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The influence of emotions on impulsive buying behavior in the presence of others

Masters thesis
Master of Science Economic and Business Master Specialization: Marketing Erasmus University Rotterdam

Author: Student num"er: Supervisor:

ictoria !enova ##$$%& 'imitrios (sekouras

'ate:

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Abstract
,mpulse "uying accounts for almost +*- of purchases in some product categories and shopping is a ma.or leisure and lifestyle activity in many countries) (he attempts "y researchers to find a clear definition of a phenomenon that cannot "e solely descri"ed as unplanned "ehavior and the opportunity to e/amine the factors that intervene in its e/pression is the motivation and "asis for this thesis) Emotional state0 self1control and the presence of others are the factors that are e/plored and tested in this study in relationship to impulsive "uying "ehavior) (his research offers insight into the moderating effect of shopping 2ith a companion and self1regulation of emotions and provides implications for managers and retailers) ,n essence0 emotions and the presence of others influence impulsive "uying "ehavior in a positive 2ay) (he lack of self1control leads to higher pro"a"ility of "uying a product on impulse) (he support and concrete results of the relationships "et2een the constructs are discussed in depth in this study)

Table of contents
&) ,ntroduction)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))# &)& 3ro"lem statement and research goal))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))4 &)$ 5ontri"ution))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))6 &)# (hesis structure)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))6 $) (heoretical frame2ork and hypotheses )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))+ $)& ,mpulsive Buying Behavior))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))+ $)&)& ,mpulsive "uying definitions)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))+ $)&)$ ,mpulsive "uying characteristics))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))&* $)$ Emotions)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))&# $)# (heory development )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))&6 $)4 7ypotheses development))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))$& #) Methodology)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))#+ #)& Sample and data collection)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))#+ #)$ Measurement)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))#+ 4) Analysis and results))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))4* 4)& 8actor analysis results)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))4* 4)$) Regression analysis results))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))4# 4)$)& 'irect effects))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))4# 4)$)$ Moderation effects)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))49 4)$)# Additional results)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))46 9) 5onclusions)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))4% 9)& !eneral conclusions))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))4% 9)$ Managerial implications))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))9* 9)# :imitations and future research))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))9& References)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))9# Appendi/)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))9+ ;uestionnaire))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))9+ S3SS (a"les))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))64

1. Introduction
,mpulsive consumer "ehavior is 2idely recognized no2adays) ,mpulse "uying accounts for almost +*- of purchases in some product categories and shopping is a ma.or leisure and #

lifestyle activity in many countries <=acen > :ee $**$?) ,mpulsive "uying generates over @4 "illion of annual sales in the United States) ,mpulsive consumer "uying "ehavior is regarded as a hedonically comple/ purchase "ehavior in 2hich the thoughtful0 deli"erate consideration of all information and choice alternatives is precluded) ,t has "een suggested that purchases of ne2 products result more and more from impulsive "uying rather than planned purchases) 8urthermore0 the glo"alization in the e/pression of technologies0 telemarketing and the internet increases the consumer impulsive "uying opportunities) ,mpulse "uying is a pervasive and distinctive aspect of the consumers lifestyle and is also a focal point for considera"le marketing management activity) A study conducted some decades ago found that "et2een $A and 6$ percent of consumers department store purchases fell into the impulse category) Also the century 2e live in and the marketing innovations such as credit cards0 Binstant credit0 $41hour retailing0 telemarketing and online shopping make it no2 easier than ever for the consumers to purchase things on impulse) (he attempts "y researchers to find a clear definition of a phenomenon that cannot "e solely descri"ed as unplanned "ehavior and the opportunity to e/amine the factors that intervene in its e/pression 2as the motivation for this thesis) 8urthermore0 the history of associating impulsiveness 2ith human 2eakness and the psychologists and economists focus on the Birrational aspects of such "ehavior sparks the interest into the topic and uncovers the potential for further research in the field) ,t is also interesting that the factors that are linked to impulsive "uying are also likely to "e influenced "y culture)

1.1 Problem statement and research goal


3revious research has numerous attempts for giving a clear definition of impulsive "uying "ut someho2 the definitions capture different aspects of the phenomenon and fail to address a complete and e/act definition) Much of the 2ork on impulsive "uying inherently implies negative attri"utes to the concept) 7o2ever0 once consumers "uy products for fun0 fantasy0 social or emotional gratification0 impulsive "uying may "e vie2ed as a valued pastime rather than a simple acCuisition of goods <7ausman0 $***?) Researchers have sho2n that many factors influence impulsive "uying such as consumers mood0 trait "uying impulsiveness0 demographic factors0 and culture) (his study aims at discussing emotions0 interpersonal

influence and self1control as factors e/pected t have a su"stantial influence on consumers impulsive purchases) 8eelings do predict "ehavior) So if you are feeling hurt0 threatened or "ored0 2hat are you likely to doD Ehat a"out if you are happy or interestedD Eould you go to the movies0 go out 2ith friends or go shoppingD Ehat a"out "uying things not intendedD (o assess ho2 2ell people control their impulses0 regulate emotions0 manage performances0 maintain self1 discipline0 and "reak out of "ad ha"its0 is a difficult task) (he consumption e/perience is replete 2ith emotion0 often of a high degree of intensity) Ehat has "een overlooked is the social aspect of emotions0 2hile most of the research done is concerned 2ith the individual conceptualization of emotions) Emotions are not simply internal events "ut are communicative acts and are also addressed in the consumption environment of an individual <3arkinson &%%60 Bearden &%+%?) A matter of discussion is ho2 the emotional state of an individual influences his impulsive "uying "ehavior) Ehether positive or negative emotions0 the t2o e/tremes of the emotional state0 have a stronger effect has "een a matter of de"ate for a long time among researchers and is still argued) 8urthermore0 does shopping 2ith others have an impact on impulsive purchases <:uo $**9?D ,f emotions are social and are e/pressed in a stronger 2ay 2hen "eing 2ith a friend or family mem"er0 then it can "e e/pected that the tendency to indulge in impulsive purchases 2ill increase) 7o2ever0 another factor also plays a ma.or role in the "uyer "ehavior F self1control) Every individual has a different a"ility for self1control and self1control failure may "e the reason for impulsive purchasing) 5an 2e control our "ehavior and emotions 2hen 2e are depressed or 2hen 2e are happyD Eill the presence or lack of self1control evolve into impulsive purchasesD (he main pro"lem investigated is: How does the emotional state (positive VS negative emotions) influence impulsive buying behavior?

