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Plant Rotation Organic farming plant rotation Crop rotation

Crop rotation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crop_rotation

http://horticulture.psu.edu/cms/conshort/files/plant%20families.pdf

Vegetable Crop Rotation


or health! soil and high !ields" it#s a good idea to practise crop rotation. $ith crop rotation" %egeta&les in the same &otanical famil! are grown in a different part of the garden each !ear. Rotation can also &e practised when planting successi%e short'season crops in the same plot during a single growing season.

Why Use Crop Rotation?


Crop rotation can impro%e soil fertilit! and structure( help manage diseases and insects that affect a specific plant famil! and aid in weed control. )egeta&les in the same &otanical famil! ha%e similar nutrient re*uirements. +ome are ,hea%! feedersand deplete more of the soil#s minerals" while others are ,light feeders- using up fewer minerals. .n addition" there are those plants that actuall! impro%e the soil and add nutrients. /! alternating the planting of these three t!pes of crops in a single plot" the health of the soil can &e maintained. 0ea%! feeders include &roccoli" sweet corn" and tomatoes. 1ight feeders include carrots" onions" peppers" and potatoes. +oil &uilders include legumes such as peas and &eans. +ee +oil 2mendments for )egeta&les for details.
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The History of Crop Rotation
/efore the 3450s" crop rotation was a common means of maintaining soil fertilit!. Once s!nthetic fertilisers came on the scene" howe%er" farmers &egan practising monocropping 6 growing one t!pe of crop 6 and rel!ing on chemical fertilisers to replace soil nutrients. $hile this worked for a while" o%er time the practice took its toll on soil fertilit!. $hile most farmers rotate crops toda!" the! still often onl! follow a short rotation of two or three !ears.

Common Rotations
7here are different s!stems of crop rotation. 2lthough the common rotation is a 8'!ear plan" some e9perts ad%ise a :'!ear plan for home gardens. 0ere are some common rotations: Potatoes" &rassicas" legumes" and roots 1egumes( onions" carrots and tomatoes( and &rassicas 0ea%! feeders" light feeders" and soil &uilders Roots" &rassicas" and all other crops .n the first rotation a&o%e" for e9ample" the first !ear plant potatoes in the &ed. 7he ne9t !ear" plant &rassicas. 7he third !ear" plant legumes( and the fourth !ear" plant roots.

2s !ou can see" there are man! choices. One element common to %irtuall! all rotations is to plant &rassicas in a different spot each !ear. /rassicas are hea%! feeders and are all suscepti&le to a fungal disease called clu&root. $hile clu&root can last for up to 20 !ears in the soil" crop rotation helps slow down the proliferation of clu& root spores. /rassicas include &roccoli" /russels sprouts" ca&&age" cauliflower" collards" kale" mustard" swedes and turnips.

lanning !o"r Rotations


irst" learn the &otanical families &! reading the articles in the 2ll 2&out )egeta&les section. ;e9t" make a list of the %egeta&les !ou plan to grow and group them according to &otanical famil!. .t#s easier to rotate crops if !ou di%ide !our garden into sections or &eds that are roughl! the same si<e. .f !ou plan to use a 8'!ear rotation" di%ide the garden into &eds that are a multiple of four( for a :'!ear rotation" use multiples of three. 7r! to group plants of the same famil!" with the same growth re*uirements" in the same &ed. .f !ou don#t ha%e enough of one crop to fill a section" com&ine crop groups with compati&le needs. 1eaf! greens and shallow'rooted %egeta&les that don#t &elong to the &otanical families used in crop rotation can &e planted to fill in spaces. =eep a record from !ear to !ear of !our crop rotations.

#eeping $t Simple
>ou ma! &e thinking: ,?! garden is too small to practise crop rotation.- $hile !ou ma! not &e a&le to rotate crops on a grand scale" !ou can still use the principles &ehind crop rotation to impro%e !our soil and !our !ields. @i%ide a smaller garden into smaller &eds in order to rotate crops. 2t first glance" crop rotation ma! seem too complicated or impractical for a home garden" &ut it doesn#t ha%e to &e. /asic crop rotation can &e accomplished &! remem&ering one simple rule: don#t plant the same crop in the same place two !ears in a row. +tart with that premise and refine !our crop rotation plans each !ear.

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Crop Rotating Tips
0ere are a few rules of thum& for crop rotation: Aroup crops according to which diseases the! are suscepti&le to 2lternate root %egeta&les and %egeta&les with shallow roots: this will impro%e the soil structure .f !ou use interplanting Bplanting different %egeta&les together in the same &edC" use the main crop in !our rotation plan Remem&er tomatoes and potatoes are &oth mem&ers of the nightshade famil!: don#t plant one to follow the other Plant &rassicas and leaf! greens to follow legumes: the! like the added nitrogen /eware of planting carrots or &eetroot in direct succession to a legume 7o impro%e !our chances of gardening success" tr! de%ising a simple crop rotation plan http://www.%egeta&lee9pert.co.uk/)egeta&leCropRotation.html

