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Guidelines for the implementation of Baseline study for womens empowerment programmes funded by Norad (2009-13

(Burundi, Mali, Myanmar, Nger, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda)

!"#$ Norway %uly 2009

Table of contents
Table of contents.......................................................................................................................1 I- Introduction .........................................................................................................................3 II- General instructions ..........................................................................................................3 1) Monitoring the common outcome indicators...................................................................3 2) Common outcome indicators: Cross cutting indicators...................................................3 3) Common outcome indicators: GBV indicators................................................................4 4) Country specific outcome indicators................................................................................4 5) Methodo ogy of data co ection.......................................................................................4 !) "eporting..........................................................................................................................5 #) $arget setting....................................................................................................................! %. Monitoring and &'a uation p an.......................................................................................! III- Operational definition of indicators................................................................................6 1) (o icy..............................................................................................................................% 2) )ttitude...........................................................................................................................* 3) &conomic security: +ndicator 1 .....................................................................................11 4) &conomic security: +ndicator 2 .....................................................................................13 5) (articipation in decision,ma-ing: +ndicator 1 ..............................................................15 !) (articipation in decision,ma-ing: +ndicator 2 ..............................................................1% #) .e/ua and reproducti'e hea th and rights: +ndicator 1.................................................1* %) .e/ua and reproducti'e hea th and rights: +ndicator 2.................................................20 *) & imination of Gender 1ased 'io ence...........................................................................24 IV- General methodological and operationalization issues................................................26 1) (ercentage indicators ....................................................................................................2! 2) )ge 1rea-do2ns.............................................................................................................2! 3) Contro 'aria1 es............................................................................................................2! 4) 3i tering 'aria1 es..........................................................................................................2# 5) 4uantitati'e 's. 5ua itati'e methods in sur'eys.............................................................2# !) & igi1i ity to respond to the 5uestionnaires ...................................................................2# #) Measuring perceptions6 fee ings6 attitudes.....................................................................2% V- ampling ...........................................................................................................................2! 1) 4uantitati'e samp ing....................................................................................................2% 2) 4ua itati'e samp ing......................................................................................................30 VI- "thical considerations.....................................................................................................31 1) +nformed consent............................................................................................................31 2) Confidentia ity of responses...........................................................................................32 3) (ri'acy 7inter'ie2ing respondents indi'idua y)...........................................................32 4) 8eutra ity throughout the inter'ie2...............................................................................32 5) )'oidance of harm.........................................................................................................33 #nne$es ...................................................................................................................................3% )nne/ 1. .amp e si9e determination.................................................................................34 )nne/ 2. +n'entory of househo ds in the 'i age...............................................................35 )nne/ 3. .uggested po icy areas to e/p ore......................................................................3! )nne/ 4. "eporting format for 1ase ine findings .............................................................3* )nne/ 5. :ata ana ysis guide ine .....................................................................................42

Acknowledgements
CARE Norway would like to acknowledge the committed contribution of Velina Petrova and Abdoul Karim Coulibaly in investing their time and knowledge to develop this guideline under a very intensive schedule in slo and for their continued support afterwards! Any comments or "uestions in relation to using this guide could be sent to selam!hailemichael#care!no

I- Introduction
$his is the implementation guide for the baseline study for CARE country offices that have entered into a new framework agreement with Norad for programs implemented in the period between %&&'(%&)*! At the +,E workshop in Entebbe in April- eight common outcome indicators were identified! $hese indicators were revised after the workshop by CARE Norway following the feedback and comments gathered during the workshop! And finally- during the operationali.ation e/ercise- these indicators have been further refined and clarified! $his document provides guidelines for the implementation of each indicator and e/plains methodological issues pertaining to it! $he document has four sections! $he first section highlights important points CARE C s should take into consideration while implementing the baseline study and reporting! $he ne/t chapter deals with the operational definition of each of the common outcome indicators! 0pecific operational issues such as types of data collection methods- respondents- and fi/ed "uantitative "uestions and suggestions to consider while formulating "ualitative "uestions are included under each indicator! $his section is followed by a chapter on general methodological issues that are applicable in the conte/t of all the indicators! 1inally- there is a chapter on sampling and ethical issues!

II- General instructions


2n this chapter you will find general instructions on the implementation of the indicators- and points that C s should take into consideration while carrying out the baseline!

1) Monitoring the common outcome indicators


$here are four thematic focus areas3 economic empowerment4 participation in decision making4 se/ual and reproductive health and rights4 and gender based violence that have two indicators each e/cept the 56V indicator! Even though some country offices do not do programming in some of these thematic focus areas- at the workshop- it was agreed that all C s will carry out baseline research on all of the common outcome indicators to make data available for advocacy and future programming purposes! $his means that each C will carry out a baseline on a total of 9 indicators!

2) Common outcome indicators: Cross cutting indicators


Changes in policy and attitudes were indicated as being applicable to all of the four thematic focus areas! $herefore- the indicators on policy and attitudes are framed with the four thematic focus areas as domains that C s can choose from in order to document baseline status- carry out related activities- and report observed changes at the end of the intervention period- i!e!- in %&)*!

2!1) - Cross cutting indicator: "olic#


Existence and enforcement of womens rights laws and policies as seen in the domains of:
- The protection of womens economic security (their property rights, inheritance rights; etc) - The protection of womens civic and political rights - The protection of womens !"! and maternal health - #ddressing all forms of $%& (domestic violence, sexual violence, '$(, traffic)ing, etc*)

7epending on the focus of the Norad(funded program- a C can choose to focus on one or two of these domains and monitor the changes in policies observed in this regard! 0ince the interest is to have an in depth analysis of policy change- we encourage C s to focus on a ma/imum of two domains!

2!2)- Cross cutting indicator: Attitude 3

#ttitudes of men and women regarding womens empowerment in the following domains:
- +omens economic security (property rights, inheritance, involvement in paid wor), etc) - +omens participation in the pu,lic sphere, decision ma)ing at community level - +omens a,ility to ma)e decision on their !"! (use of contraceptives, accessing maternal health care, choosing partner etc)

$he second cross(cutting indicator on attitude change has only three domains! $he reason for this is because change in attitude observed with regards to 56V has been reformulated as a separate indicator under the theme 56V- hence obligatory for all COs to report on! [NB] The domains that a CO chooses to monitor under Changes in Attitude should be the same as the ones chosen under Policy Change. Also be a are that the domains selected during the baseline ill be the same domains e!aluated during the endline. "ou can not change the chosen domains bet een the baseline and endline.

$) Common outcome indicators: G%& indicators


$he previously identified 56V indicators on the prevalence of 56V and service provision have been changed into a general assessment of attitudes of men and women concerning 56V! 0ome C s do not have 56V specific programming and collecting 56V related data at depth may be "uite sensitive and unethical when there will not be any planned interventions in place to address the issues that could be raised during data collection! $herefore- data on 56V will be collected in the following manner3 )( C s that ha!e 56V related programming3 ( These COs should choose to study #$istence % enforcement of policies in &Addressing all forms of 'B() as one of the domains selected to monitor policy change. ( 6oth *ualitati!e and *uantitati!e data should be collected on attitude change concerning 56V in order to e/plore why people have certain attitudes and how such attitudes are e/pressed in relationships etc! %( C s that don)t ha!e 56V programming3 ( Are free to choose any policy domain! ( Only *uantitati!e information should be collected on attitude change concerning 56V!

') Countr# s(ecific outcome indicators


Each of the Norad(funded women8s empowerment programs in the different countries have program+specific outcome indicators beyond the nine common outcome indicators! COs are e$pected to carryout baseline on these program+specific outcome indicators as ell! 9owever- due to the diversity of these indicators- it is not possible to develop a common implementation guideline! 6ut- we do hope that this guide that is meant for the implementation of the nine common indicators will give general directions for carrying out baseline study on the country(specific indicators as well!

)) Methodolog# of data collection


,t is OB-,'ATO." that COs collect both /uantitati!e and /ualitati!e information. $he mechanism for data collection will involve the use of survey "uestionnaires- focus group discussions- and secondary data collection! $he survey "uestionnaires will include close(ended "uestions that are "uantitative in nature which will help us to capture the breadth of observed phenomena- while the open(ended "uestions will gather e/planatory information behind a specific occurrence! Preset close+ended *uantitati!e *uestions :wherever applicable- close(ended "uestions have been identified for C s to incorporate into their survey "uestionnaires ;these pre(set "uestions are found under each indicator in

the ne/t chapter<! These preset *uestions 012T be reported on- but C s could supplement these with additional "uestions as is relevant! Open+ended3 semi+structured *ualitati!e *uestions : Each C is obliged to3 deepen the information gathered through the "uestionnaire(based surveys using open(ended "uestions within the "uestionnaire triangulate the "uantitative information using "ualitative data collection techni"ues such as focus group discussions or in(depth interviews with individuals! 0uch techni"ues will allow semi(structured discussions to take place with a small group of people ;ideally =()% people in focus groups< concerning a common topic ;e!g! women8s participation in decision making<! $here are suggestions as to what types of "ualitative information should be collected under each indicator in the ne/t chapter! Based on these suggestions4 COs should formulate their o n semi+structured *uestions 5for use ithin the *uestionnaires4 in focus groups4 in 6ey informants) inter!ie s or other *ualitati!e data collection techni*ues7. 8o e!er4 please ma6e sure that each of the follo ing topics has been co!ered in such participatory data collection e$ercises3 )! E/istence and enforcement of women8s rights laws and policies %! Attitudes of men and women towards women8s empowerment *! >omen8s control over assets in the household ?! >omen8s capacity to cope with economic shocks @! >omen8s participation in decision making at community level =! >omen8s perception of social inclusion in the community A! >omen8s satisfaction with the availability and "uality of 0R9R services B! >omen8s information and decision making regarding their 0R9R '! Attitudes of men and women regarding 56V ;in particular regarding domestic violence- harassment- early marriage- 15C- etc< [NB] Once the indi!idual *uestionnaires ha!e been formulated4 they may be translated into local languages as is necessary. 8o e!er4 COs should ta6e the necessary precaution to ensure that such translations ill not ma6e these *uestions lose their original meanings. [NB] ,t is the responsibility of CA.# COs to ensure that indi!iduals recruited for data collection ha!e the necessary e$perience in the methodology employed for the baseline study4 i.e.4 for the *uantitati!e techni*ues 9 prior e$periences from similar sur!eys: for the *ualitati!e techni*ues 9 interacti!e indi!iduals ith e$perience from participatory data collection techni*ues as focus groups4 6ey informants) inter!ie s4 etc.

*) +e(orting
.a *uantitati!e data- summari;ed *ualitati!e data- and analysis of findings should be submitted to CARE Norway after the baseline has been carried out! 2n order to receive the data collected in the same format from different countries- each country is advised to use the C0Pro software for data entry! $he C0Pro is user friendly survey data entry software that could be downloaded from the internet free of charge at www!cspro!org or http3CCwww!census!govCipcCwwwCcsproCdownload!htm ;version ?!& is now available<! $his program allows data to be stored and be easily transported into 0P00 or 0$A$A for detailed analysis! Dser guides on C0Pro will be sent out together with this document! [NB] #$ternal consultants contracted to carry out the baseline study should be able3 illing to use the C2Pro program for data entry. 2n addition to data and summary reports- C s are asked to share e/periences and lessons from the field in using the different data collection techni"ues- "uestions- indicators etc!

[NB] COs ill ha!e to report the analysis of findings of the baseline using the common template that is in anne$ <.

,) Target setting
1ollowing the baseline- C s should revise the logframes of their respective women8s empowerment programs! $he revision on the logframes will3 )! 2ncorporate the common indicators that are relevant to that C 8s program %! 2nclude targets for each outcome indicator ;0ome reference documents on target setting will be sent to C s together with this document<! Please use such a matri/ when reporting the targets for the indicators- if possible with the targets specified by year!
Baseline !alue utcome indicator )! ;state the indicator< utcome indicator %! ;state the indicator< Target !alue "ear = "ear >

The re!ised logframes should be shared ith CA.# Nor ay for appro!al.

-! Monitoring and ./aluation (lan


After the logframes have been finali.ed- C s are e/pected to submit an +,E plan indicating the routine monitoring- evaluation and reporting plan for the common outcome indicators as well as the country(specific outcome indicators! C s are advised to use the +,E plan template presented by $om 6arton at the +,E workshop in Entebbe! $his template will also be sent as a supporting document with this guideline!

III- 0(erational definition of indicators


$his chapter presents the operational definition of the concepts within each of the common outcome indicators! $he definitions are followed by discussions on how to collect "ualitative and "uantitative information on each of the indicators! $he chapter also includes preset "uestions and suggestions on how to develop open(ended ones! Please note that the operational definitions specified belo are only for the use of the baseline and endline studies of the concerned programmes and are not meant for ider use by other programmes or studies. 6elow- a matri/ of the full set of indicators is presented!

