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The Steam and Condensate Loop 13.6.

1
The Stall Chart - Varying Flow / Constant Inlet Temperature Module 13.6 Block 13 Condensate Removal
Module 13.6
The Stall Chart
- Varying Flow Secondary
- Constant Inlet Temperature
- Constant Outlet Temperature
The Steam and Condensate Loop 13.6.2
The Stall Chart - Varying Flow / Constant Inlet Temperature Module 13.6 Block 13 Condensate Removal
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0
100 80 60 40 20 0
A
B
C
E D
The Stall Chart
Varying flowrate with constant inlet/outlet temperature
Not all heat exchangers are required to operate with a constant secondary flow. Sometimes, due
to the configuration of the secondary pipework, as the heat load changes, the liquid flowrate
through the heat exchanger will vary while the inlet and outlet temperatures remain constant. At
full-load, the flowrate through the heat exchanger will be at its maximum. Any reduction in the
heat load must lead to a reduction in the flowrate through the heat exchanger. In practice, this
could mean either a 3-port diverting valve fitted in the secondary return line, bypassing the heat
exchanger, or a 3-port mixing valve fitted in the flow line, (see Figure 13.6.1).
Hot water out
Outlet temperature controlled
by a steam control valve
Cold water in
Fig. 13.6.1
Flow temperature controlled by 3-port mixing valve
Bypass
balancing valve
Fig. 13.6.2 Varying flowrate / Constant inlet temperature - Stage 1
The stall chart can also be used in these types of installations, but the construction method is
slightly different to that used for constant secondary flow. This method is described below.
The first part of this method is very similar to that shown in Example 13.5.1. With reference to
Figure 13.6.2, the steam temperature in the heat exchanger under full-load conditions (Point A)
should be marked on the left vertical axis. The desired secondary fluid outlet temperature should
then be marked on the right vertical axis (Point B).
The secondary fluid inlet temperature (Point C) should also be marked on the left vertical axis.
The horizontal line representing the system backpressure must also be marked on this chart. This
temperature should be marked on the right vertical axis at point D, with a straight line connecting
it to the same temperature on the left vertical axis at point E.
Percentage heat load
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

C
Steam
Condensate
The Steam and Condensate Loop 13.6.3
The Stall Chart - Varying Flow / Constant Inlet Temperature Module 13.6 Block 13 Condensate Removal
200
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0
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A
B
C
E
G
F
D
With reference to Figure 13.6.3, the secondary load line BC should be drawn connecting points B
and C. A horizontal line should then be drawn from where BC crosses the 50% load ordinate, to the
right axis. This represents the mean secondary fluid temperature, and is shown as point F.
The mean secondary fluid temperature point F should then be connected by a diagonal straight
line to the steam temperature point A in the heat exchanger under full-load, creating the line AF.
Fig. 13.6.3 Varying flowrate / constant inlet temperature - stage II
The backpressure line DE will either intersect the steam line AF, or be above point A on the
chart. The point of intersection between the lines AF and DE marks the stall point, where the
steam pressure and the backpressure are the same. A vertical line may be dropped down from
the stall point, to indicate when the stall condition occurs.
The point at which this vertical line crosses the bottom horizontal axis (Point G) should mark the
percentage load. As in the previous example, if the line DE is above the point A, stall occurs
under all load conditions.
The percentage stall load can also be calculated using Equation 13.6.1:
Equation 13.6.1
Where:
A = Steam temperature at full-load
B = Secondary fluid outlet temperature at full-load
C = Secondary fluid inlet temperature at full-load
D = Equivalent backpressure steam temperature
Percentage heat load
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
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r
e

C
C
D -
2
Stall load ~ x 100
C
A -
2
!
" #
$ %
& '
!
" #
$ %
& '
The Steam and Condensate Loop 13.6.4
The Stall Chart - Varying Flow / Constant Inlet Temperature Module 13.6 Block 13 Condensate Removal
200
180
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0
100 80 60 40 20 0
A
B
C
Fig. 13.6.4 Minimum steam temperature equals the set point
In practice, as the heat load decreases, and the steam temperature approaches the secondary
control temperature at point H, changes in steam temperature occur slowly rather than the
rapid step change suggested at point H in Figure 13.6.4. The steam temperature will tend to fall
in a similar way to that shown in Figure 13.6.5. It is difficult and unnecessary to draw this line on
a stall chart, whereas Figure 13.6.4 is practical and easy to use.
Referring to Figure 13.6.4, it can be seen in this example that the steam temperature at any load
less than 37% is 70C. In truth, the gradual fall in steam temperature is more like that depicted
in Figure 13.6.5, but the difference is so small as to be insignificant with regard to selecting and
sizing the trapping device.
The minimum steam temperature
It should be noted that the lowest operating steam temperature equals the set point temperature
at point B. This occurs at 70C in the stall chart, Figure 13.6.4, and is represented by point H on
the steam line AF.
Fig. 13.6.5 The decay of steam temperature at low loads
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A
B
C
E
G
F
D
H
Percentage heat load
T
e
m
p
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a
t
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e