Su"seCuently0 the follo2ing Cuestions 2ill also "e discussed: What is the effect of the presence of others on impulsive buying behavior and how does it moderate the effect of emotions on impulsive purchases? 9

What is the effect of self-control on impulsive behavior and how does it moderate the effect of emotions on impulsive purchases? (his study attempts to support 2ith arguments and measure ho2 2ell are people a"le to control their emotions and ho2 emotions influence their impulsive "uying "ehavior) 8urthermore0 a matter of e/amining 2ill "e ho2 self1control is influenced "y the presence of others at the time of purchase and ho2 does the presence of other induce or refrain consumers from impulsive "uying "ehavior)

1.2 Contribution
(his research provides advantage over previous studies 2hich have focused on each construct separately and have considered mainly the individual1difference varia"les) Social varia"les and0 in particular0 the presence of a friend at the time of purchase together 2ith the emotional state of the customer e/tend the research and contri"utes 2ith the fact that shopping can "e a challenging pursuit for people shopping on their o2n and even more unpredicta"le for those venturing into the marketplace 2ith a companion) 3eoples emotional state influences their daily activities and their interactions 2ith others) (his study tries to em"race a spectrum of emotions0 2ithout the constraint of only including Bhappy and Bunhappy as the e/tremes) (his may increase the relia"ility of the final results since the consumers <respondents? are a"le to "etter identify their current emotional state) Emotions and their effect on impulsive purchases have "een a matter of su"stantial research among scholars) !radually0 attention is also paid to shopping 2ith companion) 7o2ever0 interpersonal factors are the main causes of emotions and mood shift and emotions lead people to engage in certain type of "ehavior) Ehether to engage or not depends on the degree of self1control that one possesses0 i)e) the capacity to resist temptation) (hus0 the com"ined effect of emotions0 self1control and other peoples influence at the time of purchase on impulsive "uying "ehavior unveils interesting and useful conclusions for retailers and scholars that can "e applied to academics and used for future research)

1.3 Thesis structure

,n addition to the introduction chapter0 this thesis consists of additional chapters starting 2ith the "ackground literature in com"ination 2ith the hypotheses presented) ,n essence0 the conceptual frame2ork serves as a "asis for the hypotheses) 8ollo2ing the hypotheses and conceptual frame2ork0 the research methodology 2ill "e discussed in the follo2ing chapter and the results 2ill "e presented) 8inally0 the conclusion0 the managerial implications and the limitations and suggestions for future research 2ill "e presented)

2. Theoretical framewor and hypotheses


2.1 Impulsive !uying !ehavior
2.1.1 Impulsive buying definitions ,mpulse "uying "ehavior is a phenomenon that captured researchers interest forty years ago) 5onsidering efforts from consumer researchers have "een invested into defying 2hat the concept of impulsive "uying actually is) (here has "een little consensus a"out 2hat impulsive "uying "ehaviour actually is) 3iron <&%%&? summarizes in his paper the considera"le amount of definitions 2hich are some2hat partial and not capturing the full essence of the concept) Earlier studies from 5lover <&%9*? vie2ed impulsive "uying as strictly unplanned purchase) ,n fact0 more attention 2as given to the purchase itself0 rather than on the consumer) Researchers 2ere interested in the pervasiveness of the concept and recorded it as the difference "et2een consumers actual and intended purchases) ,t 2as considered especially important to make the difference at 2hich stage of the "uying process impulsive "ehavior takes place F prior or after going to the store) (he understanding of the concept 2as greatly improved "y Stern <&%6$?) 3ure impulse purchasing occurs 2hen consumers e/perience truly impulsive "uying0 the novelty or escape purchase 2hich "reaks a normal "uying pattern) 7is conceptualization 2as "ased on the premise that impulsive "uying can "e pure0 planned0 reminder and suggestion0 and is linked to consumers e/posure to stimulus) =ollat and Eillet <&%6%? interchangea"ly used GunplannedH and GimpulsiveH purchasing) Rook and 7och <&%+9? focused attention on the cognitive and emotional aspect of consumers involvement in impulsive purchasing) (he construction of the phenomenons definition 2as resting on consumers descriptions of thoughts and emotions e/perienced during impulse purchasing situations) (hey came up 2ith 9 distinctive elements that dra2 the difference "et2een impulsive and planned purchases: <&? feeling a Gsudden and spontaneous desire to actHI <$? "eing in a Gstate of psychological diseCuili"riumHI <#? e/periencing a Gpsychological conflict and struggleHI <4? reducing Gcognitive evaluationHI <9? consuming G2ithout regard for the conseCuencesH) Summarizing the five dimensions0 Rook <&%+A? identified impulsive purchasing as a Gsudden0 often po2erful and persistent urge to "uy something immediately) ,t is a hedonically comple/ +