College of %gric"lt"ral Sciences & Cooperati'e ()tension

Plant Rotation in the Garden Based on Plant Families


Knowing what family a plant belongs to can be useful in making decisions about rotating plants for managing pests and soil fertility in the garden. Plants in a family are genetically related, so they have similar characteristics. As an example, members of the Cucurbitaceae, among other shared characteristics, have deeply lobed or divided leaves, separate male and female flowers on each plant (termed monoecious! plants" with five fused petals, similar fruit types and tendrils for climbing. #esides having similarities in appearance, plants in the same family often have similar susceptibilities to various garden pests such as diseases, insects and$or nematodes. %n general, it is not recommended that an area be planted with plants of the same family in succession to avoid the buildup of shared pests. &ome plants should not follow members of other families either because of susceptibility to common pests. 'or example, strawberries (and other members of the (osaceae" should not be planted after members of the &olanaceae (and vice versa" because they are all susceptible to the disease verticillium wilt. Keep in mind that various
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weeds also belong to these same families and can also host the same pests. Knowing plant families can also be useful in determining appropriate pesticides to use, when warranted. )his can apply to both targeted effects and non*targeted effects such as being toxic to desirable garden plants. Plants can be rotated to manage soil fertility. )his is done by including plants in the rotation to improve the fertility status of the garden soil and rotating among plants that are heavy users of certain nutrients. 'or example, members of the 'abaceae (legume family" can be grown to add nitrogen to the soil and many members of the +iliaceae are heavy users of potassium. )he table on the following pages lists several vegetables, herbs, fruit, cut flowers, bedding plants, cover crops and weeds by plant family. Plant family names can be easily identified because they end in *aceae!, however, some families also have old! or traditional names that end in *ae.! )raditional names as well as common names are included in the table. -ote that some plants are listed in more than one grouping.
Family Name

Solanaceae Brassicaceae Cucurbitaceae Rosaceae


Aliases

solanaceous crops, potato, tomato or nightshade family Cruciferae, brassicas, cole crops, cruciferous crops, mustard family cucurbits, cucumber family, s.uash family rose family, rosaceous plants
Crops andCover Crops

peppers (bell and chile", tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, tobacco, tomatillo horseradish, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, kale, #russels sprouts, turnips,
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Chinese cabbage, radish, rapeseed, mustard, collards, watercress, pak choi, bok choi, rutabaga cucumber, melons, watermelon, summer s.uash, pumpkin, gourds, winter s.uash apples, peaches, apricots, nectarines, plums, strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, pears, cherries,.uince,almond
Members Herbaceous Ornamentals

petunia, million bells stock, alyssum, candytuft


Weeds

nightshade, /imsonweed, henbane, groundcherry, buffalobur, horsenettle shepherd0s*purse, field pennycress, yellow rocket multiflora rose

Fabaceae Poaceae Polygonaceae


+eguminosae, leguminous crops, legumes, bean, pea or legume family 1ramineae, grass family knotweed family beans, peas, lentils, peanut, soybean, edamame, garban2o bean, fava bean, hairy vetch, vetches, alfalfa, clovers, cowpea, birdsfoot trefoil, black
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medic corn, wheat, barley, oats, sorghum, rice, millet, rye, ryegrass, sorghum*sudangrass, fescue, timothy buckwheat, rhubarb ornamental grasses various vetches, clovers, black medic brome, wild oats, crabgrass, orchardgrass, barnyardgrass, .uackgrass, fall panicum, foxtail, 3ohnsongrass knotweed, smartweed
Family Name

Liliaceae Lamiaceae Ericaceae Chenopodiaceae


Aliases

lily family, alliums (for members of the Allium genus" +abiatae, mint family heather or blueberry family goosefoot family 4mbelliferae, carrot family sunflower family, aster family
Crops and Cover Crops

asparagus, onions, leeks, chives, garlic, shallots lavender, basil, mar/oram, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme, mints, catnip blueberries, cranberries spinach, beets, chard, sugar beets
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carrots, parsnips, celery, dill, chervil, cilantro, parsley, caraway, fennel sunflowers, lettuce, endive, escarole, radicchio, dandelion, 3erusalem artichoke, artichoke, safflower, chicory, tarragon, chamomile, echinacea, sunflowers
Members Herbaceous Ornamentals

tulips, daffodils, hosta, hyacinth salvia, Molucella (bellsof* %reland" heather Trachymeme, Buplerum marigold, mums, 2innia, aster, Calendula, cosmos, Rudbeckia, Tithonia, Centaurea, Helichrysum, yarrow, Leucanthemum, echinacea, sunflowers
Weeds

wild garlic and onions mints, catnip,henbit kochia, lambs.uarters poison*hemlock, wild carrot dandelion, 3erusalem artichoke, chicory, echinacea, thistles, knapweeds, cocklebur, yarrow, ragweeds, goldenrod, groundsel, galinsoga, sunflowers

Apiaceae Asteraceae
4
5isit Penn &tate0s College of Agricultural &ciences on the 6eb7 www.cas.psu.edu. 6here trade names appear, no discrimination is intended, and no endorsement by Penn &tate Cooperative 8xtension is implied. %ssued in furtherance of Cooperative 8xtension 6ork, Acts of Congress 9ay : and 3une ;<, =>=?, in cooperation with the 4.&. @epartment of Agriculture and the Pennsylvania +egislature. ). (. Alter, @irector of Cooperative 8xtension, )he

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Pennsylvania &tate 4niversity.

This publication is a ailable in alternati e media on re!uest.


