established between the monuments /
temples and the ghats
Stretches between ghats should be landscaped and afforested
8 8. .5 5 O Ob bj je ec ct ti iv ve es s w wi il ll l b be e: :
To market image of Ujjain with spiritualism for high end tourism potential
Sustainable development with minimum damage to the environment
Conceptually it would consists of ashrams , matthas of different sects, religious
leaders, centers like Ayurveda, yoga , meditation which would give boost to specific
religious and spiritual tourism. Ujjain as we know has a mythological background and
religiosity forms part of its life which can be as well marketed to give boost for the
economy.
Development should be complimentary to the natural surrounding and sustainable.
Image of the city to be maintained in new constructions


















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9 9. .1 1 O Ov ve er rv vi ie ew w
Municipal governments have been assigned a range of functions related to the provision of
the public services. They strive to meet the costs of constructing and maintaining urban
facilities and services. Revenues must be raised to cover capital investments and recurrent-
revenue expenditures, as well as employees salaries and debt services. The raised revenues
must be utilized to attain the needs of the public as well enhance the development of the city
as a whole Meaning, management of revenues and expenditure planning is very important
aspect for any local body.
Ujjain Municipal Corporation maintains municipal Account for managing the finances of the
Municipal Council. The accounts of the municipal fund are maintained on an accrual based
double entry system (Under Process). Section 132 of Madhya Pradesh Municipal
Corporations Act, 1956, mandates the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) to levy and collect taxes
approved by the State Government and notified in the Official Gazette. This section contains
a description of the municipal finances, the sources and uses of funds, and an assessment of
municipal finances based on important financial indicators.
The Municipal Accounts code of Government of Madhya Parades prescribes the organization
of the municipal Accounts in to three broad categories of General Account, capital Account
and Debt & Suspense (or Extraordinary) Account. Data collected from the annual accounts
of the UMC have been compiled and analyzed under these three categories. For the purpose
of municipal fiscal assessment, financial data pertaining to the last five years (2000-01 to
2004-05) have been compiled in an abstract format.3
Table 9-1 Summarized Municipal Fiscal Status of Ujjain Municipal Corporation
Item 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
Amount in Rs. lakh
Revenue Account
Revenue income 2845.13 2399.1 2844.64 2788.15 3342.7
Revenue expenditure 2700.55 3016.34 3039.04 3679.43 3911.59
Surplus/Deficit 144.58 -617.24 -194.4 -891.28 -568.89
Capital Account
Capital income 2700.55 3016.34 3039.04 3679.43 3911.59
Capital expenditure 0 0 8533.92 8364.45 10028.1
Surplus/Deficit 0 10 684.75 1281.68 -534.05
Extraordinary income 2845.13 2409.1 12063.31 12434.28 12836.75
Extraordinary expenditure 4.5 3.55 2.75 4.4 4.44
Surplus/Deficit 591.53 759.1 609.22 585.88 543.96
Source: Ujjain Municipal Corporation and Financial analysis

3
The municipal corporation has not yet finalized the annual accounts for FY 2005-06 and has provided only
revised estimates for the year 20004-05. Considering that the revised estimates are generally very high compared to
the actual figures, financial data for four years have been used for the analyses.
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The abstract form of municipal annual accounts, indicating actual transaction amounts,
sectoral contributions and growth trends is presented in following Tables.
9 9. .2 2 R Re ev ve en nu ue e A Ac cc co ou un nt t
The Revenue Account comprises of recurring items of income and expenditure. These are
essentially all financial transactions related to the day-to-day operations of the Municipal
Corporation. Table 1-2 summarizes the status of the Revenue Account. Ujjain Municipal
Corporation has maintained a reasonably good revenue account status during the last years.
Figure 9-1 Revenue Account Income
Own Sources/Non Tax comprises of income from municipal properties, fees on municipal
services (building permission, etc.), user charges (water and sewerage tariffs) have not been
introduced yet and income from special services (educational and medical). On an average,
through the assessment period, own source/non tax income constitutes 13.49 percent of the
total revenue income. Income through non-tax own sources of the UMC has not grown over
the assessment period at a CAGR of (5.91) per cent.
Assigned Revenues comprises of income from Government of Madhya Pradesh
(GoMP)/State transfers of municipal income collected by the state line department. The
income items include surcharge on stamp duty, entertainment tax, motor vehicle tax, and
other transfers. Collection of entertainment tax has been discontinued for the last three years.
The amounts of funds transferred to the UMC under this head have fluctuated largely during
the assessment period, indicating irregular transfers. Assigned revenue constitutes about
55.46 per cent of the UMCs total revenue income and has grown at a CAGR of about 4.94
per cent over the assessment period.




Revenue Account- Income
-
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
2000- 01 2001- 02 2002- 03 2003 - 04 2004- 05
Rs. Lakh
Tax- Own Sources Assigned Revenues Non Tax- Own Sources Revenue Grants
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Table 9-2 Revenue Account Status
Head of Account 2000- 01 2001- 02 2002- 03 2003 - 04 2004- 05
I REVENUE ACCOUNT
Revenue Income
Tax- Own Sources 214.92 243.77 295.12 320.34 351.50
Assigned Revenues 1,130.71 1,086.46 1,407.90 1,136.23 1,438.69
Non Tax- Own Sources 353.30 258.82 291.12 332.00 260.49
Revenue Grants - - - - -
Total- Revenue Income 2,217.15 2,063.60 2,390.43 2,106.13 2,365.27
Revenue Expenditure
Establishment 1,056.88 1,343.77 1,160.46 1,302.04 1,497.61
Operation & Maintenance 341.09 327.18 458.67 533.62 944.17
Water & Sewerage Account 1,110.22 1,038.59 1,124.09 1,007.02 1,081.85
Debt Servicing - - - - -
Total- Revenue Expenditure 2,508.19 2,709.54 2,743.22 2,842.68 3,523.63
Source: Ujjain Municipal Corporation and Financial analysis
9 9. .2 2. .1 1 R Re ev ve en nu ue e I In nc co om me e
The revenue income of Ujjain UMC has increased only from Rs. 2217.15 lakh in 2000-01 to
Rs. 2365.27 lakh in 2004-05 a CAGR of about 1.3 per cent. Revenue income consists of the
following major sources
Own Sources/Tax comprises of income primarily sourced from consolidated property tax4
and consolidated tax (general purpose tax, water tax, lighting tax and scavenging tax,
educational cess, city development cess). On an average, through the assessment period, own
source/tax income constitutes 12.7 percent of the UMCs revenue income, with consolidated
property tax5 constituting about 3.56 percent of the revenue income. UMC levies a
consolidated property tax of 6 to 10 per cent of the Annual Rateable Value (ARV). Income
from the aforesaid sources is showing an increasing trend over the assessment period with a
CAGR of 10.36 percent.
Figure 9-2 Revenue Account-Income Ujjain Municipal Corporation
Revenue Grants and Contribution comprises octroi compensation grants, State Finance
Commission (SFC) grants, special establishment grants and other special grants that the State
Government may transfer from time-to-time to the UMC. In case of Ujjain, octroi
compensation is the only significant grant and it accounts for an average of about 45 per cent

4
As elsewhere in India, in Madhya Pradesh property tax is levied under the, M.P. Municipal Corporation Act,
1956 (Section 135) at the rate not less than 6% and not more than 10% of the annual letting value (ARV) of a building
or land. In 1991, a new method of levying property tax was introduced [MP Municipality (Determination of Annual
Letting Value of Buildings/Land) Rules, 1997] under which all ULBs were required to switch to a zonal area-linked
system involving self-assessment of annual rental value (ARV) by the assesses. For this, the municipal corporation area
was classified in more than one zone on the basis of, as far as possible, similar locations of the buildings and lands
situated therein. These were then classified based on quality of construction, use of property and location. The ULBs
were authorized to fix separate rates according to the zone-wise classification.
5
Introduced in 1998-99 allover Madhya Pradesh, this tax is levied at a fixed annual rate and is
collected along with property tax.
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Revenue Account- Expenditure
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500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
2000- 01 2001- 02 2002- 03 2003 - 04 2004- 05
Year
Rs. Lakh
Establishment Operation & Maintenance

of the total revenue income over the assessment period. Income under this head has grown at
a CAGR of about 5.08 per cent over the assessment period.
9 9. .2 2. .2 2 R Re ev ve en nu ue e E Ex xp pe en nd di it tu ur re e
The revenue expenditure of Ujjain Municipal Corporation has grown at a CAGR of 7.04 per
cent during the assessment period, significantly very high than the growth in revenue income
(1.3 per cent). This explains the poor fiscal status of the UMC and has resulted in an
increasing operating surplus over the assessment period. Revenue expenditure comprises
broadly of three categories of expenditure establishment, operation and maintenance and
debt servicing.
Figure 9-3 Revenue Account Expenditure Ujjain Municipal Corporation













The accruals to the municipal fund are applied to carry out designated municipal functions
and services comprising:
General Administration and Tax Collection comprises expenditure on pay and allowances of
elected representatives, salary and other operational expenses related to general
administration and revenue collection, pension and gratuity payouts and provident fund
contributions. The annual expenditure under this head is to the tune of about Rs. 1497.61
lakh (2004-05) accounting for about 42.50 per cent of the revenue expenditure.
Water Supply Expenditure on water supply comprises salaries of all relevant staff and
operating expenditure incurred largely on electricity charges and purchase of chemicals for
water treatment. Water Supply expenditure accounts for about 37.94 per cent of the total
revenue expenditure.
Street light and public health conservancy are largest expenditure head in the municipal fund,
account for an average of over 6 and 5 per cent respectively of the revenue expenditure over
the assessment period. This head covers expenditure incurred in conservancy operations of
the UMC, including salaries of supervisory and field staff and operation and maintenance of
a fleet of vehicles for solid waste collection and transportation. On an average, over 90 per
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cent of expenditure under this head is attributed to salary expenses, and electric bills.
Expenditure under this head has increased at a CAGR of about 31.94 per cent over the
assessment period.
Expenditure on other services accounts for less than 1 per cent of the revenue expenditure
Debt Servicing comprises interest payments on external borrowings. According to the
financial data provided by the UMC, there has been no debt servicing during the assessment
period.6
9 9. .3 3 C Ca ap pi it ta al l A Ac cc co ou un nt t
The Capital Account comprises of income and expenditure, for and on capital works. Table
1-3 summarizes the capital account of the UMC. It may be noted that the last three years of
the assessment period had a net deficit capital account status indicating utilization of revenue
account surpluses for capital works, which is a positive trend.
Table 9-3 Ujjain Municipal Corporation Capital Account
Head of Account 2000-
01
2001-
02
2002-
03
2003 -
04
2004-
05
Rs. Lakh

CAPITAL ACCOUNT

Capital Loans - - - - -

Capital Grants and
Contribution
627.98 348.75 1356.75 4272.88 2480.18

Total- Capital Income 627.98 348.75 1,356.75 4,272.88 2,480.18

Total - Capital Expenditure 191.76 310.05 513.47 3,097.00 2,214.19
Source: Ujjain, UMC and analysis.
9 9. .3 3. .1 1 C Ca ap pi it ta al l I In nc co om me e. .
The sources of capital income comprise largely of grants under state/central government
schemes, loans, and own sources including consumer contributions towards one-time
connection charges for water and sale of municipal capital assets. The annual accounts
statements of UMC indicate that the only source of capital income during the assessment
period has been through own sources under the head of Capital Grants and contributions.7

6
The State Finance Commission devolution made by the State Government takes cognizance of outstanding
debt/liability of the urban local bodies (ULB) in Madhya Pradesh. Devolution is made after appropriating ULB dues to
financial institutions/lending agencies.
7
The municipal accounts statement does not indicate income from new connection charges it may
have been included as part of revenue income from water charges.
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9 9. .3 3. .2 2 C Ca ap pi it ta al l E Ex xp pe en nd di it tu ur re e. .
Capital expenditure comprises all capital expenditure on creation of infrastructure systems
and purchase of plant, equipment and machinery. Most of the capital expenditure incurred
during the assessment period has been on roads and storm water drains.
9 9. .4 4 K Ke ey y F Fi in na an nc ci ia al l I In nd di ic ca at to or rs s
A set of key financial indicators have been derived using the financial data procured from the
UMC for the assessment period. Table 1-4 presents these indicators. These indicators are
used to assess the municipal performance with regards resource mobilization, fund
utilization, financial performance and collection efficiencies.
R
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.
. These indicators summarize the performance of the UMC
with regards sources of funds. Ujjain UMC derives about 40 per cent of its revenue income
from grants, while own sources account for less than 15.21 per cent of the revenue income.
This indicates a very high reliability on grants for operations.
F
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.
..
These indicators are a measure to ascertain the utilization from
the municipal fund. About 45.80 per cent of the revenue expenditure is spent on maintenance
of municipal services and the rest, 45 per cent, is spent on general administration and revenue
collection. However, with regards the nature of expenditure, about 61.82 per cent is incurred
on establishment-related heads salaries, pensions and provident fund contributions which
is very high considering that only about 18.77 per cent is spent on operation and maintenance
of services.
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. These indicators are a measure to assess the
overall financial performance of the municipality with regards operational performance and
effective growth in revenue income and expenditure. The average operating ratio during the
assessment period was a poor indicator 1.29 and the capital utilization ration was also high at
0.72 indicating ineffective utilization of revenue surpluses in asset creation. The indicators of
growth in per capita income and expenditure item heads indicate the effective growth, giving
a performance measure relative to the growing population.
E
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cc
a
aa
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s
ss
.
..
These indicators are essentially a measure to assess municipal
efficiency with regards revenue base coverage and realization.
Table 9-4: Financial Performance Indicators for Ujjain Municipal Corporation.
Indicators Value Unit
RESOURCE MOBILISATION
1 Per Capita Income 549.52 Rs. p.a
2 Sources of Funds
a. Share of Own Sources in Total Revenue Income 15.21 %
b. Share of Octroi in Total Revenue Income 40.04 %
c. Share of Property Tax in Total Revenue Income 10.60 %
d. Share of Revenue Grants & Subsidies in Total Revenue Income 20.86 %
3 Growth in Revenue Income (11.89) % p.a
4 Growth in Own Sources of Revenue Income 8.55 %
5 Per Capita Own Income 151.56 Rs. P.a

FUND APPLICATION
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1 Per Capita Expenditure 660.43 Rs. p.a
2 Uses of Funds
a. Share of Service Expenditure in Total Revenue Expenditure 45.80 %
b. Share of O&M Expenditure in Total Revenue Expenditure 18.77 %
c. Share of Establishment Expenditure to Total Revenue Income 61.82 %
3 Growth in Establishment Expenditure 12.20 %
4 Growth in O&M Expenditure 16.34 %
5 Growth in Total Revenue Expenditure 3.63 % p.a
PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
1 Operating Ratio 1.29 Ratio
2 Capital Utilisation Ratio 0.72 Ratio
EFFICIENCY INDICATORS
1 Tax Collection Performance
a. Consolidated Tax 13.53 %
b. Property Tax 28.40 %
c. Water Tax 23.49 %
d. Conservancy Tax 13.49 %
5 Property Tax Demand per Assessment 1,079.80 Rs. p.a
8 Population per P.T Assessment 5.97 Persons
Source: Ujjain UMC and analysis.
9 9. .5 5 K Ke ey y I Is ss su ue es s a an nd d C Co on nc cl lu us si io on n
Key issues and conclusions are based on the review and assessment municipal finances and
discussions with relevant municipal officials.
M
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The common municipal accounts code is not fully adhered to, especially in cases where new
transaction item heads are encountered. Apportionment of revenue and capital items of
income and expenditure is not carried out appropriately due to non-clarity in principles of
such apportionment at the local level, while it is reported that the State Government deducts
debt due by the UMC and then transfers funds (SFC devolution), the UMC records do not
capture such apportionment.
A common accounting and financial reporting code, updated annually, with interim updations
when required, supported with a user manual and organized training of municipal accounts
staff will help in streamlining financial accounting and reporting.
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.
Taxes and charges are major own sources of revenue income. Being more dynamic in nature
and within the control of the UMC, these revenue incomes have potential to contribute more
to the municipal fund. Besides low tax rates and charges levied, the actual demand itself is
not established. Key issues regarding the above comprise:
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Lukewarm response to the self assessment scheme of property tax assessment and
declaration;
High reliability on revenue grants for operations revenue grants contribute about 44
per cent of revenue income;
Inappropriate record keeping with regard to property tax and water charge assesses;
Unclear status on extent of outstanding taxes and charges collectable.
F
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Key issues regarding application from the municipal fund comprise:
Most of the revenue expenditure (61.82 per cent) is accounted for by establishment item
heads, leaving very little for expenditure on operation and maintenance of services;






















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1 10 0. .1 1 I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n
In order to enable the urban local bodies to perform effectively as vibrant democratic units
of self government, the 74th Constitutional Amendment was introduced in the Parliament
and it became an Act in December 1992. This Act is a great reform act in the political context
as well as in the administrative and financial aspects concerning the urban local bodies in
India.
The 1992 amendments aim at empowerment of local bodies by requiring the state
governments to;
Establish an adequately represented electoral base at local levels with a fixed tenure of
five years, and a provision for holding elections within six months in the event of
premature dissolution of local councils;
Set up mechanisms for consolidating and coordinating planning and development
initiatives and actions of municipalities; and
Consider expanding the role of municipalities, and correspondingly strengthen their
fiscal jurisdiction and power and authority.
Madhya Pradesh has been the leader in terms of progress on the front of decentralisation.
Since the Amendment in 1992, the State passed the conformity legislation in 1993, conducted
three rounds of elections to local governments and has been one of the first states to
constitute and implement the recommendations of the SFCs (1996 and 200).
In July, 1957, the State Government enacted the following legislation, replacing the diverse
legislations
8
in operation in different parts of the state:
The Madhya Pradesh Municipalities Act, 1961
The Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1956
The Constitutional amendment Act, 1992, gives local bodies a constitutional status, assigns
them a large number of functions (Annexure -1), ensures them stability, provides a suitable
framework to function with greater freedom and also makes institutional arrangements for
devolution of larger financial resources. To meet the constitutional requirements and
aspirations, the Madhya Pradesh government made necessary amendments in the existing
legislations relating to local bodies in the state.