and emotionally conflicting "ehavior 2hich is prone to occur 2ith diminished regard for its conseCuences)H As it can "e seen0 a shift in the elements comprising the definitions can "e o"served) 3iron <&%%&? offers a ne2 definition as an ans2er to his critiCue of the previous attempt for definition: impulse purchasing is <&? unplanned0 <$? the result of an e/posure to a stimulus0 <#? decided Gon the spotH) =acen and :ee <$**$? define the concept as Gunplanned purchaseH that is characterized "y <&? relatively rapid decision1making0 and <$? a su".ective "ias in favor of immediate possession) (hey further contri"uted 2ith their 2ork "y investigating ho2 cultural factors affect impulsive "uying 2hich gains "etter insights a"out understanding the phenomenon) (he authors research makes a contri"ution in recognizing that understanding impulse "uying solely on a Eestern point of vie2 is incomplete) (he Eestern1individualist emphasis on the self0 individual needs and desires0 and hedonistic pleasures encourages impulsive "uying "ehavior) (he Eastern1collectivist notions of the self0 the interdependence0 emotional control0 emphasis on group needs and desires 2ould discourage impulsive "uying) Murrays <&%#+? description of impulsivity as the tendency to respond Cuickly and 2ithout reflection implies issues to impulsive actions that have "een studied "y researchers in the fields of psychiatry0 social psychology0 social 2ork0 and cognitive "iopsychology) As it can "een seen0 many of the researchers decades ago 2ere more concerned 2ith finding the right definition of the phenomenon rather than to understand 2hy so many consumers appear to act impulsively in their purchases so freCuently <7ausman0 $***?) A "ody of research focused on the fact that impulsive "uying "ehavior pertains the "ehavioral motivations for a small num"er of ine/pensive products) More recent studies have reported impulse purchases across different categories of products and different price ranges) (his implies that impulsive "uying is started to "e considered as an individual trait rather than a response to ine/pensive product offers) (here have "een many negative evaluations of the phenomenon since impulsiveness 2hich characterizes impulsive "ehavior is seen as a sign of immaturity0 lack of "ehavior control0 irrational0 risky0 2asteful0 lo2er intelligence and even social deviance and criminality) Rook and 8isher <&%%9? 2ere among the first to suggest that normative evaluations serve as a moderator to individual impulsive traits) 5onsumers attempt to controls their impulsive emotions since they do not 2ant to "e considered immature or irrational) Recent studies also imply that although negative normative evaluations of the phenomenon e/ist0 consumers %

actually do not feel "ad a"out performing such "ehavior) Rook <&%+A? found out that 4& percent of the consumers feel good a"out their impulsive purchases 2hile only $* percent feel "ad a"out them) 5onsumers fail to consider impulsive "uying as normatively 2rong at least in the sense of particular purchases) 3revious research analyzed many factors that influence impulsive "uying) (hese can "e consumers mood and emotional state <Rook0 &%+AI Rook > !ardner0 &%%#I Eein"erg > !ott2ald0 &%+$?0 trait "uying impulsiveness <Rook > 8isher &%%9?0 normative evaluations of the appropriateness of impulsive "uying "ehavior <Rook > 8isher &%%9?0 and demographic factors like se/ <5oley > Burgess $**#?) Rook and 8isher <&%%9? noted that some circumstances may intervene and prevent and impulse to occur) ,mpulse "uying may "e inhi"ited "y lack of time or financial resources) Jther factors may "e the porta"ility of product0 the location of the shop0 transport and 2eather)

2.1.2 Impulsive buying characteristics (he definition of =acen and :ee <$**$? for impulsive "uying summarized the main aspects and characteristics of the phenomenon) ,mpulsive "uying is an Bunplanned purchase that is characterized "y <&? relatively rapid decision1making0 and <$? a su".ective "ias in favor of immediate possession) Bayley > Kancarro2 <&%%+? "uild upon this to summarize important characteristics of the impulsive "uyer in general 2hich are also in line 2ith previous research) 5onsumers report a common set of su".ective feelings such as: (he o".ect is irresisti"leI Gmust haveH feeling prevails (he decision to "uy is urgentI a Bonce and only opportunity A sense of self1a2areness and e/citement is created "y the purchaseI a B"uzz0 Bfeel the adrenalin (he purchase is satisfying at the time and often raises self1esteem and mood <Bre"ellious0 demonstrating Bfreedom0 a "reak from lifes constraints? A num"er of mechanisms can preserve the sense of Brightness a"out the "ehavior although guilt may "e present at the time of purchase or later)

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Bayley > Kancarro2 <&%%+? point out that these elements <o".ect fi/ation0 urgency0 adrenalin rush0 lift to self1esteemLmood and guilt? are characteristics of the impulse "uying across product categories) 8urthermore0 the authors analyze the research findings suggesting that there are t2o different styles of openness 2hich correspond to the sense of either consciously going along 2ith an impulse purchase <self12illed impulse? or "eing totally over2helmed and su"mitted "y the passion of an impulse <captivated impulse?) ,n the case of self12illed impulse0 consumers are a2are of themselves as good economic managers and can feel the impulse purchase to "e self12illed to some e/tend) An e/ample could "e a reaction to "ulk purchases or in purchase areas 2here more personal0 social and psychological "enefits are desired) ,n this case0 shopping lists are ignored and is acted upon the impulse) 5onsumers are acting in line 2ith the functional ideal "ut also step1"y1step are taking a num"er of unintentional decisions that lead to a purchase) 5aptivated impulse shopping is more a"out shoppers motives "eing at a level that lack any degree of self1a2areness) (he research findings of Bayley > Kancarro2 <&%%+? suggest four principal categories of impulse purchases in terms of the e/perience of the purchase and the re2ards and "enefits desired: Accelerator impulse <self1confirmation role? F it is motivated "y the sudden desire to stock1up for a future need) Being a Bgood economic manager is 2hat derives the self1 esteem) (he guilt that might occur if mistakes0 "ad "argains and 2asted purchases take place0 is simply rationalized as merely a side effect of a legitimate "argain) 8or e/ample0 if the hus"and likes cans of "eef0 the 2ife 2ould still "uy 6 more cans if she sees them in the supermarket although she already has 4 at home) (he accelerator self1 impulse is a "ehavior that reinforces an e/isting positive self1perception) 5ompensatory impulse <self1compensation role? F (his could "e a re2ard for completing an onerous task0 mood elevator0 a compensation for Bfailure to secure purchases else2here or addresses a self1esteem) Jn common "ehavior is "uying clothes0 shoes and cosmetics that are not o".ectively needed "ut may address a self1 esteem deficit) ,n another case0 it may "e ensuring that your discretionary e/penditure is not "eing out paced "y your partnerL peers) (his enduring "ehavior gives a