)he Pennsylvania &tate 4niversity is committed to the policy that all persons shall have e.ual access to programs, facilities, admission, and employment without regard to personal characteristics not related to ability, performance, or .ualifications as determined by 4niversity policy or by state or federal authorities. %t is the policy of the 4niversity to maintain an academic and work environment free of discrimination, including harassment. )he Pennsylvania &tate 4niversity prohibits discrimination and harassment against any person because of age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual orientation, or veteran status. @iscrimination or harassment against faculty, staff, or students will not be tolerated at )he Pennsylvania &tate 4niversity. @irect all in.uiries regarding the nondiscrimination policy to the Affirmative Action @irector, )he Pennsylvania &tate 4niversity, ;A: #oucke #uilding, 4niversity Park, PA =B:<A*C><=, )el :=?*:BC*?D<<$5, :=?*:B;*==C<$ ))E. F )he Pennsylvania &tate 4niversity A<<;

P8-- &)A)8 CG++818 G' A1(%C4+)4(A+ &C%8-C8& @8PA()98-) G' HG()%C4+)4(8 =<A )E&G- #+@1. 4-%58(&%)E PA(K, PA =B:<A 9AE A, A<<C
The Horticulture Fact Sheet series is produced for home gardeners and professionals by the Consumer Horticulture Center at Penn State. The complete series is available on the Web at http://hort eb.cas.psu.edu.

Prepared by 8lsa &Inche2, assistant professor of horticultural systems management, and Kathleen @emchak, senior extension associate, @epartment of Horticulture, Penn &tate College of Agricultural &ciences.
http://horticulture.psu.edu/cms/conshort/files/plant%20families.pdf

0ollo/ing sesame1 farmers ha2e reporte+ 3iel+ increases in cotton1 peanuts1 sorghum1 /heat1 so34eans1 an+ cornClick on area of interest:

Dffects on cotton root rot +oil impro%ements after sesame Cotton after sesame Peanuts after sesame $heat after sesame 2lfalfa after sesame +esame as a second crop after wheat +esame as a catch crop for failed out cotton +esame as a catch crop for failed out corn or sorghum +esame as a rotation after other crops

Sesame Rotations
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(ffects on cotton root rot
0armers in Ari5ona an+ Te(as ha2e reporte+ that cotton follo/ing sesame has significantl3 less cotton root rot 6Phymatotrichopsis omnivora7 the follo/ing 3ear-

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Soil impro'ements after sesame


Researchers at Te(as A8* an+ Au4urn 9ni2ersit3 ha2e foun+ that sesame re+uces nemato+e populations1 particularl3 the root :not nemato+e that attac:s peanuts an+ cotton;esame is an e(cellent soil 4uil+er- Roots ha2e as much mass as the 2isi4le plant- ;tal:s +isc into soil easil3 an+ 4rea: +o/n <uic:l3- ;oil is 2er3 mello/ an+ re<uires less /or: for ne(t crop- Tilth an+ moisture retention is impro2e+0armers /al:ing across split plante+ fiel+s can feel ho/ much more mello/ the groun+ is after sesame0armers ripping +iagonall3 across fiel+s /ith cotton1 sesame1 an+ sorghum1 ha2e 4een a4le to operate one gear higher on the sesame groun+0armers listing across pi2ots ha2e to raise the lister /hen on sesame groun+.n high erosion areas1 groun+ after sesame +oes not 4lo/ as much- .t appears that the mucilage in the sesame lea2es 4in+s the groun+- Ho/e2er1 sesame +oes not ha2e enough resi+ue to <ualif3 as a high resi+ue crop0armers report that after sesame1 the soil retains moisture 4etter for planting the ne(t crop.n +r3 3ears after sesame1 in split plante+ fiel+s1 corn an+ cotton +o not sho/ as much stress after sesame- The soil retains moisture 4etter-

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Cotton after sesame


*an3 farmers ha2e incorporate+ sesame into their cotton rotation 4ecause it

.ncreases 3iel+;uppresses populations of root :not nemato+es.s not suscepti4le to cotton root rot)(ten+s limite+ /ater so that farmer can concentrate on /ater for cotton-

=ne cotton farmer /ho has gro/n sesame since #%%# has sai+1 >?hen . start counting 4olls1 . can fin+ to the ro/ /here the sesame /as the pre2ious 3ear- ?hen . +efoliate1 e2er3one can see to the ro/ /here the sesame /as the pre2ious 3ear-> ?ith earl3 /arm /eather or +ela3e+ planting +ate1 sesame can 2olunteer in cottonRingier AG Group Communications Dufourstrasse 23 CH-8008 Zrich Telefone Telefa( )-*ail .nternet !"# "" 2$% &# ## ' Direct &""8 !"# "" 2$% 8& 3$ me+ia,ringier-com ///-ringier-ch ' ///-ringier-com Newspapers Magazines Digital Media Printing Plants

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The cotton gra+e has ne2er 4een affecte+ an+ 2olunteers ha2e rarel3 4othere+ pic:ers or strippers0armers easil3 control sesame in Roun+up Rea+3@ cotton- ;esame is e(tremel3 suscepti4le to gl3phosate.n most 3ears the sesame /ill not come through Caparol@-

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ean"ts after sesame


*an3 farmers ha2e incorporate+ sesame into their peanut rotation 4ecause it

.ncreases 3iel+;uppresses populations of root :not nemato+es)(ten+s limite+ /ater so that farmer can concentrate on /ater for peanuts-

=ne farmer /ho has gro/n sesame since #%%A has sai+1 >The peanuts after the sesame close in faster1 an+ +uring har2est1 it ta:es less roun+s to fill up the 4in after sesame-> ;esame can 2olunteer in peanuts-

Ca+re@ an+ 2-"D pro2i+e effecti2e control;ome farmers prefer a /ic: /ith gl3phosate-