8
The following Acts were in operation earlier to the formation of new state of Madhya Pradesh and were
also continued in operation till their replacement by new legislations.
The Central Provinces and Berar Municipalities Act, 1922, as amended between 1927 and 1956, applicable
to Mahakoshal region
The Ujjain Municipal Corporation Act, 1948
The Madhyabharat Municipalities Act, 1954
The Vindhya Pradesh State Municipal Act, 1954
The Madhyabharat Municipal Corporation Act, 1954
The Ujjain State Municipal Act, 1955
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1 10 0. .2 2 I In ns st ti it tu ut ti io on ns s a an nd d O Or rg ga an ni is sa at ti io on n
Urban management in India is facing new challenges in the form of large concentrations of
population in urban areas, opening of the economy and the resultant demand for quality
services, growing number of urban poor, inadequate financial resources and complexities of
urban situations. As a result, urban management has not remained an exclusive responsibility
of the municipal corporations. There are other organizations that are responsible for urban
management like urban development authorities, special purpose boards and corporations,
and the State Government department controlling the affairs of urban development. As a
result of these agencies and the definite roles assigned to them in overall urban management,
the municipal corporation is required to closely work with and share the responsibility of
urban management with them.
Besides Ujjain Municipal Corporation other agencies involved in urban management and
development in Madhya Pradesh (and in Ujjain) are:
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With the enactment of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act, major urban related tasks have
been transferred to Local Bodies. The Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) through its
Urban Administration & Development Department (UADD) is responsible for overseeing
urban sector reforms, in terms of capital investment in basic infrastructure for the Urban
Local Bodies (ULBs). The UADD is also responsible for implementation of various public
welfare schemes sponsored by the Central and State Governments. Some such schemes
include Conversion of Dry Latrine Program, Swarna Jayanti Urban Employment Scheme,
National Slum Development Program, Social Security Group Insurance Scheme, Janashri
Insurance Scheme etc. These schemes are implemented through the District Urban
Development Agency.
Being the parent organization of Municipal Corporations, UADD monitors the functioning of
all municipal corporations in the state.
T
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The activities of Town and Country Planning Department (TCPD) are guided by the
provisions of the Madhya Pradesh Nagar Tatha Nivesh Niyam, 1973 (the Rules). The State
Government, as per provisions of the Rules declares a region including major urban areas and
its surrounding settlements as a planning area, and orders the preparation of a development
plan for the region.
The implementation responsibility of the development plan proposals vests with the Ujjain
Municipal Corporation and the Ujjain Development Authority within their respective
jurisdictions. Enforcement of development control regulations and other guidelines vests
with UMC for areas within its territorial jurisdictions and with T&CPD in the rest of the
planning area. However, in case of large commercial and residential developments within
UMC, a no objection certificate from T&CPD is mandatory for sanctioning building plans.



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The Madhya Pradesh Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh Niyam 1973 (the Act) provides for
formation of development authorities in the State. The primary objective of UDA is the
implementation of the development plan prepared by the T&CPD for Ujjain planning area,
which includes the area under the jurisdiction of the Municipal Corporation of Ujjain (UMC)
and surrounding villages.
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PHED has been given the responsibility of planning, design and construction of the water
supply, sewerage and drainage projects of the municipal corporations (MC) since 1995.
Under this arrangement, the financial and administrative sanction for a project comes from
the PHED. The assets, however, have to be transferred to the MC on completion for
operation and maintenance. Though, the PHED staffs works under tile functional control of
the MC, their administrative control remains with the PHED. There is therefore duality here
and accountability is blurred
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Madhya Pradesh Housing Board (MPHB) falls under the administrative and functional
control of the Housing and Environment Department of GoMP. The operations of the Board
are governed by the provisions of the Madhya Pradesh Housing Board Act, 1972.
Although MPHB is a semi-governmental organization, GoMP rules and regulations
pertaining to establishment and administrative matters are applicable to it. The Ujjain office
of MPHB is actively involved in construction of housing colonies and other government
buildings like schools and buildings, as deposit works.
M
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Implementation, supervision and monitoring activities pertaining to Central Pollution Control
Acts and Rules vests with the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Government of India,
and the respective State Pollution Control Boards formed/constituted under its rules. Madhya
Pradesh State Pollution Control Board (MPPCB) headquartered in the state capital, Bhopal,
carries out its operations through seven regional offices, each located at the divisional
headquarters.
The main function of the regional offices is to monitor the implementation of provisions of
various Acts governing pollution control and prevention.
1 10 0. .3 3 A Ar re ea a o of f F Fr ra ag gm me en nt ta at ti io on n
The major reform to local administration in India resulted with the 74th Constitutional
Amendment Act in 1992, restoring local self governments in the form of mandatory
elections, and delegation of functions and finances articulated by SFC. But, functional
decentralisation will remain on paper, if a corresponding and commensurate financial
devolution is not made to different territorial governments.
Beyond the creation of the democratically elected bodies at the level of municipalities, the
progress on decentralization has, at best, been slow and tardy.
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No worthwhile decentralization of powers and responsibilities had occurred or is in
sight. There exists no evidence that powers and responsibilities of local governments
have, in de-facto terms, been expanded in accordance with Schedule XII. Far more
disconcerting fact is the absence of clarity in respect of the functions of local
governments.
9

Although the state governments have enacted the conformity legislations incorporating
the provisions of the Constitutional amendments, the formulation of rules and bye-laws
to put those provisions into effect has lagged behind.
It is not clear if the recommendations of the finance commission of states have been
acted upon, and if these have led to any improvement in the finances of local
governments.
10.3.1.1 MC and UDA/ TCPD/ HB
The MC-UDA relationship is such that the MC often remains ignorant or casually informed
of new area development till such time when construction has started, and the time comes for
obtaining various clearances like water supply, SWM, drainage linkages access roads, etc.
Often, the MCs are denied the benefit of raising property taxes since the new properties are in
the peri-urban area, even though extended services are provided by the MCs for which
service charges are being received. More importantly, the T&CP make many planning
decisions and recommendations, which are not acceptable to the MC, or which the MC feels
is inimical to the future growth / development of the city. A similar relationship exists
between MC and HB. Handing over-taking over of assets between the MC and the UDA or
HB remains a problem. The obvious remedy lies in making the MC the sole planning
authority, as envisaged under the 74
th
CAA, through which the MC will grant all planning
permissions with a charge only after it has satisfied itself about its current and future
responsibilities. This is a major governance issue.
1 10 0. .3 3. .2 2 I In nt te er r - - A Ag ge en nc cy y I Is ss su ue es s
At present, together with the city corporations, there are state agencies also operating in the
same urban space, independently of the ULB. These are the Urban Development Authority
State Housing Board, the Town and Country Planning Department, etc. Similarly there are
central government agencies. The activities of all these agencies impact on the same or the
peripheral urban space, which affect the spatial pattern and future growth direction. The
corporations only have an operational relationship with these agencies with no control or
influence over the outcomes of their activities. The eventual responsibility for civic services
ultimately devolves to the city authority.
The functional jurisdictions of these agencies vis--vis the Municipal Corporations in respect
of the main civic services are shown in Table 10-1




9
Except in a highly aggregative manner, no commonly accepted or nationwide approach emerges from the reports of
the SFCs. The SFCs have formulated the fiscal package for local bodies without having access to a clear statement on
what the functional jurisdiction of local bodies is or will be for the period of their recommendations. Thus, the
recommended package does not relate to the functions that the local bodies may perform over this period.
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Table 10-1: Agency responsibilities for City Services in Ujjain
S. No Sector Planning and
Design
Construction Operation and
maintenance
1 Water PHED PHED PHED / MC
2 Sanitation &
Sewerage
On Site
PHED
MC / UDA/
HB/NGOs
PHED
MC/ UDA/ HB/
NGOs
PHED / MC
Households
3 Solid Waste MC MC MC
4 Roads/ Bridges
National
State
Local

GoI
GoMP (PWD)
MC/ UDA/ HB

GoI/ GoMP (PWD)
GoMP (PWD)
MC/ UDA/ HB

GoI/ GoMP (PWD)
GoMP (PWD)
MC/ UDA/ HB
5 Drainage PHED/ MC/ UDA PHED/ MC/ UDA PHED/ MC/ UDA
6 Slum Improvement MC/ DUDA MC/ DUDA MC/ DUDA
7 City Planning T & CP UDA/ HB MC (UDA/ HB)
8 Environment MPPCB/ EPCO MPPCB/ EPCO MPPCB/ MC
9 Public health MC MC MC
There are two dimensions of the real situation. In Table 10-1, it should be noted that MC-
PHED and MC-UDA relationships are the most intractable.
10.3.2.1 MC and PHED
PHED has been given the responsibility of planning, design and construction of the water
supply, sewerage and drainage projects of the municipal corporations (MC) since 1995.
Under this arrangement, the financial and administrative sanction for a project comes from
the PHED. The assets, however, have to be transferred to the MC on completion for
operation and maintenance. Though, the PHED staffs works under tile functional control of
the MC, their administrative control remains with the PHED. There is therefore duality here
and accountability is blurred. Secondly, in many cases, taking over of the assets created has
not been completed; the MC complains of lack of resources, and lack of details etc. and the
PHED staff complain of the continuing responsibility of forced maintenance out of their
limited resources. In a few cases, the optimum capacity and the quality of delivery of the
services have decreased due to inadequate maintenance.
Clearly, the current arrangement between the MC and PHED is not working and it is unlikely
to improve in the coming years. At state level, both the UADD and PHED are aware of the
situation, but neither is willing to grapple with the issue.
1 10 0. .4 4 O Ov ve er rv vi ie ew w U Uj jj ja ai in n M Mu un ni ic ci ip pa al l C Co or rp po or ra at ti io on n
1 10 0. .4 4. .1 1 O Or rg ga an ni is sa at ti io on n S St tr ru uc ct tu ur re e
The functioning of Municipal Corporation of Ujjain (UMC) is governed by the Madhya
Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1956 and amendments thereto. The organisational set up
of UMC comprises of a Political Wing (Deliberative) and Executive Wing. The Deliberative
Wing is an elected body of Councillors from different wards in the city and is headed by the
Mayor. The Executive Wing is headed by the Commissioner and looks after the day-to-day
functioning of the Corporation and assists the Deliberative Wing in the decision making
process.
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10.4.1.1 Deliberative Wing
The Deliberative Wing of UMC is headed by the Mayor and overall functioning of the
Corporation is governed by the Mayor-in-Council and the Departmental Advisory
Committees constituted by the Speaker from amongst the Councillors other than the members
of the Mayor-in-Council.
10

The provisions contained in the Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act 1956 regarding
the constitution of Mayor-in-Council, election of a Speaker and formation of Advisory
Committees are given under section 9. Under Section 18 of the Act, the Mayor and elected
Councillors of the Corporation shall elect a Speaker from the elected Councillors. Under
Section 37 of the Act, the Mayor-in-Council shall be constituted by the Mayor from amongst
the elected Councillors within 7 days from the date of election of the Speaker.
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As per Section 403 of the Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act 1956, UMC has
appointed an Appeal Committee to look into the appeals against an order passed by the
Commissioner or an officer subordinate to the Commissioner.
The Appeals Committee consists of the Mayor and four elected Councillors. Any aggrieved
person may appeal against any order passed by the Commissioner or any Officer within 30
days from the date of such order. The Appeal Committee may for sufficient cause extend the
period prescribed for appeal.
When an appeal is made against an order, all proceedings to enforce such order and all
prosecutions for breach thereof are suspended pending the decision on the appeal.
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According to Section 48-A of the Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, the Ward
Committees shall be constituted within 30 days from the date of election of the Speaker.
Every elected Councillor representing a ward within the territorial area of a Wards
Committee and two persons residing within the territorial area of such Committee shall be
nominated as members by the Mayor. The persons shall be nominated on the
recommendation of the Chairman of the Wards Committee and such persons shall not have
voting rights in the meetings.
The State Government has prescribed the duties, powers and the procedure for conducting the
business of Wards Committees. These rules are summarised in the Annexure-4.
10.4.1.2 Functional Review of MiC and General Body
After civic elections, the Mayor-in-Council was constituted by the Mayor in June 2005 as per
Section 37 of the Act. Similarly, the Speaker has constituted the following Advisory
Committees to advise in the affairs of the department concerned.

10
The Mayor-in-Council shall consist of the Mayor and ten members. The Mayor shall be the ex-officio
Chairman of the Mayor-in-Council and shall preside over meetings. The Mayor-in-Council may appoint
one or more sub-committees from amongst its members and may refer to it any matter pending before it for
inquiry and ask for report or opinion.
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Housing, Environment and Public Works Department
Water works Department
Health and Medical Department
Market Department
Education department
Women and Child Welfare Department
Food and Civil Supplies Department
Rehabilitation and Employment Department
Revenue Department
Law and General Administration Department
The member of the Mayor-in-Council have been made Member-in-Charge of each of the
above departments and he is expected to convene the meeting of the Advisory Committee of
the department concerned at least once in every two months and preside over such meetings.
It is expected that the departmental proposals regarding the expenditure and developmental
works shall be first discussed in the Advisory Committee and if approved, subsequently put
to Mayor-in-Council or to other sanctioning authorities for sanction.
However, it seems that the meetings of the Advisory Committees are not held
regularly and many times expenditure proposals up to Rs.10 lakh are directly
sanctioned by the Mayor-in-Council. There appears to be lack of proper coordination
between the two wings, which may be because of the composition of the Mayor-in-
Council, and General Body as different parties rule these bodies. Under such
conditions, the Advisory Committees are not functioning effectively and could not
contribute much in decision making process.
In view of this, there may be a tendency of undertaking proposals costing more than
Rs.10 lakh in parts, for avoiding the submission of proposal to the General Body for
sanction. In the process, the UMC may spend more as the cost of executing the work
in stages is likely to be higher.
There is no mechanism for monitoring the progress of capital works or other
expenditure sanctioned by the Mayor-in-Council.
The organisation structure of the Deliberative Wing of UMC is presented in the enclosed
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Figure 10-1 Organisational Structure of Deliberative wingExecutive Wing

The Municipal Commissioner is the administrative head of the executive wing. According to
Section 69 of the Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, the entire executive power for
the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the Act vests in Commissioner and he shall also:
Perform all the duties imposed or conferred upon him by the Act
Prescribe the duties and exercise supervision and control over the acts and proceedings
of all municipal officers and servants and subject to the rules or bye laws for the time
being in force, dispose of all questions relating to the services of the said officers and
servants and their pay, privileges and allowances.
Take immediate action on occurrence of any accident or unforeseen event and report it
to the Deliberative Wing of the Corporation and the costs if any, of such action and
not covered by the current budget provision.
Mayor
Chair Person
Appeal Committee Advisory
Committee
Ward Committee
Mayor in Council
Departments of MIC
1. Housing, Environment and Public Works Department
2. Water works Department
3. Health and Medical Department
4. Market Department
5. Education department
6. Women and Child Welfare Department
7. Food and Civil Supplies Department
8. Rehabilitation and Employment Department
9. Revenue Department
10. Law and General Administration Department