Cross+cutting indicators Core outcome ,ssue Policy ( Changes in polices promoting women8s rights Outcome ,ndicators E/istence and enforcement of women8s rights laws and policies in the following domains3
- +omens economic security (their property rights, inheritance rights; etc) - +omens civic and political rights - +omens !"! and maternal health - #ddressing $%& (prevention and response)

Attitude ( Change in the attitude of men and women regarding women empowerment

+easure of attitudes of men and women towards women8s empowerment as is seen in the following areas3
- +omens economic security (property rights, inheritance, involvement in paid wor), etc) - +omens participation in the pu,lic sphere, decision ma)ing at community level - +omens a,ility to ma)e decision on their !"! (use of contraceptives, accessing maternal health care, choosing partner etc)

Ob?ecti!e+specific indicators
Core outcome ,ssue Outcome ,ndicators Ob?ecti!e @A 2trengthening the economic security of omen and reducing their !ulnerability to shoc6s )!)! utcomes related to economic security of women )!)!) E of women with control over assets in household )!% utcomes related to women8s vulnerability )!%!) E of women with capacity to cope with economic shocks Ob?ecti!e BA #nhancing omen)s role and real say in decision ma6ing at all le!els %!)!) E of women that report meaningful participation in decision(making bodies at community level %!) 7ecision(making- participation and social relations! %!)!% >omen8s perception of social inclusion in the community Ob?ecti!e CA #nsuring omen)s right to control fertility and body *!)! Changes in structures regarding se/ual and reproductive health and *!)!) E of women reporting satisfaction with the availability and "uality of 0R9R related services rights ;0R9R< *!%! >omen and 0R9R *!%!) E of women making informed choicesCdecisions with regards to their 0R9R Ob?ecti!e <A #limination of 'B( % support to sur!i!ors of all types of 'B( 5domestic !iolence4 se$ual !iolence in conflict % ar4 or human traffic6ing7 ?!) Attitudes on 56V ?!)!) Attitudes of men and women regarding 56V ;domestic violence4 harassment4 harmful traditions such as 15C4 early marriage4 etc!<

1) "olic#
Core outcome issue Change in policies promoting women8s rights Outcome indicator E/istence and enforcement of women8s rights laws and policies in the following domains3 Domains - The protection of womens economic security (their property rights, inheritance rights; etc) - The protection of womens civic and political rights - The protection of womens !"! and maternal health - #ddressing all forms of $%& (domestic violence, sexual violence, '$(, traffic)ing, etc*)

NOTE: Each CO will choose 1 or 2 of the policy domains listed under the indicator as relevant to that COs wor ! "ou will use the same domains every time you carry out this survey: for your #aseline and for your endline! "ou cannot chan$e domains #etween the #aseline and the endline!

1!1) 0(erational 1efinition


E/istence of laws and policies ( refers to a country8s formally adopting- in legal frameworks- constitution- legal codes- policy frameworks- or other similar documents- statements in the respective policy areas! Enforcement ( refers to putting laws and policies into e/ecution- and having action following from them- as opposed to only putting them Fon the booksG without putting them into practice!

1!2) Measurement
0ethod of Data Collection +i/ed methods Type of information /uantitati!e : 0core cards /ualitati!e : 0econdary data from official documents4 key informants8 interviews with e/perts and actors .espondents Community Key informants 2ampling Refer to the section on sampling

The 2uantitati/e information: Huantitative information will be gathered through the community scorecard process to measure enforcement at local level! $he 0corecardCreport card is a two(way and ongoing participatory tool for assessment- planningmonitoring and evaluation of services! 2t positively influences the "uality- efficiency and accountability with which services are provided at different levels! 0uch an approach would enable the evaluation of policy enforcement as it invites the local administrative authorities ;the supply sideCservice provider< to come together with a sample of community representatives ;the demand sideCservice user< to Iointly analy.e issues underlying service delivery related to selected governance and service delivery indicators and find a common and shared way of addressing those issues! $he 0corecard is easy to use and can be adapted into any sector where there is a service delivery scenario! $he complete guidelines on the implementation of score cards are available in the mini library C7 distributed during the Entebbe +,E workshop (%ocation: -./ t, - .(0E mini-li,rary/participatory m0e/score card; &ile name: 1The2 corecard2'inal - 34 nov*5 word doc)* The 2ualitati/e information: >ith law and policy changes- we are most often interested in how they happen- or what prevents them from happening- and how they function once in place- not in the simple "uestion of- do they e/ist! $his focus on process and conte/t means that "uantitative information will not tell us much in terms of studying laws and policies in a single country! 1urther- a maIor issue in measuring the e/istence of laws and policies is that they take a long time to change- often times much longer than the life of any single CARE proIect : hence our emphasis on the long term in the program shift! $his is one among many reasons why you should collect "ualitative process(tracing ;comparative(historical< information here and capture the conte/t in which a law or policy does or does not e/ist- different developments that may have occurred in this conte/t regardless of whether they have produced policy change per se or not- and how these developments influence the final outcome ;i!e!- whether there is a policy and how it is enforced<! 2n constructing these histories of developments in policy areas- you should trace the actors- processes- timing- and key turning points in developments! Jou should also carefully consider your sources of information! 0ome useful sources in studying policy developments have been official legal documents4 proceedings from meetings to discuss andCor decide on laws and policies4 papers written by key actors4 and interviews you can conduct with e/perts and actors- as key informants! 6ear in

mind that proIect participants will not be good sources of information on policy developments- as most people who do not work in this area are not aware of its intricacies! $he data collection and analysis for your selected policy domain;s< should answer the "uestions such as3 - +ho: who are the actors, )ey players and institutions, shaping the de,ate and developments (,oth those for and against a given law or policy)6 - +hat: what are the different arguments advanced in this area, and how are the different points argued6 - "ow much: how much resource does each side has to advance its position, and who finances each side (i*e*, who provides resources to the players you may see in the arena)6 - "ow: what is the process through which players ma)e it to the arena or to the decision-ma)ing ta,le; what are the channels of communication in this arena; if there are organi7ations that claim to represent the collective interests or voice of given groups, how do these organi7ations ,ecome legitimate representatives in this policy arena; how are alliances in this arena made or ,ro)en6 - +here: in what context is the de,ate or policy change8lac) of policy change or policy enforcement8lac) of policy enforcement happening; what other events are going on that may ,e influencing or providing the ,ac)drop to what you are o,serving6 Jour measurement of enforcement will depend on the laws and policies you find to e/ist or lack in your conte/tand on the operational areas and "uestions you select under each policy! Anne/ *- gives suggestions on the aspects you could e/plore to understand the occurrence of policy change depending on the domains you will choose to study!
Please note that you are NOT re*uired to ans er all the *uestions presented in the table under Anne$ C. The *uestions are meant only to indicate the different aspects of a certain policy domain that the baseline research could e$plore.

2) Attitude
Core outcome issue Change in attitudes of men and women regarding women8s empowerment! Outcome indicator +easure of attitudes of men and women towards women8s empowerment as is seen in the following domains3 Domains - +omens economic security (property rights, inheritance, involvement in paid wor), etc) - +omens participation in the pu,lic sphere, decision ma)ing at community level - +omens a,ility to ma)e decision on their !"! (use of contraceptives, accessing maternal health care, choosing partner etc)

NOTE: 1' &or this indicator( you should choose the same domains as for the previous one on laws and policies! That is( once you choose the 1 or 2 domains to focus on( you will e)plore these domains #oth in terms of laws and policies *in Cross'Cuttin$: Policy+ and in terms of attitudes *in Cross'Cuttin$: Attitudes+! E)ception: ,-. is an e)ception #ecause everyone will e)plore attitudes re$ardin$ ,-.! /f you select ,-. as your domain of law and policy focus( here you should choose the domain that you #elieve to #e closest to it or that you thin will $ive you the most helpful information to $o alon$ with your ,-. focus! 2' "ou will use the same domains every time you carry out this survey: for your #aseline and for your endline! "ou cannot chan$e domains #etween the #aseline and the endline!

2!1) 0(erational 1efinition


Attitude(is an enduring positive or negative assessment of people- obIects- events- or ideas! 2t is more than emotional reactions and includes thoughts and beliefs people may have- and may be e/pressed through actions or observable behaviour!

2!2) Measurement
0ethod of Data Collection 2nterview techni"ue Type of information /uantitati!e : 2ndividual interviews using preset "uestions /ualitati!e ( Dsing semi(structured "uestions within survey "uestionnaires- key informants8 interviews andCor focus groups .espondents 2ndividual men )@ yrs and above4 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ndividual men )@ yrs and above4 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ampling Refer to the section on sampling

The 2uantitati/e information: $he most common approach to "uantify attitudes- perceptions and feelings is a Kikert scale! >hen using Kikert scales to measure attitude- you will need to write out various statements on women8s empowerment- and ask respondents to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with these statements! 0ee the preset "uantitative "uestions below using the Kikert scale! Please refer instructions under section 2V(A on the administration of a Kikert scale!
0omain: 1omens economic security *property ri$hts( inheritance( involvement in paid wor ( etc!+

Now 2 would like to get your opinion on some aspects of family life!
/uestion Number No. @ )!) )!% )!* )!? )!@ )!= )!A /1#2T,ON2 AND E,-T#.2 Please tell me the e$tent to hich you agree or disagree ith each statementA A woman8s only role is to take care of the house and prepare meals for her family! >omen have the same rights as men to study and work outside the home! A married woman should be allowed to work outside the home if she wants to! >omen should be able to own and control the same assets as men! ;52VE K CAK ELA+PKE 21 NEE7E7< >omen should be able to own cash savings and decide how to use it! >omen should be able to inherit and keep property or assets ;such as- 52VE K CAK ELA+PKE< from their husbands- fathers- mothers- or other relatives! 2n the household- men should make the maIor decisions such as buying land- or other assets ;52VE K CAK ELA+PKE<- or building a house! 0trongly 7isagree ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COD,N' CAT#'O.,#2 Neither agree- nor disagree * * * * * * * 0trongly Agree @ @ @ @ @ @ @

7isagree % % % % % % %

Agree ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

0omain: 1omens participation in the pu#lic sphere( decision ma in$ at community level( etc!

Now 2 would like to ask you some "uestions about women8s participation in public decisions and processes!
/uestion Number No. B %!) %!% %!* %!? %!@ %!= %!A %!B %!' /1#2T,ON2 AND E,-T#.2 Please tell me the e$tent to hich you agree or disagree ith each statementA >omen should be able to stand for election to all publicly elected bodies Iust like men! >omen should be head of state Iust like men! >omen should decide on their own whom to vote for in elections- without the influence of their husbands! A woman can disagree with her husband8s political opinion! >omen should have a say in important decisions in the community! A married woman should obtain her husband8s permission in order to vote! A woman has no place in the decision making of the household! >omen should not be allowed to go to school! >hen going to most public places- a woman should obtain the permission of her husband or the head of the household! 0trongly 7isagree ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COD,N' CAT#'O.,#2 Neither agree- nor disagree * * * * * * * * * 0trongly Agree @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

7isagree % % % % % % % % %

Agree ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

0omain: The protection of womens 2343 and maternal health

Now 2 would like to ask you some health(related "uestions!


/uestion Number No. C *!) *!% /1#2T,ON2 AND E,-T#.2 Please tell me the e$tent to hich you agree or disagree ith each statementA A couple should decide together how many children to have! A husband and wife should decide together what kind of contraception to use! 0trongly 7isagree ) ) COD,N' CAT#'O.,#2 Neither agree- nor disagree * * 0trongly Agree @ @

7isagree % %

Agree ? ?

10

*!*

*!? *!@

>hen a woman has a health problem or "uestion related to pregnancy- childbirth- care after she has given birth- or 0$2s- she may decide on her own to seek the help of trained health personnel! 2f a wife knows her husband has a disease that she can get during se/ual intercourse- she is Iustified in asking him that they use a condom when they have se/! >omen should have the same opportunities to receive health care as men

) )

% %

* *

? ?

@ @

The 2ualitati/e information: 1or the "ualitative portion- you will need to follow up the Kikert scale "uestions with open(ended "uestions probing into the meaning of the numbers- e/ploring the nature of empowerment and the attitudes and behaviours practiced! $he "uantitative measures can tell you the e/tent4 the "ualitative measures can tell you the nature of it- and how and why it happens or does not happen!
$he "ualitative "uestions should be focused on points such as3 why people have the attitudes they do4 how these attitudes play out in relationships4 where these attitudes come from4 what the effect of these attitudes is ;and who is affected<4 etc!
Note: -oth men and women have to #e as ed these 5uestions( as the attitudes of #oth have to #e assessed!

$) .conomic securit#: Indicator 1


Core outcome issue Economic security of women Outcome indicator E of women with control over assets in household Calculation N67E3ATO3: #ll women who report control over at least one asset (i*e*, choose either 19,5 or 1:5 to ;uestion <o* =)* 0ENO7/NATO3: #ll women whose household owns at least one asset (under ;uestion <o* >)*

$!1) 0(erational 1efinition


Asset : anything of value that a person or household owns or controls that can be converted into cash! $here are different categories of assets3 Productive assets : tools used for farming- e!g!- hoes- water pumps- etc!4 Kivestock assets : animals- e!g!- cattle- goats- etc!4 $ransport assets : e!g!- bicycle- o/cart- trucks4 etc!4 7omestic assets : furnishings- e!g!- chairs- beds- tables- pails- or refrigerators- telephones- etc! 0ome of the most important assets you need to ask about are KAN7 and a 9 +EC7>EKK2N5! Control : 7ecision making power over assets and resources! E/amples include the decision to buy or sell assets- how to use income generated by putting assets to use- responsibility for maintaining the assets- etc!

$!2) Measurement
0ethod of Data Collection 2nterview techni"ue Type of information /uantitati!e : 2ndividual interviews using preset "uestions /ualitati!e ( Dsing semi(structured "uestions within survey "uestionnaires- key informants8 interviews andCor focus groups .espondents 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ampling Refer to the section on sampling

>hen writing survey "uestions3 0tep )< 1irst draw up a list of assets you will ask about! Jou may make it relevant to your conte/t ;i!e!- choose to include bicycles rather than o/carts- as applicable<- but you need to cover the different categories listed under the operational definition of assets above! 0tep %< >hen writing the "uestions and asking about control over these assets- be sure to first ask whether the household owns or has access to the particular assets in the first place4 otherwise- a woman may tell you she does not control them simply because they don8t own them!