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Wheat after sesame


*an3 farmers ha2e incorporate+ sesame into their /heat rotation 4ecause it

.ncreases 3iel+Bro2i+es a secon+ cash crop-

;esame ahea+ of /heat /ill use resources - moisture an+ fertilit3- .n +r3lan+ con+itions in a +r3 3ear1 there ma3 not 4e enough moisture for 4oth cropsCo a++itional total fertili5er is necessar3 for /heat1 4ut /heat /ill nee+ more up-front nitrogen1 since the 4rea:ing +o/n of the sesame stal:s /ill tie up a 4it of the nitrogen earl3.n Corthern =:lahoma1 sesame /ill push /heat planting into Co2em4er or Decem4er an+ /ill not /or: for gra5ing /heat- .n ;outh Te(as1 planting r3e for gra5ing after sesame has increase+ the num4er of +a3s the cattle can sta3 on the fiel+ an+ has increase+ +ail3 /eight gain-

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%lfalfa after sesame


.n Ari5ona1 sesame is har2este+ 4efore alfalfa is normall3 plante+1 allo/ing for a summer crop to co2er the groun+ +uring the heatRingier AG Group Communications Dufourstrasse 23 CH-8008 Zrich Telefone Telefa( )-*ail .nternet !"# "" 2$% &# ## ' Direct &""8 !"# "" 2$% 8& 3$ me+ia,ringier-com ///-ringier-ch ' ///-ringier-com Newspapers Magazines Digital Media Printing Plants

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Co a++itional total fertili5er is necessar3 for alfalfa1 4ut alfalfa /ill nee+ more up-front1 since the 4rea:ing +o/n of the sesame stal:s /ill tie up a 4it of the nitrogen earl3-

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Sesame as a second crop after *heat


.n irrigate+ or high rainfall areas1 sesame /ill pro2i+e a goo+ secon+ income Dust prior to Christmas.n the +r3lan+ Rolling Blains1 man3 farmers plant sesame as a catch crop after /heat-

.n some 3ears /ith a fe/ summer rains at the right time1 sesame has 3iel+e+ o2er 800 l4s'acre in the ;an Angelo area.n most 3ears sesame /ill more than co2er its costs an+ pro2i+e soil an+ 3iel+ 4enefits to the cotton the ne(t 3ear.n some 3ears there /ill not 4e enough moisture1 an+ the sesame can 4e +isce+ in as a green manure to pro2i+e soil an+ 3iel+ 4enefits to the cotton the ne(t 3ear-

Tips for gro/ing sesame after /heat

Go /ith no-till to preser2e moistureHit fiel+ /ith gl3phosate prior to planting to +estro3 /ee+s coming up in /heat stu44le?heat stu44le nee+s to 4e less than " inches if planting /ith +rill1 to a2oi+ sha+ing- .f planting /ith cotton planter1 /heels ne(t to +isc openers /ill push +o/n /heat enough;ome farmers prefer to 4urn /heat stu44le1 4ut /heat :eeps the groun+ from 4lo/ing in areas /ith high /in+s.f planting sesame /ith a +rill on /heat 4e+s1 tr3 for 3 ro/s on 4e+ 4ecause +rill /ill +rift an+ /ill en+ up /ith 2 goo+ ro/s-

There ha2e 4een mi(e+ results /ith /heat her4ici+es such as Am4er@1 Glean@1 All3@1 0inesse@1 an+ Assert@;ome farmers ha2e plante+ after using these her4ici+es /ith results ranging from little effect to complete era+ication of sesameEe careful /ith ne/er1 longer resi+ual her4ici+es in 3our pre2ious crops - if cotton is not =F on the la4el1 +onGt tr3 it for sesame-

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Sesame as a catch crop for failed o"t cotton


.n e2er3 case of sesame plante+ si+e-43-si+e /ith sorghum1 the sesame has nette+ more +ollars1 an+ the sesame has 4een 4etter for the cotton groun+ ne(t 3ear;esame /or:s after most cotton her4ici+es-

;esame normall3 tolerates half the rate of the G3ello/sG 6Bro/l@ or Treflan@7- E3 the time the cotton is faile+ out1 the effecti2eness of the G3ello/sG has 4een +iminishe+1 an+ the temperatures are higher1 increasing the 2igor of the sesame germinationTelefone Telefa( )-*ail .nternet !"# "" 2$% &# ## ' Direct &""8 !"# "" 2$% 8& 3$ me+ia,ringier-com ///-ringier-ch ' ///-ringier-com Newspapers Magazines Digital Media Printing Plants

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The la3er of Caparol@ nee+s to 4e pushe+ a/a3 from the see+ line an+ not 4e pulle+ 4ac: o2er the see+ line;e2eral thousan+ acres of sesame ha2e 4een plante+ 4ehin+ ;tapple@'Dire(@-

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Sesame as a catch crop for failed o"t corn or sorgh"m


9suall3 +oes not /or:-

;esame is suscepti4le to most corn an+ sorghum her4ici+es.n most areas1 the last +a3 to plant sorghum is after the latest planting +ate for sesame-

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Sesame as a rotation after other crops


;esame is regularl3 plante+ after cotton1 corn1 sorghum1 peanuts1 so34eans1 alfalfa1 /heat1 oats1 an+ r3e /ithout an3 pro4lemsEe careful /ith ne/er longer resi+ual her4ici+es in 3our pre2ious crops - if cotton is not =F on the la4el1 +onGt tr3 it for sesame.n some 3ears sesame can follo/ Ca+re@ in peanuts1 4ut in +r3 3ears1 there ha2e 4een carr3-o2er effects on sesame9sing Roun+up@ /ith hoo+e+ spra3ers has /or:e+ in lieu of culti2ation- To +ate1 no one has +are+ spra3 the sesame stems e(cept /ith Caparol@There ha2e 4een mi(e+ results /ith 4roa+ leaf her4ici+es such as Am4er@1 Glean@1 All3@1 0inesse@1 an+ Assert@;ome farmers ha2e plante+ after using these her4ici+es /ith results ranging from little effect to complete era+ication of sesame-

+ro*ing Herbs

http://www.growing'her&s.com/her&_articles/&en_insects.htm

Companion Herb Chart


Garden Herb - Planted as Companion to - Garden Pests Repelled

1. 2. %. *. /.

