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CHANGES AND CONTRIBUTION OF COLONIAL RULE TOWARDS THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM in India

DR. ANKIT AGARWAL Indian Archaeological Society

Colonial power

Guided

Educational policy Educational Institutions Promoted the needs of the Colonizer

Shaped

Colonial Educational Policies

Differing policies in different Countries and Times Certain common characteristics

Similarity between interests of Colonizers For utilizing the resources of the colonies

In the first two hundred years

Did not promote any system of education

What was the education system existed?

Why?

Not necessary for fulfillment of their trade interest Traditional education system
Gurukul Madarsa Maktabs Sufi centers Private Mosques/Khanqahs Houses

Reason Administrative Economic Religious Political

Financial difficulties expenditures on Salary of English Officers Need of skilled Expansion of Indian emploies Empire who know English Need of Administrator

Spreading Christianity Dispelling darkness and Superstition

Importance of India Supplier of cheap raw materials

Positive bond between Ruler and Ruled

As a growing Market

First Phase

1758-1812 CE 1813-1853 CE 1854 -1900 CE 1901 -1920 CE 1921 -1947 CE

Second Phase Third Phase Forth Phase Fifth Phase

The British East India Company showed very little interest in the education of its subjects during this period, the 2 minor exceptions being : 1. The Calcutta Madrsah set up by Warren Hastings in 1781 for the study and teaching of Muslim law and subjects.
2. The Sanskrit college at Varanasi by Jonathan Duncan in 1792 for the study of Hindu Law and Philosophy. Both were designed to provide a regular supply of qualified Indians to help the administration of law in the courts of Co.

Evangelicals, Christian Missionaries

pressurized

British Parliament

Directors of the Company

Company Charter of 1813

Gave missionaries freedom to work in India

Aside one lakh rupees for education

Great Influx of Missionaries into the country


Opened Schools, Hospitals, Orphanages
Motive

Not Humanitarian For Westernization of Indigenous people

Emphasis on the Modern Western Studies Or Traditional Indian Learning

Adopt Indian Languages or English as the Medium of Instruction

Supporters of Traditional Indian Learning

Supporters of Modern Western Studies in Indian Language

Supporters of Modern Western Studies

H.T. Princep, H.H. Willison

Thomas B. Macaulay, C. E. Trevelyan

Munaro, Elphistonson

Controversies settled in 1835, when William Bentinck applied english medium on the suggestions of macualay

In 1844, Lord Hardinge decided to give government, employment to Indians educated in English Schools. The success was thus assured (of English education). It made good progress in the 3 presidencies of Bengals, Bombay and Madras where the number of schools and colleges increased.
Three other developments were : A great upsurge in the activities of the missionaries who did pioneer
work in quite a few fields of modern education.
Establishment of medical, engineering and law colleges, which marked a beginning in professional education. Official sanction accorded to education of girls (Lord Dalhousie, in fact, offered the open support of government).

Need

Downward Filtration Theory


Meaning

Government policy of opening a few english school and colleges instead of a large number of elementary schools for fulfill their needs

education and modern ideas were supposed to filter or radiate downward from the upper classes. This policy continued till the very end of British rule, although it was officially abandoned in 1854.

Rejected

Downwards Filtration Theory Mass and Female Education

The Educational Dispatch,1854


Stress

Secularism in Education. Improvement of Local languages Bombay Madras Bengal N.W. Provinces Punjab

Creation of Education Departments,1855

Appointed by Lord Ripon

Hunter Commission, 1882

Under Sir WW Hunter Policy of Laissez faire

local bodies should be Government should maintain entrusted with the only a few schools and management of primary colleges; others to be left to schools. private hands. Calcutta (January 1857) Bombay (July 1857) Establishment Madras (September 1857) of universities, Punjab (1882) In third Phase Allahabad (1887)

Encouragement of Western Studies


Movement of Independence

Western history and ideas such as equality, Independence, organization


Nationalism Organized social/Political organizations

Growing awareness among British officials Political dangers of English education Limited jobs opportunity for the educated