The 2uantitati/e information:

11

6elow are preset "uestions for individual interviews! Please refer to the instruction on MConfidentiality of responses8 under section V2(% when asking about assets to respondents!
5,ntroduction to these *uestions7

Now 2 would like to ask you some "uestions about financial matters! 2 ask these "uestions only to understand more about the financial position of women!
/uestion No. No. < /1#2T,ON2 AND E,-T#.2 Please tell me if in your household you alone or ?ointly ith your husband or ith someone else o nFF COD,N' CAT#'O.,#2 /uestion No. No. G G.@ wns alone /1#2T,ON2 AND E,-T#.2 ,f you e!er need to4 can you sell 5A22#T7 ithout your husband)s or anyone else)s permissionH ? elect A<DE A<E response for each type of assetC Kand 9ouseCdwelling ther buildings @!)!? @!)!@ @!)!= A A 6 6 C @!)!A C @!)!B A 6 C G.B A 6 C 1urnishings Cash + ,f you e!er need to4 can you use this cash ithout anyone)s permissionH ) % * $ransport means ) % * $ools ) % * Newellery or gems Kivestock 2 need my husband8s or someone else8s permission! ) ) ) ) ) COD,N' CAT#'O.,#2

7oes not own ?@f does not own any, $A TA <o* BC A A A A A

Nointly owns

<.@ <.B <.C <.< <.G <.I <.J <.K

<.9

Kand $he houseCdwelling you live inO Any other residence ;houseapartment or dwelling<O ;or business buildingO< Newellery or gems Kivestock such as ;sheep- goatscows- chickens- 52VE K CAK ELA+PKE0< $ools such as ;hoes- water pumps- plows- 52VE K CAK ELA+PKE0< $ransport means such as ;bicycle- car- wagon- cart- 52VE K CAK ELA+PKE0< 1urnishings such as ;bedmodern stove- generatorrefrigerator- radio- 52VE K CAK ELA+PKE0< Cash ;savings- remittances52VE K CAK ELA+PKE 21 $9ER<

6 6 6 6 6

C C C C C

@!)!) @!)!% @!)!*

2 need to inform my husband- but 2 do not have to ask his permission! % % % % %

2 can do it on my own without telling anyone! * * * * *

12

The 2ualitati/e information: nce the respondents have indicated- in the "uantitative part- who decides whether to buy or sell the relevant assets and how to use the income generated by putting these assets to use- you will use open(ended "uestions to probe how significant this control is- whether it holds negative conse"uences for women who try to e/ercise itand so on!
$he open(ended "uestions should ask about4 what would happen if women decided to e/ercise this control on their own4 if the respondents indicate Ioint decision making with their spouse about assets- then how the decision is taken- who initiates it4 what negotiations or trade(offs may take place- etc! Probing what is beyond the statements made in the "uantitative "uestions will help you understand the nature of control and decision(making- and ultimately whether women have meaningful economic security!

') .conomic securit#: Indicator 2


Core outcome issue Economic security of women Outcome indicator E of women with capacity to cope with economic shocks Calculation N67E3ATO3: All women using coping strategies under Huestion No! B!)! 0ENO7/NATO3: All women whose household has gone through economic shock in the last )% months ;i!e!- reporting household had to cope with at least one economic emergency under Huestion No! =<!

'!1) 0(erational 1efinition


Economic shock : a large unplanned or unanticipated crisis event that urgently re"uires a lot of cash resource to deal with or recover from- e!g!- a funeral- hospitali.ation of a household member- a fire- a droughtetc! $he focus here is on events that deliver urgent economic shocks and affect the household8s poverty level- or assets- and the like- not about shocks that may affect one emotionally- for e/ample- without necessarily having an economic aspect! E/amples of Munplanned8 shocks include3 large urgent health care costs4 funeral e/penses4 sudden loss of assets ;especially productive assets- e!g!- death of animals- hailstorm to crops- fire in buildingtheft- insecurity- etc!<! $here can also be Mplanned8 stresses that strain the household economically- for e/ample- marriages4 education e/penses4 ac"uisition of a new asset worth more than monthlyC"uarterlyCannual income- etc! Coping behaviours : methods and means used to raise li"uid cash when needed for an economic crisis!

'!2) Measurement
0ethod of Data Collection 2nterview techni"ue Type of information /uantitati!e : 2ndividual interviews using preset "uestions /ualitati!e ( Dsing semi(structured "uestions within survey "uestionnaires- key informants8 interviews andCor focus groups .espondents 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ampling

Refer to the section on sampling

Economic shoc s: >hen asking about this in a survey3 0tep )< 1irst draw up the list of economic shocks relevant to your area- like the e/amples indicated under the operational definition above! 1unerals- the hospitali.ation or death of a household member- sudden illness- and the like are crises that tend to apply everywhere! $hose related to natural or environmental causes may be area(specific! 0tep %< nce you have that list- you should draw up "uestions that ask which of these have occurred in a specified timeframe! 2t is suggested that you use a breakdown for the timeframe that is long enough to capture the long(lasting effects of such shocks- but not so long that respondents do not recall ;)% month time frame is recommended for use here<! Copin$ strate$ies: >hen writing survey "uestions3 0tep *< Kist all the coping strategies a household may have! 0ome of the main e/amples include3

13

;a< selling off assets ;and you may disaggregate using the categories of assets listed in the previous economic security indicator! Note that this can include selling off crops- stored foodstuffs- or even Mfutures8 : the value of crops that have not yet ripened<4 ;b< borrowing- e!g!- using the social fund of a V0K group- if relevant4 using up savings4 borrowing from family or other community members4 borrowing from a moneylender at high interest4 ;c< short term labour- e!g!- doing casual labour ;domestic work- agricultural- etc!<4 e/changing se/ for cash4 ;d< accessing communityCsocial safety nets ;e!g!- food for work programsCspecify locally relevant ones<4 etc! ;e< reducing critical e/penses- e!g!- pulling children out of school to work4 eating fewer meals a dayCweek4 eating less diverse meals ;or giving up meat or other relevant foods<4 0tep ?< Ask which strategies the household used in order to cope with the economic shock!

The 2uantitati/e information: 6elow are preset "uantitative "uestions for individual interviews!
5,ntroduction to these *uestions7

+ost households have une/pected occurrences that re"uire money- often in amounts greater than the household may have available at the time! Now we would like to find out more about any such events for your household and how you coped with them!
/uestion Number No. I I.@ I.B I.< I.G No. J /1#2T,ON2 AND E,-T#.2 8o often has your household had to cope ith each of the follo ing economic emergencies or crises during the last @B monthsH *2ince 2eptem#er 2889 up to now+ 0udden severe illness or inIury of a family member 7eath of an immediate family member Crisis caused by drought- flood- or other natural disaster ther important crisis ;specify<3 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP Las this household able to pay immediately for all the necessary e$penses for each of the abo!e emergencies or crises hen they happened 5 ith cash money or *uic6ly saleable items7H ,f NO4 ho did the family meet the needs for money to pay for these emergencies or crisesH Dse resourcesCproduced items3 0ell cash crops 0ell home produced items Dse savings Dse the social fund of a V0K group or women8s solidarity group 6orrow Rely on help ;cash< from relative or friend outside the household Purchase necessities on credit from shopCagency Rely on support from family or community 6orrow cash from a moneylender and pay or owe interest Dse productive assets3 0ell land 0ell labourCtime 0ell tools ;0pecify which3PPPPP< 0ell transportation vehicles 0ell livestock 0ell Iewellery- gems- dowry items Reduce consumption and other strategies3 Eat less diverse food ;i!e!- staple only- no vegetables or meat< 0erve fewer meals a day $ake child;ren< out of school and send them to work instead 0ell subsistence crops 6eg in the street ther ;0pecify3 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP< Jes Q ) R Dsed it- but it was not the main strategy % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % COD,N' CAT#'O.,#2

REC R7 1REHDENCJ 2N $9E PA0$ ) JEAR3 P P times P P times P P times P P times No Q & R

No. K K.@ K.@.@ K.@.B K.@.C K.@.< K.B K.B.@ K.B.B K.B.C K.B.< K.C K.C.@ K.C.B K.C.C K.C.< K.C.G K.C.I K.< K.<.@ K.<.B K.<.C K.<.< K.<.G K.<.I

Dsed this as a main strategy3 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

7id not use this strategy * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

14

The 2ualitati/e information: pen(ended "uestions could help you to dig deeper into the e/periences of the household in dealing with identified economic shocks! Jou could raise such "uestions to understand points such as3 whether women and men resort to different coping strategies4 whether the same economic shocks affect women and men in the same household differently4 if women and men use their resources differently to deal with economic shocks4 which kinds of shocks have been the most difficult to cope with4 and why4 etc!

)) "artici(ation in decision-making: Indicator 1


Core outcome issue 7ecision(makingparticipation and social relations! Outcome indicator E of women that report meaningful participation in decision(making bodies at community level Calculation N67E3ATO3: women reporting participation AN7 select- F%G- or F*G on influence scale in Huestion No! )%4 0ENO7/NATO3: all women in the sample ;all women aged )@ and above<!

)!1) 0(erational 1efinition


+eaningful participation : inclusion or involvement with the capacity to influence- shape- or make decisionsincluding in favour of the impact group 7ecision(making bodies at community level : committees and other local governance structures for the management of communal resources- services- and issues or "uestions of shared communal concern and significance! E/amples of communal resources and services include waterCwater points- schools- roads- local security- public sanitation- health care4 sometimes common gra.ing lands- seed banks- etc! E/amples of issues or "uestions of shared communal concern and significance include arbitrating conflicts and argumentsadIudicating legal issues- etc! 7ecision(making bodies can refer to formal institutions and to informal institutions ;e!g!- family and kinship structures- traditions- and social norms- etc!<! Note that the emphasis here is on decision making- and its aspects of power- not only on participation in any groups the community may have!

)!2) Measurement
0ethod of Data Collection 2nterview techni"ue Type of information /uantitati!e : 2ndividual interviews using preset "uestions /ualitati!e ( Dsing semi(structured "uestions within survey "uestionnaires- key informants8 interviews andCor focus groups .espondents 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ampling

Refer to the section on sampling

>hen setting out to measure women8s meaningful participation in community(level bodies- follow the following steps! 0tep )< Jou first need to ascertain which communal resources- services- and other issues e/ist4 which and how many of these are managed by any collective or communal decision(making bodies4 and which decision(making bodies allow participation from community members! 0tep %< 2n writing the list of relevant decision(making bodies- you should consult the omen in your impact group4 in order to ma6e sure that you ha!e not missed institutions that they identify as important to them. #nsure that you include all the institutions they identify as important on your listM 0tep *< nce you have this information- you can write "uestions that measure whether and how women participate in them!

The 2uantitati/e information: Refer below for preset "uantitative survey "uestions! Please note that the list of the organi;ations belo is meant as an e$ample and COs should adapt the list to their conte$t.

15

/uest 9 9. Apart from a (2group4 do you participate in the follo ing organi;ationsH JE0 ?go to no* 34C ) N ?go to no* 3>C &

/uest @N

/uest @@

@N. Are you in the leadership committee of the organi;ationH JE0 ) N &

No )

O.'AN,>AT,ON2 >ater management committee Community schoolCeducation management committee Community health care management committee 1uneral association

@@. ,n general during group meetings4 ho acti!ely do you participateH ) % *

/uest @B @B. Eor each of these organi;ations4 to hat e$tent do you feel you ha!e been able to influence its decisions in the last @B monthsH ?'or responses with codes 4 or 3, go to no* 3:; for responses with codes 9 or :, go to next lineC & ) % *

/uest @C

/uest @<

@C. Lhat are the reasons hy you feel you ha!e not been able to influence the decisions of these groupsH A 6 C L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 5 $ NEL$ K2NE 6 C L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 5 $ NEL$ K2NE 6 C L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 5 $ NEL$ K2NE 6 C L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 5 $ NEL$ K2NE 6 C L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 5 $ NEL$ K2NE 6 C L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 5 $ NEL$ K2NE 6 C L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 5 $ NEL$ K2NE 6 C L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 5 $ H! )@

@<. Lhy do you not participate in these organi;ationsH :record all reasons the respondent mentions C A 6 C 7 E 1 L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E 1 L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E 1 L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E 1 L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E 1 L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E 1 L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E 1 L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E 1 L ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP

A ) & ) & ) % * & ) % * A ) & ) & ) % * & ) % * A

&

&

&

* A

1armers8 association Committee deciding on the use of communal lands Political Party ther bodies managing community property or resources ;0pecify3 PPPPPPPPPPPP<

&

&

&

* A

&

&

&

* A

&

&

&

* A

&

&

&

NOTE: 2pecific locally relevant e)amples of committees and other local $overnance #odies for the mana$ement of communal resources( services( and issues of shared si$nificance which are run with participation #y community mem#ers!

1!