Angelica - avoid Dill - no known pests repelled

Basil - Companion to Tomatoes


&orage - Companion to Tomatoes

dislikes R!e - Repels "lies and #os$!itoes 'trawberries and '$!as( - Repels Tomato )orm

Carawa+ - ,oosens t(e soil- avoid Dill - .o pests repelled Calend!la - Deters #ost insects Telefone Telefa( )-*ail .nternet !"# "" 2$% &# ## ' Direct &""8 !"# "" 2$% 8& 3$ me+ia,ringier-com ///-ringier-ch ' ///-ringier-com Newspapers Magazines Digital Media Printing Plants

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0. Catnip - Companion to 1ggplant - Repels 2lea &eetle Ants 3. C(amomile - Cabbage 4nion - .o pests repelled 5. Coriander - .o Companion - 6t repels Ap(ids 7. C(ervil - Companion to Radis( - no pests repelled 18. Chives - Companion to Carrots - no pests repelled 11. Dill - Ca&&age" carrots E carawa! all dislike @illF 12. 2ennel - #ost plants dislike t(is (erb9 1%. 2ever"ew - Companion to Roses - 6t attracts ap(ids awa+ 1*. arlic - Companion to Roses and Raspberries - Repels :apanese &eetle and Ap(ids 1/. Horseradis( - Companion to Potatoes - Repels Potato &!g 10. H+ssop - Plant near Cabbage and Grapes b!t dislikes radis(es - Repels t(e Cabbage #ot( 13. Ha2en+er - no interaction 15. #arigolds - Plant t(ro!g(o!t t(e garden - Repels #e;ican &ean &eetles .ematodes 17. Mint - Plant near Cabbage Tomatoes - Repels )(ite cabbage mot( ap(ids "lea beetles 28. .ast!rti!m - ,ikes Radis(es Cabbage - Repels Ap(ids '$!as( &!gs 'triped P!mpkin
&eetle

21. 22. 2%. 2*. 2/. 20. 23. 25.

Penn+ro+al - Plant it wit( Roses - Repels 2lies Radis( - Deters C!c!mber &eetle

#os$!itoes

2leas

pl!s ot(ers9 &ean &eetle

Rosemar! - Plant near Cabbage


R!e - .ear Roses

&ean

Carrot

'age - Repels Cabbage #ot(

Carrot 2l+ dislikes sweet basil - Repels :apanese &eetles Cabbage Carrots - Repels Cabbage #ot( striped c!c!mber beetle Carrot 2l+

"age - )it( Rosemar+

'!mmer 'avor+ - )it( &eans - Repels &ean &eetles Tans+ - Deters :apanese &eetle s$!as( b!gs and ants

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27. <arrow - Plant near aromatic (erbs to boost prod!ction o" essential oils

lant Rotation to ,inimi-e Soil .epletion


&! Christine Goli'Coeur BGohnstown" OntarioC /eing a new gardener" . know . need to rotate plant locations !ear to !ear in order to minimi<e soil nutrition depletion and insects &ut what is a good rotationH or e9ample" . had tomatoes on a spot this !ear what should . plant ne9t !ear in this spot or if . had <ucchini on this place do . need to change itH ANSWER 7hat is an e9cellent *uestion" Christine. .t is important to rotate crops for the reasons !ou ga%e. .tIs also %er! important if !ou are an organic gardener and use compost or composted manure in !our garden. +ome crops &enefit from appl!ing compost e%er! !ear" for e9ample s*uash. Other crops like ground that recei%ed compost the !ear &efore" like tomatoes.
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7his means !ou can make good use of !our compost &! onl! appl!ing it to the plants that want it that season. 7hen" in the following !ear" rotate one of the other crops to that area. Jsing the e9ample a&o%e" tomatoes would follow s*uash in rotation. 7he IfamiliesI of plants that . group together for m! crop rotation schedule are: ;ightshade famil! ' potato" tomato" peppers" eggplant 2llium famil! ' onions" leeks" garlic /rassica famil! ' ca&&age" &roccoli" cauliflower 1ettuce famil! Ball t!pes leaf and head including mesclunC )ining crops famil! ' cukes and s*uash 1egume famil! ' &eans and peas /eet famil! ' &eets" chard" and spinach Carrot famil! ' carrots" parsnips" celer!" parsle! .n simplest terms" donIt plant an! mem&er of a famil! where a same'famil! mem&er grew the !ear &efore. 0ereIs a sample rotation that takes ad%antage of the &eneficial effect of preceding crops: &eans KL carrotsKL lettuces KL potatoes KL &rassicas KL tomatoes KL %ining crops. 2ppl! compost to the &eans" the lettuces" the &rassicas and the %ining crops. http://www.new'terra'natural'food.com/plant'rotation'to'minimi<e'soil'depletion.html