Public Sphere
Of Ujjain





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The various Departments under Municipal Commissioner have been divided amongst 2
Additional Municipal Commissioners. This deputation of power has been done under Sec 45
of the M.P.MCo Act. There are three Deputy Municipal Commissioners who are in charge of
the central city functions of Finance, Engineering and the city planner deputed from the town
planning department holds the central position as a coordinator to the front line
administrative staff.
The implementation of the decentralisation process is in progress and there is no clarity
regarding the role of the Central and Divisional offices and the functions and powers. The
organisation structure of the executive wing is presented in the enclosed Figure- 10-2.
Figure 10-2 Organisational Structure of Executive Wing of UMC
10.4.1.3 Functions of the Central Office
The operations of the UMC are organised on functional basis headed by the Commissioner to
whom the departmental heads at Central Office and Zonal Officers report. The functions of
the Central Office are as under;
Municipal Commissioner
Addl. Commissioner
Ward Officers
Dy.
Commissioner
Departmental Heads
Public Works Deptt.
Health & Sanitation Deptt.
Water Supply Deptt.
Finance & Accounts Deptt
General Administration Deptt.
Revenue & Tax Deptt.
Public Relation & Library Deptt.
Fire Brigade & Workshop Deptt.
Law Section & Legal Cell Deptt.
Planning & Development Deptt.
Garden & Parks Deptt
Zonal Officers
Dy.
Commissioner
Asst. Commissioner
Technical Staff
Non technical
Staff
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Policy formulation
Planning
Direction, control and co-ordination of activities of the zones and other departments
The departments of UMC and their functions are detailed in Annexure- 6:
1 10 0. .4 4. .2 2 Z Zo on na al l O Of ff fi ic ce es s
For the purpose of better administration and delivery of services to the public, the area within
the UMC is divided in to 4 zones. The Zonal Officer, who reports directly to the Municipal
Commissioner, heads the Zonal Office. The officers that assist the Zonal Officer in the day-
to-day operations are;
Officiating Engineer Public Works
Officiating Engineer Water Supply
Chief Health Inspector
Senior Tax Collector
Office Superintendent / Accounts Clerk
For effective functioning of Zonal Offices, the functions and the powers of the Commissioner
are to the Zonal Officers in three stages.
The decentralisation process is introduced in December 2001 and it is in transitory phase. It
will require some time to streamline the functioning of the Zonal Offices and for providing
adequate infrastructure, staff etc.
10.4.2.1 Functions of the Zonal Offices
The Zonal Offices will perform the following functions:
Health and Sanitation
Water Supply
Property Tax assessments and Collection of taxes
Lighting (Only Supervission)
General Administration
1 10 0. .4 4. .3 3 M Mu un ni ic ci ip pa al l F Fi in na an nc ci ia al l P Po ow we er rs s
According to G.O.No. 24-F-1-65-05-XVIII-3 dated 14
th
July, 2005; the powers and
functions of the Mayor-in-Council are as under:
Table 10-2Financial Powers
S No. Authority Cities with more than 3
lakh Population
Cities with less than 3
lakh Population
1 Municipal Commissioner Up to Rs. 10 lakh Up to Rs.2 lakh
2 Mayor Exceeding Rs.10 lakh but not
above Rs.25 lakh
Exceeding Rs.2 lakh but not
above Rs 10 lakh.
4 Mayor-in-Council Exceeding Rs.25 lakh but not Exceeding Rs.10 lakh but not
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above Rs.1Crore above Rs 25 lakh.
3 Corporation Exceeding Rs.1 Crore Exceeding Rs.25 lakh
Source: G.O.No. 24-F-1-65-05-XVIII-3 dated 14
th
July, 2005
The financial powers described above shall be exercised only subject to the following
conditions:
There should be budget provisions in the sanctioned budget and the amount available
in the relevant budget head for the work concerned.
In the technical cases, there should be the technical obtained in the manner prescribed
in these rules.
Such works which are of the policy nature or relevant to the whole city, irrespective
amount of expenses likely to be incurred therein, the prior approval of the council
shall have to be obtained.
The prior approval of the Corporation or the Council, as the case may be, shall have to
be obtained for giving any grant or reward to any institution or person (excepting the
employees).
In the proposal for construction work in any ward, the recommendation/concurrence
of the concerned ward councillor (if the office of the ward councillor in the concerned
is not vacant), Mayor/Commissioner/Local member of Legislative Assembly/Local
member of Parliament, shall be necessary.
The tender shall be invited for construction work or purchase in accordance with the
provisions of Works Manual and the recommendation of the Tender Committee
prescribed in these rules shall be obtained thereon.
Where the amount of expenditure exceed rupees one thousand and does not exceed
rupees ten thousand, it shall be necessary to call at least three quotations and it shall be
necessary for the sanctioning authority to ensure that the rate which is being
sanctioned is not more than the prevailing market rate.
Provided that, prior to giving sanction, it shall be necessary for that sanctioning
authority to ensure that the provision for the concerned expenditure exists in the
budget.
Provided further that the rate so sanctioned as per the quotation so called, shall be
limited to the concerned work and shall not be used for any other work.
Each authority shall give information to the authority senior to him within 15 days of
the expenditure, exceeding fifty percent or more, of the maximum financial power
vested in him.
In case of exercise of the financial powers by the Mayor-in-Council or the President-
in-Council, as the case may be, information in all relevant cases shall be submitted in
the next meeting of the council.
A proper communication system is necessary between the functional head at Central
Office and the staff looking after the relevant function in the Zonal Office.
It is necessary to establish a proper Management Information System (MIS) between
Central Office and Zonal Offices.
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1 10 0. .5 5 K Ke ey y O Ob bs se er rv va at ti io on ns s a an nd d I Is ss su ue es s
Key observations regarding municipal structure and functions are based upon discussions
with a wide range of municipal authorities and elected councillors and secondary information
available in the Corporation in the form of registers.
The observations with regard to structure and functioning of the deliberative wing and overall
organization of the executive wing of the corporation are discussed under this section. The
issues and program design elements with regard to functional departments of the executive
wing are elaborated in the next section, based on a review of organization, systems and
procedures of key functional departments.
1 10 0. .5 5. .1 1 I Is ss su ue es s o of f D De el li ib be er ra at ti iv ve e W Wi in ng g
Key issues identified with regard to structure and functioning of the deliberative wing are:
Inadequate co-ordination between Mayor-in-Council, Advisory Committees/General
Body and Wards Committees;
Inappropriate representation in the MIC constituted by the Mayor includes members
from the political party that have majority representation from opposition party in the
General Body. This has resulted in occasions where there has been no consensus
among the General Body and MIC regarding city-wide development projects aimed at
improving delivery of civic services;
Limited role of President of the General Body restricted only to presiding over
meetings of the General Body. He does not have a significant direct role or powers in
the decision-making process, although he is a leader of the largest party in the General
Body;
Absence of monitoring system for capital expenditure proposals sanctioned by Mayor-
in-Council or General Body; and
Ineffective functioning of the Wards Committees with regard to project identification
and budget preparation due to inadequate deployment of staff to the Zonal offices.
1 10 0. .5 5. .2 2 I Is ss su ue es s o of f E Ex xe ec cu ut ti iv ve e W Wi in ng g
This section discusses key issues regarding the overall structure of the executive wing and its
functioning. A detailed assessment of issues with regard to the organization, systems and
procedures and associated issues and program design elements for key functions of the
Corporation are presented in the following section.
The key issues regarding the structure and functioning of the executive wing are:
Several senior level posts lying vacant, many resulting from retirements, yet to be
filled with appropriately qualified/experienced personnel;
Very large span of control of the Municipal Commissioner almost all departmental
and sectional heads report directly to the Commissioner, thereby hampering effective
supervision and control over overall functioning of the Corporation;
Ad hoc arrangements made to address vacancies in key posts, resulting in loading
individuals with additional functions of varied nature;
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Piecemeal efforts towards decentralization process due to lack of appropriate quality
and quantity of manpower and inadequate financial resources for establishing the
Zonal offices decentralization not based on a clear reorganization plan;
Inappropriately qualified persons placed as heads in zonal offices, and also in
specialized sections such as town planning, traffic management, accounts and audits,
etc.
Inadequate co-ordination between various departments especially the assessment
section to revenue section, town planning section to assessment section, water supply
department to revenue section;
Absence of a feedback and monitoring system with regard to capital expenditure
proposals sanctioned by the competent authorities;
Inadequate staff and infrastructure at Zonal office to execute decentralized functions;
and
Absence of an effective system/plan for communication of day-to-day transactions,
between Zonal offices and central office.
1 10 0. .5 5. .3 3 O Ob bs se er rv va at ti io on ns s R Re eg ga ar rd di in ng g C Cr re ea at ti io on n o of f Z Zo on na al l O Of ff fi ic ce es s
The Executive Engineers and Assistant Engineers belonging to Water Supply or
Public Works Department have been posted at the Zonal Offices and are functioning
as Zonal Officers.
The main function of the Zonal Officer is control and supervision over the functional
officers working under him and coordination with the Central Office He should
possess considerable administrative experience and authority for effective control over
the officers working under him. Hence, this position should be filled by Dy. Municipal
Commissioner. Each Dy. Municipal Commissioner may be given charge of 3 4
zones, depending on the number of wards in each zone.
The Zonal Offices have not been provided with adequate manpower for office
administration as envisaged in the organisation structure. In the absence of adequate
manpower with requisite skills and experience, the decentralisation of activities may
not yield the expected results.
Officers at Zonal level are mere dispenser of higher level authority orders. They dont
possess adequate financial and execution powers.
1 10 0. .5 5. .4 4 K Ke ey y F Fi in na an nc ci ia al l A Au ut to on no om my y I Is ss su ue es s
The limitations of Municipal Corporation is coming more and more to light against the
background of inadequacy of finances for serving the needs of growing urban communities,
though finance is not the only factor accounting for their unsatisfactory performance. With
the present level of revenue and expenditure, even obligatory functions are being
inadequately performed. Municipal services and amenities are chronically short of basic
requirements. With the present level of funds at their disposal, UMC is incapable of meeting,
leaving alone expanding, and existing facilities in their charge. Ugliness is the dominant
external characteristic of the city.
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Fiscal autonomy largely depends upon the extent to which own resources are raised by
the local bodies. It is a fact that level of resources that can be raised locally is
restricted by narrow economic base of local areas.
But the reluctance of local bodies to tax people and poor administrative capacity at the
local level have also account for the poor financial position of local bodies.
It has been examined empirically by the SFC as to what extent local bodies have
exploited their own resources and also to what extent power to levy taxes and
introduce changes in rates of taxes, is restricted by the state government.
In a federal set-up some restrictions are inevitable.
A highly decentralised tax system may distort the allocation of mobile resources or
factors of production and stand in the way of creation of a domestic common market.
Since self-effort to raise resources may be one of the criteria for determining
devolution of resources from the state government to local bodies, the SFC has made
efforts to collect such data from local bodies and also ascertain reasons for poor
performance on this front.
1 10 0. .6 6 S St tr ra at te eg gi ic c E El le em me en nt ts s f fo or r P Pr ro og gr ra am m D De es si ig gn n
Some of the specific programs that UMC may have to undertake to address the issues
identified above are:
1 10 0. .6 6. .1 1 S St tr ra at te eg gi ie es s f fo or r D De el li ib be er ra at ti iv ve e W Wi in ng g
Establishing a system to ensure proportionate representation of all political parties
constituting the General Body in the MIC, in order to improve co-ordination between
Advisory Committees set up by the General Body and Members-in-Charge of the
MIC. This will require amendment of the Act and rules at the State level;
Establishing a Monitoring Cell for collection of periodic information on
developmental works sanctioned by the MIC/General Body and undertaken by the
Wards Committees. Such a cell could be set up within the Public Works Department
of UMC. The main function of this cell would be to collect periodic information
regarding the proposals sanctioned by the MIC/General Body and reporting the
progress of work to the MIC/General Body through the Municipal Commissioner; and
Establishing an appropriate and effective organizational set-up at the Zonal office
level, to support the Wards Committees in planning, decision-making and
implementation of developmental works.
1 10 0. .6 6. .2 2 S St tr ra at te eg gi ie es s f fo or r E Ex xe ec cu ut ti iv ve e W Wi in ng g
Regrouping of activities on functional basis in order to reduce the number of persons
directly reporting to the Commissioner and establishing reportability through Deputy
Municipal Commissioners and other departmental heads;
Filling vacancies, especially at senior levels, with appropriately qualified personnel
through fresh recruitment or by promoting experienced internal staff with appropriate
training;
Establishing a comprehensive municipal management information system (MMIS)
that facilitates communication between Zonal offices and the central office, the MMIS
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needs to facilitate maintenance and management of functions related to all
departments of the Corporation;
Establishing full-fledged, well-equipped Zonal offices and appointing officials of the
cadre of Deputy or Assistant Municipal Commissioners as Zonal Officers in the Zonal
offices and ensuring right-sizing of staff at the Zonal offices based on a plan for
executing the functions delegated to the Zonal offices.
1 10 0. .7 7 C Ca ap pa ac ci it ty y B Bu ui il ld di in ng g
Capacity building in urban institutions is one area which is much talked about but has been
relatively neglected in terms of action. The restructuring of the roles of the elected ULBs has
to initially come about in the form of partnerships with the parastatals which have been
handling a variety of services. The public service element needs to be made more
professional and accountable to the people. Adoption of modern accounting systems,
improved practices of budgeting and planning, effective use of wards committees and other
means of peoples participation, and programme assistance should be put to use for
improving urban governance Capacity building is required for developing communication
and inter-personal skills among the people responsible for providing for the needs of the
urban poor, for improving the level of services and satisfaction of the beneficiaries, and for
providing coordinated services from a number of line agencies.

Training and development efforts are no longer viewed as peripheral to departmental goals.
The human resources are treated as assets rather than as costs and training is seen in the
government as an investment in future organizational capabilities. A two-pronged approach
is suggested for the same, Firstly, to build capacity for making the administration and the
public institutions more responsive. And, secondly to empower the citizens to create
sustained pressure for change.
The capacity building is not seen in isolation. The capacity building efforts are to be
accompanied with administrative reforms. Administrative reforms efforts aim at:
(a) Improvement of delivery system; and
(b) Image building/correction of the public systems.
The overall goal of the Capacity Building in Public Administration Programme will
contribute significantly to the above objectives.
Capacity Building needs to focus on the entire stakeholder department to cover areas of
policy facilitation, system of restructuring, organization development, and training and
knowledge management. It is required for good government which will bring efficiency and
effectiveness of services and for good governance to deal with the empowering of more
and more stakeholders and bringing in transparency and accountability in the various systems
of delivery for city services.
Good urban management without adequate capacity is a misconception
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1 10 0. .7 7. .1 1 R Re ec co om mm me en nd da at ti io on n & & I Im mp pl le em me en nt ta at ti io on n S St tr ra at te eg gy y
Before taking action on any recommended strategies there are certain issues that need to be
resolved. Unless the department has answers to these no programme undertaken to build the
capacities would be effective in principle.
There is a need to conduct an extensive research programme to analyze the present setup. The
authority at the highest level needs to ask and review the following issues:
Is the present organizational structure ready to implement any development or training
strategy?
Are the roles and responsibilities made clear at all the levels of hierarchy, are the
deliverables clear to employees in order to carry out their functions effectively?
Is there any relevant pre-requisite for technical post or any provision of acquiring the
skill if need be?
Are Manuals and technical instruction guidelines in place and made available to
relevant people?
Is there any vision, a long term plan for the department apart from the short term plan
made for the fiscal purpose?
In the absence of a long term plan, how do the officials plan to achieve a holistic
implementation of the already floated developmental exercises?
Are the Discretionary and Obligatory Duties of the Corporation clearly formulated and
defined?
Has the Act been amended to suit the present setup and requirement?
Can the department make provisions for a fixed tenure of the key officials so that the
initiatives taken at the particular level does not suffer?
Unless there are answers to these issues it is in principal not possible to deliver an effective
training and capacity building programme.

It is very strongly recommended to undertake an in-depth organizational research to study the
various vertical and horizontal levels of hierarchy. To chalk and design the roles and
responsibilities at each level to enable the smooth transition of power when need comes. It
would enable each employee to understand his/her role in clearer terms and carry out the
responsibilities efficiently.
It would be the second phase which would address the issue of training and capacity building.
For smooth functioning and efficient execution of the assigned tasks any department would
like to undertake training programmes in the following areas:
Technical Skills
Upgradation of existing skills
Knowledge of Reforms and Innovations
Behavioral Skills
Employee Development
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Success Stories and Best Practices
Miscellaneous
In past there has been an assortment of training programmes that has taken place for the
municipal personnel as follows:
List of Training Programs for Ujjain Municipal Personnel
Training Module on Land Management.
Training Module on Water Supply Management.
Training Module on Public health.
Training Module on Vital Statistics including Registration of Birth and Death.
Training Module on Environment Management.
Training Module on Solid Waste Management.
Training Module on Urban Planning and Development.
Training Module on Roads & Bridges Construction.
Training Module on Fire Services.
Training Module on Urban Poverty Alleviation.
Training Module on Urban Transportation.
Training Module on Community Participation.
Training Module on Provision of Urban Amenities and facilities such as Parks, Gardens, and
playgrounds.
Training Module on Slum Improvement and Upgradation.
Training Module on Municipal Finance and Resource Mobilization.
These programmes can also be broadly classified into the above mentioned categories. But it
is apparent from this list that sufficient efforts have not been made and there is a need to
make more concerted efforts in the field of training and development to arrive at more
sustainable gains from it.
The training evaluation report of these programs further sums up to the fact that these
training have not achieved the desired results and require efforts to obtain significant and
sustained knowledge gain. As identified by most of the Corporation Employees, there are no
clear guidelines available for carrying out such programmes and there is no mechanism
available to nominate the employees for the same. These factors reiterate that fundamental
need at UMC is in-depth study of the Organizational Structure and Capacity Mapping at all
the levels.
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Following are the steps that should be taken extensively at the department:
HR Initiatives
Prepare an organization chart based on personnel functions and assign appropriately
qualified personnel to identified posts.
Establish an HR Department/agency
Formulate an HR policy incorporating key HR elements (rewards, incentives, training
and career planning)
Determine the areas of capacity building and training for the staff.
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A team of selected personnel would be constituted that will facilitate the process of training
and capacity building. As it is not possible for the department to implement the training
strategy without the professional help in the area and at the same time any outside agency
would not be able to do justice unless the programme is developed jointly by a professional
along with an internal department resource who has a detailed insight to the department.
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A comprehensive exercise with the selected personnel would be undertaken to assess the
training needs of the persons directly connected with the planning process. This stocktaking
will develop a training strategy in consultation with other states carrying the similar range of
activities hence facilitating the knowledge sharing and management.
The training strategy will develop profile of participants, training design and training
modules.
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A Training Manual is a set of guide lines, and instructions elaborating systems, procedures,
processes, and techniques required to be applied in planning, formulating, implementing, and
reviewing departmental training and development interventions by the organization. In
government departments also there is a need to develop training manual to provide direction
for formulating departmental training policy, implementation strategies, and programmes of
action.
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The need for a training plan is to meet the short-term/long-term requirements of an
organization for improving the performance of valuable human resources at all levels. To be
successful, training programmes should not be created in isolation, but structured in line with
goals and the development plans of the individual/ organization. The training and
development plan must be an integrated system of the HR development process and must be
monitored periodically to measure progress.
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A team of resource persons will be constituted to develop resource and learning material for
the training modules
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A critical mass of trainer will be developed at multi-levels. This group will in turn take care
of the training down the line.
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Depending on the number of trainers a series of training of trainers programme will be
conducted. The time frame of the same can be mutually decided by concerned personnel.
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A team of experts and selected beneficiaries will conduct a mid-term review.
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Ideally, training should have reference to earlier programmes and build on them. Trainees
learn more when training is encapsulated and repeated with well-defined objectives concise
and yet comprehensive.
The other training and capacity building activities can be undertaken as per the Training
process flow given in the chart and the action plan as listed:
Broad Training Process Flow
Action Plan Indicators of Achievement Assessment of
Indicators
Assumption (Risk)
1 2 3 4
I. BROAD OBJECTIVES
Capacity development through training.
II. IMMEDIATE
OBJECTIVES
2.1 To identify training
needs
To introduce systematic
training to identify
training needs of
identified target group
To develop training
strategy as per the need

Systematic approach introduced in
identifying training needs by
trainers while designing and
implementing training.
Recommendation/suggestion made
by the participants and feed in to
the development of training
strategy.
Formation of
Steering Group at
the Project level
Field trip
organized to assess
the training need
Steering Group
approves of the
training strategy
Knowledge and
skills are reflected
in the course
organized by the
trainer.

The Project
understand impact
of TOT will be
slow.
The field level
functionaries are
able to articulate
their actual needs
to make the project
successful

III. MODULE
DEVELOPMENT
To develop training
modules on identified
and agreed competence
requirement at, Block
and District level

Development of modules on
identified needs for capacity
building


Assessment of
quality of modules
on the basis of
contents and
processes by
Project partners


Priority given by
the Project.
Effective
networking
amongst Project
partners.
Project partners
take training as a
serious business.