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significant "uzz and the consumers have a sense of li"erating their illicit0 private and selfish self and escape the usual constraints of life) Breakthrough impulse <self1redefining role? F Such purchases are often high e/penditure items such as .e2elry0 arts0 car0 furniture0 etc) Respondents feel taken "y surprise in their decision to "uy) Events unfold in unpredicta"le and unrepeata"le 2ay so that the purchase outcome 2as not sought out in the first place) Such purchases are sym"ols of change in status and the need for self1redefinition) Blind impulse <dysfunctional? 1 (he previous categories of impulse "uying suggest that it does have an underlying purpose and that it fulfills a need) Eith the "lind impulse a sense of "eing over2helmed "y the product irrespective of any function or cost restraint) 5onsumers share characteristics of the o".ect "eing irresisti"le0 urgent and e/citing and their purchase is more dysfunctional than functional) Recently0 studies have started to give attention to some2hat more dynamic relationships "et2een impulsive "uying "ehavior and other individual and situational factors) 5onsumers una"le to resist their impulses and in the state of ego depletion 2ere found to "e more inclined to engage in impulsive purchases <Baumeister0 $**$?) ,nvolvement as 2ell as personality traits including lack of self1control0 stress0 and a"sorption 2ere also related to the consumers propensity to involve in impulsive "uying "ehavior) Arnold > Reynolds <$**#? focused on the hedonic aspects of shopping rather than "eing task1 oriented0 rational and closely related to 2hether or not a product is "eing acCuired) 3roduct acCuisitions may not fully reflect the totality of the shopping e/perience) 7irschman > 7ol"rook <&%+$? define hedonic consumption as those facets of "ehavior that relate to fantasy and emotive aspects of consumption) 5onsumption is driven "y the fun that a consumer gets from using the product) 7edonic shopping motives are concerned 2ith hedonic fulfillment in the sense of e/periencing fun0 e/citement0 and fantasy) Shoppers often descri"e the shopping trip as an adventure0 e/pressing increased arousal and a sense of en.oyment shopping for themselves or others) ,t can "e said that the seeking of such e/periences is far more important for such shoppers that the mere acCuisition of a product) (au"er <&%A$? developed a num"er of shopping motivations 2ith the idea that shoppers are motivated "y a variety of

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psychological needs others than those of only acCuiring a product) 7e classified them into personal <role1playing0 self1gratification0 sensory stimulation? and social <communication 2ith others0 peer group attractions0 pleasure of "argaining?) ,mpulse "uying has "een of theoretical and practical significance and it should "e distinguished that the motivations for such "ehavior may "e Cuite diverse) 8or e/ample0 there is difference "et2een Breminder impulse "uying <a shopper remem"ers the need for an essential item "y seeing it in the store? and Bpure impulse "uying <a purchase that "reaks the "uying normal pattern?) ,n psychology0 the cognitive approach places impulse "uying 2ithin the frame2ork of impulse control in general) ,mpulse control improves 2ith development stage) ,n contrast0 the clinical psychological literature has "een concerned 2ith compulsive "uying as a similar notion to impulsive0 addictive or o"sessive1compulsive "ehavior <'ittmar et) al)0 &%%6?) 'ifferences "et2een shoppers are of great interest to marketers "ecause then they can "etter target consumers) As such0 gender is often considered as a good source for investigation) ,t has "een thought that 2omens "ehavior in general is more emotional and psychologically rooted than men) (his implies that 2omen are more suscepti"le to impulse purchasing) Moreover0 2omen tend to have a higher propensity to shop than men 2hich also e/plains the impulse purchases) 7o2ever0 there might "e clues that the stereotypical shopping "ehavior is changing) ,f the num"er of purchases is held constant0 then men and 2omen have the same suscepti"ility to impulse purchases) Recent research also sho2s that men aged &+1#4 shop considera"ly more than older men and men aged &61$4 are more openly shopping for health and "eauty products than in past years <5oley > Burgess0 $**#?)

2.2 "motions
Emotions "eing the main driver of impulsive "uying "ehavior have "een the su".ect of de"ates in terms of terminology) Scientists use the term affect as a general category that encompasses emotions0 moods and attitudes) (he mental state of readiness that arises from cognitive appraisals of events or thoughts is 2hat characterizes emotions) (he line "et2een emotions and mood is difficult to "e dra2n) ,t is often said that mood is longer lasting and lo2er in intensity than an emotion) Jther researches add to this that emotions are typically

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intentional 2hile mood is generally non1intentional and glo"al) Attitudes are often considered instances of affect) Some authors define them as evaluative .udgments rather than emotional states) Jthers make no distinction "et2een evaluative .udgments and affect) Still others propose that attitudes have t2o components: cognitive and affective dimensions) (o sum up0 the terms emotions, affect, attitudes, moods are all used inconsistently in the literature) Rather than focusing on e/ploring the definitions of impulsive "uying "ehavior0 the contri"ution of this thesis 2ill "e to e/amine the emotional arousal "ehind the phenomenon and factors moderating peoples inclination to such a type of "ehavior) (his 2ill include interpersonal influence and the presence or lack of self1control) Early research concluded that suscepti"ility to interpersonal influence is a general trait that varies across persons and occurrences) 8urther0 suscepti"ility to influence "y others is related to personal characteristics) 5o/ and Bauer <&%64? pointed out that people 2ith lo2 self1esteem comply 2ith others suggestions in order to avoid social disapproval) Berko2itz > :undy <&%9A? also found out that persons 2ho score lo2 in interpersonal confidence ratings are most suscepti"le to peer influence) More recent research done "y :uo <$**9? contri"utes "y e/amining the factors influencing impulsive purchasing on the social level rather than on individual) ,n addition to other researchers findings0 t2o factors are evaluated that are likely to motivate the conformation to social norms: inherent suscepti"ility to social influence and the structure of the group <cohesive or not cohesive?) (his resides in 8ish"ein > A.zens <&%A9? theory of reasoned action0 2hich "asic premise is that "ehavioral intentions are determined not only "y attitudes to2ard the "ehavior "ut also "y the motivation to comply 2ith social norms) 3arkinson <&%%6? even recognized the fact that emotions are in fact social reactions) Based on the appraisal theory "y :azarus <&%%&? an event has to matter to a person e/periencing it to cause emotion) Ehat makes events personally important is that they achieve their significance in the course of social encounters and the development of relationships "et2een people0 i)e) depending ultimately on social considerations) Silvera <$**+? moved one step further to analyze the psychological perspective of impulsive "uying "ehavior and e/amine self1esteem0 su".ective 2ell1"eing0 positive and negative affect and social influence as closely related constructs and 2hich are more closely related to impulse "uying tendencies)