Crop Rotation /The #ey to 0rganic Farming


http://www.omafra.go%.on.ca/english/crops/field/news/croptalk/2002/ct_3302aM.htm

.esign of an 0rganic Farming Crop/Rotation ()periment


12rgen (3 0lesen4 ,argrethe %skegaard4 $lse %3 Rasm"ssen %cta %gric"lt"rae Scandina'ica, Section 5 / lant Soil Science " 3M53'343:" )olume 50" .ssue 3" 2000" Pages 3: 6 23

)iew 2&stract
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.esign of an 0rganic Farming Crop/Rotation ()periment


Authors! G rgen D. Olesen( ?argrethe 2skegaard( .lse 2. Rasmussen D"I! 30.30N0/040M8O300O50038:MO Publication #re$uency! M issues per !ear Published in! 2cta 2griculturae +candina%ica" +ection / ' Plant +oil +cience" )olume 50" .ssue 3 e&ruar! 2000 " pages 3: ' 23

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%bstract
2 field e9periment is &eing conducted which focuses on crop rotations for cereal production in organic farming. 7he o&Secti%e of the e9periment is to e9plore the possi&ilities for &oth short'term and long' term increases in organic cereal production through manipulation of crop'rotation design on different soil t!pes. 7his paper descri&es the design of a rather comple9 e9periment" and later papers will descri&e and discuss the results. 7hree factors are included in the e9periment in a factorial design with two replicates: B3C fraction of grass'clo%er and pulses in the rotation Bcrop rotationC( B2C catch crop Bwith or without catch crop or &i'cropped clo%erC( and B:C manure Bwith or without animal manure applied as slurr!C. 2ll fields in all rotations are represented in each !ear. 7he e9perimental factors are defined to allow management to &e adSusted for optimi<ation of the indi%idual treatment com&inations. 7his makes the s!stems more realistic and the results more applica&le in practical farming. 7he e9periment is &eing conducted at four locations representing maSor soil t!pes and climate regions in @enmark. 7he main design criteria are related to re*uirements for a long'term e9periment and the need for performing studies and e9periments within the e9periment itself.

Crop rotation" crop succession and aspects o# plant health 9aria (. 'inckh, @ept. of 8cological Plant Protection, 4niversity of Kassel, -ordbahnhofstr. =a, @*;DA=; 6it2enhausen, e*mail7 mfinckhJwi2.uni*kassel.de $. %ntroduction Crop rotations were first implemented instead of simply leaving the land fallow in the middle ages by introducing beans into the cereal*fallow system, doubling yields to around :<< kg$ha.
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)he introduction of grass*clover mixtures in the rotation in the early =>th century doubled yields once more. 1rowers recognised the beneficial effects on soil structure and succeeding crops and also identified crops that were especially beneficial in rotations. -owadays we know that besides the soil structure effects, some of these benefits are due to nutrient dynamics and some to direct effects on crop health by affecting the living soil. Gver the past A<< years, agriculture has gone through a process of intensification that has been made possible by the better understanding of nature and the recognition of limiting factors such as nutrients, pests and diseases and genetic restrictions. Parallel and partially in reaction to these findings new technologies such as fertilisers, chemical and biological plant protection, modern plant breeding, machinery and, more recently, biotechnology were developed. )hese technologies have enabled growers to farm ever larger pieces of land on the one hand and also have made it possible to grow crops, at least in the short term, in ways that were previously not possible. 'ertilisers, chemical crop protection and powerful machinery have made it possible to reduce or, in some cases to completely disregard crop rotations as one of the fundamental bases of successful farming. 6hile the need for crop rotations is also being recognised in conventional farming, organic farming is simply not possible without crop rotation and success in organic farmers is intimately related to the choice of the right crops in the right se.uence. 6hile crop rotations are a fundamental tool for soil fertility management, especially in the absence of chemical plant protection, they are essential in crop health management strategies. )he purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of crop rotations in agricultural systems with special emphasis on plant health and the implications for organic farming. Crop rotations cannot be dealt with in isolation from other measures related to plant health. )herefore, in a second part, a brief outlook will be given onto ecological plant protection strategies. &. E##ects o# crop rotations on the #arming system %n order to properly manage nutrients with crop rotation, many factors have to be considered. 'or example, when potatoes follow wheat, a relatively long time elapses between the two crops resulting in potential problems with weeds, nutrient losses and soil erosion. )herefore, an important component of crop rotation is the use of cover and catch crops and green manure crops that also add to weed and
Table $. Problem #actors in agriculture and how they can be a##ected by crop rotation Problem #actor Possible ways that rotation can impro e the problem &oil physical properties
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tillage practices, root morphology, soil cover &oil chemical properties plant effects, fertiliser effects &oil erosion %mproved soil structure, soil cover 6eed problems tillage practices, crop morphology, competitive and allelopathic effects Crop health )ime effects, suppressiveness of crops, enhancement of soil microbial activity