IV. PILOT TESTING
To test the training
module and its
effectiveness
Course conducted for testing
training modules
Incorporation of
Feedback from
participants for
improved quality
Timely release of
the fund for
module
development
Availability of
professionals
V. TRAINING OF
TRAINERS
To develop critical mass
Selection of Trainers
Collaborative development of
training and resources amongst
Identified trainers
undergoes training

Willingness to
learn
Selection of trainer
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of trainer at block/sector
level
Trainers. Trained Trainers
remained in post.
Trainers get
opportunity to
demonstrate their
learned behavior
VI. TRAINING
To conduct and
facilitate training at
various levels
Trainers conduct courses for
identified client at various levels
Number of courses
conducted and
number of people
trained
Availability of
trainees
Project able to
sustain the focus
and momentum of
training
1 10 0. .8 8 U Uj jj ja ai in n M Mu un ni ic ci ip pa al l G Go ov ve er rn na an nc ce e O Ov ve er rv vi ie ew w
In order to translate new policies and paradigm into practice, a framework of the objectives is
to be prepared.
11
It should clearly spell out economic, environmental, financial, social,
constitutional and political objectives. With the ongoing economic liberalisation and
devolution of power to local bodies, gone are the days of armchair professionals. Their
insulation from the general masses and the political system may be catastrophic in the
changing environment, where participatory decision making is becoming institutionalised.
Among the professionals, who require expertise exercised with integrity, skills are necessary
to strike a balance between the political process and service delivery.
Ujjain Municipal governance is bound with the objective of better functioning, efficient and
effective service delivery to the inhabitants of Ujjain City, especially to the disadvantage
sections of the society as envisages in the recent policies and Good governance global
agenda.
1 10 0. .8 8. .1 1 L Lo oc ca al l c co on nd di it ti io on ns s
The settlement pattern of the city mainly concentrated in and around Mahakaal mandir core
area, and recent new developments at the fringe of Municipal limits have come up as
Institutional development towards South of the city. The percentage of population that
commutes to work every day is 5 to 7% of the total. Ujjain being a prime religious centre and
one of the oldest settlements of the state also enjoys potential for diverse economic and
cultural development. Owing to the opportunities of the city location and available
infrastructure as compared to other in the state not many firms have been established in the
last few years, the traditional small scale industries are not getting the required boost in the
corporation area. The local society although remarked as progressive in certain fields,
actually not getting a favourable environment of flushing in the region.
10.8.1.1 Local Public life, Organisations and Media
Although as general perception local people of Ujjain are satisfied with the things going in
the country in general, contradictorily many of them were quit dissatisfied with the, way
things are going in Ujjain city. A very common conclusion can be drawn on the question of

11
In the past, the solution to urban ills was often seen to lie in preventing further urban expansion. Now, the answer is
thought to be greater investment in cities. The problem is not urbanisation itself but more the inability of some cities to
afford the necessary infrastructure to keep pace with the rate of population change and increase in construction as
income rise. Many now argue that with adequate public and private investment and improved urban management, most
cities should be able to improve their local environment and reduce their contribution to global environment degradation.
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how things in the local community in five years from now would be, the answers were
mostly much better and a few exclaimed no change.
Regarding Social tension between people in the community the most prominent reason
quoted are the; Differences in ethnicity and regionalism, Differences in religious beliefs,
Differences in income, Differences in political opinions, Differences between residential
areas, Differences between long-time residents & those who moved here recently
Generally people trust each other, but they dont respect and observe legal rules (such as
Traffic or tax regulations). Despite of small conflicts and agitation in and around, the city
could not be judged as hostile. But in the past few years the trust within the people has
decreased and so as the trust in local government. The power of civic organisation as always
remained out of the city development scenario.
The last few years have witnessed a crucial deficiency of drinking water in various parts of
the city especially in summers, this issues was a major concern of the people of Ujjain. Last
year there had been many public demonstrations. There are cases in which the local
government decisions have been challenged in the court of law by the local residents and
groups in the city. On the contrary the influence of the local residents on the decision making
of the local government is absent to a greater extent.
The role of civic organisations and local residents is limited in the decision making process
of the local government, an increasing trend of the big business house and local private
entrepreneurs is felt with the inception of the programme by UMC as Jankarya by Jan-
bhagidari with external financial support from many interested business associations
specially banks in the beautification of the city.
A limited number of occasions can be identified in which a civil organisation participated in
the preparation of a decision of local government, but certainly there are provisions in the
book of rules of the Municipal Corporation by which through membership in a committee or
subcommittee of the local government can be made. Recent cases has briefed that Municipal
corporation is now taking steps forward to consult the experts of the respective fields and
make the projects more implementation oriented.
The Municipal Corporation also gives assistance in terms of financial or in kind support for
civic societies working in the field of social and city level issues. But a clear symbiotic
relationship lacks in the process as civic societies are neither asked and nor they are bothered
of their role in any type of decision making in the government. This is clear from the fact that
despite of the efforts of the corporation and media in the city there could not be done much
with the privatisation or rendering of services to an external agency.
There are newspapers that, from time to time, give some coverage of public affairs in your
municipal corporation which include coverage from regional to national level news.
The medium of communication of majority of the city was claimed to be Hindi and so the
Hindi news papers are more prominent in the city to name some is Dainik Bhaskar, nai
Duniya, Dainik Jagran, Nav Bahrat etc, beside these many a evening news paper is also very
famous in the region named Sandhya Prakas. A local news paper published in the city which
regularly deals with city affairs is Swadesh.
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The news papers regularly publish the updates of the projects and programme of the local
government and also the arguments and counter arguments of the councillors in the local
assembly.
12

10.8.1.2 Political structure and composition
UMC has 54 elected members. The BJP is the dominant party with a clear majority of 26
councillors, 28 councillors are Congress and the remaining five are independent candidates.
In Ujjain, however, the Mayor represents the minority Congress party. The detailed
composition of the council is as follow
While the mayor is from Congress, the chair of the MiC who is elected from the majority of
councillors is, not surprisingly, from the BJP. Given the fact that the ruling party at State
level is BJP, the MiC chairmans position and role in UMC is rather more prominent than
might ordinarily be expected.
In Ujjain, although there are multi-level dynamics between the majority party, where the
mayor commands neither a majority of members nor control over the MiC leadership, is a
situation where all key decisions first require consultation with BJP members to gain quorum.
This, in turn, means the process of achieving consensus is somewhat more protracted in
UMC than elsewhere, although the result is a high level of political transparency. MiC
members and State government on the one hand, and Congress and the mayor on the other,
there tends to be consensus on most development matters.. There have been instances when
the city-state dynamics have worked in favours of reform decisions.
10.8.1.3 Municipal Decision-making
The cooperation from civil organisation and voluntary cooperation from residents in
launching a program / project had never been that promising to the local government, in-fact
the decisions of the local government are received with a bit of animosity rather than being
supportive. Powerful vested groups in the society have incredible influence on the decision
making of the local government on the other hand the ordinary citizens play a role of
uninvolved critics. With the recent efforts under city consultation process have been initiated
with the surveys conducted by municipal officials and local representatives in the respective
wards [The problems are collected from each ward in a Prescribed forma,t by the ward
officers on regular basis. A new initiative of organizing J an-sampark Abihyan has been
under taken for the same purpose, it is proclaimed in the GOs of the authority UMC that
the case will be looked upon, discussed and shall be solved in a week time], but the
decision making process is quite slow [Very often the representatives of the local
government emerge from their long meetings without having reached a decision] and
the solution to even generic nature as Water supply, sanitation and solid waste management
were not resolved in many a cases except few.

12
In the view of the local representatives, now a days the influence of media cannot be ignored as it has become the
part and parcel of the city governance [Media is been used for both the purpose, but the increasing role of media in
decision making of local government cannot be ruled out completely, as a matter of fact Ujjain has a glorious history in
terms of Journalism, as electronic media has entered our life the flash news of every single second from every walk of
life is accessible by the common providing a better platform to the voice of the residents of the city and many a times
canvases a real picture of what is happening, where, when and why, the sad part of the story is, the use of media by
few influential individuals for their personal benefits in the name of public welfare which actually remarks the
authenticity of the facts as questionable?]

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Generally speaking, the implementation part of decisions made by the local government is
not very successful until and unless it is supported by the higher level government, one of the
reasons could be the existence of partiality in the dealings with individual representatives
The process of decision making generally takes a long path through various pipe lines as;
Preparatory work undertaken by the Mayors Office.
Pre-Consultation with authorities as the National Health and Safety Commission, the
Land Registry Office, or ministries.
The deliberation of the committees of the municipal council
When the Mayor develops an opinion on the matter.
Discussions and negotiations between the councilors.
Discussions and negotiations with the people directly affected by the decision.
The debate on the floor of the municipal council monthly Outstanding.
10.8.1.4 Municipal Policy Making
The mandatory sessions of the council is to meet every month, the year 2004 Ujjain council
had a total of 18 sessions of which 6 were extraordinary. But the acts revealed by most
officials of UMC is it was a general trend that the session of the assembly ended , suspended
or cancelled because of lack of quorum. The reasons of several decisions postponed at
almost every session were;
Lack of information, the councilors deem the proposal was insufficiently prepared
Lack of time
Some councilors try to prevent the adoption of a proposal through postponing the
decision
No agreement is reached in the assembly
Some councilors or factions need more time to develop a firm opinion on the matter
Recently with the recommendations of SFC and financial and technical assistance from Asian
development Bank, HUDCO, and ICLIE, local government have taken initiatives to prepare
program, regulation, or action plan for basic services delivery, public sanitation and
environmental protection programme. The general programme of the Corporation includes
Programme on public education and health, Sports and cultural activities in the city. An
action plan for traffic and transportation is also prepared by the external agency. The work of
Computerisation is under process and the web site is likely to be launched in the near future
for facilitating and informing citizens about the activities of the corporation.
The administrative cost of local government office is regularly reviewed by the council and
provisions are taken in to account for reducing it gradually. More recently a FOP for the
infrastructure development in the city is under taken in the preparatory report formulated for
the sanction of funding from ADB
13
for the projects under different heads. Every three
months the review of the functional and financial status of the Municipal Corporation is done

13
ADB grants 1500 cr aid to MP Jul 9, 2004 ..."The ADB has approved the developmental projects at Indore, Ujjain,
Gwalior, Ratlam and Ujjain and Ujjain," Malayya told reporters here. ... Economic Times, India -
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by the head of the UADD Ujjain in presence of the departmental heads of UMC and
concerned Dept. The corporation has also make up mind to privatize or contract out functions
for the better service delivery to the citizens. Expression of interest for certain functions as
computerization and data base management have been invited by the UMC. But the degree of
privatisation is low as stated by the respondents as for many local hindrances in the system
itself. The respondents believe that the privatisation initiatives by UMC yet not very
promising in terms of reducing the number of local government employees infact many of
them felt in most cases this is the reason for not achieving the objectives of privatisation of
municipal services.
Inability of councillor to set priorities regarding different types of issues is an issue; the
reasons include the conflict within different groups of councillors and with municipal
administration, given the present resources the unclear responsibilities assigned to the
Municipal Corporation by the central and state are many that to, with restrictions of standards
and norms imposed. The discretion of Municipal authorities in determining local
development policies is little, the reason being lack of capacity in the Managerial and
technical front, but the municipal restructuring is also not very easy.
1 10 0. .9 9 U Uj jj ja ai in n M Mu un ni ic ci ip pa al l G Go ov ve er rn na an nc ce e S St ta at tu us s
Objectives of good governance are to ensure that political, social and economic priorities are
based on broad consensus in society and that the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in
decision making over the allocation of development resources. The section in particular
reviews the status of Ujjain Municipal Governance on the basis of certain parameters and
indicatiors.
14

1 10 0. .9 9. .1 1 E Ef ff fe ec ct ti iv ve en ne es ss s
The functioning of the city depends to a large extent on the effectiveness of the local
government and the quality and cost of services it provides. The financial resources available
at Ujjain are 8% as the property tax and the government transfers constitute another half of
the total revenue. The over all revenue has increased by 16.4% as compared to the
expenditure by 11.3% in the year 2002-2003, showing a better financial performance.
The recent collection and balance between the sources of income provides an indication on
the viability, independence and control over resources of the local government, and thus its
effectiveness.
Predictability of transfers to the budget as effective tool for planning and implementation of
institutional development or project planning and implementation lacks in the Ujjain
Municipal Corporation. Moreover, is set on the criteria of arithmetic projections in the
previous account heads by 10% increase every year. This imparts foul confidence of higher

14
Effectiveness: Major source of Income, Predictability of transfers in local govt. Budget, Published
performance delivery standards, Consumer satisfaction Survey, Existence of vision statement.
Equity: Citizens Charter: Right of access to basic services, % of Women Councilors, Pro-poor pricing
policies for water, Incentives for informal businesses.
Participation: Elected Council, Elected Mayor, Voter turnout and voter participation by Sex, Public
forum, Civic Associations per 10,000 population.
Accountability: Formal Publication (of contracts/tenders, budgets & accounts), Control by higher levels
of Government, Codes of conduct, Facility for citizen complaints, Anti-corruption Commission, Disclosure of income/
assets, Independent audit
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level of government in local government and consequently regular support for local
development.
The corporation does not have published performance delivery standards, mechanism that is
required for the efficient delivery of key services. The presence of standards and benchmark
is a first step towards realizing the delivery of services.
It may also point to:
Increased confidence of local population in the local government;
Adherence of the government to equitable distribution of services;
Popular public participation and influence over its administration.
On the same lines UMC also lacks frequent consumer satisfaction survey, infact few survey
held up till now are done by outside development agencies. It becomes difficult to understand
willingness of the local administration to receive critical feedback from the local population
and also the willingness to modify existing systems for working with the local population,
which is likely to enable them to be more effective. By asking for feedback from Local
Population, the Administration is holding itself accountable to the people.
UMCs process of formulating a vision statement implies a first step commitment of the local
authority towards welfare and aspirations of its people. In principle, the vision statement
exemplifies all the components of good governance like accountability, efficiency, equity,
participation and security. A vision statement articulated in a participatory manner increases
its accountability and ownership.
1 10 0. .9 9. .2 2 E Eq qu ui it ty y
Mandated number of women councillors in UMC council indicates the gender equity in
representation of women involved in municipal government decision-making processes as
fundamental to promoting more equitable policies, plans and projects. It also indicates:
Participation: Equal participation of the women is a fundamental human right.
Accountability: Representation of women in the local government to improve the
responsiveness of decision-making processes on specific women issues.
Effectiveness: Policies, plans and projects to be more effective if the priorities of both
men and women are equally and equitably addressed.
Recent reforms and interventions of Pro-poor pricing policies (Under process) for Urban
Infrastructure services signifies commitment and measures undertaken by UMC for equitable
distribution of basic services (water as the key service) to its entire people commensurate
with their economical conditions, especially the poorer sections.
Hawker zones in the various city locations for informal businesses shows the efforts of
government in providing equal opportunities for informal businesses for the economic
welfare of society. It may also work towards reducing corrupt practices in the government
benefiting from such informal vending and provide security of employment to a large section
of society.
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1 10 0. .9 9. .3 3 P Pa ar rt ti ic ci ip pa at ti io on n
Elected Council
15
indicates that the local population has had a role in identifying the
personnel most suitable for governing the city as part of the council and therefore signified
civil society participation.
Elected Mayor indicates involvement/participation of the local population in decision-
making.
Effectiveness: The decisions of an Elected Mayor are more likely to be representative
of the wishes of the local population, and hence the government is likely to be more
effective
Accountability: An elected Mayor is more likely to accountable to the population that
he/she represents, than a nominated Mayor.
The lower voter turnout and voter participation by sex in the Municipal corporation election
(2004) indicates lack of interest and involvement of the public in local government. Low
participation in representative democracy may, however, be balanced by higher levels of
participatory democracy. It may also indicate:
Equity: womens inability to participate equally in formal elections. If disaggregated
by income levels, it may also indicate the meaningfulness of voting to the urban poor.
Effectiveness: strength of local governments development mandate; perceived
relevance of elections results for affecting the quality of life in cities
Accountability: at the extreme, indicator may suggest that elected officials are not
accountable to the population.
The existence of Peoples forum indicates the availability of informal or formal mechanisms
for the public to express their views and share their issues with peers.
The vibrancy of associational life in a city, with larger numbers indicates greater vibrancy.
Organized groups are vital for effective participation. It may also indicate:
Equity: larger numbers indicate the existence of organizations representing the urban
poor, women, minorities or other normally excluded groups.
Accountability: civic organizations help ensure the accountability of local
government, through the mobilization of people behind the issues that affect them;
Effectiveness: the existence of many civic associations also facilitate the formation of
partnerships for the delivery and/or maintenance of services
Security: civic associations can foster a sense of community that can reduce the
individual members vulnerability to crime and corruption and act as a social safety
net
1 10 0. .9 9. .4 4 A Ac cc co ou un nt ta ab bi il li it ty y
The open flow of information is vital for good urban governance. Ujjain Municipal
Corporation has made provisions for formal publication of information regarding contracts
and budgets indicate the willingness of the local authority to be transparent in its activities