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Baumeister <$**$? claims that precisely "ecause impulses are resisti"le0 they are of such great interest to "oth research psychologists and marketers) Resisting an impulse depends on the persons self1control) (he causes of self1control failure are important to understanding impulse "uying "ehavior) :oe2enstein <&%%&? recognizes that consumer "ehavior includes rational choices0 namely "alancing future and present "enefits and costs0 certain situations can induce e/treme impatience) (hen "uying resem"les more hedonic characteristics 2ith sudden increases in desire0 inner conflict and attempts to control ones o2n "ehavior) (hus0 self1 control is more the effort to avoid or resist in "ehaving in such an inconsistent manner) Sullivan <$**+? stresses on the fact that very little research has e/amined ho2 individuals can in fact use emotion regulation to prevent themselves from engaging in impulsive "ehaviors) 7o2ever0 deli"erate emotional regulation may "e a potentially ineffective type of emotional regulation 2hereas automatic emotion regulation seems to "e a more promising approach) 7e argues that "ecause self1control resources are finite0 e/erting self1control reduces the amount of resources that are availa"le for su"seCuent self1control) (herefore0 2hen self1control resources are depleted0 ones tendency to engage in impulsive "ehaviors0 such as impulse "uying is higher) (ice et all <$**&? point out that deficiencies and failures to impulse control have "een linked to a "road spectrum of personal and social pro"lems and "ecause different regulatory goals may "e in conflict) (he central idea of the authors investigation is that impulse control may fail "ecause emotionally distraught people give primacy to affect regulation) Early research "y =ollat <&%6%? Cuestions the usefulness of the impulsive "uying concept for marketing decisions) =ollat <&%6%? claims that the concept is too vague0 measurements of unplanned purchasing rates may "e e/aggerated and misleading0 and such rates may significantly differ from individual "rand category to the parent product category) 7o2ever0 the authors research is mainly covering the definition side of the pro"lem and the implications rather than focusing on the factors that drive such a consumer "ehavior) More recent research "y Bagozzi <&%%%? recognizes the presence of emotions throughout marketing F they influence information processing0 measure the effect of marketing stimuli0 initiate goal setting0 mediate responses to persuasive appeals0 and are "oth end and measure of consumer satisfaction) Bayley > Kancarro2 <&%%+? as opposed to impulsive purchasing "eing socially undesira"le0 point the attention of marketers to understanding such a consumer "ehavior in order to formulate appropriate marketing strategies0 allocate marketing "udgets and design &9

effective marketing tactics) Researchers claim that price1related promotions may not al2ays "e the ans2er to unplanned purchases) Both retailers and direct marketers have to "e a2are ho2 "est to attract significant shares of impulsive purchases) Elliot <&%%+? recognizes that it is possi"le and actually done to Bemotionalize products 2hich have little rational connections 2ith po2erful emotions) (he role of advertising is present in such a case "y educating consumers ho2 to feel a"out a products and services <e)g)0 instant coffee lu/ury ice1cream?) Such emotional positioning strategies are likely to motivate consumers and "rands can "e used in the sym"olic construction) Eith the emotion1driven choice0 Elliot <&%%+? suggests that it is imperative for marketers to ensure that there are no impediments to immediate purchase) Mc!oldrick <$**A? calls for a taking into account that the pure division of purchases as strictly planned or unplanned may cause severe "ias) 7e actually points out that different levels of unplanned purchases may e/ist F specifically planned0 generally planned0 reminder purchase0 and entirely unplanned purchase) 3urchase planning then depends on the general need of the consumer and the item that satisfies this need)

2.3 Theory development


(his su"chapter serves as an introduction to the hypotheses that 2ill "e discussed after2ards) ,t links the general theory and definitions of emotions and impulsive "uying "ehavior 2ith a more concrete aspect of the matters) Some of the emotions in the emotional Cuadrant or similar to them can "e found in the methodology part of this study) A more detailed discussion of the hypotheses 2ill "e presented in the conceptual frame2ork su"chapter) (he role of emotions in consumption has "een an issue that interests researchers and the level of research that has occurred "et2een the "oundaries of the economic discipline regarding emotions is significant) 7irschman > Stern <&%%%? propose that every consumer has a personal emotional range 2hich can move from e/treme happiness to e/treme sadness) ,t is suggested that most individuals e/perience emotions in the middle range0 a significant portion <#*- to 9*- of the consuming population? ho2ever e/perience emotions a"ove or "elo2 the middle range on regular "asis) Earlier research "y :arsen et) al) <&%+6? found that certain &6