COD#2 /uest @@ ) S NEVER 0PEAK % S ND0$ 0D55E0$ 27EA0 * S 0D55E0$ AN7 A7V CA$E 1 R 2NCKD02 N 1 27EA0 /uest @B & S N $ A$ AKK ) S A K2$$KE %S + 7ERA$E *SAK $ /uest @C A S A1RA27 $ 0PEAK DP 7DR2N5 +EE$2N50 6 S N $ CD0$ +ARJ 1 R > +EN $ 0PEAK 7DR2N5 +EE$2N50 C S +200E7 $ +ANJ +EE$2N50 6ECAD0E 1 > RKK A7 L S $9ER /uest @< AS $920 R5AN2TA$2 N 20 NKJ 1 R +EN 6S CANN $ A$$EN70 +EE$2N5 DNACC +PAN2E7 CS CAN NEVER +AKE $9E +EE$2N5 7DE $ > RKK A7 7S 7 N8$ $92NK 2$ 20 NECE00ARJ R 2+P R$AN$ ES 9D06AN7 7 E0 N $ $92NK 09E 09 DK7 PAR$2C2PA$E 1S 7 E0 N $ 1EEK >EKC +E $ N 2N 6ECAD0E 1 E$9N2CCREK252 D0 6ACK5R DN7 L S $9ER

1#

The 5ualitative information: 1or the "ualitative portion- you will follow up the above tables with open(ended "uestions about the Mnature of participation or inclusion!8 $he "uantitative measures can tell you the e/tent to which participation is happening as the women reporting it see it4 the "ualitative measures can tell you the nature of it- and how and why it happens or does not happen! Jou will want to probe about3 if the indicated participation or inclusion is significant or not : and why do they say so4 if the participation is associated with any adverse or perverse outcomes- e!g!- opportunity costs for the women who participate4 if so- what are the negative outcomes4 who gets most affected4 what the affected persons do because of the negative outcomes ;how it affect their participation andCor their lives<- and so on!

*) "artici(ation in decision-making: Indicator 2


Core outcome issue 7ecision(making- participation and social relations! Outcome indicator >omen8s perception of social inclusion in the community Calculation NOTE: As presently framed( the indicator does not specify whose social inclusion women perceive: that of women or that of any e)cluded social $roups( such as untoucha#les( those sti$mati;ed #y 4/.<A/02 status( etc! -ecause the overall o#=ective focuses on womens role and voice( the indicator is #ein$ operationali;ed in the former sense( i!e!( that of womens inclusion!

*!1) 0(erational 1efinition


0ocial inclusion : ensuring that individuals and entire communities of people have rights- opportunities- and access to resources ;e!g!- housing- employment- healthcare- education- civic engagement- democratic participation- etc!< that are normally available to members of the society and which are key to social integration! 2nclusion in institutions can refer to formal institutions and to informal institutions ;e!g!- family and kinship structures- traditions- and social norms- etc!<! 0ocial inclusion has various areas or aspects to e/plore! $he ones to focus on here are those that are relevant on the community level! 2n other words- this indicator only refers to inclusion within the community- not to integration into society in general- so it would only apply to rights and services provided or managed at the community level! 1or e/ample- health care and education can be community(based- but formal voting rights for political positions only apply on administrative ;e!g!- district< or national levels!

*!2) Measurement
0ethod of Data Collection 2nterview techni"ue Type of information /uantitati!e : 2ndividual interviews using preset "uestions /ualitati!e ( Dsing semi(structured "uestions within survey "uestionnaires- key informants8 interviews andCor focus groups .espondents 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ampling

Refer to the section on sampling

2n preparing for data collection3 0tep )< 1irst draw up a list of institutions and opportunities that define one8s wellbeing- with a view to the specific communities you are going to study! 0uggested areas and services include3 education4 health care4 work or employment4 housing if appropriate4 and community groups or organi.ations or events! ;$he list would normally include decision(making bodies- but that is being covered by the previous indicator!< 0tep %< 6esides this list of basic services and opportunities- which you can include in entirety or by selecting what is appropriate to your conte/t- you should also add locally specific spheres as identified by the group you are going to work with and study- as well specify what these categories mean in your conte/t ;i!e!- what are locally relevant and important groups and events in these women8s communityO<!

The 2uantitati/e information: $he most common "uantitative approach to measuring attitudes- perceptions and feelings is a Kikert scale! 2n using Kikert scales to measure perception of social inclusion- you will need to write out various statements describing social inclusion in the forums identified as important by women and ask respondents to indicate their

1%

level of agreement or disagreement with these statements! Please refer below for preset "uantitative survey "uestions using the Kikert scales!
5,ntroduction to these *uestions7

Now 2 would like to ask you some "uestions about your relationship to your community!
/uestion Number No. @G )@!) )@!% )@!* )@!? )@!@ )@!= )@!A )@!B /1#2T,ON2 AND E,-T#.2 Please tell me the e$tent to hich you agree or disagree ith each statementA 2 have a good social network in the community! 2 am happy with my involvement in funeral associationsinformal women8s support groups- etc! 52VE K CAK ELA+PKE 2 am fre"uently invited to attend community events! $he community members are ready to support me in case of shock or crisis! $he community leaders listen to my voice! 2 feel lonely- isolated in this community! 2 feel that 2 have sufficient access to the market to buy and sell things! 2 feel that 2 am treated with respect and dignity when 2 visit the health centreChospitalCother health facility! 0trongly 7isagree ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COD,N' CAT#'O.,#2 Neither agree- nor disagree * * * * * * * * 0trongly Agree @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

7isagree % % % % % % % %

Agree ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

The 2ualitati/e information: nce the women have stated the e/tent to which they agreeCdisagree that there is inclusion in the communityyou should probe these statements with open(ended "uestions!
Jou should ask3 why they have the feelings they do about the indicated issues4 why the community behaves the way it does ;with regard to inclusion or not<4 who else is being treated in the same way and why4 whether there any other women ;or people< who are even less included than the respondent4 what shows that these other women ;or people< are less included and why are they even less included! Ask for e/amples of each statement to be told in the women8s own words- etc!

,) 3e4ual and re(roducti/e health and rights: Indicator 1


NOTE: Adolescents *youth a$ed 12'1>+ have many 2343 issues that need support( #ut the criteria for 5uality of the support they need *as unmarried or early reproductive a$e persons who need youth friendly services+ may #e somewhat different than the needs of mature women *more li ely married( and dealin$ with somewhat different reproductive issues+! The operationali;ation here is done with mature women *1>'?@+ in mind( followin$ the thrust of wor shop discussions! 2hould you decide that you need to focus on adolescents( your data collection instrument needs to reflect that! Core outcome issue Changes in structures regarding se/ual and reproductive health and rights ;0R9R< Outcome indicator E of women reporting satisfaction with the availability and "uality of 0R9R related services Calculation N67E3ATO3: All women who have used at least one 0R9R service and report satisfaction with at least one 0R9R service in Huestion No! %& ;i!e!- select ? or @ in H! %&< 0ENO7/NATO3: All women who have used at least one 0R9R service ;reported JE0 in Huestion No! )B<!

,!1) 0(erational 1efinition


A list of 0R9R services to consider includes the following! Jou will need to select what is applicable from this list- as well as adding other locally available 0R9R services and rights that are relevant but not included here3 Contraceptives of different kinds- other than abortion ;pill- condoms- etc!< $reatment for 0$2s- as appropriate 92VCA270 testing and AR$ 2nformation and counselling on the use of all of the above Antenatal screening and care Postnatal care 9ospitals- clinics or birthing centres where a woman can give birth assisted by skilled health personnel ;doctor- nurse- midwife< or a trained $6A

1*

thers

,!2) Measurement
0ethod of Data Collection 2nterview techni"ue Type of information /uantitati!e : 2ndividual interviews using preset "uestions /ualitati!e ( Dsing semi(structured "uestions within survey "uestionnaires- key informants8 interviews andCor focus groups .espondents 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above 2ampling

Refer to the section on sampling

$his indicator re"uires a few different se"uential steps of measurement3 0tep )< 1irst you need to assess whether 0R9 services are available! $o do this- you should not ask the respondents to tell you what services are available- as they may not know ;asking them if a given service is available will produce a measure of how informed they are about services- not whether services are in fact available or not<! A good source of data for the list of available services is health professionals- village health committees- or other health(trained staff- at local health centres and service provision centres! 0tep %< After you prepare the list of available services to ask about- you need to assess whether the respondent uses or has used these services! 0tep *< Jou need to assess her satisfaction with the services!

The 2uantitati/e information: 2n measuring satisfaction- you can use a modified version of the Kikert scales discussed above- where ) becomes FVery 7issatisfiedG and @ becomes FVery 0atisfied!G 2t will also be important to get a sense of why respondents were not satisfied with the services through pre(selected set of reasons!
Note that the preset *uantitati!e *uestions for 2.8. indicators @ % B are de!eloped together in one table under 2.8. indicator B 5pages BN+B@7.

The 2ualitati/e information: 6ecause numbers- and even this pre(selected set of reasons- will only give you an abstract summary of how respondents feel- you will include some open(ended- probing "uestions to get at what is really going on! 1or instance- if the women say that they were not satisfied with a given service- you can ask "uestions as MCan you tell me whyO >hat happened when you went to the clinicCcentreO8 etc!
$his will also help you weed out respondents who claim that they have used such services because this is the socially desirable answer that they believe the interviewer wants to hear ;Fsocial desirability bias in survey responsesG< when in fact they may not have used the services!

-) 3e4ual and re(roducti/e health and rights: Indicator 2


Core outcome issue Changes in structures regarding se/ual and reproductive health and rights ;0R9R< Outcome indicator E of women making informed choices C decisions with regard to 0R9R Calculation N67E3ATO3: >omen who make decisions ;i!e!- report making decisions to use 0R9R services singly or Iointly with their husbands in Huestion )' : and report that the decisions are based on relevant and valid information coming from options MA8 or M68 in Huestion )A4 0ENO7/NATO3: All women in the survey aged )@ to ?'!

-!1) 0(erational 1efinition


2nformed choices : decisions based on information that is relevant- valid- and accessible to those making the decisions!

-!2) Measurement
0ethod of Data Collection Type of information .espondents 2ampling

20

2nterview techni"ue

/uantitati!e : 2ndividual interviews using preset "uestions /ualitati!e ( Dsing semi(structured "uestions within survey "uestionnaires- key informants8 interviews andCor focus groups

2ndividual women )@ yrs and above and men over )@ yrs 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above and men )@ yrs and above

Refer to the section on sampling

1or consistency in the data collection- you should use the list of available 0R9R services you have identified in the first 0R9R indicator- and the information you have gathered on whether respondents are using these services and reasons why not- if they are not using them! 9ere you will gather data on whether their use or lack of use is due to an informed decision- lack of information- lack of power to make that decision- or other reasons!

The 2uantitati/e information: $his indicator re"uires a few different pieces of information to be gathered in measurement! >hat decisions is the woman makingO >hat decisions are made for her ;i!e!- the role of men- such as husbands- needs to be e/plicitly addressed< >hich decisions are based on information or knowledge of some sortO >hat are the sources and "uality of this informationO
A standard survey approach is to list 0R9R decisions you want to know about- then ask the woman who decides on these- providing the following options3 ) : 2 alone decide % : +y husband decides * : +y husband and 2 together decide ? : ther! Please specifyCe/plain 6elow are "uantitative "uestions e/ploring both 0R9R indicators ) and % that you should adopt into the survey "uestionnaires! [NB] As6 only /. @I: @K: @9 % BC hen adapting the belo preset *uestion into men)s *uestionnaires

21

5,ntroduction to these *uestions7

Now 2 would like to ask you some "uestions on the e/tent of your satisfaction with the availability and "uality of health services related to family planning- pregnancy and birth care- 92VC A270 etc!3 :Note to interviewer A #e careful to use the codes #elow the ta#le for accurate recordin$B
/uest @I @I. 8a!e you e!er heard about [NA0# OE 2#.(,C#]H /uest @J @J. Lhat3 ho as the source of your information ith regard to the mentioned ser!iceH (for each response of Fother, specify detail on line) A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP /uest @K @K. 8a!e you3 your spouse used the mentioned ser!ice during the last @B monthsH /uest @9 @9. Lho decided that you3 your spouse should use itH /uest BN BN. ,f you ha!e used the mentioned ser!ices4 to hat e$tent are you satisfied ith the *ualityH 'or each service with code 3, 9 or : circled, $A TA 93 ) % * ? @ /uest B@ B@. ,f you ha!e used the mentioned ser!ice4 but as not satisfied4 hat as the reasonH (for each response of Fother, specify detail on line) A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP

Name of ser!ice C N$RACEP$2VE : P2KK0

"#2

NO & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$

"#2

NO & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$ K2NE & 5 $ NEL$

(for each response of Fother, specify detail on line) ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP

C N$RACEP$2VE : C N7 +0

C N$RACEP$2VE : $9ER0

$REA$+EN$ 1 R 0$20- A0 APPR PR2A$E

92VCA270 $E0$2N5 AN7 C DN0EKK2N5

AN$ENA$AK 0CREEN2N5 AN7 CARE 9 0P2$AK0- CK2N2C0 R 62R$92N5 CEN$RE0 >9ERE A > +AN CAN 52VE 62R$9 A0020$E7 6J 0K2KKE7 9EAK$9 PER0 NNEK ;7 C$ R- NDR0E+27>21E< R A $RA2NE7 $6A P 0$NA$AK CARE

) )

) )

22

K2NE 2N1 R+A$2 N AN7 C DN0EK2N5 ) % 5 $ NEL$ K2NE % 5 $ %% A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP )

K2NE % 5 $ NEL$ K2NE % 5 $ %% ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ) % * = PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP ) % * ? @ A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP A 6 C 7 E L PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP

$9ER0 ;0PEC21J< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP

COD#2 /uest @J A S AwarenessC information from V0KA meetings 6S +edical staff advice ;at health centers- mobile clinics- etc!< C S Recommendation by family memberCfriends LS other ;specify< /uest @9 )S +yself %S +y spouse *S Nointly with my spouse =S ther ;specify< /uest BN )S Very dissatisfied %S 7issatisfied *S Neither satisfied- nor dissatisfied ? S 0atisfied @S Very satisfied /uest B@ AS Cost was too much 6S 1acility was not ade"uately e"uipped ;staff and medicine shortage< CS 0ervice was too far 7SNo female provider ES 2 was treated poorlyC with disrespectC was turned away from the service LS ther ;specify<

12K$ER %%! END+ERA$ R C9ECK H )B 9A0 D0E7 A$ KEA0$ NE 0ERV2CE G 9A0 NEVER D0E7 ANJ 0ERV2CE0 G No HDE0$2 N C 7E a< U cost was too much b< U facility was closed c< U service was too far d< U heard service was poor e< U no female provider f< U i was treated poorlyC with disrespect g< U i was turned away from the service h< U i did not think it was necessary i< U my spouse did not think it was necessary I< U family did not think it was necessary k< U didn8t know it e/isted /< U other ;specify< PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 5 $ %?