15
An elected council is more likely to make decisions that are more representative of the wishes of the local population
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and accountable for its decisions. It also indicates a greater confidence of people in the local
government and integrity of auditing and monitoring. It may also indicate:
Participation: willingness to involve the public in setting/debating budget priorities
and in the evaluation of its procurement processes
Equity and Effectiveness: publication of financial information to encourage
participation in decision-making can not only help eliminate opportunities for
corruption, but helps to ensure that scarce development resources are used most
equitably and effectively.
Control by higher levels of Government to close local authorities or remove councillors at its
discretion, councillors is likely to be more accountable upwards rather than downwards to
their citizens. It may also indicate:
Less effectiveness: possibly because the local authority does not have sufficient
autonomy and resources to act, but also possibly because the local authority has not
proved capable of carrying out its responsibilities
Less Participation: if accountability is oriented upwards, a local authority may not feel
it necessary or worthwhile to promote local participation in decision-making;
UMCs published code of conduct signifies the governments commitment towards integrity
of its officials. It may also motivate and enhance the behaviour of its official and help reduce
corruption.
Facility for citizen complaints in public grievances cell indicates Ujjain Municipal
Governments responsiveness towards integrity of officials and shows the willingness of the
government to be responsive for the welfare of its citizens.
Disclosure of income/ assets by the official and elected represented of the Municipal
corporation is made as a provision in the rule of law, but for the unforeseen reasons never
been practiced. Which imparts the accountability of the decision-makers in the government
and their genuine interest in the welfare of the local people as questionable?
A regular independent audit made in the corporation after the adoption of double accounting
system indicates the accountability of the local government towards its taxpayers and
transparency in providing resources for development projects.
1 10 0. .1 10 0 U Ur rb ba an n G Go ov ve er rn na an nc ce e I Is ss su ue es s a an nd d S St tr ra at te eg gi ie es s
Having the overview of the Municipal Governance, Structure, Procedures and Practices
involved certain major issues are identified and respective Strategies can be formulated to
design and implement programme and projects under JNNURM.
Table 10-3 Urban Governance and Institutional Strengthening Strategies
Issues Strategies Programme/Projects Responsible
Agency
Implementing
Agency
The link between
urban
management and
decentralisation
on the one hand,
and the district
planning and
MCs require
to coordinate
with various
authorities at
the district,
regional and
state level for
GoMP GoMP
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governance on
the other has not
seen established
in operational
terms;
the purpose of
planning and
development to
enable MCs to
participate
more
meaningfully
with DPC, DG,
Zilla
panchayats,
etc;
Coordination and
rationalisation of
inter-institutional
relationship has
to be effected for
better result
between the
municipal
authorities and
Parastatal Bodies
Clear
demarcation of
roles and
functions
between UMC
and Parastatal
Bodies
GoMP GoMP
There are
inconsistencies
and inadequacies
in the urban legal
frame work e.g.
municipal laws,
town and country
planning law,
district planning
law, etc;
Review of
Urban legal
frame in a
more
comprehensive
manner.
Revamping existing
urban Planning laws &
legislations, and
Development control
regulations to meet the
current urban sector
demands
DPC/UMC/T&CPD/
BDA/CPA
Private
Consultant
Planning
capacity, human
resource
development,
financial
management are
not developed, as
a result of which
these are
operating
inefficient;
Mcs may be
facilitated
with the
posting of
technical
officers
(Like Planners,
engineers,
resource
planners, with
or without
support staff
ect.) for one or
a group of
MCs for such
time, in such a
manner and
conditions as
may be
mutually
beneficial.
Review of managerial,
Technical gaps in
UMC and
strengthening project
development and
management
mechanisms.
GoMP/UMC UMC/Private
consultants
Overall there is
lack of
accountability
Achieving
Good
governance
Mandatory training
and research
programme for elected
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councilors and
appointed officials
Incentives to promote
private participation
and NGO in service
delivery
UMC UMC
Awareness programme
for private
entrepreneurs
regarding city
administration and
urban basic services.
UMC UMC
Awareness programme
for Ujjain municipal
officials regarding
efficient working
hours and
responsiveness.
GoMP/UMC NGOs/
Planning and
management
institutions.
and transparency; status in terms
of
Accountability,
Effectiveness,
participation
and equity.
Formulating E-
Governance
Programme
GoI/GoMP UMC/Private
sector
The city is not yet
fully equipped to
take up Physical
Planning Actions
in an integrated
manner;
GIS Survey
and detailed
Structural
plans for city
basic services
and asset
inventory.
Training and capacity
building programme
for employees of UMC
to adopt modern tools
and techniques.
GoMP/UMC UMC /Private
Consultants/
Planning
Institutions

Given the lack of
experience in
formulating and
implementing
poverty
aIleviation
programmes, the
central/state
programmes in
this respect
suffers from lack
of data,
convergence,
quality of work
and community
participation;
Need
assessment of
personnel at
different levels
arising from
new
investment,
method of
recruitment
and placement;
subsequent
restructuring if
necessary.
Project inputs from
social planning
agencies with
proactive involvement
of NGOs and CBOs
GoMP/UMC Social Planning
Institutes/
Private
Consultant
The city is more
used to design
and implement
location-specific
repair,
maintenance and
improvement
works, rather
than city-wide
integrated
systems
Formulating a
city Vision as
shared
perception of
all stake
holders of the
city.
Formulation of a city
Development
strategies plan for
Ujjain with detailed
CIP and FOP
UMC UMC/Private
consultant
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development
planning and
execution;
Absence of a
relevant HRD
programme.
Functional
reorganisation
of and
delegation of
powers to the
departments in
the city is
necessary to
enable them to
perform better.
Restructuring of
existing organisational
setup.
GoMP/UMC UMC/Private
consultant.
1 10 0. .1 11 1 C Co on nc cl lu us si io on n
Summing up, all the salutary recommendations as well as the constitutional amendment
clearly favours an unbundling of administration through decentralisation and is the very
essence of good governance which enables the people to share in the development decisions
as their own doing. While it is all very well to delineate the elements of good governance,
there appears to be a looming chasm between the percept and the practice.
The present changes in the political and administrative reforms have helped UMC in
strengthening of the Functions, Finances for the Functions and Functionaries to a greater
extent. This is reflected in the impact of institutional development, services and finances of
UMC. Although examined with an increasing trends the activities under institutional
development still has not achieved the satisfactory levels. The recent Financial and other
reforms of restructuring and reorganizing suggest an overall shift in the traditional mind set
of the Government and the Governed.
The decentralisation initiatives envisaged in the CAA in context to UMC can be concluded
as, though local self government in Ujjain has deep regards to the objectives laid under the
agenda and few reforms are taken in the direction they shall be rated as average, though the
state may have higher index in comparison to the others. There is a wide scope an
unmistakable opportunity for UMC to fundamentally rethink on how they function and how
they intend to develop their localities. The Document intends to formulate Short term, Middle
term and Long term strategies in institutionalising better functioning and services to city
residents especially urban poor.









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The development plan is an evolving plan for accomplishing vision. Developing strategies to
achive Ujjain vision will necerally involve additional planning processes designed to mora
sysyemetically identified components of major themes and the complex intraction between
them. The development plan sets the stage for more comprehensive planning necessary to
complete strategy.
1 11 1. .1 1 O Ob bj je ec ct ti iv ve es s
Strengthen the physical, social and cultural participation of citizens
Promote public health and wellness by providing opportunities for residents to be
physically, socially and culturally active.
Poverty alleviation and slum up gradation
Initiate up gradation programmes and provide basic services to the urban poor of
Ujjain so that the city becomes slum free by 2021.
Manage growth
Balance modest growth with environmental sustainability and community values.
Protect & enhance air, water and land quality
Restore and protect air, land and water quality to support a healthy local ecosystem for
plants, animals and people.
Support economic development
Take a leadership role in the promotion of a strong and growing local and regional
economy.
Enhance public safety
Engage in problem solving partnerships with the community.
Increase emergency preparedness
Develop and implement a comprehensive emergency preparedness strategy involving
emergency services, municipal staff, business and community associations.
Enhance the Cultural and Heritage image of Ujjain through better tourism
infrastructure
Develop the city of Ujjain with all tourism facilities and provide the city with all
required infrastructure.
Enhance transportation alternatives
Provide a range of transportation alternatives to enhance mobility of all citizens. Plan,
design and construct transportation infrastructure that promotes and enhances safety.

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The city of Ujjain has a strong, vibrant and attractive identity, delivered by building on the
strengths of its community, heritage, culture and religious strengths. The ambitions of its
citizens for 2021 are:
The year 2021 will be an year when:
People and Communities are included, services are accessible and vulnerable people are
supported to be safe, healthy and have choice and independence to improve their
opportunities in life.
There is support and enthusiasm for a vibrant Local Economy, where investment and
innovation are invited and welcomed, where there is a well-balanced housing market that
provides housing for all, and where the heart of the holy city, the core area will be
revitalized.
The advantages of Ujjain as a Pilgrim Centre are complemented by excellent local transport
and traffic arrangements providing easy, safe and affordable movement throughout the
city.
The administration has responsibilities for Culture, Heritage and Religious feelings, and it
makes every effort, with partners, to offer exciting high quality life and facilities for all.
The Environment and Heritage are protected, promoted and enhanced, therefore increasing
even further its attractiveness as a place to live and work.







To make Ujjain a knowledge and pilgrim centre
maintaining its great religious and cultural image
providing a better and sustainable environment to all walks of life.
Ujjain will be
Knowledge centre
Pilgrim centre
Environmentally sustainable
Beautiful and self reliant
A city with Better quality of life to all sectors of the society

Vision statement
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Vision and
goals
Sewerage and sanitation 2010 2015 2020
Need Ujjain city does not have a
sewage collection and
disposal system. Septic tanks
used by some houses are
inadequately designed and
the partly treated effluent
from these tanks flows to the
open drains. The
indiscriminant disposal of
sewage, waste from dry
latrines or open defecation is
common in several areas.
The collection of night soil
and its disposal to water
channels still exists in the
city. The absence of
appropriate sanitation or a
sewage collection and
disposal system pollutes the
river Kshipra (recognised to
be a holy river by millions)
and exposes the city
population and numerous
pilgrims to high
environmental and public
health risks.

Healthy
Community
Improving on
the basic
Infrastructure
gaps.
Environmental
upgradation of
city.
Incorporating
Cost
effectiveness for
the sustenance
of the project.

100 %
coverage of
the population.
Incorporation
of efficient
system to
maintain and
operate the
assets.
Regular
monitoring
and reviewing
of the
performance
of the system.
Building a
self sustained
sewerage
system
equipped to
cater the peak
population
flow at city
festive
occasions



Major issues No underground sewerage
system


Strengths -
Strategies Installation of city level
Sewarge system
System Management
Improvements



The issues regarding Sewerage and Sanitation have been discussed in detail in the chapter on
urban services
To exploit all the available water resources in the city vicinity and improve supply network
so as to provide water for all.
Water supply
Vision and
goals
Water supply 2010 2015 2020
Need Ujjain city is presently
supplied with 90 mld of
treated water. Ujjain will
need a total of 107 mld of
water production capacity to
Efficient and
Effective
coverage of
distribution with
accessibility to
Full Cost
recovery of
the investment
made.
Regular
Conservation
of the water
resource and
Reduction in
the real cost
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fulfil the requirement of 2021
population with a per capita
supply rate of 135 lcpd.
Presently Ujjain has water
adequacy up to 2020 but the
city needs optimisation of
existing system through
replacement of old
distribution pipes of
inadequate size, rehabilitation
of old equipment and
additional service reservoirs
to optimise the water supply
service in terms of quantity,
pressure and duration.
each and every
House hold of
Ujjain city.
Capacity
building of the
institution to
cater to the
rising demands
of future
envisaged.
Designing pro
poor water
policy for poor
of the city.
100% metered
Connections.
monitoring
and reviewing
of the
performance
of the system.
of water
through
better
demand
management.
Major issues Inadequacy in water supply
coverage
Lack of interlinked
networking

Strengths The city has adequate water
till 2020

Strategies Optimisation of Existing
Water Supply System

Water Supply Distribution
Expansion

Making water meters
compulsary




The issues regarding water supply have been discussed in detail in the chapter on urban services

Vision and
goals
Storm water 2010 2015 2020
Need There is no planned storm water
disposal system in the city.
Small and medium surface
drains constructed along the
roads carry household
wastewater and discharge it to
open areas or small water
courses like Hanuman nallah,
Sombaria nallah, etc. These
nallahs in turn discharge to the
river Kshipra.
None of the city nallahs are
capable of carrying storm water
and overflow immediately after
heavy rain. Further, due to
Design and
development of
city Drainage
master plan.
Control on the
disposal of
Untreated waste
water to the
surface water
resources.
Integration of
tertiary House
hold drains
Connections.
O& M,
Tranning and
capacity
building

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construction activities without
proper regard to the drainage
there are several disruptions in
the alignment leading to
stagnation of water in
residential and business areas.
The situation is aggravated due
to dumping of solid waste in the
drains, blocking the flow There
are about 12 major flood prone
areas in the city like Somwaria,
Kartik Chowk, Begampura,
Singpuri,Khatriwadi,
Sakhipura,
Jasingpura,Awantipura,
Ramghat, Indore Gate, Indira
Nagar and K D Gate. These
suffer an unhygienic
environment during the
monsoon.
Major issues Poor condition of drains
Improper maintenance

Strengths Satisfactory coverage
Strategies Construction and Renovation of
Drains
SystemManagement
Improvements


Vision and
goals
Solid waste management 2010 2015 2020
Need In Ujjain the main source of
waste generation is from
households, hotels and market.
Waste generated from hospital
and clinics, which could be
toxic/hazardous in nature, is
currently not separated from
domestic waste. There are no
industries in the area hence the
problem of industrial waste is
non-existent. Solid waste
generated in civil area is not
segregated into biodegradable
and non-biodegradable
category. Waste is collected in
open trolleys/tractors daily in
the morning hours.


Major issues No provision of segregation
Existing open dumping system

Strengths -
Strategies Provision to collect infectious
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biomedical and hazardous
waste separately as per law
Improve working conditions for
sanitary workers through better
equipment and material, and
more effectives procedures
Improve transportation by
mechanisation and enhancing
workshop facilities
Improve final disposal from
uncontrolled dumping to
sanitary landfill


Vision and
goals
Roads andTransportation 2010 2015 2020
Need Like all other cities the road
network in the old city area,
with little or no scope for
widening, is quite inefficient
and inadequate for the present
day traffic. Moreover, there is a
very high degree of pedestrian
traffic, commercial activities
including the informal sector,
absence of any organised
parking space make the
situation worse. Though some
traffic management measures in
the form of banning of heavy
vehicles, one-way operation etc.
are in place, but due to lack of
strict enforcement measures it
fails to give any relief to the
core area.

Better
connectivity to
all parts of the
city.
Decongesting
the pressure
core areas of the
city.
Constructing
roads to suit the
local traffic and
city
environment.
Encouraging
local public
transport
system
Cost recovery
of the assests
created with
O& M
capacity
building of
Institution.
Building
road
infrastructure
to cater rapd
transport
system
owing to the
increasing
congession
in the city.
Major issues Absence of of public transport
system and poor quality of
service and associated
infrastructure (like bus
terminals and tempo stops)
Absence of a comprehensive
and scientific traffic
management system

Strengths Good percentage of road
Coverage .

Strategies Decongestion of the CBD and
old city area.

Widening and Strengthening of
Road Structures and Removal
of Encroachments.

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Introduction of an Integrated
transportation system

Introduction of public transport
system

The issues regarding Roads and Transportation have been discussed in detail with the
chapter on Roads and Transportation

Vision and
goals
Urban poor 2010 2015 2020
Need A large slum population in
Ujjain, some of which are as
yet, unidentified squatters
without any legal standing or
secure tenure, translate into
miserable and unhealthy living
conditions, which affects the
slum dwellers economic
productivity and cumulatively,
that of the city as a whole. The
absence of water supply,
disposal of human waste and
garbage collection may be
identified as the three most
important factors that endanger
the health and wellbeing of
people living in slums.
Provision of these basic urban
services has traditionally been
a municipal function. Hence, in
this context, it is important to
examine characteristics of
slums and slum population in
Ujjain, and most importantly,
the level of access to basic
services and how best
Municipal
Integrated slum
infrastructure
development:
for sewerage
and water
supply
Deliver quality
services to city
urban poor,
effectively and
efficiently.
100 %
coverage of
population
with access
to water
supply and
roads
Integrating
slum
dwellers in
the city
development
mainstream
and
enhancing
their social
and
economic
base through
local
employment
generation.
Major issues The absence of water supply,
disposal of human waste and
garbage collection may be
identified as the three most
important factors that endanger
the health and wellbeing of
people living in slums

Strengths Many of the slums have been
provided with basic services
earliar .

Strategies Involvement of NGOs for
speedier implementation of the

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SNP.
Explore options for private
sector participation in this
project
Evolve strategies for provision
of housing for the
Economically Weaker Sections
to accommodate the urban poor
in proximity to major industrial
areas, commercial hubs etc., by
reserving adequate lands for
EWS housing.
Channelise all programs and
activities of various
government agencies for the
urban poor through the Special
Purpose Vehicle.
Motivate private sector to
participate in slup upgradation
projects.

The issues regarding urban poor and slums have been discussed in detail with the
chapter on urban poverty and slums
















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1 12 2. .1 1 P Pr ro oj je ec ct t I Id de en nt ti if fi ic ca at ti io on n a an nd d C Co os st ti in ng g
High priority investment for the city of Ujjain, for two submissions of Jawaharlal Nehru
Urban Renewal Mission, JNNURM under (I. Urban infrastructure and Governance; II. Basic
services to Urban Poor) are identified and estimated cost for each of the core service sectors
of UMC based on a rapid assessment of the levels and status of urban basic services
discussed in Technical review of City basic Infrastructure and future demand (normative)-
supply gap assessment, using unit costs. Unit costs adopted are based on estimates of similar
projects planned/executed by UMC in consultation with the respective departments.
Basis for Project Identification
Projects identified under each of the core service sectors are broadly categorized as:
Projects for system/infrastructure augmentation;
Projects for system/infrastructure refurbishment; and
Other developmental projects.
1 12 2. .1 1. .1 1 P Pr ro oj je ec ct ts s f fo or r S Sy ys st te em m a an nd d I In nf fr ra as st tr ru uc ct tu ur re e A Au ug gm me en nt ta at ti io on n
The projects for system and infrastructure augmentation are derived based on a broad
demand-supply gap assessment for each of the service sectors, except for sewerage and fire
services, where detailed project specifications and estimates are worked out by PHED and
UMC respectively. The forecast population for the planning horizon (2021) used for demand
estimation is 6,88,000.
The norms adopted are based on sector norms derived from various sources including the
PHED, GoMP for water supply and CPHEEO for solid waste management. In sectors like
roads and street lighting, the norms for surface type of roads, streetlight spacing and
composition of streetlight fixtures are assumed based on existing levels of service so as to
improve the level of service from the current levels.
In case of sewerage, detailed cost estimates worked out by PHED on the basis of the
sewerage master plan are adopted, while in case of fire services, UMCs proposals for
augmentation and modernization of the fire fighting and rescue systems are adopted.
1 12 2. .1 1. .2 2 P Pr ro oj je ec ct ts s f fo or r S Sy ys st te em m a an nd d I In nf fr ra as st tr ru uc ct tu ur re e R Re ef fu ur rb bi is sh hm me en nt t
Projects for system and infrastructure refurbishment are derived based on a quick assessment
of system conditions and discussions with local authorities. Such projects are aimed at
ensuring optimal and efficient utilization of existing infrastructure systems.
1 12 2. .1 1. .3 3 O Ot th he er r D De ev ve el lo op pm me en nt ta al l P Pr ro oj je ec ct ts s
Other developmental projects include projects other than those from core service sectors.
Such projects are identified based on lists and/or reports prepared by UMC and Ujjain
Development Authority (like improvement of water bodies in Ujjain and renewal of the city
core and heritage areas). This also includes the city level facilities like Parks, Sports stadium,
over bridges, subways, parking and tourism and recreational facilities.
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 149 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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1 12 2. .2 2 S Se ec ct to or r- -w wi is se e P Pr ro oj je ec ct t I Id de en nt ti if fi ic ca at ti io on n a an nd d C Co os st ti in ng g
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The total investment requirement for the water supply sector is estimated at about Rs.
4138.10 Lakh. The investment requirement is estimated for various components of water
supply system, including Storage facility (ESR), pipeline for clear water transmission,
internal distribution network and installation of water meters. The investment requirement for
leak detection and rectification in the transmission mains and internal distribution system is
also estimated.
A summary of projects and corresponding capital investment requirement for augmentation
and refurbishment of the water supply system is presented in Table 11-1
Table 12-1 Capital Investment Required for Ujjain water supply Project
Unit Cost Investment
Required
Sl. Component Norm Gap Unit of
Gap
Rs. Lakh- 2005-06 Prices
A System Augmentation
1 Source development
& R.W. transmission
135 lpcd MLD 0.00
2 Treatment facility 100% of
water drawn
MLD 0.00
3 Clear water
transmission
- do Km 240 Rs/Capita 1651.52
4 Storage facility 35 % of
water drawn
10% ML 98 Rs/ Capita 675
5 Distribution network 60 % of road
length
Kms 137 Rs /Capita 941
6 Water Meters 100% 100% 280.00
Sub-Total System Augmentation 3,547.52
B System Refurbishment-
1 Leak reduction in
RW transmission
mains
-- -- LS 0
2 Leak reduction in
internal distribution
system
-- LS 522.21
3 Repairs to water
treatment plants
-- -- LS 68.37
4 Drive for
regularization of
illegal connections
and conversion of
PSPs to community
taps, etc.
--
LS
0.5
Sub-Total System Refurbishment 590.58
Grand Total Water Supply 4138.10
Source: PHED, Ujjain Municipal Corporation

Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 150 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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Sewerage projects are adopted from the internal sewerage scheme for Ujjain city prepared by
Public Health Engineering Department for Ujjain. The project costs are escalated by 6 per
cent to derive the costs at 2005-06 prices.
In addition to the underground sewerage scheme, the investment requirement for construction
of public toilets and conversion of dry latrines to water-flush-based toilets is also estimated.
Table 12-2 presents a summary of the component-wise investment requirement estimated for
sewerage and sanitation.
Table 12-2: Capital Investment Requirement for Ujjain Sewerage & Sanitation
Unit
Cost
Investment
Required
Sl. Component Norm Gap Unit
of
Gap
Rs. Lakh- 2005-06 Prices
A Underground Sewerage Scheme (based on PHEDs Project Report)
1 System
Augmentation
-- -- LS 3291.76
2 System
Refurbishment
-- -- LS 1908.24
Grand Total Sewerage & Sanitation 5200.00
Source: PHED, Ujjain Municipal Corporation
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The investment components for storm water drainage include upgradation of kutcha (un-
lined) drains to pucca (lined) drains and construction of new roadside tertiary storm water
drains. In addition, investment requirement for improving ten major water bodies in Ujjain is
also considered. The water bodies improvement proposal is also expected to enhance the
flood absorption capacity of the water bodies.
The unit cost adopted for the costing of storm water drains is Rs. 800 per running meter for a
brick-and-cement-lined drain section of 0.45 m x 0.45 m, as per the PWD Schedule of Rates
of Madhya Pradesh. The unit cost for upgrading unlined - kutcha drains to lined - pucca
drains is Rs. 600 per running meter for a similar cross-section. The cost of construction of
new drains is estimated on the unit rate of Rs.1400 per running meter.
Table 12-3 Summary of component-wise investment for storm water drainage.
Unit
Cost
Investment
Required
Sl. Component Norm Gap Unit
of
Gap Rs. Lakh- 2005-06 Prices
1 Upgradation of
existing drains
Drains
100% Pucca Drains 205 Kms 6 1962.00
2 New Drains Drain length
equivalent to 130%
of road length
100 Kms 14 5950.00
Grand Total 7912.00
Source: PHED, Ujjain Municipal Corporation
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 151 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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The current rate of solid waste generation in UMC is about 150 tons per day. The waste
generation rate is estimated to grow at the rate of 4 gpcd per annum, as experienced during
the last two decades. Assuming a linear growth trend at 4 gpcd per annum, the waste
generation rate in 2021 is estimated to be about 456 gpcd [416+ (4*(2005-2021)]. The total
municipal solid waste generated in 2021 by a projected population of 6,88,000 is estimated to
be about 300 tons per day.
Major components of capital investment in solid waste management are primary and
secondary collection infrastructure (dustbins and vehicles) for collection and transportation of
solid waste, and a sanitary disposal facility. The norms adopted for estimation of demand in
terms of these components are based on the CPHEEO norms of 1999-2000.
Capital investment requirement is estimated for infrastructure requirement to collect and
transport total waste generated in 2021. In addition, investment requirement for setting up a
sanitary engineered waste disposal facility and for improvements to the workshop is also
estimated.
Community participation and training of conservancy workers play a major role in ensuring
efficient solid waste management. The cost for creating community awareness and training
of conservancy workers is also incorporated in the capital investment requirement for solid
waste management.
Table 12-4 presents the summary of capital investment requirement for improving
infrastructure for and facilitating efficient solid waste management.
Table 12-4: Capital Investment Requirement for Solid Waste Management
Unit
Cost
Investment
Required
Sl. Component Norm- No.
per Ton of
Waste
Requirement
Gap-
Nos.
Rs. Lakh- 2005-06
Prices
A Infrastructure & Vehicle Requirement
1 Containerized handcarts 3.75 1125 425 0.15 63.75
2 Containerized tricycles 0.25 75 62 0.115 7.13
3 Community bins 3.75 1125 400 0.5 200
4 GI Body Bin (600 l) 340 0.165 56.1
5 Skip cotainer (2500 l) 50 0.175 8.75
6 16 GVW Tipper 5 16.5 82.5
7 16 GVW compactor
vehical
9 14 126
8 4.5 cum. skips for
construction waste
0.05 15 14 10 140
9 Skip lifters 0.01 3 3 12 36
10 Small vans for hospital
waste collection
0.01 3 2 2.25 4.5
11 Incineration plants 0.01 3 3 25.48 76.44
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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12 Bulldozers/ wheel-
dozers
1 1 1 50 50
13 Asphalt /concrete for
flooring at the waste
storage depots
0.85 255 340 0.07 23.8
Sub-Total Infrastructure & Vehicles 874.97
B Composting Facility 100% of waste
generated
325 2.4 780
C Improvement to
workshop
-- LS 120
D Community awareness
& training
-- LS 15
Grand Total Solid Waste Management 1,789.97
Source: Health Department, Ujjain Municipal Corporation
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The investment requirement under roads is estimated for projects including construction of
new roads and upgradation of existing BT roads, water bound macadam and earthen roads.
The municipal corporation is responsible for construction of city-level roads (including
master-plan proposals for new roads and widening of existing roads and provision of missing
links), while the construction of internal roads is the responsibility of colonizers/land
developers.
The proposals for new roads and widening need to be arrived at based on a comprehensive
traffic and transportation study including a traffic volume-capacity analysis. However, in
order to estimate the investment requirement on roads, it is assumed that the current per
capita road length would remain static over the planning horizon (2021) and the additional
road length required for future population is determined accordingly. In case of road
upgradation, the composition of municipal roads by surface type is used as the basis for
identifying road upgradation projects.
Based on the adopted norm of 1.04 meters of road length per capita (existing level), the total
road length required by 2021 works out to 795.6 kms - about 400 kms in addition to the
existing 395 kms of municipal roads. The road upgradation and new formation requirement
by type of surface are derived based on the assumed composition of municipal roads by
surface type.
The unit costs adopted are based on the Schedule of Rates of the PWD, Madhya Pradesh.
The unit costs adopted are Rs. 60 lakh per km for construction of concrete roads, Rs. 20 lakh
per km for hot-mix bitumen surfaced roads, and Rs. 165 per sq.m. for water bound macadam
roads. The existing average road width of 8 meters is adopted to arrive at the unit rate per
running kilometer.
Table 12-5 presents the norms adopted for the estimation of new road formations and for
ascertaining the upgradation requirements and Table 12-6 presents the summary of the capital
investment requirement to achieve the adopted norms.
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
Ujjain Municipal Corporation 153 City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh
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Table 12-5: Norms Adopted for Estimating Investment Requirement in Roads
Sl. Component Norm- Unit
A For Estimating Total Road Length
1 Total Road Length 1.04 meters per capita
B For Estimating Upgradation requirement
1 Concrete 40 % of total municipal road length
2 Black topped 60 % of total municipal road length
3 Water bound macadam 0 % of total municipal road length
4 Earthen/others 0 % of total municipal road length
Source: Public works Department, Ujjain Municipal Corporation
Table 12-6: Capital investment Requirement for Road Upgradation & Construction
Unit Cost Investment
Required
Sl. Component Gap -
Kms
Rs. Lakh - 2005-06 Prices
A Road Surface Upgradation
1 Black topped to
concrete
19 km 60 1,125.00
2 WBM to black
topped
10 km 20 200
3 Earthen to black
topped
18 km 40 720.00
Sub-Total Road Upgradation 2,045.00
B New Road Construction
1 Concrete 132 60 7920
2 Black topped 198 40 7920
3 Maintenance of cc 132
4 Maintenance of BT 240
Sub-Total New Roads 15,840.00
Grand Total Roads 17,885.00
Source: Public works Department, Ujjain Municipal Corporation
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The Municipal Corporation executes the installation of streetlight poles, including the wiring
through the Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board (MPSEB). The cost of the material and
installation is borne by the Municipal Corporation. The cost of pole installation and wiring
payable to MPSEB by the Corporation is Rs. 4,206 per pole. The cost adopted for provision
of lighting fixtures with all fittings is Rs. 5,000 for a high power sodium-vapor type of fixture
and Rs. 4,000 for a fluorescent tube light fixture (based on local market prices).
At the aggregate level, the number of streetlights provided in Ujjain appears to be adequate
with respect to road length, with an average spacing of around 20 meters, compared to a
norm of 25 meters. However, about one-fifth of the total lighting fixtures are ordinary bulbs,
which need to be replaced with better illuminating and cost-effective fixtures. Also the
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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streetlight fixtures in some areas need to be upgraded to high power fixtures. Table 12-7
presents a summary of norms adopted for ascertaining the demand-supply gap and Table
12-8 presents a summary of the unit costs adopted and estimated investment requirement for
improving street lighting.
Table 12-7: Norms Adopted for Estimating Investment Requirement in Street Lighting
Sl. Component Norm- Unit
A For Estimating Number of Poles
1 Total Number of Poles 25 meters average street light spacing
B For Estimating Upgradation Requirement
1 High Power Fixtures 33% % of total street lights
2 Fluorescent Tube Lights 67% % of total street lights
3 Bulbs 0% % of total street lights
Source: Ujjain Municipal Corporation
Table 12-8: Capital Investment Requirement for Street Lighting
Unit
Cost
Investment
Required
Sl. Component Gap-
Nos.
Rs. Lakh- 2005-06 Prices
A Street Light Fixture Maintenance
1 Tube Lights to High Power Fixtures 4,500 0.05 225
2 Tube Lights 2,500 0.014 35
Sub-Total Fixture Upgradation 260
B New Poles
1 High Power Fixtures 2500 0.2 500
2 Tube Lights 3000 0.15 450
3 Central Lighting 50 0.5 25
Sub-Total New Poles 975
Grand Total Street Lights 1235
Source: Ujjain Municipal Corporation
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The Fire Services Department of the Municipal Corporation lacks appropriate and modern
equipment and infrastructure for fire fighting and rescue operations. The department has
prepared a list of equipment and vehicles required for modernization of fire services. The
Municipal Corporation also plans to establish sub-stations at three strategic locations so as to
enable timely response to emergency situations. Table 12-9 presents the requirements of the
Fire Service Department as per its own proposal.
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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Table 12-9: Capital Investment Requirement for Fire Services
Unit
Rate
Estimated
Amount
Sl Item/ Description Number
Required
Rs. Lakh @ 2005-06
Prices
A Purchase of Vehicles & Equipment
1 Rescue Van 1 2 15 30
2 Fire Water Tenders small 4 10 40
3 Fire Water Tenders 10 5 12 60
4 Water laury 10 10 100
5 Advanced Fire-fire Equipment (Hose Pipes, Search
Lights, Gas Cutters, Generators, Life Jackets,
Wireless Sets, etc.)
-- LS 150
Sub-Total A 380
B Others
1 Fire Hydrants at Different Locations LS
2 Establishment of Sub-Fire Stations LS 100
3 Shifting of Main Fire Station on the Main Road -- LS
Sub-Total B 100
Grand Total Fire Services 480
Source: Fire Department, Ujjain Municipal Corporation
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Ujjain is a major Pilgrimage center and a potential tourist destination of Madhya Pradesh
renowned all over the world. Keeping in mind the future population pressure and growing
demand of urban space the city authorities through public consultation identified the problem
and potential area of the city with need an immediate renewal one in the very core of the city
Mahakaal and Ramghat area and in various other locations which demand a revamp before
the next Singhast 2016. The Tables 12-10 & 12-11 gives the gist of the identified area of
investment and intervention with the investment required.
Table 12-10 Summary of the investment required for city level facilities
Sl. Component Investment Required
1 New Construction for Public facilitation 450
2 Bridges 5100
3 Subway 110
4 Parking 425
5 Upgradation of 132 existing Parks 2240
6 Special facilities 835
7 Working Women Hostel 700
8 Old Age Home 300
9 Upgradation and renewal of existing Building
Assets
250
10 Kshir sagar Stadium 300
11 Kali das Udhayan kattik mela and someshwer
Thirth
40
12 Mukti dham (Chakra Tirath) 50
Grand Total investment 10800
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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Table 12-11 Summary of the investment required for city Religious core area development
Unit Rate Estimated
Amount
Sl Item/ Description Quantity
Required
Unit Rs. Lakh @ 2005-06 Prices
A Revitalization of Ujjain_ Mahakal and Ram Ghat Religious Core city area
1 Roads
a Widening of narrow Streets and
Foot paths
20 Km 25 500
b New Roads construction 10 Km 80 800
c Construction Of New Culverts and
Bridges
230
d Upgradation of Roads 80
2 Water Supply
a Replacement of worn out water
pipes by new higher capaacity one
25
3 Sewerage / Sanitation
a Renewal of sewerage System 110
b Laying of new Sewerage Lines LS 60
4 Strom water Drains
a Construction of new Drains 13 Km 16 208
b Renewal of Old Open drain System 20 Km 10 200
5 Solid waste Management LS 380
6 Beautification of Squares,
Landscaping and street funnitures
for road, Plantation, etc.
LS 600
7 Heritage Building Restoration and
campus beautification.
3000
8 Restoration and Rejuvenation of 10
Water Bodies
LS (As per DPR) 5000
9 Public facilities and Utilities LS 200
1/ Under Ground cabling of street light. LS 100
Grand Total of Urban city Core Renewal 9493
Source: Ujjain Municipal Corporation

Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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With the focused attention to integrated development of Basic Services to the Urban Poor in
Ujjain city, provision of Basic Services to Urban Poor including security of tenure at
affordable prices, improved housing, water supply, sanitation and ensuring delivery through
convergence of other already existing universal services of the Government for education,
health and social security.
Care has been taken to see that the urban poor are provided housing near their place of
occupation. Secure effective linkages between asset creation and asset management so that
the Basic Services to the Urban Poor created in the cities, are not only maintained efficiently
but also become self-sustaining over time.
The project has intended to ensure adequate investment of funds to fulfil deficiencies in the
Basic Services to the Urban Poor and Scale up delivery of civic amenities and provision of
utilities with emphasis on universal access to urban poor.
Table 12-12 presents the capital investment required for the basic services to urban poor in
Ujjain city with the gap to the present level status.
Table 12-12: Capital Investment Requirement for Basic Services to Urban Poor in UMC
Unit
Cost
Investment
Required
Sl. Component Norm Gap Unit
of
Gap
Rs. Lakh- 2005-06 Prices
A. Slum Improvement and rehabilitation project,
(Integrated development of Slums )
1 Housing 2000 H/H 0.8 1600
2 Roads
a. New Proposed Road 20 Km 37.50 750
b. Upgradation of Existing of
Road
82 Km 12.50 1025
4 Water supply distribution line 400 H/H 1230.76
5 Sewerage/ Sanitation
a. Sewerage system
b. Individual Toilets to H/H 10000 0.05 500
6 Drainage
a. upgradation 66.5 Km 1265
b. New Construction 56 Km 1569
8 Environmental improvement/
solid waste management
LS 150
9 Street Lighting 250 +700 123.00
10 Civic Amenities, community
hall, child care center.
LS 500
11 Convergence of health,
education and social security
schemes for the urban poor.
LS 50
12 Operation and maintenance
of assets created under these
components.
4% of the
Project
Cost
255.24
Grand Total Investment 9018
Source: Ujjain Municipal Corporation.
Ujjain City Development plan for JNNURM scheme
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1 12 2. .3 3 T To ot ta al l C Ca ap pi it ta al l I In nv ve es st tm me en nt t R Re eq qu ui ir re em me en nt t
Figure 12-1 Investment Composition Sector wise
The total estimated capital investment requirement for providing basic services for the
population of the Municipal Corporation of Ujjain by the year 2012 works out to about Rs.
74124.07 Lakh (at 2005-06 prices). Simhasta 2016.
Ujjain being a prime religious and tourist pilgrim centre of Malwa region renowned all over
world for the temples. Keeping the fact and criteria of selection of Ujjain under JNNURM
mission the city core religious area is given utmost importance with the share of 13 per cent
of total investment. However invest in other sectors shall also contribute to the upgradation
of infrastructure facilities in the core of Ujjain city making it a sole sector for development.
Table 12-13 presents the summary of sector-wise investment requirement for the core
service sectors.
Sewerage and sanitation (7%) accounts for the estimated investment required in UMC. This
is primarily due to the proposed underground sewerage system.

