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Process Control Strategy

Prof. Dr. Arshad Ahmad Process Control and Safety Group, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Process Control System


Planning and Scheduling Plantwide Computer

Real-Time Optimisation Advanced Process Control DCS Regulatory Control Process


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Process Computer

Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Regulatory Control

Regulatory Control
! ! !

Most of the time, process variables are fixed at some desired set point The task is therefore to reject disturbances, etc Majority of the controllers are standard three-term controllers i.e., PID

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Feedback Control
! ! ! !

Corrective Action Measure, Decide, Correct Robust Process Variables


! ! !

Controlled Variables Manipulated Variables SISO Configuration

Solution to Most Control Problem


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Feedback Control Example


! !

Controlled variable
!

Temperature

v1

Manipulated Variable
!

TC

Steam Flowrate

V2 being adjusted to provide corrective action

v2

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Feedback Control Block Diagram


D(s) SP(s) + E(s) GC(s) MV(s) CVm(s) Gv(s) Gd(s) GP(s) GS(s) Variables CV(s) = controlled variable CVm(s) = measured value of CV(s) D(s) = disturbance E(s) = error MV(s) = manipulated variable SP(s) = set point
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+ +

CV(s)

Transfer functions GC(s) = controller Gv(s) = valve + GP(s) = feedback process GS(s) = sensor Gd(s) = disturbance process

PID Controller
! ! ! !

Developed in the 1940s, remains workhorse of practice Not optimal, based on good properties of each mode Preprogrammed in all digital control equipment ONE controlled variable (CV) and ONE manipulated variable (MV). Many PIDs used in a plant.

GC = K C (1 +

1 +) DS) )IS

& 1 'u = K C $ e + $ ) I %

( e +)

'e # ! 't ! "


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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Limitation of Feedback and The way forward


Disturbances
Feedforward Control

Dead time
Cascade Control Ratio Control

Measurement

Constraints Nonlinearity Interactions


MPC RTO Split-range Control Select Control

Inferential Control

Profitability
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OVERCOMING DISTURBANCES

Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Improving Disturbance Rejection


! !

Single loop feedback controllers can reject disturbances to certain extent. Cascade control
!

Feedforward control
!

Cascade reduces the effect of specific types of disturbances.

Ratio Control
!

Feedforward control is a general methodology for compensating for measured disturbances Ratio reduces the effect of feed flow rates changes

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Cascade Control
!

Benefits
! !

Useful in overcoming high frequency noise and disturbances Also reduces the impact of time delay

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Level Controller on a Tank With and Without Cascade Control


Lsp Fin Fout
LC LT

Lsp

Fin Fout

LC

LT FT

RSP

FC

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Analysis of Cascade Example


!

Without a cascade level controller, changes in downstream pressure will disturb the tank level. With cascade level controller, changes in downstream pressure will be absorbed by the flow controller before they can significantly affect tank level because the flow controller responds faster to this disturbance than the tank level process.
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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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With and without cascade control

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Cascade Control: Hot Oil System

Oil in F, T

Oil in

F, Tin

TT TC TSP

F, Tin
FC FT FSP

F, T
TT TC TSP

Fuel Gas (variable pressure)

fuel gas (variable pressure)

a) Ordinary feedback control

b) Cascade control structure

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Analysis of Cascade Example


!

Without a cascade level controller, changes in upstream fuel pressure affects outlet hot oil temperature. With cascade level controller, changes in upstream pressure will be absorbed by the flow controller before they can significantly affect hot oil temperature because the flow controller responds faster to this disturbance than the oil temperature process.
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Cascade Reactor Temperature Control

Feed
TC

Cooling water
TT

Product

Feed

Cooling water

TT

TC

RSP

TT

TC

Product

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Analysis of Example
!

Without cascade, changes in the cooling water temperature will create a significant upset for the reactor temperature. With cascade, changes in the cooling water temperature will be absorbed by the slave loop before they can significantly affect the reactor temperature.

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Multiple Cascade Example


TT TC RSP AC

RSP FC FT AT

This approach works because the flow control loop is much faster than the temperature control loop which is much faster than the composition control loop.
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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Key Features for Cascade Control to be Successful


! ! !

Secondary loop should reduce the effect of one or more disturbances. Secondary loop must be at least 3 times faster than master loop. The secondary loop should be tuned tightly.

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Feedforward Control
Taking action before disturbances affecting the process, thus a Preventive Mechanism

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Feedforward and Feedback Level Control


To Steam Users
LC LT
LT

To Steam Users
FT FF

Make-up Water
FT LC
LT

Make-up Water
FF +

To Steam Users

Make-up Water

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Analysis of Feedforward and Feedback Level Control


! !

Feedback-only must absorb the variations in steam usage by feedback action only. Feedforward-only handle variation in steam usage but small errors in metering will eventually empty or fill the tank. Combined feedforward and feedback has best features of both controllers.

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Derivation of FF Controller
D(s)

Gff(s)

Gds(s) Gd(s)

Cff (s)

Ga(s)

Gp (s)

++

Y(s)

Y(s) = D(s) Gds (s) Gff (s) Ga (s) Gp (s) + D(s) Gd (s) = 0 Solving for Gff (s) Gff (s) = ! Gd (s) Gds (s) Ga (s) Gp (s)
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Feedback Control
! ! !