C
Percentage heat load
T
e
m
p
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r
a
t
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C
The Steam and Condensate Loop 13.6.5
The Stall Chart - Varying Flow / Constant Inlet Temperature Module 13.6 Block 13 Condensate Removal
Example 13.6.1
The steam pressure inside a heat exchanger with a varying secondary flowrate at full-load is
8 bar g, the pressure in the condensate line is 0.5 bar g, and there is a lift of 7 metres after
the trap. At full-load, the secondary fluid enters the heat exchanger at 30C and leaves the
heat exchanger at 90C with a flowrate of 3.64 L/ s.
What is the percentage load at stall, and what is the secondary flowrate through the heat exchanger
at stall?
The saturation temperature of the steam at 8 bar g is 175C. Therefore the steam temperature in
the heat exchanger at full-load is 175C. This should then be plotted as point A in Figure 13.6.6.
The secondary fluid outlet temperature of 90C should be plotted as point B, while the secondary
fluid inlet temperature of 30C should be plotted as point C.
Fig. 13.6.6 Stall chart for varying flow / constant temperature
The lift in the condensate line of 7 m creates a differential pressure of 0.7 bar, in addition to the
0.5 bar g pressure in the condensate line. Therefore, the total system backpressure is 1.2 bar g.
As the saturation temperature of steam at 1.2 bar g is 123C, the horizontal line DE representing
the backpressure is drawn at this temperature in Figure 13.6.6.
In this example the percentage load (Point G) is approximately 55%. This means that the secondary
liquid flowrate must reduce to 55% of the maximum flowrate for stall to occur, that is, 55% of
3.64 L/ s = 2 L/ s. This can be verified mathmatically by using Equation 13.6.1.
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A
B
C
E
G
F
D
Percentage heat load
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

C
The Steam and Condensate Loop 13.6.6
The Stall Chart - Varying Flow / Constant Inlet Temperature Module 13.6 Block 13 Condensate Removal
90 30
123 -
2
Stall load ~ x 100
90 30
175 -
2
" #
$ %
& '
" #
$ %
& '
123 - 60
Stall load ~ x 100
175 - 60
63
Stall load ~ x 100
115
% StaII Ioad = SS%
Most heat exchanger applications will either be varying flowrate or varying temperature as
described above and in the previous Modules in Block 13.
There may, however, also be instances where both the flowrate and the inlet temperature of the
secondary fluid vary. In these examples it becomes more difficult to determine their combined
effect by interpretation of the stall chart. Systems such as these can be analysed by comparing
the results from both methods shown above and using the worst case.
Where:
A = Steam temperature at full-load = 175C
B = Secondary fluid outlet temperature at full-load = 90C
C = Secondary fluid inlet temperature at full-load = 30C
D = Equivalent backpressure steam temperature = 123C
C
D -
2
Stall load ~ x 100
C
A -
2
" #
$ %
& '
" #
$ %
& '
Equation 13.6.1
The Steam and Condensate Loop 13.6.7
The Stall Chart - Varying Flow / Constant Inlet Temperature Module 13.6 Block 13 Condensate Removal
Questions
1. What is the difference between the constant and variable stall charts?
a| Nothing
b| The steam line is constructed differently
c| The backpressure line is at different pressures
d| The secondary line is constructed differently
2. If the backpressure line is higher than Point A on the steam line what does this mean?
a| The system will never stall
b| The system will constantly stall
c| The system is constantly in vacuum
d| The heat exchanger is too big
3. If the backpressure line is lower than Point B the steam line what does this mean?
a| The system will never stall
b| The heat exchanger is too small
c| The system is constantly in vacuum
d| The system will constantly stall
4. If, in Example 13.6.1, the condensate backpressure were atmospheric, at what percentage
load would stall have occurred?
a| 18%
b| 28%
c| 35%
d| 55%
1 : b , 2 : b , 3 : a , 4 : c
Answers
The Steam and Condensate Loop 13.6.8
The Stall Chart - Varying Flow / Constant Inlet Temperature Module 13.6 Block 13 Condensate Removal