individuals consistently e/perience their emotions more strongly than others) (here are individual differences in the intensity or magnitude of the reported affect) Moreover0 affect intensity applies "oth to positive and negative emotions) 5urrent personal events0 either ma.or or minor0 may cause long1term emotional shifts "eyond the middle range or may affect emotional states for shorter time0 respectively) 7irschman > Stern <&%%%? revie2s three sets of literature dealing 2ith emotion F a cognitive stream0 the hedonic consumption stream and the compulsiveLaddictive consumption stream) (he authors support the notion that emotion0 2orking through cognition0 can influence "ehavior0 e)g) socia"ility0 gift giving0 helping others0 etc) arious aspects of hedonic and e/periential consumption 2ere studied that e/plore the consumption "eyond the "oundaries of utilitarian economics and cognitive psychology) 5onsumers motives for certain type of "ehavior may vary from thrill seeking to social compliance) (he aspect of consumer desire for e/periences that result in high adrenaline rush may lead to high1risk consumption "ehavior) Rook <&%+A? investigated impulse purchasing as a type of compulsive consumption) J!uinn > 8a"er <&%+%? made the distinction "et2een the t2o phenomena0 descri"ing compulsive purchasing as Bultimately destructive financially and psychologically to the consumer "ut 2hich provides momentary relief from tension0 an/iety or sadness) (he authors suggest that impulse purchases occur during Bhigh emotional states0 2hile compulsive purchases occur as an attempt to alleviate Bdo2n emotional states 2hich may "e a limiting suggestion) 8urther findings "y the authors 2ere that most compulsive shoppers 2ere female0 tended to2ard o"sessive1compulsive traits0 had lo2er self1esteem0 higher imagination levels0 higher levels of envy and non1generosity0 and strong emotional component F high mood 2hen occurring and depressing mood 2hen one comes to ones senses) Emotions constitute a primary source for human motivation and have su"stantial influence on memory and thought processes) Eest"rook > Jliver <&%%&? conceptualized consumption emotion as the set of emotional responses elicited specifically during product usage or consumption e/periences) ,t can "e descri"ed either "y the distinctive categories of emotional e/perience and e/pression <e)g)0 .oy0 anger0 and fear? or "y the structural dimensions underlying emotional categories0 such as pleasantnessLunpleasantness0 rela/ationLaction0 etc) 5onsumption emotion is distinguished from the concept of mood on the "asis of emotions relatively greater psychological urgency0 motivational potency0 and situational specificity) &A

Emotions have often "een conceptualized as general dimensions0 e)g) positive and negative affect0 "ut there has also "een interest in specific emotions such as surprise0 regret0 em"arrassment0 anger0 etc) :aros > Steenkamp <$**#? integrated the diverging research streams of emotion investigation into a hierarchical consumer emotions model) (he authors propose hierarchy that consists of superordinate level 2ith positive and negative affect0 "asic level 2ith four positive and negative emotions and the su"ordinate level 2ith specific emotions) 7o2ever0 this thesis 2ill focus on the cluster of emotions "eing either positive or negative) (his makes the model simple the com"ination of a persons positive and negative affect is indicative of hisLher attitude) Affect or mood has "een identified as a varia"le that strongly influences a num"er of actions including impulse purchasing) An individuals affect is influenced "y hisLher pre1e/isting mood0 affective disposition0 and reaction to current environment encounters <Beatty > 8errell0 &%%+?) Ehen one is in positive mood <positive affect?0 one is more likely to engage in approach "ehavior than avoid a "ehavior) 3ositive moods cause people to re2ard themselves generously0 to feel as if they have more freedom to act0 and 2ill produce "ehaviors that aim at maintaining a positive mood state) Before ackno2ledging that positive and negative emotions0 the e/tremes of the emotional state0 are dominant drivers of impulsive "uying "ehavior0 a focus on the core element of this "ehavior F impulsivity F 2ill "e made) 5onsumer purchase "ehavior seldom follo2s the principles of economic theory) 5onsumers "uy all different kinds of products not .ust to satisfy a necessity "ut rather for a relief of "ad mood0 to e/press an identity0 or for the fun of it) ,mpulsive "uying is also considered sometimes as Bnon1rational purchase "ehavior) Kon1 rational "uying "ehavior is e/plained "y the dominance of impulsive influences that prevent the consumer from engaging in deli"erative assessments of utility <Strack et) al0 $**6?) Strack et) al <$**6? point out that a "uying "ehavior results from either a reflective decision or immediate impulse) (he distinction "et2een the t2o0 ho2ever0 may not "e so clear) ,n the case of a purchase decision driven "y an impulse0 the consumer must still go to the cash register and pay for the productLs) (here is little reason to assume that this component of "uying is also driven "y pure impulse)

&+

Most consumers refer to impulsive "uying as simply a sudden urge to "uy something) (his implies several important aspects) (he "uying impulse is une/pected F arises spontaneously) 3sychological impulses stimulate a desire to act immediately and the feeling of having to possess something instantly) (his may also lead to feelings of despair0 compulsion and o"session) (he variety and high level of e/citement that is attri"uted to impulsive "uying is 2hat distinguishes it from rational consumption "ehavior) Some consumers even recognize the disruptive force and the e/traordinary stimulation that can induce feelings of "eing out1of1 control) (he intense feelings states that accompany this type of "ehavior range from Bgood0 happy0 2onderful0 high to Bdo2n0 frivolous and even Bpanic and sick) ,mpulse "uying is hedonically comple/ and more a"out the emotion drivers 2ill "e no2 discussed) 7irschman > Stern <&%%%? propose a model that adult consumers e/hi"it 3ersonal Emotional Range and emotional responses are filtered "y cognitive activities that result in impulsive "uying0 variety seeking and compulsive "uying) (he follo2ing figure depicts four Cuadrants resulting from the positive1negative valence and high1lo2 emotional arousal) #igure1 Emotional ;uadrants 3ositive alence

A contentment tranCuility serenity placidity

! e/u"erance delight ecstasy elation

:o2 Arousal C hopelessness dread melancholy $ anger hostility panic

7igh Arousal

&%

lethargy

paranoia

Kegative alence According to these Cuadrants0 different types of consumers can "e identified and thus0 the type that is most likely to engage in impulsive "uying "ehavior) Recognizing 2hich type of consumer is the one that is targeted "y marketers may lead to the "etter development of strategies and increase in sales) ontented consumer! alm consumption F ;uadrant A from the figure contains the

emotions typical for positive emotions and lo2 arousal: contentment0 tranCuility0 serenity and placidity) ,t is likely that some consumers spend their 2hole life in this Cuadrant as calm and contented consumers and even others e/perience these emotions from time to time) 7irschman > Stern <&%%%? put for2ard some propositions regarding the emotional range in this Cuadrant) (hese consumers are satisfied 2ith the present state of affair "ut they do not have the energy or desire to "e venturesome0 innovative or variety seeking) 5onsumers e/periencing positive emotions and lo2 arousal 2ill choose to avoid pro"lem solving activities or activities that are physically and cognitively demanding "ut rather maintain their state of serenity) Happy consumers!"ctive onsumption F ,n Cuadrant B feeling such as e/u"erance0

delight0 ecstasy0 and elation are posited) 7appy consumers 2ill seek ne2 consumption e/periences as long as they provide pleasure) 5onsumers that e/perience delight and elation 2ill have greatly enhanced cognitive a"ilities) Many consumers 2ho feel strong positive emotions 2ill feel physically and mentally energized) (his 2ill also lead to high levels of consumption creativity and also higher tendency to engage in impulsive "uying "ehavior)