Can effectively eliminate disturbances for fast responding processes. But it waits until the disturbance upsets the process before taking corrective action. Can become unstable due to nonlinearity and disturbance upsets.

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Feedforward Control
! ! !

Compensates for ds before process is affected Most effective for slow processes and for processes with significant deadtime. Can improve reliability of the feedback controller by reducing the deviation from setpoint. Since it is a linear controller, its performance will deteriorate with nonlinearity.
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Combined FF and FB Control


D(s) Gff(s) Gd(s) Ysp(s) Cfb(s)

Cff(s)

+-

Gc(s)

++

Gp(s)

++

Y(s)

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Example of Combined FF and FB


RSP + TC TT PC PT Steam

FF TT

Feed

Condensate

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Combined FF and FB for the CSTR


TC

FF TT

RSP Feed

FC FT

Steam

TT

Product

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Results for CSTR


6 3

FB-only

T' (K)

0 -3 -6

FF+FB

FF-only

-10

10 30 Time (seconds)

50

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Analysis of Results for CSTR


FB-only returns to setpoint quickly but has large deviation from setpoint. FF-only reduces the deviation from setpoint but is slow to return to setpoint. FF+FB reduces deviation from setpoint and provides fast return to setpoint.

! !

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Ratio Control
!

Useful when the manipulated variable scales directly with the feed rate to the process. Dynamic compensation is required when the controlled variable responds dynamically different to feed rate changes than it does to a changes in the manipulated variable.

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Ratio Control for Wastewater Neutralization


RSP
FC FT FT

Acid Wastewater
pHC pHT

NaOH Solution

Effluent

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Analysis of Ratio Control Example


! !

The flow rate of base scales directly with the flow rate of the acidic wastewater. The output of the pH controller is the ratio of NaOH flow rate to acid wastewater flow rate; therefore, the product of the controller output and the measured acid wastewater flow rate become the setpoint for the flow controller on the NaOH addition.

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Example
FT TT Flue Gas

FT Fuel

Process Fluid

Draw schematic: For a control system that adjusts the ratio of fuel flow to the flow rate of the process fluid to control the outlet temperature of the process fluid. Use a flow controller on the fuel.

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Solution: ratio
_
Ratio TC TT Flue Gas

FT RSP FC FT Fuel

Process Fluid

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Dealing with Constraints

Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Split Range Control


!

Uses more than one manipulated variables or actuators for one control loop

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Split-Range Control: Simple Concept


setpoint PC

F1

F2

Desired Pressure Flow F1 Flow F2

Low Close Open

Medium Open Open

High Open Close


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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Split Range Control: Another Example


FC FT

FT FC

Smaller Valve Total Flowrate


! !

Larger Valve

Sometimes a single flow control loop cannot provide accurate flow metering over the full range of operation. Split range flow control uses two flow controllers
! ! !

One with a small control valve and one with a large control valve At low flow rates, the large valve is closed and the small valve provides accurate flow control. At large flow rates, both valve are open.
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Application of Split Range Control: pH Control


!
RSP
FC FT FT

Acid Wastewater
pHC

NaOH Solution
Split range for this valve

pHT

Effluent
Strategy: control of pH using ratio of NaOH to acid waste water Due to dynamic behaviour, Split range is also required
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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Titration Curve for a Strong Acid-Strong Base System


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0
!

pH

0.002

0.004 0.006 0.008 Base to Acid Ratio

0.01

Therefore, for accurate pH control for a wide range of flow rates for acid wastewater, a split range flow controller for the NaOH is required.
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Application of Split Range Control: Temperature Control

Cooling Water

Split-Range Temperature Controller

Steam

RSP
TT

TT

TC

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Split Range Temperature Control


Signal to Control Valve (%)

100 80 60 40 20 0
Error from Setpoint for Jacket Temperature
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Cooling Water

Steam

Override Control
!

Process are many times operated at the safety or equipment limits in order to maximize process throughput. During upset periods, it is essential that safety limits are enforced.

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Override/Select Control
!

Override/Select control uses LS and HS action to change which controller is applied to the manipulated variable. Override/Select control uses select action to switch between manipulated variables using the same control objective.

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Furnace Tube Temperature Constraint Control


TC TT RSP FC FT Fuel Flue Gas Process Fluid LS TC TT

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Analysis of Tube Temperature Constraint Controller


!

Under normal operation, the controller adjusts the furnace firing rate to maintain process stream at the setpoint temperature. At higher feed rates, excessive tube temperatures can result greatly reducing the useful life of the furnace tubes. The LS controller reduces the firing rate to ensure that the furnace tubes are not damaged.

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Column Flooding Constraint Control

DPC

LS RSP FC FT

AC

AT

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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Override control to protect boiler


Discharge Line Steam Loop 1 PT

Feedwater

Loop 2
LT LC

LSS

PC

Boiler Drum

Hot Gas
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Hot-Spot Temperature Control

TT

TT

TT

TT

TT

Autioneering System
TC

FT

Example Temperature control in catalytic reactor detect temperature in various places in catalyst bed. Action based on highest temperature

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Plant Operation by Dr. AA, 2008

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