2f you have not used the mentioned service- what was the reasonO No. BC (circle all reasons mentioned, ,ut do not prompt answer with any suggestions such as reading out the listed possi,le reasons)

23

The 2ualitati/e information: >ith open(ended "uestions- probe to find information on the dynamics around 0R9R decisions! Jou should also provide respondents with the opportunity to tell you where and how they receive their information- in open(ended "uestions that allow for their own words and for a description they provide! Jou should probe the "uality of the information that these decisions are based on! $his will give you the full picture of how informed women8s choices are!
Jour "uestions should capture information around3 how the women8s husbands- or other relevant men with power- figure in in their decisionCs4 what sorts of negotiations take place around the decisions4 how the decision is actually taken- even if the women state that they alone decides4 who made the decision to use the specified methodCservice ;who initiated it- who negotiated- who informed the decision- who choiceCpreference counted the most : was the final word- etc!<4 on what informationCrecommendation the decision was based on ;e!g!recommendation from someone who underwent thisCused the service<4 what were the positive and negative conse"uences of the decision : for the women- for a couple- for the men- etc!

5) .limination of Gender based /iolence


Core outcome issue Attitudes of men and women regarding 56V Outcome indicator Attitudes of men and women regarding 56V ;domestic violence4 harassment4 harmful traditions such as 15C4 early marriage4 etc!< Calculation

5!1) 0(erational 1efinition


Attitude is an enduring positive or negative assessment of people- obIects- events- or ideas! 2t is more than emotional reactions and includes thoughts and beliefs people may have- and may be e/pressed through actions or observable behaviour! 5ender(based violence is FAny actUthat results in- or is likely to result in- physical- se/ual or psychological harm or suffering to women ;or girls<- including threats of such acts- coercion or arbitrary deprivation of libertywhether occurring in public or in private life!G $his includes- is not limited to- the following abusive acts3 ;a< Physical- se/ual and psychological violence occurring in the family- including battering- se/ual abuse of female children in the household- dowry(related violence- marital rape- female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women- non(spousal violence and violence related to e/ploitation4 ;b< Physical- se/ual and psychological violence occurring within the general community- including rape- se/ual abuse- se/ual harassment and intimidation at work- in educational institutions and elsewhere- trafficking in women and forced prostitution4 ;c< Physical- se/ual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the 0tate- wherever it occurs!
Q7efinition from the )''* 7eclaration on the Elimination of Violence against >omen!R

5!2) Measurement
NOTE: There are 2 versions of the measurement for this indicator! /f your CO does ,-.'related pro$rammin$( you will use .ersion 1! /f your CO does not do ,-.'related pro$rammin$( you will use .ersion 2!

(#.2,ON @7 ?for -As with $%&-related programmingC


0ethod of Data Collection 2nterview techni"ue Type of information /uantitati!e : 2ndividual interviews using preset "uestions /ualitati!e ( Dsing semi(structured "uestions within survey "uestionnaires- key informants8 interviews andCor focus groups .espondents 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above and men )@ yrs and above 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above and men )@ yrs and above 2ampling Refer to the section on sampling

The 2uantitati/e information: $he most common "uantitative approach to measuring attitudes- perceptions and feelings is a Kikert scale! >hen using Kikert scales to measure attitude- you will need to write out various statements regarding 56V- and

24

ask respondents to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with these statements! 0ee below for preset "uantitative survey "uestions using the Kikert scale!
5,ntroduction to these *uestions7

Now 2 would like to ask about your opinion on various situations and decisions regarding a woman8s life!
/uestion Number No. B< %?!) %?!% %?!* %?!? %?!@ %?!= %?!A %?!B %?!' %?!)& /1#2T,ON2 AND E,-T#.2 Please tell me the e$tent to hich you agree or disagree ith each of the follo ing statements about omen and their li!esA A wife should tolerate being beaten by her husbandCpartner in order to keep the family together! Q2N PKACE0 >9ERE 15CC15+ 20 PRAC$2CE7R $here are important advantages for a circumcised girl! A girl is never too young to be married if a good husband is found! A wife is Iustified in refusing to have se/ with her husbandCpartner when she is tired or not in the mood! 2f a wife goes out without telling her husbandCpartner- he is Iustified in hitting or beating her! Q2N PKACE0 >9ERE 15CC15+ 20 PRAC$2CE7R A girl should be circumcised in order to preserve her virginity before marriage! >omen should choose themselves whom they want to marry! 2t is better to send a son to school than it is to send a daughter! 2f a wife burns the food- it is only proper that her husbandCpartner discipline her by hitting or beating her! 2f a woman was raped- in most cases that means she must have done something to provoke it! 0trongly 7isagree ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COD,N' CAT#'O.,#2 7isagree Neither agree- nor disagree * * * * * * * * * * Agree 0trongly Agree @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

% % % % % % % % % %

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

The 2ualitati/e information: 1or the "ualitative portion- you will follow up the Kikert scale "uestions with open(ended "uestions probing into the meaning of the numbers- and e/ploring the attitudes e/pressed!
$he "ualitative "uestions you ask should be focused on asking3 FwhyG people have the attitudes they do4 some e/amples of how these attitudes play out in relationships4 where these attitudes come from- etc! (#.2,ON B7 ?for -As with no $%&-related programmingC
0ethod of Data Collection 2nterview techni"ue Type of information /uantitati!e : 2ndividual interviews using preset "uestions /ualitati!e ( NA .espondents 2ndividual women )@ yrs and above and men )@ yrs and above NA 2ampling Refer to the section on sampling

The 2uantitati/e information: Apply the guidelines provided under VER02 N ) above on how to collect "uantitative data only! The 2ualitati/e information: NA

25

I&- General methodological and o(erationali6ation issues


$his chapter gives practical guidelines on issues related to designing survey tools- data collection and interpretation! ,t is mandatory that you read this chapter prior to designing sur!ey tools as ell as before commencing data analysis!

1) "ercentage indicators
>hen the indicator is about E of women who e/hibit a given characteristic : e!g!- E women with control over assets in household- or E women making informed decisions about 0R9R : it re"uires a numerator and a denominator to calculate the percentage! Numerator3 Number of eligible women with a completed individual interview that e/hibits the desired characteristics ;for e!g! Number of women that report satisfaction on 0R9R services<! 7enominator3 0um of number of eligible women with a completed individual interview and mayC may not e/hibit the desired characteristics! Note that the !ariables that belong to the numerator and denominator depend on the definitions pro!ided. Therefore4 please loo6 at the e$planations gi!en under the indicators formulated as a percentage.

2) Age breakdowns
1or some indicators ;e!g!- 0R9R ones<- an age breakdown for the respondents will be crucial! 2t is strongly suggested that you use a standard age breakdown so the data can be comparable and easily aggregated to larger age groups! ne e/ample comes from the 790 survey3 V@4 @('4 )&()?4 )@()'4 %&(%?4 %@(%'4 *&(*?4 *@(*'4 ?&(??4 ?@(?'4 @&(@?4 @@(@'4 =&(=?4 =@(='4 A&(A?4 A@(A'4 B&W 5enerally- development organi.ations- like the DN agencies- use @(year increments like the ones listed here! Jou might choose to collapse them to fewer categories- but keeping those larger groups divisible by the @(year increments ;e!g!- =&(='- or =&(A?< is still strongly suggested!

$) Control /ariables
$he Mcontrol variables8 measure factors that influence the outcome on a given indicator- but we are not necessarily interested in how they do ;e!g!- because we are not doing any interventions that could realistically influence them<! >e use them in the study by holding them constant during the analysis so that we can separate out their effects from those of the factors we do wish to study! $his means that we still have to include and measure the controls- however! 1or e/ample- educational attainment is known to influence phenomena such as reproductive behaviour- use of contraception- health of children- etc! 2f we are studying the health of children in households- we may be interested in how poverty or household assets affect the health of children- rather than in how their parents8 level of education affect it! 6ut- we would still collect data on both povertyChousehold assets ;called independent variable< and on the parents8 level of education ;called control variable<- then analy.e for the effects of poverty while holding education constant! >hen writing your survey instruments- you should make a list of the factors known to influence the outcomes you are seeking to measure! Jou should then include "uestions on these factors in the survey! $his is e/tremely important- as without such "uestions- you would not be able to tell where the effects you are observing are coming from!

2!

') 7iltering /ariables


$hese variables will help you organi.e the survey responses by applicable categories! Variables commonly used for filtering are3 gender4 age4 marital status4 head of household status4 school enrolment status4 employment status4 etc! 1iltering variables are e/tremely important- as they help determine which "uestions in the survey are relevant to which respondents! 1or instance- you may have a set of "uestions asking about delivering babies in the presence of a trained birth attendant! $he surveys filled out by men and by women who have never had a baby before could have blanks under these "uestions! 2f you do not have filter variables for gender and for whether the woman has had a child- you will not be able to sort out the responses relevant to the analysis of that set of "uestions from those that should not be counted in that particular analysis!

)) 8uantitati/e /s! 2ualitati/e methods in sur/e#s


A good resource for an overview of these methods is CARE8s +,E +anual ;F9ow Are >e 7oingOG< by $om 6arton! 2t offers a discussion on the selection of methods and on what each entails! A copy of this document is found in the 7+,E mini(library distributed at the Entebbe workshop %&&' ;%ocation: cd3Xtb ( 7+,E mini( libraryX'' long source documentsXm,e system4 &ilename: 5uidelines )''A<!

*) .ligibilit# to res(ond to the 2uestionnaires


>hile administering survey "uestionnaires- the respondents will be individual men ;all men living in the household aged )@ and above< and individual women ;all women above the age of )@<! 2t is important that socio(demographic information such as se/- age- martial status- level of education- etc! be collected! Please include such a table in the sur!ey *uestionnaires3
"&TIO' 1( O&IO-)"*OG+#,-I& &-#+#&T"+I TI& O. T-" +" ,O')"'T
No 100 QUESTIONS How old are you? (enumerator: write the whole number) CODING CATEGORIES
AGE

GO TO

SINGLE (never married WI!"W 101 What is your current marital status? !I$"%&E!'SE(A%A)E! +A%%IE! +"N"GA+",S +A%%IE! ("L.GA+",S &an you read and write in En0lish'1rench or any other .ES 10# N" lan0ua0es? 10* Have you ever attended school? 10What is the hi0hest level o2 schoolin0 that you have reached? .ES N" (%I+A%. SE&"N!A%. &"LLEGE',NI$E%SI). .ES N" !! ++

1 # * / 1 # 1 # 1 # * 1 # ..

103 Are you a mem4er o2 a $SL 0rou5? 107 When did you 8oin the $SL 0rou5? (enumerator: write the date, month, year)

NE6) SE&)I"N

2#

109 Is the $SL 0rou5 esta4lished throu0h &A%E?

&A%E "ther

1 #

,) Measuring (erce(tions9 feelings9 attitudes


$he most common "uantitative approach to measuring feelings- attitudes or perceptions is a Kikert scale! 2n a Kikert scale survey "uestion- the respondents indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with a given statement- on a scale! $he number at one end of the scale represents least agreement or furthest away from the perception or feelings of the respondent4 the number at the other end of the scale represents most agreement or closest to the perception or feelings of the respondent! $he category in the middle of the scale is the neutral oneindicating neither agreement- nor disagreement! $he typical Kikert scale looks like this3 ) 0trongly 7isagree % 7isagree * Neither agree- nor disagree ? Agree @ 0trongly Agree

0ome Kikert scales depart from the classic @(point scale and use scales going up to A or )& points- but preserve the mirrored positive and negative ends of the scale! 2t is suggested that if you use a Kikert scale- you use a @( point scale- however- as it is not clear that respondents can tell the difference between agreeing = points8 worth or A points8 worth- and therefore it is not clear that complicating the scale produces tangible benefits in terms of the data collected! An e/ample of a Kikert scale survey "uestion is3
Please circle the number that best represents how strongly you agree or disagree with the following Statement: I am proud to work for CARE. ! " # $ Strongly %isagree &either agree' nor Agree Strongly %isagree disagree Agree

>hen writing the survey "uestions using these scales- write out all the aspects ;of social inclusion- or women8s empowerment- for instance< about which you need to collect data! $hese need to be in the form of statements with which it is possible to say whether you agree or disagree! $hen list the statements and under each- provide the scale above! Please refer to the -i6ert scale type *uestions under indicators B4 I4 and 9. Also refer to instructions on &Neutrality throughout the inter!ie ) under section (,+< hile formulating *uestions using the the -i6ert scale!