erosion control and prevent nutrient leaching over winter. %f applied properly, crop rotations can reduce problems in agriculture in many ways ()able =" and many of these effects are achieved simultaneously. Changes in tillage practices according to crop from year to year affect the soil physical structure and nutrient mineralisation. As many weeds are adapted to certain soil conditions and types of disturbances, changes in the disturbance patterns contribute to weed control. 'or example, the digging and turning of the soil in connection with a root crop such as potato may reduce weeds sensitive to deep soil disturbances. Gther weeds, however, may be favoured by such activities. Gne of the most important means of controlling weeds such as thistles and .uack grass is the use of two years of grass*clover mixtures with regular mowing. At the same time, pasture and grassland reduce soil disturbance and soil organic matter and earth worm activity are increased ()able A". +eft over roots from pre*crops may directly increase soil friability and add organic matter. Grganic matter, in turn, provides nutrients for soil microbes that often are involved in the attack and breaking down of pathogen propagules in the soil. Crop health can be affected in various ways through rotation. )hese can be divided into time effects, indirect effects via soil microbial activity and direct suppressive effects of certain crops on certain pathogens. Time effects7 9any pathogens overseason in the soil or on crop residues and there is a limit in time how long they can survive in the absence of their hosts. 8xamples for such pathogens are Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, usarium spp! "seudocercosporella herpotrichoides, #aeumannomyces $raminis, etc. Gften, a period of two to four years is sufficient to reduce inoculum to a level to allow for the production of a healthy crop. Soil microbial acti%ity is enhanced by green manure crops and periods in grass*clover mixtures. 6hile the presence of a pathogen is re.uired to cause disease, the absence of a pathogen is not necessarily re.uired for a healthy crop. %n fact, it is the balance between beneficial and detrimental organisms that often determines the outcome. &uppressive soils are a prime example for this. A soil is considered suppressive if despite the presence of a pathogen a susceptible crop does not get diseased or gets less diseased than expected. &uppressive soils have been found in connection to many diseases of temperate and tropical crops and one of the most prominent examples is described for avocados in Australia by Cook and #aker (=>:;" and much of the suppressive effects of composts are due to the multitude of
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beneficial micro*organisms that are involved in the decomposition processes. %n general, with increasing active microbial biomass in the soil the sink function of the soil for C, - and energy increases. Parallel to this, the probability that an essential nutrient that is produced by a host will be present in sufficient amounts for a pathogen will decrease (Cook and #aker, =>:;". &irect effects of crops onto each other, weeds and pathogens and weeds have been observed on many occasions as well in situations where crops succeed each other as in situations were crops are grown in close proximity to each other (intercropping, see part ; below". Competition for nutrients, space, light and water are important factors in the control of weeds within a given season and recommended planting densities are often a reflection of the need to suppress weeds. %n the context of rotation such direct competitive effects are only of
Table &. Biomass carbon contents in the top &' cm o# soil in a long(term e)periment in Rothamstead *Coo+ and Ba+er" $,-'" p&./0 1anagement +g biomass carbon2 ha continuous wheat C;< wheat plus inorganic - C>< wheat plus manure ==B< pasture AA<< woodland =>B<

importance with respect to preventing the build*up of weed seed banks over time and the use of a competitive crop in the rotation may be directly related to weed control considerations. %n addition to direct competitive effects, allelopathy and direct pathogen suppressive effects of certain plants may play an important role. Allelopathy refers to the #ind de#inition3 #esides affecting other plants, such as weeds, certain plants may directly affect pathogens by secreting compounds that are directly detrimental to pathogens or that stimulate pathogen propagules to germinate in the absence of their host. Catch crops are plants that can be infected by a given pathogen but that do not allow the pathogen to reproduce in them. )his can effectively reduce soil borne inoculum. 6hile in organic farming, rotations are an absolute must even in conventional farming, they play an important role. 'or example, it has been found that control of several cereal diseases cannot be achieved by fungicides alone and only in combination with crop rotations maximum yields and crop health could be achieved ()able ;". 2.1. Specific examples for the effects of crop rotations on plant health Gne of the most spectacular examples of the effects of neglecting crop rotations is provided by the disastrous epidemics of usarium in the American mid*west during the =>><s. the typical crops in the region are wheat and mai2e which are both susceptible to usarium
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culmorum and ! $raminearum and the pathogen may overwinter on crop residues or be spread via the seed. 6hile seed is routinely fungicide treated, the use of minimum tillage practices to reduce soil erosion and for energy conservation allowed for residues to stay intact between crops and for a huge amount of soil borne inoculum to build up. @uring several years in the =>><s the weather was particularly conducive for development of the pathogen in the @akotas and other mid*western states and losses due to yield reductions but more importantly mycotoxin contamination of wheat skyrocketed (9c9ullen et al, =>>D". %t is interesting to observe that soil borne usarium is not usually a problem in organic farming due to crop rotations, incorporation of crop residues in the soil and often higher soil microbial activities all leading to the reduction of inoculum. %n contrast, however, seed borne infection with usarium has to be taken much more seriously in organic farming than in conventional farming as no fungicides or effective alternatives for seed treatment against usarium infection are available. Gats reduce usarium and other foot diseases of cereals when intercropped or when used as pre*crops (5ilich*9eller, =>>A" ('ig. =" and they are allelopathic to many weeds. 6hile allelopathic effects and disease suppression are often observed in the genus A%ena, these effects are species and even cultivar specific and interactions with fertility management have been reported (8lmer and +a9ondia, =>>>".
Table ' E##ects o# pre(crops and #ungicides on 4oint se erity o# Drechslera tritici repentis, Septoria tritici, and S. nodorum on the wheat ariety Apollo in an e)periment in southern 5ermany *data #rom 6d7r#er et al." $,,.. 8 9iseased lea# area :ield *t2ha0 Pre(crop no #ungicide #ungicide no #ungicide #ungicide ;inter wheat .' . <.== =.<= Broad beans / > -.=< $>.>& ;inter rape / > =.,- -.<, 1ai?e $' > =..' -.&< Red clo er = $ -.', ,.'# $# %# &# '# Barle! Barle!()ats
0usarium sppRhi5octonia sppB- herpotrichoi+es

@ @ @

Fig. $. E##ects o# oats on #oot diseases o# barley when grown in species mi)tures *adapted #rom Ailich(1eller" $,-,0.