Sad consumers! #assive consumption $ ,n Cuadrant 5 are emotions such as hopelessness0 dread0 melancholy0 and lethargy) (his area has not received much research interest "ut nonetheless "ased on the literature on depression and dysthymia0 7irschman > Stern <&%%%? propose that such consumers are very risk averse and $*

pessimistic a"out consumption activities) (hese consumers 2ill most likely stick to Btried and true alternatives "ecause their "ehavior is "ased on the premise that Bthings 2ill never get any "etter than this) "ngry consumers! Hostile consumption $ ,n Cuadrant ' are consumers e/periencing negative emotions 2ith high arousal such as anger0 hostility0 paranoia0 and panic) 'ra2ing from the compulsive consumption literature0 the authors propose that much of the addictiveLcompulsive "ehaviors like compulsive shopping0 connected to impulsive "uying0 are undertaken "y consumers in attempt to self1medicate feelings of anger or an/iety) ,n this case the sad consumer has the physical and mental energy to engage in a certain activity in order to remedy hisLher negative emotions)

2.% &ypotheses development


3ositive emotions are considered important in the science of 2ell1"eing .ust "ecause they are markers of optimal 2ell1"eing) ,t is o"viously that 2hen people e/perience .oy0 happiness0 interest0 contentment0 love <positive emotions?0 they refrain from sadness0 anger0 and other negative emotions) (he "alance "et2een peoples positive and negative emotions is 2hat constitutes peoples su".ective 2ell1"eing <8redrickson $**4?) 3ositive emotions have received little empirical interest in contrast to negative emotions) arious physical components of emotional e/pression reveal similarly a lack of differentiation for the positive emotions) Jften0 negative emotions have specific facial configurations that give them universally recognized value) ,t is easy to identify an angry0 sad or fearful face) ,n contrast0 positive emotions have no uniCue signal value) Ehen negative emotions are e/treme0 prolonged0 and inappropriate may produce many pro"lems for the individuals and the society inducing them to engage in improper "ehavior) 3ositive emotions "roaden the scopes of attention0 cognition and action and "uild physical0 intellectual and social resources) 3eople e/periencing positive affect sho2 unusual0 fle/i"le and creative patterns of thought) (hey also sho2 increased preference for variety and accept a "roader array of "ehavioral options) 8rederickson <$**4? suggests that in the case that positive emotions "roaden the thought1action repertoire follo2s that positive Bcorrect or Bundo the

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effects of negative emotions) Moreover0 people e/periencing positive emotions might improve their psychological 2ell1"eing and perhaps also their physical 2ell1"eing "y cultivating these positive emotions as resources to cope 2ith negative emotions) 3ositive emotions not only make people feel good in the present "ut also increase the likelihood that "y "uilding resources and engaging in activities that maintain such positive emotions0 they 2ill feel good in the future as 2ell) 3ositive emotions "roaden the scope of action in terms of prompting unusual and more varied actions rather than typical and consistent ones) (he high arousal emotions could "e such as e/u"erance0 delight0 ecstasy and elation) (he mental conditions responsi"le for creating elation and .oy are also linked to the stimulation of cognitive and physical activity0 many consumers 2ho e/perience strong positive emotions 2ill feel physically and mentally energized0 as 2ell) 5onsumers 2ho are e/periencing delight and elation 2ill have greatly enhanced cognitive a"ilities) (hey 2ill "e a"le to construct ela"orate cognitive patterns and display high levels of consumption creativity) (he emotions influencing the type of "ehavior such as impulsive "uying include families of related states that are characterized "y common theme) Moy is often considered almost the same as happiness and has common features .ust like other high1arousal positive emotions as amusement) Moy can "e aimless and at the same tome can constitute readiness to engage in action) ,nterest is often used interchangea"ly 2ith curiosity0 intrigue0 e/citement0 and has things in common 2ith challenge and intrinsic motivation) Some researches dou"t 2hether interest can "e categorized as a "asic emotion "ut in fact it the emotion e/perienced most freCuently) ,nterest generates a feeling of desire for investigation0 involvement0 and e/panding the self) (he mindset of this emotion is characterized "y openness to ne2 ideas0 e/periences and actions) :ove is often thought of not "eing a single emotion "ut rather people e/perience varieties of love) :ove e/periences are made up of many positive emotions like .oy0 interest0 etc) Jne of the "asic Cuestions concerning impulsive "ehavior is 2hat triggers it) ,magine a customer 2alking into a grocery store) Ehile 2alking do2n the aisle and picking the items from the shopping list0 he spontaneously stops "y the s2eets displays and adds a package of s2eets to the shopping cart) Ehat led to the unplanned purchase of s2eet F the customers good mood and impulsive personalityD ,mpulsive "uying consists of rapidly decision1making and a su".ective "ias in favor of immediate possession <Rook > !ardner0 &%%#?) (his $$