Investment Composition
Solid waste
management
2%
Strom water
10%
Sewaerage
7%
Water Suppl y
6%
Taffic
management and
Bus Terminal
Development
3%
Environmental
Upgradation and
Conservation of
Kshipra Ri ver
5%
City Public
facilities
15%
Basic Services to
Urban Poor
12%
Urban Renewal
13%
Street lighting
2%
Fire Services
1%
Roads
24%
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Water supply, which accounts for about 6 per cent of the total estimated investment
requirement, is constituted mainly by system Distribution works for the 2021 population.
Investment in storm water drains, which accounts for about 10 per cent of the estimated
investment requirement, is constituted primarily by investment for construction of new
tertiary drains (60 per cent) and upgradation of kutcha to pucca drains (33 per cent).
The share of roads in the total estimated investment is also about 24 per cent. About 20 per
cent of the investment in roads is for road upgradation from black-topped to concrete surface
and earthen to black-topped surface, while the remaining 80 per cent is towards the
construction of new black-topped roads.
Solid Waste Management (2 per cent), street lighting (2 per cent) and fire services (1 per
cent) together account for only about 5 per cent of the total estimated investment
requirement.
The major thrust area is concentrated to be Basic services to urban poor constituting an
overall 12 per cent of the total investment and City level facilities 15 per cent keeping in
mind the demand of the city for the forth coming Simhasta 2016.
Ujjain being a prime religious and tourist pilgrim centre of Malwa region renowned all over
world for the temples. Keeping the fact and criteria of selection of Ujjain under JNNURM
mission the city core religious area is given utmost importance with the share of 13 per cent
of total investment. However invest in other sectors shall also contribute to the upgradation
of infrastructure facilities in the core of Ujjain city making it a sole sector for development.
Table 12-13: Summary of Sector-wise Capital Investment Requirement in UMC
Sl. Sector/ Component Investment
Requirement- Rs. Lakh
@ 2005-06 Prices
Share in
Total/
Grand Total
1 Water Supply
a System Augmentation 3,547.52
b System Refurbishment 590.58
Total Water Supply 4,138.10 6
2 Sewerage & Sanitation
a Phase I 1,908.24
b Phase II 3,291.76
Total Sewerage & Sanitation 5,200.00 7
3 Storm Water Drains
a Upgradation of existing Drains 1,962.00
b Construction of New Drains 5,950.00
Total Storm Water Drains 7,412.00 10
4 Solid Waste Management
a Purchase of Vehicles & Equipment 847.97
b Sanitary Engineered Disposal Facility 780
c Improvement to workshop and Community
awareness & training
135
Total Solid Waste Management 1,762.97 2
5 Roads
a Upgradation of Roads 2,045.00
b Construction of New Roads 15,840.00
Total Roads 17,885.00 24
6 Street Lighting
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a Upgradation of Lighting Fixtures 260
b Installation of New Poles 975
Total Street Lighting 1235 2
7 Fire Services
a Purchase of Vehicles & Equipment 380
b Others 100
Total Fire Services 480 1
8 Work Shop Upgradation 200 0.27
9 Urban Renewal of Religious City core area 9493 13
10 Basic Services to Urban Poor 9018 12
11 City Public facilities 10800 15
12 Environmental upgradation and conservation of
Kshipra River and Rejuvenation of Ghats
4000 5
13 Traffic management and Bus Terminal
development
2500 3
14 Other 3663.88
Grand Total Investment Requirement 75903 100
Source: Ujjain Municipal Corporation
1 12 2. .4 4 F Fi in na an nc ci in ng g P Pl la an n
The Project is proposed to be financed with assistance from GoI and State Government of
Madhya Pradesh and a share of Ujjain Municipal Corporation on 80:10:10 basis under the
national level Jawaharlal Nehru Urban renewal Mission. The GoI shall disseminate Rs.
60722.4 Lakh as its share to the state level Nodal agency and then with prior approval of
projects through the procedures set under the project financial and technical arrangements for
the project funds shall be made available to UMC to implement the projects.
GoMP will further sub-lend a sum of Rs. 7590.3 lakh and the proceeds of the GoI assistance
to the Ujjain Municipal Corporation in a mix of soft loan and grant/grant cum loan as per
stated terms under the mission.
The remaining amount of about Rs 5313.21 Lakh will be contribution of beneficiaries of area
improvement facilities (7% of the Investment) and Ujjain municipal own resources. The
balance 3% (2277.09) will be contributed by Financial Institution This amount will finance
the cost of city basic infrastructure services Part A, basic services to urban poor under Part B
and the costs of Design and Construction Supervision consultants and incremental
administration under Part C. The proposed financing plan is summarized in Table 12-14.
Table 12-14 Project Financing Options plan
Financing Options Estimate of additional
Resources
Percentage
Government of India, GOI (Grant) 60722.4 80%
Government of Madhya Pradesh, GoMP (Grant/soft loan/
Grant cum loan)
7590.3 10
Ujjain Municipal Corporation Own resources 5313.21 7
Financial Institutions 2277.09 3
Capital Market
Off-shore Financing
Private Sector
Total 75903 100
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1 13 3. .1 1 O Ov ve er rv vi ie ew w
The investment sustenance of the Ujjain Municipal Corporation is assessed using a Financial
Operating Plan (FOP) model, which is essentially a forecast of the local bodys finances
based on certain realistic assumptions relating to revenue generation and expenditure, in
order to assess impacts of proposed investments. The capital investments required for the
identified 7-year high priority interventions (HPI) are to be initiated from FY 2005-06.
The FOP is worked out for three scenarios, viz.
1. Base Case;
2. Full HPI; and
3. Sustainable HPI.
In the base case scenario, the finances of the UMC are forecast in a do nothing wherein the
revenue account of the ULB is forecast based on certain realistic assumptions. Since the FOP
model is developed to ascertain the HPI investment sustaining capacity, the base case
scenario is developed assuming that there will be no new capital account transactions this
will indicate the UMCs capacity to generate revenue surpluses to service capital
expenditure.
In the full HPI scenario, the estimated investment for HPI is phased over the FOP horizon
and the implications of this investment in terms of external borrowings required and resultant
debt service commitment and additional operation and maintenance expenditure are worked
out to assess their impact on the municipal finances. This scenario also takes into
consideration the additional revenue generation potential due to large-scale investments in
water supply and sewerage projects and the applicable funding structure for capital works.
The outcome of this scenario will indicate the extent of fiscal support required by the
municipality to sustain the identified HPI.
The sustainable HPI scenario is worked out when the full HPI scenario indicates inability of
the municipality to sustain the full identified investment. In this case, the identified
investment is sized down through an iterative process to assess the maximum investment
sustainable by the municipality. The criteria for assessment of investment sustenance are a
positive year-to-year closing balance of the municipal account. The outcome of this scenario
will give an indication of the actual level of investment sustainable by the municipality
without any additional external support.
This section elucidates the major assumptions and basis for forecast of the municipal finances
for the FOP plan period, the impact of undertaking full HPI on the overall municipal fund
and actual investment sustainable by the ULB.
The FOP horizon is determined so as to assess the impact of full utilization of the High
priority sectoral investment. The proposed capital investments are phased over a 7-year
period from FY 2005-06 to 2011-12, implying that the last loan/Grant draw down would
occur in FY 2011-12. Considering a 7-year moratorium period adopted, the maximum debt
servicing commitment will fall in year 2012-13. The FOP is thus worked out for the period
2005-06 to 2021-21.
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In the absence of final financial data for FYs 2005-06, 2004-05 is considered as the base year
and the finances are estimated / forecast for the period 2005-06 to 2020-2021.
1 13 3. .2 2 K Ke ey y A As ss su um mp pt ti io on ns s
The FOP is based on a whole range of assumptions related to income and expenditure. These
are critical to ascertain the investment sustenance and would also provide a tool to test certain
specific policy decisions regarding revenue and expenditure drivers on the overall municipal
fiscal situation. This section elucidates the key assumption adopted for the three FOP
scenarios.
1 13 3. .2 2. .1 1 R Re ev ve en nu ue e A Ac cc co ou un nt t
The following section details out the basic assumptions adopted for forecasting income and
expenditure.
Assumptions for Forecasting Income and Expenditure
The assumptions and working sheets for forecasting municipal income and expenditure for
the three scenarios base case, full investment and sustainable investment - are presented in
Tables below. The assumptions adopted are primarily based on past trends (5-year average
growth trend or 5-year compound annual growth rate - CAGR, whichever is lower), subject
to minimum and maximum annual growth rate ceilings.16
13.2.1.1 Municipal Taxes
The primary tax sources, viz. property tax, water tax/charge and consolidated tax are forecast
based on assumptions on the base (number of assessments) and basis (tax demand per
assessment) and the collection efficiencies. In addition to the above taxes, provision is also
made for estimating income from sewerage tax/charge, subject to implementation of the
proposed sewerage scheme.
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Number of Assessments
In case of property tax, the total number of property tax assessments in 2004-05 as per UMC
records adopted as the base. The number of properties in UMC has increased from 41746 to
72113 at a CAGR of 10.66 per cent during 2000-01 to 2004-05. A nominal growth rate of
1.73 per cent (equivalent to forecast population growth rate of 1.5 per cent during 2005-06 to
2020-21) is adopted for forecasting the number of property tax assessments.
Tax Demand per Assessment
The average annual property tax demand per assessment in 2004-05 is 358.23 Rs. The same
demand per assessment is adopted for 2005-06 to 2010-11 and is assumed to be revised once
in 5 years by 30 per cent beginning from 2006-07, at a conservative simple growth rate of 5
per cent per annum.

16
In case of recurring items of income and expenditure, a CAGR would be more appropriate, while in case of non-
recurring items, the average growth rate would be a better representation. However, to be on a conservative
side, the lower of the two growth rates are adopted for forecasting items of income and higher growth rate
figures are adopted for forecasting items of revenue expenditure, subject to minimum and maximum ceilings
of 5 and 15 per cent respectively.
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Collection Efficiency
The average property tax collection efficiency during 2000-01 to 2004-05 was 29.15 per cent
and 24 & 42 per cent of arrears and current tax demands respectively. It is assumed that
UMC would gradually increase its tax collection performance to 50 per cent and 75 per cent
against arrears and current tax demand respectively.
Table 13-1 Key Assumptions for Forecasting income from property tax
Assumptions Sl. Description Current
Level Base Case
Scenario
Full HPI
Scenario
Sustainable
HPI Scenario
1 Annual growth in number of
assessments (%)
-- 1.5 1.5 1.5
2 Annual growth in ARV of new
assessments (%)
-- 3 3 3
3 Average ARV per Property (Rs.
Per Annum)
579 579 579 579
4 Tax Rate (% of ARV) 6-10 10 10
5 Periodic increase in ARV (%) 5
2005-06 -- 30 30 30

2010-11 -- 30 30 30

2015-16 -- 30 30 30

2020-21 30 30 30
6 Collection Performance (% of
Demand)
29.15
Arrears 24 50 50 50
Current 42 85 85 85
7 Growth in revenue from property-
related taxes
13.19 10 10 10
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Number of Assessments
There are about 45,403 registered house service connections in UMC, which accounts for
only about 58.89 per cent of the property tax assessments. In addition, as reported by UMC
officials, there are an estimated 15,000 unauthorized house service connections.
For the base case scenario, it is assumed that the 15,000 unauthorized connections would be
regularized in 2006-07, thereby increasing the number of HSCs to 77,099 (83.76 per cent of
the number of property tax assessments). In the absence of additional investment in water
supply, the number of water tax/charge assessments is assumed to stagnate at the 2004-05
level. At a nominal regularization fee of Rs. 1,000 per connection, the income from
regularization accruing to UMC would be Rs. 150.00 Lakh.
In the full investment scenario, it is assumed that due to augmentation of the water supply
network, UMC would cover 90 per cent of the property tax assessments through house
service connections (HSCs) in a phased manner by 2007-08.
Tax Demand per Assessment
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The average monthly water tax demand per assessment in 2000-01 is Rs. 126.82. The same
demand per assessment is adopted for 2001-02 to 2002-03 and is assumed to be revised once
in 5 years by 30 per cent beginning from 2006-07, at a conservative simple growth rate of 5
per cent per annum.
Collection Efficiency
The average water tax collection efficiency during 2000-901 to 2004-05 was 24.38 per cent
and only 11 per cent of arrears and 43 per cent current tax demands respectively. It is
assumed that UMC would gradually increase its tax collection performance to 50 per cent
and 75 per cent against arrears and current tax demand respectively.
Table 13-2 Key assumptions for forecasting income from water charges
Assumptions Sl. Description Current
Level Base Case
Scenario
Full HPI
Scenario
Sustainable
HPI Scenario
1 % water connections to property
tax assessments
58.89 58.89 80 66.2
2 Avg monthly water charge per
connection (Rs.)
60 60 60/120 60/100
3 Periodic revision in water charges
2005-06 -- 30 30 30
2010-11 -- 30 30 30
2015-16 -- 30 30 30
2020-21 -- 30 30 30
4 Collection Performance (% of
Demand)
24.38
Arrears 85.71 50 50 50
Current 61.11 75 75 75
5 Growth in income from water
charges (% p.a)
9.51 5.54 5.54 5.54
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Number of Assessments
The number of assessments for consolidated tax is the same as that for property tax, and the
same is adopted for future years.
Tax Demand per Assessment
The average annual consolidated tax demand per assessment in 2000-01 is Rs. 159.47. The
same demand per assessment is adopted for 2005-06 to 2007-08 and is assumed to be revised
once in 5 years by 30 per cent beginning from 2007-08, at a conservative simple growth rate
of 5 per cent per annum.
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Collection Efficiency
The average consolidated tax collection efficiency during 2000-01 to 2004-05 was 13.52 per
cent and 6 per cent of arrears and 37 Per cent current tax demands respectively. It is assumed
that UMC would maintain a 50 per cent collection performance against arrears demand and
gradually increase its collection performance to 75 per cent against current tax demand.
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UMC does not levy a sewerage tax/charge currently. Hence this tax is not considered in the
base case scenario. However, if the sewerage scheme, envisaged as part of the CIP is
implemented, it is assumed that UMC would levy a sewerage charge.
Number of Assessments
The ultimate number of assessments for sewerage charge, or the number of sewerage
connections is assumed at 75 per cent of the total water connections. It is assumed that the
75 per cent coverage will be achieved in three annual phases of 25 per cent each beginning
from 2006-07. From FY 2005-06 onward, a proportion of 75 per cent will be maintained.
Tax Demand per Assessment
An average monthly sewerage tax/charge demand of Rs. 100 per connection from FY 2006-
07 is assumed to compute the demand from sewerage tax/charge. The sewerage tax/charge is
assumed to be revised by 30 per cent once in five years, beginning from 2007-08, at a
conservative simple growth rate of 5 per cent per annum.
Collection Efficiency
A collection efficiency of 50 per cent of the current demand of sewerage tax/charge is
assumed for the first year of the levy of the charge, i.e. 2006-07. From 2008-09 onward, a
collection efficiency of 50 per cent and 75 per cent of the arrears and current demands
respectively, is assumed.
Table 13-3 Key assumptions for forecasting income from Drainage Charges
Assumptions Sl. Description Current
Level Base Case
Scenario
Full HPI
Scenario
Sustainable HPI
Scenario
1 % drainage connections to
PT assessments
- - 60 30
2 Avg. monthly drainage
charge per connection (Rs.)
- - 50 50
3 Periodic revision in
drainage charges

2005-06 -- 30 30 30
2010-11 -- 30 30 30
2015-16 -- 30 30 30
2020-21 -- 30 30 30
4 Collection Performance (%
of Demand)
--
5 Arrears -- 50 50 50
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6 Current -- 75 75 75
7 Growth in income from
drainage charges (% p.a)
-100 -100 -100 -100
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Other relatively insignificant taxes like wheel tax, cinema tax, entry tax, etc. are forecast to
grow at a nominal rate of 15 per cent per annum, as against a CAGR of 4.3 per cent. The very
low CAGR in realization from other taxes is due to the decrease in the Assigned revenues of
cinema and passenger tax came into effect only in 2000-01. However, based on reports that
entry tax would not be levied from FY 2001-02, the income from other taxes is forecast
based on the 2000-01 realization.
The CAGR of income from all taxes forecast based on the above assumptions for the period
2000-01 to 2004-05 works out to 9.92 per cent, against the actual 5-year CAGR of 26 per
cent during 1996-97 to 2000-01.
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The non-tax sources of revenue income, viz. municipal own sources, compensation and
assigned revenue and revenue grants are forecast purely based on past trends (5-year average
growth trend or 5-year compound annual growth rate - CAGR, whichever is lower) subject to
minimum and maximum annual growth rate ceilings of 5 per cent and 15 per cent
respectively.
The CAGR of income from all non-tax sources forecast based on the above assumptions for
the period 2005-06 to 2020-21 works out to 13.59 per cent, as against the actual 5-year
CAGR of 43.88 per cent during 2000-01 to 2004-05.
Table 13-4 key rate assumptions for income from other own sources
Sl. Description Current
Level
Assumption (All three
Scenarios)
1 Octroi Compensation income 5.08 5
2 Rent from municipal properties -3.72 5.00
3 Income from educational institutions -- -
4 Non-tax conservancy receipts -- -
6 Interest income -100 -
7 Miscellaneous -19.23 15
Based on the above assumptions, the CAGR of the total revenue income works out to 12.67
per cent as against the actual CAGR of 21.95 per cent during 2000-01 to 2004-05, which is
very much on the conservative side.
Revenue Expenditure
Items of revenue expenditure are categorized under the following broad heads, viz.
Establishment expenditure;
Contingency/O&M expenditure;
Employee terminal benefits, pensions, etc.;
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Debt servicing;
Clearing of non-debt liability; and
Additional recurring and debt servicing expenditure due to CIP.
Establishment Expenditure
The establishment expenditure of UMC has grown at a CAGR of about 7.22 per cent during
the last five years. The same growth rate 7.22 per cent per annum is assumed for
forecasting establishment expenditure.
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The expenditure incurred by UMC in operation and maintenance and minor repairs of its
infrastructure systems and properties has grown at a CAGR of 22.58 percent during 2000-01
to 2004-05. This high growth is primarily due to inappropriate booking of expenses by UMC
in terms of capital and revenue items. It is likely that some capital expenditure items have
been accounted under revenue account. A nominal growth rate of 15 per cent per annum is
assumed to forecast operation and maintenance and contingency expenditure.
Employee Terminal Benefits, Pensions, etc.
Expenditure on employee terminal benefits and pensions has grown at a CAGR of 16.34 per
cent during 2000-01 to 2004-05. The same growth rate of 16.34 per annum is adopted for
forecasting expenditure under this head.
Table 13-5 Key growth rate assumptions for forecasting revenue expenditure
Sl. Description Current
Level
Assumption (All three
Scenarios)
1 General Administration & revenue
Collection