&- 3am(ling
1) 8uantitati/e sam(ling
$his section e/plains how large your sample needs to be and how to select this sample! $o ease the understanding of this section- the following definitions have been used! -ommunity: the general population of the intervention 7ones including the programs intervention and nonintervention groups*

2%

@mpact group: the population group upon which the program (-#!E and its partners) aims to have a positive impact with a long-term commitment to overcome their underlying causes of poverty and social inHustice* #s such, the impact group is at least at national level and is typically larger than the su,set population directly impacted ,y an individual proHect or initiative at field level carried out ,y -#!E or a partner* E!$! Poor and mar$inali;ed rural women and $irls *CA3E Tan;ania+ u,-set population: is one of the disaggregated groups included in the impact group upon which the program strategies or initiatives are focused specifically on* 'or example: women, children, youth; or a smaller representation of the entire impact group* E!$! 7ar$inali;ed and poor women mem#ers of .2%s $he figure below show the sampling process from baseline to endline!
.amp en

.amp e

5aseline

ne

"ndline

/10 ,ro1ect inter2ention &ommunit3

41

/20 ,ro1ect inter2ention &ommunit3

/30 ,ro1ect impact group /V 6 members0 7 8n9no:n at baseline

42

/%0 ,ro1ect impact group /V 6 members0


.amp e

nie
L) and L% are different types of intervention the program will implement! L ) will reach the entire proIect community- through radio broadcasting on women right issues ;e!g!- 6urundi<- community change agents- peer education- etc! >hile L % is aimed at directly reaching the impact group only ;through V0K groups or other type of associations<! L % includes as mentioned in most of C s proposals direct training on women right delivered to V0K group membersawareness raising campaign at group level- training on the V0K methodology- etc!

0escription: $he program is planning to create new V0,K groups and work with e/isting V0,K groups as well! 6ut since the groups have not yet been created- we cannot yet tell who the direct participants in them will be! Nevertheless- the program knows the number of groups it plans to create by location! ,n general4 according to information recei!ed from COs4 the total pro?ect participants ill not reach more than @CO of the community members 5for most of COs it ill represent around CO+GO of the entire community7. 2ample si;e and methodolo$y: $he sample will be a t o stage stratified cluster sample! $he area in which the program is implemented will be stratified by regionCdistrict! 2n each of these stratification units- a sample of villages will be selected with a probability proportional to the si.e of the village ;number of households in the village<! $his method will ensure the inclusion of the largest villages in the sample- with the advantage of giving an e"ual probability of selection to each household in the program area!

2*

nce the villages are selected for inclusion in the sample- the program should establish the inventory of all households living in the selected villages)! 0ince we don8t yet know which households will end up being direct participants in the V0,K groups- the inventory will not take this into account! $he inventory of households will be used as the sampling frame from which to select randomly the sample(households in each village- regardless of their program participation status ;i!e!- whether or not there is at least one V0,K member in the household<! $he following table gives the sample si.e re"uirements as described above! $he number of households % per category is the minimum sample si.e re"uired for '&E precision and a power of B&E! 2n order to account for the fact that we don8t know who the direct participants in V0,K will be- we have to increase the sample si.e! >e make an assumption that less than *&E of the entire population of the program intervention area will be directly participating in V0,K groups*! TableA 2ample si;e re*uirement
2ample 2i;e Number of households assumed not to be direct V0,K participants @*& 0ample E of households assumed to be direct V0,K participants *&E? Total sample si;e for baseline A@& households

9ouseholds

>ith an assumption that only %%@ households will represent the direct V0,K participants in the baseline samplethis sample will not be very strong in estimating the indicators for the direct participant population! $o address this limitation- a direct client survey will be carried out during the endline study- so that data on the global population in the community can be compared to data on the direct participant population! 2election of respondents: $hree types of "uestionnaires will be used for the survey3 a household "uestionnaire- a man8s "uestionnaire- and a woman8s "uestionnaire! $he operational definitions of the indicators state which "uestions are to be included in which "uestionnaire! $he selection of respondents is as follows3 All women aged )@ and above in the sampled(households will be eligible to be interviewed for the woman8s "uestionnaire! All men aged )@ and above will be eligible to be interviewed for the man8s "uestionnaire! $he head of household will be interviewed for the household "uestionnaire! Distribution of the sample across region3districtsA the sample should be proportionally allocated across regionCdistrict according to their weight ;E of household<! $he sample si.e will not allow comparison across regionCdistrict! Nevertheless- if a country is interested in regional or district comparison and to treat each regionCdistrict as a separate unit of analysis with the same level of precision- they should select the same number ;A@& household< per regionCdistrict!

2) 8ualitati/e sam(ling
2t is important to keep in mind that "ualitative methods focus on the depth of the interview than the number of the subIects interviewed! $hus the sample si.es are small compared to sample si.es for "uantitative techni"ues! $he general rule in "ualitative research is that you continue to sample until you are not getting any new information or are no longer gaining new insights! >e recommend for this study- to select a sub(sample ;of women and men< from the "uantitative sample of less than )C@ of the "uantitative sample! 1or instance if you select @&& women for the "uantitative data- we would recommend to conduct individual interviews andCor focus group discussions with no more than )&& individuals using "ualitative techni"ues or until you are not getting any more new information!

)
%

0ee Anne/ % for an e/ample of a tool used to create the inventory of households! >e first determined the re"uired sample si.e for women respondent- and based on this we computed the re"uired number of household with the assumption of average )!% women per household ;as given by the 7emographic and 9ealth surveys<!
* ?

1or technical details on how the sample si.e has been determined- see Anne/ )! $his figure will be adapted according to each country specific case! 2n fact some country will reach less than *&E of the household in their intervention .one ;implies a reduction of the sample si.e< and some may reach more than *&E ;implying an increase of the sample si.e<!

30

9ow to select the sampleO 1or the "ualitative sample- random selection is not appropriate! 0ubIects are selected based on the "uality and depth of information that they can provide- some deviant characteristics they may have that we may be interested to investigate ;e!g! a woman who fully participates in decision making at household level in a conte/t where women tend to not be involved in any decision making< - or their e/posure to some of the phenomena under study ;for instance women being subIect to 56V- or women who have been visiting 0R9 services- etc!<! 9ow to organi.e subIects for the interviewO Jou can use both individual interviews and focus group discussions! 1or sensitive subIect one would prefer individual interviews to focus groups! 6ut for general and non sensitive subIects focus group discussions will be more appropriate! $he ideal number of people to have discussions with in focus groups at one time is =()% people!

&I- .thical considerations


$his section covers some basic points on ethics which also have implications for how you carry out the survey3 2nformed consent Confidentiality of responses Privacy ;interviewing respondents individually< Neutrality throughout the interview Avoidance of harm

1) Informed consent
$he ethics of doing survey research re"uire that you obtain the respondent8s informed consent to participate in your study! 2n order to give informed consent- the respondents need to be given3 ;)< a clear e/planation of what they are about to participate in ;what the research is about< and how you plan to use the information they give you4 ;%< an assurance that the information they provide will be treated in confidence- and not revealed or discussed with anyone who is not on the research or proIect team4 ;*< the option to stop the interview at any time and not finish it4 and ;?< the option to refuse to participate in the study altogether! 6elow is a form- adapted from the 790- which you can use to obtain informed consent! $his should be read to every respondent prior to beginning the survey! 2f you cannot obtain informed consent- simply thank the person and discontinue the interview!
,NT.OD1CT,ON and ,NEO.0#D CON2#NT 9ello! +y name is PPPPPPPPPPPPPPP and 2 am working with CARE(;$an.aniaC6urundiCetc!Cetc!<! CARE is planning to implement a program on women8s economic- social and political participation! $o assist in the evaluation of our program in the regionwe are conducting a baseline survey! >e would very much appreciate your participation in this survey! 2 would like to ask you some "uestions about your household8s economics and decision making process- and your opinion about different topics related to women8s role in the society! $his information will help CARE to better plan its interventions and measure its impact! >hatever information you provide will be kept strictly confidential- and will not be shared with anyone other than members of our survey team! >e therefore re"uest that you feel free to provide frank and honest answers! Participation in this survey is voluntary- and if we should come to any "uestion you donYt want to answer- Iust let me know and 2 will go on to the ne/t "uestion4 or you can stop the interview at any time! 9owever- we hope you will participate in the survey since your views are important! At this time- do you want to ask me anything about the surveyO +ay 2 begin the interview nowO 0ignature of interviewer3 PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP 7ate3

PPPPPPPPPPPP

.#2POND#NT A'.##2 TO B# ,NT#.(,#L#D F @ Proceed to the sur!ey. .#2POND#NT D#C-,N#2 TO B# ,NT#.(,#L#D F B Than6 the person and end the inter!ie .

31

2) Confidentialit# of res(onses
$he survey results should be kept strictly confidential! 7ata collectorsCsupervisors should never mention interviews- discuss answers they have received- or show completed "uestionnaires to anyone e/cept their supervisor on the survey team!

$) "ri/ac# inter/iewing res(ondents indi/iduall#)


$he presence of a third person during the interview- when you are supposed to interview a respondent individually- may affect your ability to get frank and honest answers from the respondent! $herefore- it is essential that the individual interview is conducted in private and that all "uestions are answered by the respondent himCherself! 0ometimes the demand to stay alone with the respondent makes other people more curious- which may encourage them to want to listen! 2n this case- itYs up to you to make them understand that they should leave you alone with the respondent! $o do this- use tact and skill to Zget ridZ of them! 2f you have to interview more than one woman in the same household- never interview one of these women in the presence of the others!

') :eutralit# throughout the inter/iew


+ost people are polite and tend to give the answer they think you want to hear! $herefore- it is very important that you stay absolutely neutral while you ask the "uestions! >hether by facial e/pression or tone of voicenever give the impression that the person being interviewed gave a FrightG or FwrongG answer! Never give the impression that you approve or disapprove of the responses that the person is giving! A respondent may ask you "uestions during the interview! Ket them know that we are interested in hisCher opinion and that you can not answer hisCher "uestions because you will slow down the work! 2f a response to a "uestion is not clear or immediately relevant- do not say things like- 1@ suppose what you mean isI*, right65 Very often- respondents will agree with your interpretation of what they have said even if it is not what they meant! 2nstead- here are some options of what to do if you do not understand the response3 Dse neutral "uestions to ask for clarification- such as- 1@ donJt Kuite understand what you mean5 or 1@ am not sure what you mean ,y that; could you tell me again8a little more*5 Repeat the "uestion or list the response categories ;when applicable< if the respondent does not understand the "uestion- misinterprets it- seems unable to make up hisCher mind- or strays from the subIect! Repeat the respondentYs reply if it is necessary to clarify the response and prompt the respondent to enlarge upon hisCher statement! 9owever- be sure you adhere strictly to the respondentYs answer and do not interIect your own ideas when repeating what they have said! 0ometimes when you receive an F2 don8t knowG answer- it does not necessarily mean that the respondent does not know! 2n fact- this statement can mean different things3 $he respondent does not understand the "uestion and says F2 donYt knowG to avoid saying that ;s<he did not understand! $he respondent is thinking and says F2 donYt knowG to give himCher time to think! $he respondent may be trying to evade the issue- so ;s<he begs off with the F2 donYt knowG response! $he respondent may actually not know! 2f you receive this answer- you will need to read the situation and the non(verbal clues to figure out what may be going on! 2f you think the respondent does not understand the "uestion- you can repeat it- or reread the response categories as necessary! 2f you think the respondent needs time to think- give himCher time- do not rush on to the ne/t "uestion ;but within reason- do not prolong the interview unnecessarily<! 2f they are trying to evade the issue- encourage them or probe gently- stimulating discussion in which they would share the information! +ost importantly- stay neutral and do not influence what they say!

32

)) A/oidance of harm
Active efforts must be made to minimi.e any possible distress caused by the research! 0ome topics as 56V may be sensitive and may cause unintended negative effect on those who participate in the research ;to both the interviewer and the respondent<! $herefore- such "uestions should be asked in a supportive and non( Iudgemental manner! 2n addition- care needs to be taken to ensure that the language of the "uestionnaire cannot be interpreted as being Iudgemental- blaming or stigmati.ing! All interviews should end in a positive manner and for this- it is important that researchersC data collectors undergo the appropriate psychological preparation! Jou will find more reading material on this topic in the mini(library at cd3Xtb ( 7+,E mini(libraryXethics!

33

Anne4es
Anne4 1! 3am(le si6e determination
$he sample si.e is derived by the following formula@3
n = d 7Z + Z ) 2 P 1 71 P 1) + P 2 71 P 2) 2 7P P ) 1 2

n3 re"uired minimum sample si.e per survey round or comparison group d3 the design effect- is related to the fact that we used a cluster sampling4 d is a function of the intra(cluster unit outcome correlation! 2n other words- the more the outcomes of the sampling unit per(cluster are homogeneousthe more important FdG will be! 2n general d is e"ual to % for similar type of survey! P)3 the estimated level of an indicator measured as a proportion at the time of the first survey or for the control groupCarea! 1or instance if the indicator we wish to measure is 1the proportion of women ma)ing )ey decisions at household level5 P) will be this indicator and we should find the value of P) from previous studies ;like 7emographic and 9ealth studies- for instance<! 2f the data is not available- we should consider P) as @&E- value that will provide the largest sample si.e! P%3 the expected level of the indicator either at some future date or for the proIect area such that the "uantity ;P% ( P)< is the si.e of the magnitude of change it is desired to be able to detect! +ore the difference between ;P% ( P)< is big- less the si.e of the sample will be! 1or the determination of the sample si.e- we have considered ;P%( P)< S )&E! $he implication being- that we are e/pecting at least a )&E change in each of the indicators during a @ years period of time! 2f the real difference is less than )&E our sample si.e will be too small to assess any change that would have occurred! >e could have decided to reduce this difference to @E- with the implication to increase the sample si.e and the budget of the survey! T[ S the .(score corresponding to the degree of confidence with which it is desired to be able to conclude that an observed change of si.e ;P% ( P)< would not have occurred by chance ;[ ( the level of statistical significance<! 9ere [ has been considered as '&E! T\ S the .(score corresponding to the degree of confidence with which it is desired to be certain of detecting a change of si.e ;P% ( P)< if it actually occurred ;\ ( statistical power<! 9ere \ has been considered as B&E! $he final sample si.e should be corrected for e/pected non response! 2n the study we have assumed a non response rate of @E! $hus the sample si.e corrected would be ncSnC;)(H<- with HS&!&@! $hese parameters should be selected accordingly under time and budget constraints!