A second genus that has broad beneficial effects on soil health appears to be Brassica. )hus, using a pre*crop of #roccoli was as effective in controlling 'erticillium infections in cauliflower as chloropicrin and only somewhat less effective than metham sodium
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applications to the soil in an experiment in California (&ubbarao et al., =>>>". Cover crops of mustard (Sinapis alba" also have been shown to reduce take*all infections (caused by #aeumannomyces $raminis( in subse.uent wheat crops (Kirkegaard et al, =>>B" and >< to >CK reductions in nematodes (Meloido$yne spp." in vegetable production have been achieved by planting )agetes species (T! erecta, T! patula( (+ung, et al., A<<<". '. Plant health management strategies in organic #arming 6hile crop rotation is one of the primary tools available for successful farming it cannot be viewed isolated from other health management strategies and overall cropping practices. 9easures and strategies available for health management in organic farming are7 Crop rotation 5arietal choice @iversification strategies and resistance management #iological control Clearly, crop rotations are related to the three other strategies. 8xamples for the importance of varietal choice were given above for oats and one of the cheapest and most powerful means of disease control is the use of resistant varieties wherever these are available.. 6ith respect to diversification it has long been known that reducing the density of a given crop or variety in space and time often significantly contributes to reductions in disease and pest problems. )hese effects include time effects and effects on soils as described above but many other mechanisms contribute to disease reductions in diversified systems. A few of these are listed in )able ?. #iological control is often understood as the application of beneficial organisms, a method particularly successful in many greenhouse operations. However, much biological disease control is happening in nature as described above for the suppressive soils that are greatly influenced by rotational schemes.
Table .. 1echanisms a##ecting pathogens in intercropped systems and selected additional interactions o# importance 1echanisms reducing disease %ncreased distance between susceptible plants
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#arrier effects of intercrop %nduced resistance &election for most resistant and$or competitive genotypes %nteractions among pathogen strains on host plants 1echanisms reducing insect pests 8nhancement of natural enemies (eduction of host density (eduction of visual or olfactory cues for insects Alteration of host .uality (with respect to the insect pest" through plant*plant interactions 1echanisms reducing weeds (eduction of bare soil and layering of crops increases competition for light, water and nutrients 5ariation in tillage needs and operations of intercrops may disturb weeds 6ther bene#icial interactions Eield enhancement through niche differentiation of hosts Compensation for yield losses by less affected hosts &oil and water conservation

.. Conclusion Crop rotations are the most important management tool available to growers in organic as well as in conventional farming. Grganic farming without crop rotation is effectively impossible on the long run because of detrimental effects on soil fertility, weeds and plant health. %n addition, rotations and cover crops may significantly contribute to erosion control, another important agricultural problem field. 8specially grass*clover mixtures play a crucial role in crop rotations with respect to nutrient management, soil organic matter accumulation and microbial activity and problem weed management. %n addition, the role of oats and certain brassica crops for the reduction and management of weeds and fungal and nematode diseases should not be underestimated. 'uture research should concentrate on the identification of crops specially useful for rotations and possibly intercropping to enhance such beneficial effects in organic farming as well as in conventional farming. /. Literature cited Cook, (. 3. and K. '. #aker. =>:;. )he -ature and Practice of #iological Control of Plant Pathogens. AP& Press, &t. Paul, 9innesota, 4&A. 8lmer, 6. H. and 3. +. +a9ondia. =>>>. %nfluence of ammonium sulfate and rotation crops on strawberry black root rot. Plant @is. -'7==>*=A;. Kirkegaard, 3. A., P. ). 6. 6ong, and 3. 9. @esmarchelier. =>>B. %n %itro suppression of fungal root pathogens of cereals by Brassica tissues. Plant Pathol. ./7C>;*B<;. +ung, 1., 8l Hamawi, 9., 1assert, 6., 6alter*8chols, 1., and 6eiligmann, #. A<<<. Alternatives to soil fumigants for the reduction of soilborn pathogens in vegetable, strawberry and ornamental cultures. 9itt.#iol.#undesanst.+and* 'orstwirtsch. ;DB, C=< (Abstract". 9c9ullen, 9. P., #. &chat2, and @. 1allenberg. =>>D. &cab of wheat and barley7 A reemerging disease of devastating impact. Plant @is. -$7=;?<*=;?:. &ubbarao, K. 5., 3. C. Hubbard, and &. ). Koike. =>>>. 8valuation of broccoli residue incorporation into field soil for verticillium wilt control in cauliflower. Plant @is. -'7=A?*
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=A>. 5ilich*9eller, 5. =>:>. @er 8influss von 9ischkulturen auf den &chaderrregerbefall am #eispiel der 'uttergetreide*9ischung &ommergerste * Hafer. Ph@. )hesis, 4niversity #onn, 1ermany. 5ilich*9eller, 5. =>>A. "seudocercosporella herpotrichoides, usarium spp. and Rhizoctonia cerealis stem rot in pure stands and interspecific mixtures of cereals. Crop Prot. $$7?C*C<.

http://www.wi<.uni'kassel.de/ph!tomed/crop_rotation.pdf

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