Reason for increasing discontent and sedition

Colonial Education System: Fourth Phase (1901 1920)


Lord Curzon appointed a Universities Commission under Thomas Raleigh (Law member of the Viceroys Executive Council) in 1902. The Commission made following recommendations:
1. The existing universities should be reorganized as teaching bodies and No new university should be set up.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The undergraduate work should be left to affiliated colleges and only advanced courses should be provided in the university campus.
The number of Senators should also be reduced and the period of their tenure should be 5 years at the most. University and college teachers, renowned scholars and Government officials should get adequate representation in the senate. The territorial jurisdiction of a university should be defined. The number of members on the Syndicate should be reduced to 9 and to 15 in exceptional cases. All members should be elected. 8. Rules of affiliation should be strict and affiliation should not be granted to second grade colleges. Every affiliated college should be under the control of a Governing Body which should pay attention to staff, library, hostel and buildings.

Colonial Education System: Fourth Phase (1901 1920)


Universities Commission, 1902
Recommendations

Universities Act of 1904

Not encouraging the policy of laissez Faire speedier transaction of business

periodic inspection Enabled the universities of institutions to assume teaching functions

Universities Act of 1904 was criticized by nationalists for its tightening government, control over universities.

Colonial Education System: Fourth Phase (1901 1920)


Appointed by Lord Chelmsford

Saddler Commission , 1917


Main recommendations:

Two Indians: Sir Ashutosh Mukherji and Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed

Objective: Inquire into the condition of the University of Calcutta

All the teaching resources in Calcutta should be organized so that the Calcutta University may become entirely a teaching university. For improving the administration of the university, The senate and the syndicate should be replaced by the Court and the Executive Council respectively. The government interference in the academic matters should stop. An Academic Council should be set up in each university to deal with all academic questions.

Continue

Colonial Education System: Fourth Phase (1901 1920)


There was a need for coordinating agency. Hence an inter-University Board should be set up.
Teaching and research work should be organized under different departments and each department should have a head. A full time Vice-Chancellor, Faculties, boards of studies, and other statutory bodies should be formed. Honours courses should be instituted and they should be distinctly different from the Pass courses. Tutorials and superior kinds of research work should be organized.

Provisions should be made for imparting instruction in engineering education, medicine, law, agriculture and technology.
Seven new universities (Banaras, Mysore, Patna, Aligarh, Lucknow, Dhaka and Osmania) should be established and the older ones are recognized as teaching and residential.

Economic SelfBetterment

Knowledge of English was necessary for traders and businessmen.

Means of Social Mobility

Men from lower castes could raise their social status by acquiring Western education. People joined educational institutions for entering government service and professions such as law, medicine, teaching or journalism.

Government service and professions

Who were the Indians who avail the new schools and colleges?
Resident of Three Presidencies (Madras, Bengal, Bombay) Traditional Literate Castes (Brahmins in Madras and Maharshtra, the Kayasthas, Baidyas and Brahmins in Bengal or the Kayasthas and Sayeeds in U.P.) Urban People (Agarwals, Khatris and Aroras in Punjab and U.P. Where Muslims were more urbanized) mostly Traders (Vanis) in Gujrat Some Religious communities (Parsis, Jews, Jains)

Colonial Education System: Fifth Phase (1921 1947)


During this Phase, Education became a provincial subject and Came under Indian control officially. Thus, expansions started everywhere. By responding to the dissatisfaction felt by the Indian people about the Government of India Act of 1919, the Simon Commission was appointed on November 8, 1927, to inquire into the working of the administration under the Act. About this time as agitation against the Government was going on, it was felt necessary to give due importance to education in India. The Government therefore authorised the commission to appoint a Committee to help it in preparing a report on education. So the commission appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Sir Phillip Hartog to inquire into the conditions of education in India. In 1929, Hartog Committee submitted its report and Recommended the policy of consolidation and improvement of Primary education

Colonial Education System: Fifth Phase (1921 1947)