Please refer to +agnani- R! ;)''A<! 0ampling guide! 1ood and Nutrition $echnical Assistance ProIect ;1AN$A< and Academy for Educational development! $he document can be downloaded from www!fantaproIect!org
@

34

Anne4 2! In/entor# of households in the /illage


After identifying which village will be part of the baseline study- the program should establish the inventory of all households living in the selected villages using the format below! All households present in these villages should be listed in the inventory regardless of their V0K membership! After the list is complete- it will be used as the sampling frame from which sample(households will be randomly selected for the study! Number Name of head of household @ B C < G I J

35

Anne4 $! 3uggested (olic# areas to e4(lore


6elow are some key substantive areas- adapted from the work of women8s organi.ations- to consider under each of these policy domains! $he list comprises suggested issues that you could e/plore as is relevant- depending on the policy domain you decide to study! Please read from left to right when using this table! $he first column on the left hand side of the table indicates to which domain the subse"uent rows belong to! 1or e/amplerefer to all the rows marked M)8 while investigating policy change in the protection of women8s economic security in order to capture the different aspects of that domain!
Ley to !eading .omains: 3 M The protection of womens economic security (their property rights, inheritance rights; etc); 9 M The protection of womens civic and political rights; : M The protection of womens !"! and maternal health; > M #ddressing all forms of $%& (domestic violence, sexual violence, '$(, traffic)ing, etc*)
3elevant 0omains 1( 2 Operational Description of Domain +arried women are not autonomous legal entities from their husbands a! +arried women must obtain husband8s permission for routine matters such as opening bank account- or to e/ercise citi.enship rights! b! +arried women are considered property owned by their husbands! Kack of rights to and after divorce- separation or annulment >omen and girls are forced into marriage Kack of inheritance and property rights for married and unmarried women >idows a! >idows may be stripped of all possessions b! >idows may lose rights >omen and girls lack e"ual access to and participation in education 1( 2 >omen are not provided with vocational training or e/isting vocational programs do not prepare women for formal sector employment a! Vocational training is limited to activities that have a marginal impact on women8s economic empowerment >omen do not receive e"ual pay for the same work as men Operational /uestions to 8elp Assess 2tate in Domain 7o married women have the same legal status as married menO 7o married women have the same rights- responsibilities- and privileges as married menO 7o married women have to obtain their husband8s permission to open a bank accountO 7o married women have to obtain their husband8s permission to voteO 7o married women have to obtain their husband8s permission to do other things that men can do without permissionO 2s divorce- separation or annulment available e"ually to both men and womenO 2s there a marriage registryO >hat portion ;if any< of the marital assetsCproperty are women allowed to retainO Can women and girls be forced to marry someone they do not chooseO Are married women allowed to inherit propertyO Are married women allowed to own propertyO Are widows allowed to remarryO 7o widows retain custody of the childrenO Are widows re"uired to marry a brotherCuncleCetc! of her dead husbandO 7o widows retain property ;or are they subIected to property(grabbing< after the death of a husbandO 7oes a law e/ist prohibiting discrimination in education on the basis of se/- pregnancy or marital statusO Are there laws prohibiting girls from attending schoolO 2s the right to primary education for girls a guaranteed rightO Are girls allowed to enter any vocational occupationO Are girls encouraged to obtain vocational trainingO Are there provisions to train women for skilled IobsO 7oes the government provide vocational training to men and women4 if so- is there e"ual opportunity for admission to such programsO 7o the laws of the 0tate ensure the e"ual right of women to e"ual pay- including benefits- and to e"ual treatment in respect to work of e"ual value- as well as e"uality of treatment in the evaluation of the "uality of workO 7o the laws of the 0tate re"uire e"ual pay for women and menO 2s there a national minimum wageO 2f so- does it apply to all workersO 2s se/ual harassment prohibited by law4 if so- what is se/ual harassment defined asO >hat restrictions based on gender e/ist in national lawsO >hat laws e/ist that may interfere with the productive employment of womenO 7o laws criminali.e all forms of rapeO Are there e/ceptions to rape laws that would preclude certain types of assaults from being formally considered rape : like husband(wife or the incidence of marriage of attacker(victimO

1( ? C( ? 1 1( 2

1( 2 0e/ual 9arassment is prevalent ?( 1 ? Prevalence of Rape a! 0tranger Rape b! Ac"uaintance Rape

3!

? ? ?( C ?

c! 0pousal Rape Reporting Rape and Prosecuting Rape d! >omen who were raped are accused of adultery if they can8t meet the high evidentiary standards of proving rape! e! 2mpunity for Rapists 7omestic Violence $rafficking 1emale genital cutting and other traditional practices Violence Against >omen in Prostitution Kack of Access to the Nustice 0ystem4 7iscrimination in Kaws and Administration of Nustice

7o the laws of the 0tate ensure the rights of women and girls to e"ual access to educational information on se/ual violence and coercionO 2s there an onerous burden on proving rape as opposed to other crimesO

1( 2( C( ?

2 ?

>omen are not allowed to hold public office or perform public functions $raining of Nustice 0ystem Professionals

Kack of Political 0tructure to Address 2ssues Relating to >omen 1( 2( C( ?

7o laws prohibit violence against women by their husbandsO 7o the laws of the 0tate seek to suppress and criminali.e all forms of trafficking of womenO 7o the laws prohibit traditional or customary practices harmful to women include se/(selective abortion ;son preference<- dowry and dowry(related crimes- domestic violence- bride price- facial scarring- force(feeding of women- dry se/- early and forced marriage- se/ual slavery and honor crimesO 7o the laws of the 0tate prohibit the e/ploitation of prostitutesO 2f it is re"uired by national law- has the 0tate passed domestic implementing legislation- so that a woman can seek a remedy for an 2nternational Convention for Civil and Political Rights ;2CCPR< violation in domestic courtO 2s there a Fcompetent Hudicial, administrative or legislativeG authority where women can adIudicate violations of their human rights as set forth in the 2CCPRO 2s this authority- one to which women have accessO 2s there national law- for e/ample- that provides women e"ual access to any court in the countryO r is there a law that provides that women do not have e"ual access to such bodies- as a formal matterO 2s there a mechanism to enforce Iudgments for 2CCPR rights violationsO 9as an enforcement mechanism been designatedO As a formal matter- are women afforded e"ual Fcivil and politicalG rights by the constitutionO 2s there a provision of the Constitution which grants e"ual civil and political rights to all citi.ens- or to Fmen and womenOG 7oes a provision of the constitution or nationalCfederal law provide that women have the Fright to recognition everywhere as a person before the lawGO 7oes the 0tate have a constitutional provision or domestic legislation that embodies 2CCPR Article %=8s rights to e"ual protection of the law and freedom from discriminationO 9as the 0tate formally recogni.ed the e/istence of discrimination against womenO 9as it made a formal commitment to ending state practices that discriminate against womenO Are there Fcompetent national tribunalsG ;i!e! courts< that will adIudicate women8s claims that they have been subIect to unlawful discriminationO 7o women have formal access to these courtsO Are public authorities forbidden by law from discriminating against womenO Are there laws prohibiting se/ discrimination in recruiting- hiring and promotion policies of public institutionsO Are there laws that prohibit discrimination against women as recipients of government services- such as welfare- education- health servicesO 9as the 0tate repealed laws or amended the constitution to eliminate laws that discriminate against womenO 1or e/ample- under the law- do women have e"ual access to citi.enship as menO Are they able to pass citi.enship onto their children in a manner e"ual to that afforded menO Are there any criminal laws that facially discriminate against womenO Are there criminal laws that are discriminatorily applied to womenO 7o all women ;married- single- widowed- divorced< have the same legal capacity as menO 7o all women have a formal right to contract and administer property in a manner e"ual to that of menO 7o laws state that women should be treated e"ually in Fall stages of procedure in courts and tribunalsGO Are there laws that state that women should be treated differently at any stage of a court proceedingO Are women and men8s testimony in court as witnesses granted e"ual weightO 7oes the 0tate have laws that prohibit women from holding public office or e/ercising public functions such as- for e/ample- Iudges- legislatorsadministrative officials- etc!O Are professionals in the Iustice system ;Iudges- prosecutors- administrative officials- police officers< trained to be sensitive to gender issuesO 7oes this training include information about how to treat women who are victims of se/ual violenceO Are there formal mechanisms in place to ensure that the Fviews and concernsG of female victims of crimes are taken into consideration in the investigation and prosecution of crimesO 7oes the law re"uire the creation of a national machinery ;e!g!- +inistry of >omen8s Affairs< to lead and coordinate efforts to improve the status of womenO 2f so- does the law allow this machinery to hold the rest of the government accountable for promoting the advancement of women in all aspects of societyO 2f so- is there a law that ensures that the national machinery is ade"uately funded and staffedO

3#

Kack of 2ndividual Political Rights

Kack of access to basic health care and e"ual access to health C

Reproductive Rights C

7o the laws of the 0tate prohibit discrimination in political and public life on the basis of se/O >omen8s Political Participation as3 )! Voters a! 7o the laws of the 0tate ensure the rights of women to vote in electionsO b! Are women able to vote anonymouslyO c! 2s Fpro/y votingG ;where the husband votes for his wife< prohibitedO %! Candidates a! 7o the laws of the 0tate ensure the e"ual right of women to stand for election to all publicly elected bodiesO b! 7o the laws of the 0tate ensure the e"ual right of women to hold public officeO c! 2s there a law that prohibits husbands from preventing their wives from holding public officeO d! Are any seats in parliament reserved for women ;i!e!- gender "uotas<O e! Are any positions in government other than parliament seats reserved for womenO *! +embers of Civil 0ociety a! 7o the laws of the 0tate ensure the e"ual right of women to participate in N5 s and associations concerned with the public and political life of the countryO b! Are women statutorily able to run maIor N5 sO c! Are women guaranteed an e"ual right to find employment in maIor N5 sO 7o the laws of the 0tate ensure to women voluntary- accessible- appropriate and affordable services in connection with pregnancy and post(natal periodO >hat legal measures has the 0tate undertaken to codify efforts to increase the participation of women in primary health care and to enhance their role as care providers- health workers and educators without placing an added burden on womenO >hat legal measures has the state taken to guarantee women e"ual access to health care in rural areasO Any there any legal restrictions which limit women8s ability to seek medical attention- such as a re"uirement that they must be accompanied by male relativeO >hat legal measures has the 0tate undertaken to eradicate forced sterili.ation- forced pregnancy and forced abortionO 2s abortion legalO 7o the laws of the 0tate ensure the rights of women and girls to e"ual access to educational information on the health and well being of familiesincluding information and advice on reproductive health- including family planning and prevention and treatment of se/ually transmissible infectionsO

3%

Anne4 '! +e(orting format for baseline findings


CA.# NO.LA" EO.0AT EO. BA2#-,N# .#PO.T NBA Please remember that in addition to this report4 ra *uantitati!e data on C2Pro format as ell as summari;ed *ualitati!e data should be submitted to CA.# Nor ay 2ummary An e/ecutive summary on the key aspects of the study ;ma/imum % pages<- highlighting3 S] $he obIective of the study S] $he methodological approach S] A brief description of the sample S] 1inding on the global and C specific outcome indicators S] 7iscussion and conclusion ,. ,ntroduction S] 6rief description of the proIect S] bIective of the baseline study S] Period of the study S] Kimitations of the study S] 0tructure of the report ,,. 0ethodology S] 0ampling S] E/pected sample si.e and actual sample si.e- including non response rate S] 9ow respondents were selected S] Preparation for data collection S] 7ata collection techni"ues S] Period of data collection S] 7ifficulties during data collection S] Ethical considerations ,,,. .esults @. Description of the population under study A

0ocio(demographic characteristics of the community- households- women and male interviewed3 6ackground information on the community- like cultural norms- ethnicity- infrastructures- etc! ;a picture of the .one can be used< 1or 9ouseholds3 reparation by geographical area- average number of people- economic characteristicscharacteristics of head of households ;gender- education- etc!<- etc! 1or >omen3 age groups- education level- marital status- etc! 1or +en3 age groups- education level- marital status- etc! B. .esults on Common and CO specific outcome indicators

Each indicator should be disaggregated Qe/ample of desegregation variables may include3 geographical .one ;regionCdistrict<- age group of participants- level of education of participants ;none- primary- secondary and more<- genderetc!R!