Allowance to Elected Rep. 8.51 5
Overall General Administration 29.24 15.00
Tax Collection Expenses 23.49 15
Pensions and Gratuities -- -
Contribution to Provident Fund 20.92 15
Total-General Admin. & Revenue Collection 14.97
2 Municipal Services - -
General Expense 43.45 20
Water Supply 9.26 9.26
Sewerage & Sanitation -- -
Solid Waste Management 16.83 15
Public Works (Roads, Drains & Bldgs) -- -
Street Lighting 36.42 15
Public Health (Medical) 5.4 5
Education -- -
Other Services & Misc. -4.6 5
Total- Municipal Services 32.35 15.00

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Debt Servicing
The outstanding debt liability of UMC as on 31st March 2005 was reported to be nil.
Clearing of Non-debt Liability
The outstanding non-debt liability of UMC is primarily in the form of power charges due to
Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board (MPSEB). According to information collected from
the office of MPSEB in Ujjain, the outstanding power charges due from UMC is Cleared.
But UMC officials claim that some reconciliation had been carried out based on MPSEB
dues to UMC in the form of property tax and there was no outstanding amount due to
MPSEB. Thus this amount is not considered in the forecast of expenditure.
Based on the above assumptions, the CAGR of total revenue expenditure for the period 2005-
06 to 2020-21 works out to about 9.06 per cent, against the actual CAGR of 13.4 per cent
during 2000-01 to 2004-05.
Additional Recurring and Debt Servicing Expenditure due to CIP
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The capital investments envisaged as per the CIP are bound to impose additional
establishment and O&M expenditure on UMC. Such additional expenditure is estimated
based on percentage of capital costs as estimated by the consultants from their experience in
other projects. The percentages thus adopted are presented in Table 13-6
Table 13-6: Basis for Additional Recurring Expenditure due to Envisaged CIP
Sl. Sector Recurring Expenditure as % of Capital Cost
1 Water Supply 3.00
2 Sewerage & Sanitation 2.00
3 Solid Waste Management 8.00
4 Roads 5.00
5 Storm Water Drains 20.00
6 Street Lighting 5.00
7 Fire Services 5.00
8 Others 1.50
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Grants
UMC receives project-related capital grants from GoMP for specific schemes like provision
of basic services and environment improvement in slums, NRY and SJSRY, flood relief, etc.
The CAGR of such grants during 2000-01 to 2004-05 was 31.62 per cent. However, a
nominal 15 per cent increase is assumed while forecasting receipts in the form of capital
grants.
In addition to the above regular capital grants, the FOP has a provision for incorporating GoI
and GoMP grants for funding large capital investments under the JNNURM Project,
especially in the water, Sewerage, Road and sanitation sectors. The receipts under such
grants however are not considered in the investment scenarios, as the policy of GoMP in this
regard is not clear.
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Loans
Capital income in the form of loans is forecast based on phased capital investment identified
as part of the CIP. It is assumed that regular scheme-based capital grants received by UMC
would be used to fund the identified CIP, and UMC would mobilize the balance amount to
fund the capital investment through loans.
The terms of borrowing assumed are interest rate of 15 per cent per annum repayable in 15
years in equal annual installments. Borrowings do not feature in the base case scenario, as
the capital investment due to the CIP is not considered. In the other two investment
scenarios, the resource gap between phased investment requirement and regular capital grants
is assumed to be mobilized through external borrowings.
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The capital expenditure in the base case scenario is assumed to be equivalent to the receipt of
capital grants on the basis that all capital receipts would be applied only for capital works.
1 13 3. .3 3 I In nv ve es st tm me en nt t P Ph ha as si in ng g
In the investment case scenarios, the identified CIP capital investment of Rs. 74124.07 Lakh
at 2005-06 prices is phased over 7 years in consultation with UMC officials and based on
UMCs cash flows. The investment phasing schedule is presented in Table-13-7 and the
investment figures at current prices, escalated at 6 per cent per annum are presented in Table-
13-8. The total investment at current prices thus works out to Rs. 55902.53 Lakh over a 07-
year period from 2005-06 to 2011-12.
Table 13-7 Ujjain Investing Phasing for Full capital investment
Sl. Sector Total
Investment
Investment Phasing %
Rs. Lakh
(2005-06
prices)
2005-
06
2006-
07
2007-
08
2008-
09
2009-
10
2010-
11
2011-
12
A. System Refurbishment/Rehabilitation works
1 Water Supply 3547.52 10 20 20 20 20 10
2 Sewerage &
Sanitation
1,908.24 10 50 20 20 -
3 Solid Waste
Mgmt
1189.95 10 50 20 20 -
4 Roads ULB
owned
2045 20 20 20 20 20
5 Roadside
Drains ULB
owned
1962 20 20 20 20 10 10
6 Street Lighting 260 30 20 20 20 10
7 Fire Services 100 20 30 50
7 City Core area
development
2,795.00 20 20 20 20 20
8 Basic services
to urban Poor
3292.7 30 20 20 10 10 10
9 City Basic
Facilities
4125 20 20 20 20 10 10
10 Trafic
Transportation
1000 10 30 20 20 20
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and Bus
Terminal
Development
11 Enveronmental
Upgradation of
Kshipra River
2500 10 50 20 20
12 Others 1774.42 10 10 20 20 20 20
Sub-Total A 26,499.83 - - - - -
B. Systems Augmentation Works
1 Water Supply 590.58 25 25 25 25 -
2 Sewerage &
Sanitation
3,291.76 25 25 20 20 10
3 Solid Waste
Mgmt
888.06 25 50 25 - -
4 Roads ULB
owned
15840 20 20 20 20 10 10
5 Roadside
Drains ULB
owned
5950 - 20 20 30 20 10
6 Street Lighting 975 - 20 20 20 20 20
7 Fire Services 380 20 30 50
7 City Core area
development
4,198.00 - - 20 30 50
8 Basic services
to urban Poor
5725.3 20 20 20 10 10 10 10
9 City Basic
Facilities
6675 25 25 25 25
10 Trafic
Transportation
and Bus
Terminal
Development
1500 25 25 25 25
11 Environmental
Upgradation of
Kshipra River
1500 10 10 10 20 20 20 10
12 Others 1889.46 10 10 20 20 20 20
Sub-Total B 49,403.16
Grand Total
Investment
75,903

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Table 13-8 Investment Phasing and cash Project cash flow
Sl. Sector Total
Investmen
t
Investment Phasing %
Rs.
Lakh
(2005-
06
prices)
2005-
06
2006-
07
2007-
08
2008-
09
2009-
10
2010-
11
2011-
12
A
.
System Refurbishment/Rehabilitation works
1 Water Supply 3547.52
354.75
2
709.50
4
709.50
4
709.50
4
709.50
4
354.75
2
2 Sewerage &
Sanitation
1,908.24
190.82
4
954.12 381.64
8
381.64
8
-
3 Solid Waste
Mgmt
1189.95
118.99
5
594.97
5
237.99 237.99 -
4 Roads ULB
owned
2045
409 409 409 409 409
5 Roadside
Drains ULB
owned
1962
392.4 392.4 392.4 392.4 196.2 196.2
6 Street
Lighting
260
78 52 52 52 26
7 Fire Services 100
20 30 50
7
City Core area
development
2,795.00
559 559 559 559 559
8 Basic services
to urban Poor
3292.7 987.81 658.54 658.54 329.27 329.27 329.27
9 City Basic
Facilities
4125
825 825 825 825 412.5 412.5
10 Trafic
Transportation
and Bus
Terminal
Development
1000
200 300 200 200 100
11 Enveronmenta
l Upgradation
of Kshipra
River
2500
250 1250 500 500
12 Others 1774.42
177.44
2
177.44
2
354.88
4
354.88
4
354.88
4
354.88
4

Sub-Total A 26,499.83 1,966.65
4,233.95
7,089.42 5,000.70 4,754.50
2,687.36
767.25
B. Systems Augmentation Works
1
Water Supply
590.58
147.64
5
147.64
5
147.64
5
147.64
5
-
2 Sewerage &
Sanitation
3,291.76
822.94 822.94 658.35
2
658.35
2
329
3
Solid Waste
Mgmt
888.06
222.01
5
444.03 222.01
5
- -
4
Roads ULB
owned
15840
3168 3168 3168 3168 1584 1584
5 Roadside
Drains ULB
owned
5950
- 1190 1190 1785 1190 595
6 Street
Lighting
975
- 195 195 195 195 195
7 Fire Services 380
76 114 190
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7
City Core area
development
4,198.00
- - 840 1,259 2,099
8 Basic services
to urban Poor
5725.3
1145.0
6
1145.0
6
1145.0
6
572.53 572.53 572.53 572.53
9 City Basic
Facilities
6675
1668.7
5
1668.7
5
1668.7
5
1668.7
5

10 Trafic
Transportation
and Bus
Terminal
Development
1500
375 375 375 375
11 Environmental
Upgradation
of Kshipra
River
1500
150 150 150 300 300 300 150
9 Others 1889.46
188.94 188.94 377.89 377.89 377.89 377.89
Sub-Total B 49,403.16 1,295.06
7,964.36
9,609.37 9,904.78 10,507.57 6,647.60 3,474.42
Grand Total
Investment
75,903
3,262 12,198 16,699 14,905 15,262 9,335 4,242
Source: Ujjain Municipal Corporation
1 13 3. .4 4 R Re es su ul lt ts s o of f F FO OP P
Based on the above assumptions, the FOP is worked out for three cases, in order to assess the
investment sustaining capacity of UMC.
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The FOP for the base case is worked out without considering the identified CIP investment.
The closing balance of UMC by the terminal year of the FOP, i.e. 2011-12 would be Rs.
4,899.43 Lakh. This could be considered as an indicative investment sustenance level of
UMC, not withstanding additional recurring expenditure that would arise due this investment.
F
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In the full investment scenario, the entire estimated investment of the CIP is loaded on the
FOP as capital expenditure, as per the investment phasing presented in Table 13-7, 13-8 and
the additional recurring and debt servicing expenditure are considered under revenue
expenditure.
The closing balance of UMC by the terminal year of the FOP in the full investment scenario
would be minus Rs. 674.71 Lakh, indicating that UMC would need to generate revenue to the
tune of this amount in order to be able to sustain the identified investment of Rs. 75903 Lakh
(at current prices). It needs mention that based on the assumptions adopted; the water
account would continue to be a surplus one, while cost recovery in the sewerage account
works out to less than 30 per cent. UMC would have to undertake significant reforms in
taxation, aimed at full cost-recovery and improve its tax and charges collection efficiency in
order to be able to sustain the full identified investment.
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The sustainable investment, given the assumptions adopted in forecasting municipal income
and expenditure and considering 80 per cent capital grant from GoI and 10 per cent share of
GoMP and 7 per cent of municipal own source with addition a capital loan of 3 per cent from
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financial institution for infrastructure development of the city comes out to the tune of Rs.
29738.79 Lakh 39.18 per cent of the identified investment at current prices With the above
investment, UMC would still have a closing balance of Rs. 728 Lakh in 2011-12.
The sub-project priority adopted while sizing down the investment is in the following order:
Water Supply and Conservation of water bodies
Municipal Drains
Solid Waste Management;
Municipal Roads;
Sewerage & Public health and Sanitation;
Street Lighting;
Owing to the need of the city and from various public consultation processes, slum
upgradation and integrated development of services to urban poor have been claimed to be
the priority investment area. Another thrust area for investment of Ujjain city is the
redevelopment and revitalization of the city core area namely in proximities to Mahakaal
temple and ram ghat.
Traffic management have been given a lower priority while ascertaining sustainable
investment, as the former is not directly a municipal function and the latter is likely to be
undertaken under special state/central government schemes, and could be largely addressed
as part of the key sectroral investments. But development of City bus terminus is in the
agenda with prime priority.
















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1
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14
4
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mp
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1 14 4. .1 1 P Pr ro oj je ec ct t B Be en ne ef fi it ts s a an nd d I Im mp pa ac ct ts s
1 14 4. .1 1. .1 1 F Fi in na an nc ci ia al l
A financial analysis was undertaken for direct revenue-generating components, i.e. water
supply, sewerage and SWM. However, since water supply sub-projects are primarily
rehabilitation works, the sub-projects do not translate as monetary benefits. Sewerage
projects are proposed in the view of environmental improvement and currently no pilot ULB
levies a sewerage charge Hence, in view of the plausible tariff applicable initial connection
and monthly rent sewerage projects indicate either negative cash flows. A similar scenario
is experienced in case of solid waste management project, where there is no history of tariffs.
Hence, all sub-projects identified have a strong economic rationale but indicate poor financial
returns. On a stand-alone basis, none of the projects are financially viable but at the
municipal/local-level, the municipal fund bears the financial burden of sub-project cash
flows. However, municipal funds are not robust enough to bear the entire HPI cost sizing of
sub-projects is imperative for sustenance.
The socioeconomic survey shows that there was willingness to have piped water connections
and pay for them. However, the willingness to pay was generally low as a result of present
inadequate level of water supply services, low water tariffs and reliance on alternative
sources. The affordability analysis shows that the proposed tariffs for water supply and
sewerage surcharge are within the generally acceptable limits.
17

1 14 4. .1 1. .2 2 E Ec co on no om mi ic c
The economic rationale is based on three key principles: (a) basic human requirements for
urban services, both for social development and for economic activity; (b) the contribution of
efficient and integrated urban services to sustainable economic development and poverty
reduction; and (c) prioritization of need and cost effective (least cost) solutions
All sub-projects have a strong economic rationale since they provide minimum acceptable
standards for basic living conditions and assist in removing existing constraints on social
development and economic growth. Similarly, all sub-projects shall be detailed and designed
along sound principles of priority need; consultation and targeting; demand management and
rehabilitation before new investment.
Alternatives considered in sub-project design included types of wastewater treatment process,
sites and location and design of sewer network; and sites and type of solid waste disposal
process. In all cases the most appropriate technical and least cost solution was preferred.
Basic services to urban poor are a key focus area under JNNURM since most areas would
experience severe water distribution inadequacy. While the UMC continues to implement
projects to supply water to the City wide network, reduction of UFW and ground water
recharge are key recommendations for water augmentation. Without the sewerage/sanitation,

17
As per the surveys conducted under IUDMP Project Report 2002
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solid waste and drainage components, the prevailing unhygienic and unacceptable living
conditions will continue.
1 14 4. .1 1. .3 3 S So oc ci ia al l
The project is designed to maximize the number of poor beneficiaries, aimed specifically at
improving conditions in under-served areas. The project should benefit all notified slum
population (50 percent of the City population). It will extend or improve the service delivery
to previously under-served areas, particularly for poor settlements. The combination of
project components will lead to sustained poverty reduction through demonstrable health,
livelihood benefits.
Institutional components of the project should empower and lead to demonstrable
improvement in Quality of Life of Citizens of Ujjain. Awareness of affected population in
particular the poor will be increased and improved through dedicated education programs,
thereby increasing the quality of dialogue and informed participation between communities
and local government. Proposed changes in planning processes involving slum networking
will enable the participation of community (especially poor communities) in planning,
construction and O&M.
Indirect benefits will be available to residents of the project to the People of Ujjain, through
improved living conditions, a healthier living environment and the prospect of improved
health status of the population. This and the prospect of accelerated economic development
should increase employment and raise living standards. The capacity-building initiatives
should lead to a more efficient, effective and responsive state and local government, better
able to understand and respond to the needs of the population, especially the poor.
Negative impacts will be minimized in requiring minimum resettlement or loss of productive
or non-productive assets. A social impact assessment shall be carried out for identified sub-
projects and translated as a risk mitigation matrix. The sub-project minimizes other negative
impacts on poor men and women such as an increased cost for services (time and money),
unemployment and health risks.
1 14 4. .1 1. .4 4 E En nv vi ir ro on nm me en nt ta al l E Ex xa am mi in na at ti io on n
The proposed Project is fundamentally aimed at environmental improvement in the urban
areas, and as such, the overall impact should be beneficial to the urban population and their
environment. The Project will thus contribute significantly to achieving one of its overall
objectives, which is to improve the living conditions and thus well-being of the urban poor.
The urban population and particularly the urban poor, will run less risk of incurring
infectious diseases through exposure to waste and contaminated water.
On the basis of an initial evaluation, the proposed project is unlikely to result in any direct
adverse environmental impacts. Adverse impacts relate almost entirely to the construction
phase, and particular attention will need to be paid to ensuring that contractors comply with
good engineering practice and avoid creating unnecessary inconvenience to the public during
construction. Thus, on the assumption that the construction process is well managed, the
short-term negative impacts of the project will be far outweighed by the major positive
impacts of a more sanitary urban environment. An evaluation of whether the proposed waste
and wastewater disposal sites projects will require preparation of a detailed EIA will need to
be made by the proposed executing agency in the period leading up to loan negotiation and
effectiveness, based on requirements by GoI. A risk mitigation matrix captures the
prospective environmental risks and the associated mitigation measures.
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1 14 4. .2 2 P Po ol li ic cy y I In nt te er rv ve en nt ti io on ns s
Institutional Arrangements: Institutions at the State-level and local-level play an important
role in project implementation. At the State-level, the State Steering committee and State
Nodal agency would manage infrastructure investments and institutional development. At the
local-level, the project UMC would undertake Mandatory and optional reforms as prescribed
under the mission for the selected Urban local Bodies (say Double entry accounting, e-
governance MIS, GIS mapping for the improvement in tax rationalization, expenditure
control and resource base enhancement) with in the suggested time frame.
Resource Mobilization and Expenditure Control: Analyses indicate that sub-project
viability is dependent on equity contributions (ULB and customer) Since the cash flow at the
municipal fund level determines investment sustenance, it is imperative that adequate
resources are mobilized to meet sub-project sustenance. Hence, prior to project
implementation, it is pertinent that Ujjain Municipal Corporation shall undertake resource
mobilization drives including but not limited to enhancing the tax base, raising tariffs and
taxes, enhancing the water connection database (detecting illegal/unauthorized connections),
and planning for accurate management information systems to capture the demand for
revenue. Water charge enhancement and revisions are proposed on a nominal and pragmatic
basis, with due consideration to the prevailing political environment; a similar approach was
adopted while recommending sewerage charges and connection fees. Expenditure controls on
establishment, staff salary and pensions, and maintenance and repairs are key to long-term
sustainability of Mission sub-projects.












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