Main Recommendations
Primary Education
Compulsory Primary Education

Secondary Education Higher Education

Establishment of Diversified affiliated Colleges Curriculum Quality Development Improved the salary Universities appointed and service teachers for affiliated Four years Duration conditions colleges Liberalised Curriculum More advanced Improved teachers Regular Salaries Honours Course standard of teachers Opened Employment Bureau Government inspection Improved Training Central Library in Rural Centres facilities of the Each University Teacher

Colonial Education System: Fifth Phase (1921 1947)


The Sapru Committee appointed in 1934 by the U.P. Government to enquire into the causes of unemployment in U.P. Conclusion: The system of education commonly prevalent prepared pupils only for examinations and degrees and not for any avocation in life. Main Recommendations: (i) Diversified courses at the secondary stage should be introduced, one of these leading to the University degree

(ii) The intermediate stage be abolished and the secondary stage be extended by one year
(iii) The vocational training and education should begin after the lower secondary stage (iv) The Degree course at the University should extend over a period of three years.

Colonial Education System: Fifth Phase (1921 1947)


In1937, the Congress Ministry concentrated their attention on educational reforms. In October 1937, an all-India National Educational Conference summoned at Wardha under the presidentship of Mahatma Gandhi. was

The conference appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Zakir Hussain. The Committee submitted its report on December 2, 1937, and the scheme of education suggested by it is popularly known as the "Wardha Scheme", the main features of which are as follows A Basic Craft is to serve as the centre of instruction. The idea is not to teach some handicraft side by side with liberal education, but the entire education is to be imparted through some industry or vocation. The scheme is to be self-supporting to the extent of covering teachers salaries and aims at making pupils self-supporting after the completion of their course. Manual labour is insisted on so that every individual may learn to earn his living. It is also considered non-violent, since an individual does not snatch away the living of others with the help of a machine. Instruction is closely coordinated with the child's life, i.e., his home and village crafts and occupations.

Colonial Education System: Fifth Phase (1921 1947)


Sargeant Plan of Education, 1944
Main Recommendations

Establishment of elementary schools and high school

High schools of 2 types: Academic, Technical & Vocational.

Universal and compulsory education for all children between the ages of 6 11

Abolished Intermediate courses

Drawbacks of Colonial Education


Literacy at the time of independence was about 15 per cent. Education in the colonial era was not only quantitatively inadequate, in had also qualitative defects. It had a predominantly literary bias. All higher appointments were reserved for Europeans.

In the private sector, The employment opportunities for qualified and highly trained Indians were very few.
As regards content, there was an over-emphasis on the study of languages and humanities. So much time in a school boys life was spent on mastering a foreign language that often the main purpose of education was missed.

Contribution of Colonial Education


In the initial days of British Seigniory, Britishers gave land, funds and titles to small rulers making them raja in taken at their services and support against the local people (britishers need some reputed people, whos able to control the people). They started to send their children in U.K. for higher education, because of the money getting from the land revenues. These childrens such as Gandhi, Nehru, Jinna knew the value of independence. After fulfill their education, they come back in India and Make an understanding about the value of swaraaj in between of general people. They involve and lead the people in Indian independence movement. In the last phase, Britishers also encouraged technical education like medical education, engineering etc. These type of education encourage technical industries, hospitals etc. and changed the traditional system such as ayurvedic medicines and manual labor based industries.

Contribution of Colonial Education


Britishers also encouraged commercial education, which
enabled pupils to get a job in private sector and encouraged for establishing their own business.
In Present days, if we consider the progress made by our country in the last 60 years vis--vis the Japan, Israel, China, Taiwan, Korea, Taiwan, Brazil, Spain, Norway and so many other countries that have their education system, government, parliamentary system based on the local language(s) of the people. We can realize that we are more ahead then other Asian or eastern country in speaking and writing English, which is considered as an international language. Ability of speaking and writing English attract the service providers in India for cheap services and emerge as a service hub. May be, this is the benefit of colonial education system. .

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