3*

$he use of statistical test ;C92(%- t(test- whenever appropriate< to test for difference across desegregation variables is recommended $he comment should combine finding from "uantitative and "ualitative data in the interpretation to see if there is any contradiction or complementarities! $he "ualitative information should be use to provide more details on the findings obtained through the "uantitative techni"ues! 0ince policy and attitudes are cross(cutting issues- they should be discussed under each of the thematic focus areas3 i!e!economic security4 women say in decision4 women8s se/ual and reproductive rights4 and gender based violence! a. Lomen economic security and !ulnerability to shoc6s Present the findings on the common indicators and C (specific indicators ;if any< related to women economic security and vulnerability to shocks! $he common indicators are3 S] E/istence and enforcement of law on women8s economic security right ;their property rightsinheritance rights4 etc!< S] Attitude of men and women towards women8s economic security ;property rights- inheritanceinvolvement in paid work- etc< S] E of women with control over assets in household S] E of women with capacity to cope with economic shocks Provide "ualitative data to support the finding from "uantitative information b. Lomen)s role and real say in decision ma6ing Present the findings on the common indicators and C (specific indicators ;if any< related to women8s role and say in decision making! $he common indicators are3 S] E/istence and effective enforcement of law on women8s civic and political rights S] Attitude of men and women towards women8s participation in the public sphere- decision making at community level S] E of women that report meaningful participation in decision(making bodies at community level S] >omen8s perception of social inclusion in the community Provide "ualitative data to support the finding from "uantitative information c. Lomen)s right to control fertility and body Present the findings on the common indicators and C (specific indicators ;if any< related to women8s right to control fertility and body! $he common indicators are3 S] E/istence and effective enforcement of law on women8s 0R9R and maternal health S] Attitude of men and women towards women8s ability to make decision on their 0R9R ;use of contraceptives- accessing maternal health care- choosing partner etc< S] E of women reporting satisfaction with the availability and "uality of 0R9R related services S] E of women making informed choicesCdecisions with regards to their 0R9R Provide "ualitative data to support the finding from "uantitative information d. 'ender based !iolence Present the findings on the common indicators and C decision making! $he common indicators are3 specific indicators ;if any< related to women8s role and say in

S] E/istence and effective enforcement of law addressing 56V S] Attitude of men and women towards women8s e/posure to 56V ;domestic violence- harassment9armful traditions as 15C- early marriage etc< Provide "ualitative data to support the finding from "uantitative information

40

,(. Discussion on the results 0ynthesi.e the results across the ? components3 >hat are the key trends on women8s rightsO 1or instance what is the general perception of both women and male and how these perceptions influence the outcomes- how are the results across regionsCdistrict- across level of education- across group age- across gender- etc comparedO 7oes the results confirm each other or contradict each otherO 1or instance are >omen8s decision making comparable to their economic situation etc! 7iscuss the relation between "ualitative and "uantitative data! 2s there any category that appears to need further attention in the proIect implementationO Compare the results with findings from other studies organi.ed in country or elsewhere- are these finding confirming or infirming the findings of these studies- etc! (. Conclusion and recommendations S] Recall the obIectives of the study S] Recall the key findings S] Are there some findings that need immediate actions by the proIectO S] 9ow should the proIect focus its intervention to address such issues- for instance specify intervention need for specific sub(category of population ;a particular regionCdistrict- a particular age group- a particular level of instruction- etc!< S] 0pecify if there is a need for details analysis on some specific assumption made during the analysis! S] Kessons learnt from the baseline ;about the research techni"ues- about global and country(specific outcome indicators< ANN#= a. (alue of the indicators and Target ,ndicators utcome indicator )! ;state the indicator< utcome indicator %! ;state the indicator< Baseline (alue BNN9 Target !alue BN@@ BN@C

$his table should be filled for all the indicators including "ualitative indicators! 1or "ualitative indicators- the value should be a description of the situation at baseline for a particular indicator! 1or instance- if it is related to policy- provided a description of the finding related to concerned policy!

41

Anne4 )! 1ata anal#sis guideline


CA.# Nor ay Baseline data analysis guideline $he format of the table to present your data in the report is very important- since it will make your report more comprehensive and readable! 2n this guide we are providing e/amples on how you should present your data using tables or graphs- depending on the type of variable you are analy.ing! >e will use the following terminologies in this guide3

Dependent !ariableA is the variable under study- in the case of this particular study it represents the common indicators! $he dependent variable will provide the unit of analysis- unit from which the data is provided4 this can be women- men- household- etc! Bac6ground characteristicsA represent background characteristics of people based on which we will disaggregate our data! 2t can be geographical variables ;regionCdistrict<- gender ;maleCfemale<age groups- level of education- etc! $hese variables are very important since they help to determine which sub(category of the population needs further consideration during program implementation! Nominal and Ordinal !ariablesA the dependant variables can be nominal or ordinal- in each case the type of analysis will differ! A nominal variable can have two or more categories- but there is no intrinsic ordering to the categories! 2n other words one category is not superior or inferior to the other! E/ample3 the gender ;male or female<! 2n ordinal variable- there is a clear ordering of the values taken by the variable! E/ample3 Kevel of agreements as used by the Kikert scale ;0trongly 7isagree V 7isagree V Neither agree nor disagree V Agree V 0trongly Agree<

+ost of our common indicators are either nominal or ordinal variable ;Kikert scale<! $he types of statistics that can be produced from such data are given in the following table3
2cale of Dependent !ariable Nominal Ordinal Type of statistic testJ Permissible 2tatisticsI +ode +ode +edian 1re"uency of value- cross tabulation with background characteristics Lay to present the data

Chi(% Chi(%

Jou should disaggregate each background category of interest with the dependent variable! >e are presenting below how to present such cross(tabulations!

@. Presentation of statistic table ith nominal dependant !ariables


=

1or ordinal variable we can also produce Huartiles and Percentiles! $hese two measures are the e/tension of the median- to provide the division of the population in homogeneous categories ;)&E for percentiles and ? subgroup for "uartiles< based on a particular ordinal variable! A >e are assuming here that background characteristics are nominal- thus the C92(% test is the most relevant!

42

6asic statistic tables should use the following format3


;)< 6ackground characteristics .#',ON 5sig. C8,+B7 0^gou +opti $imbuktu TOTA2#= 5sig. C8,+B7 +ale 1emale TOTA2ndicator ;%< ;*< E with the Jes E with the No category category E E E E E E O E E E E E E O ;?< $otal Kine E )&&E )&&E )&&E )&&E )&&E )&&E @NNO %@& %@& %&& A&& ?&& *&& JNN ;@< Number of subIects included in the analysis

Description of the tableA


Columns ;%< and ;*<3 $he indicator will have a yes and no category! $he yes category represents the people who normally will fill the criteria of the indicator4 >hile- the no category ;*< represents the people who don8t show the characteristics re"uired by the indicator! Column ;?<3 Represent the sum of E in columns ;%< and ;*<- thus )&&E! Column ;@<3 Represent the denominator- i!e!- the total number of people eligible for the "uestion! 2t is always important to provide the number retain for your denominator- since it helps to check the data "uality and determine the accuracy of the sample si.e! $he $otal line provide the overall total- not taking into account any of the background characteristics- that is what will be used to report the value of the indicator!

2n this table we are presenting FE in rowsG- which means E for each subgroup of background characteristics treated as independent! >e could alternatively decide to produce column percentages- percentage on the yes category and the no category for each of the background variable! 6ut the E in the rows is more e/plicit and allows determining which sub(group of population- given the background characteristics- needs further attention from the proIect ;in term of sensiti.ation- capacity building- etc!<! 1or presentation purpose- since we know that the sum of the Jes and No category is )&&E- restricting the table to the only Jes category make sense! $hus the table can be simplified as follow3
2ndicators ;%< E with the Jes category E E E O E E O ;@< Number of subIects included in the analysis %@& %@& %&& JNN ?&& *&& JNN

;)< 6ackground characteristics .#',ON 5sig. C8,+B7 0^gou +opti $imbuktu TOTA2#= 5sig. C8,+B7 +ale 1emale TOTA-

#$ampleA >e will take a specific e/ample to better illustrate the presentation of statistical tables for nominal dependent variables! Ket8s consider the following indicator3 DE of women reportin$ satisfaction with the availa#ility and 5uality of 2343 related servicesF . >e are taking a specific e/ample on +ali B! $he table produced by the 0P00 program appears as follow3

$hese data are not real data but used as e/amples to illustrate the situation!

43

TableA Lomen reporting satisfaction ith a a!ailability and *uality of 2.8. related ser!ices
E of women reporting satisfaction with the availability and "uality of 0R9R related services Jes No *&E )@E )&E BBO %'E )&E @E BBO A&E B@E '&E JKO A)E '&E '@E JKO Number of women who have used at least one 0R9R service $ $AK )&&E )&&E )&&E @NNO )&&E )&&E )&&E @NNO )@& )&& @& CNN %&& @& @& CNN

Categories .#',ON 5Prob. C8,+BP N.NNN7 0egou +opti $imbuktu TOTALO0AN #D1CAT,ON 5sig.PN.NNN7 None Primary 0econdary and more TOTA-

$he same table should be simplified as follow to improve readability3


E of women reporting satisfaction with the availability and "uality of 0R9R related services *&E )@E )&E BBO %'E )&E @E BBO Number of women who have used at least one 0R9R service )@& )&& @& CNN %&& @& @& CNN

6ackground characteristics .#',ON 5sig. N.NNNN7 0egou +opti $imbuktu TOTALO0AN ,N2T.1CT,ON 5sig. N.NNN7 None Primary 0econdary and more TOTA-

,nterpretationA $he reader can easily guess that only %%E of the women who have used at least one 0R9R service report being satisfied with the service! Kooking at regional differentiation $imbuktu ;with )&E of reported satisfaction< and +opti ;with )@E of reported satisfaction< are the regions where women are the less satisfied with the availability and "uality of 0R9R services! >hy are the women from these regions dissatisfied compared to the women of 0egou regionO Kooking at the education- it appears that the level of satisfaction decreases with the education of the woman! $he more the woman is educated the less satisfied she appears to be! Can we assume that the more educated women become more demanding and conscious about the "uality of the servicesO The ay to triangulate this information ith the *ualitati!e data would be to check if similar trends are revealed through the "ualitative study! 2f so- you should e/plore what e/planations are provided by women from focus groups and individual in(depth interviews related to the topic and support your discussions with these!

B. Presentation of statistic table ith ordinal dependant !ariables 5-i6ert scale7 Presenting table from Kikert scale- tend to be challenging in term of format! ne needs to figure out what is the best way to present such amount of data without using too much space! 0ometimes the use of graphics is recommended since it allows the capturing of most of the key tendencies in the distribution! a. 2imple fre*uency table $he simple fre"uency table will provide a description of the population regarding the dependent variable- without looking at any background characteristics! $he format will appears like below3

44

TableA Attitude of omen on omen)s 2.8. and maternal health


Neither agree- nor disagree E E +edian of the distribution Number of women )@ years and more

2tatements A couple should decide together how many children to have! A husband and wife should decide together what kind of contraception to use! >hen a woman has a health problem or "uestion related to pregnancy- childbirth- care after she has given birth- or 0$2s- she may decide on her own to seek the help of trained health personnel! 2f a wife knows her husband has a disease that she can get during se/ual intercourse- she is Iustified in asking him that they use a condom when they have se/! >omen should have the same opportunities to receive health care as men

0trongly 7isagree E E

7isagree E E

Agree E E

0trongly Agree E E

$ $AK E )&& )&&

)&&

)&&

)&&

b. Cross tabulation ith bac6ground characteristics Cross tabulation of Kikert scale variable with background characteristics- will lead to produce too many tablessince for every statement one should produce a separate cross tabulation! All the statements will not fit in the same table! $he following e/ample presents one assertion from the attitude on women8s 0R9R3 $able3 Attitude of women on womens !"! and maternal health by some socio(demographic characteristics
A couple should decide together how many children to have! Neither agreenor disagree Number of women )@ years and more %&& )@& )@& GNN *&& )@& @& GNN

6ackground characteristics .#',ON 5sig. N.NNNN7 0egou +opti $imbuktu TOTALO0AN #D1CAT,ON 5sig. N.NNN7 None Primary 0econdary and more TOTA-

0trongly 7isagre e

7isagre e

Agree

0trongly Agree

$ $AK K2NE E )&& )&& )&& @NN )&& )&& )&& @NN

>e will then end up with @ different tables- since we should produce the same table for each statement of the women8s 0R9R "uestions! $o simplify such tables and to use all the assertions in one single table- we have different options3 a! produce cross table on the e/treme categories ;strongly agree or strongly disagree< b! produce cross table on summary statistics- like the median ;average< c! Dse graphics to present the most meaningful information

45

$able3 +edian value of Attitude of women on womens !"! and maternal health by some socio(demographic characteristics
+edian value >hen a woman has a health problem or "uestion related to pregnancychildbirth- care after she has given birth- or 0$2s- she may decide on her own to seek the help of trained health personnel! 0trong 0trong ly ly agree disagr ee

A couple should decide together how many children to have! 6ackground characteristics 0trong ly agree 0trong ly disagr ee

A husband and wife should decide together what kind of contraception to use! 0trong ly agree 0trong ly disagr ee

2f a wife knows her husband has a disease that she can get during se/ual intercourse- she is Iustified in asking him that they use a condom when they have se/! 0trong ly agree 0trong ly disagr ee

>omen should have the same opportunities to receive health care as men 0trong ly agree 0trong ly disagr ee $ $AK K2NE E

Number of women )@ years and more

.#',ON 5sig. N.NNNN7 0egou +opti $imbuktu TOTALO0AN #D1CAT,ON 5sig. N.NNNN7 None Primary 0econdary and more TOTA-

)&& )&& )&& @NN )&& )&& )&& @NN

%&& )@& )@& GNN *&& )@& @& GNN

4!