"ehavior occurs 2ithout a lot of reflection and impulsive "uyers are emotionally attracted to the impulse o".ect and desire immediate gratification) (he focus of the thesis 2ill "e to discuss the inner <at the individual level? factors of such kind of "ehavior as the customer at the grocery store) Retail environments and product factors may also influence "ut the emotional aspect of the decision1making process is often overlooked although very important) 5onsumer moods are positively associated 2ith impulsive "uying "ehavior) ,n fact impulse "uyers e/perience more emotions that non1"uyers <Eein"erg > !ott2ald0 &%+$? and actually e/periencing more positive emotions than negative induce consumers to engage in such impulsive "ehavior more often) 3eople do not only shop in order to satisfy their needs "ut also "ecause they may simply en.oy shopping) (he prospect that a shopping trip can make us feel "etter suggests that shopping can also "e considered as a 2ay of improving moods) (his also triggers marketers effort to make malls0 stores and service encounters0 places that make us feel good) ,n turn0 improved mood lead to a host of desired "ehaviors like higher 2illingness to shop0 impulse purchases0 longer stays0 and satisfaction <Mano0 &%%%?) Shopping is suggested to "e a highly effective mechanism for escaping from negative feelings) Research in psychology0 communications and social "ehavior has suggested that some "uyers may "e motivated "y an attempt to alter or prolong specific mood states) 3eople in positive mood states 2ill attempt to prolong these desira"le feelings through their "ehavior 2hile those in negative mood 2ill use "ehavior to alter their state in a more positive one <8a"er > 5hristenson0 &%%6?) ,n connection to this statement0 communication studies have sho2n that people engage in selective television vie2ing to change or manage moods) ,t has "een found that vie2ers indicate that they use television to alleviate "oredom0 to enhance e/citement or to calm do2n) (his can "e related to impulse "uying in the 2ay that it is also used to change or alleviate mood) Research "y !ardner > Rook <&%++? suggests that three1fourths of all respondents felt "etter follo2ing an impulse purchase) (he most freCuent reason 2hy people felt "etter 2as a change in mood) Almost +*- reported that they e/perienced pleasure and e/citement follo2ing an impulse purchase) Emotions are Bfuels for drives0 for all motion0 every performance0 and any "ehavioral act <8on"erg0 &%+6?) (he very meaning of life has "een couched in emotional terms F the seeking of happiness and avoidance of pain) ,n marketing terms0 marketing success is determined "y $#

the e/tent to 2hich consumers are seeking goods after emotional states and emotional states that are not desired are minimized) ,ndividuals are motivated to preserve a positive emotional state "y using mood maintenance strategies0 and to alleviate negative emotional states through strategies of mood repair <,sen) &%+4?) Strategies of mood maintenance may include the common social "ehaviour of going out to dinner after a pleasant occasion and then going on after that for a drink) Mano <&%%%? proposes that considerations should "e given on the differences of arousal in postulating emotions) Emotions can range from lo2 arousal <e)g) "oredom? to high arousal <e)g) distress?) (he author argues that highly distressed people have a higher tendency to involve in purchasing in general and "ored people have higher tendency to involve in purchasing in favora"le store environment and lo2er intentions in unfavora"le store environment) (his partly 2ill lead to the particular case of impulse purchasing) (he perspective that impulse "uying is GfunH and tends to elevate mood suggests that impulse "uying might "e primarily associated 2ith emotions) ,n contrast0 erplanken et al) <$**9? propose that negative rather than positive affect is actually the driving force "ehind chronic impulse "uying) (o the e/tent that the primary function of impulse "uying is as a mechanism for escaping negative psychological states0 the presence of negative emotions should "e associated 2ith chronic impulse "uying tendencies) Kegative mood can precede shopping "ut the actual purchasing is often characterized "y e/treme positive feelings) 8redrickson <$**#? gives another perspective to emotions and urges to act in particular 2ay) 5entral to many theories is that emotions "y definition are associated 2ith urges to act) Anger creates the urge to attack0 fear the urge to escape and disgust the urge to 2ithdra2) (he models that emphasize the role the specific action tendencies typically cast emotions as evolved adaptations) (he negative emotions have an adaptive value) (hey can promote the survival in life1threatening situations and can "e sufficient solutions to recurrent pro"lems) 3ositive emotions on the other hand are not so easily e/plained) (he "odily change0 urges to act and facial e/pressions produced "y positive emotions are not so specific and o"viously relevant to some situations as negative emotions) Although it is not yet confirmed "y scholars 2hether positive or negative emotions have a stronger effect on us and our "ehavior0 it can "e assumed that positive emotions motivate us more and give us the urge to engage in certain types of "ehavior) $4

,n overall0 consumers are influenced "y their emotional state in their inclination to engage in impulsive "uying "ehavior) Moreover0 consumers 2ith high arousal of their emotions have a much higher chance in engaging in impulsive "uying "ehavior) Emotions constitute a primary source for human motivation0 have su"stantial influence on memory and thought processes and strongly influence a num"er of actions including impulse purchasing) Ehen one is in positive mood <positive affect?0 one is more likely to engage in approach "ehavior than avoid a "ehavior according to Beatty > 8errell <&%%+?) 3ositive moods cause people to re2ard themselves generously0 to feel as if they have more freedom to act0 and 2ill produce "ehaviors that aim at maintaining a positive mood state) 7appy consumers 2ill seek ne2 consumption e/periences as long as they provide pleasure) 5onsumers that e/perience delight and elation 2ill have greatly enhanced cognitive a"ilities) Many consumers 2ho feel strong positive emotions 2ill feel physically and mentally energized) (his 2ill "e the reason for high levels of consumption creativity and also higher tendency to engage in impulsive "uying "ehavior) &1: More positive emotional state <strong positive emotions and 2eak negative emotions? can lead to higher impulsive "uying "ehavior) Since emotional e/perience is taken to "e mainly private0 emotion communication is seen to depend on prior account on individual emotions) Jften0 a persons relationships 2ith others are a central concern of emotions) !iven the o"vious importance of interpersonal relations that cause emotions0 it might seem surprising that psychological research has focused mainly on non1social manipulations in 2hich a single individual is presented 2ith hisLher emotional range) Many of the things that get people emotional a"out relate to other people <3arkinson0 &%%6?) Emotions can feed into the ongoing interpersonal process and cause similar or contrasting emotions in others) Research done "y 7atfield0 5acioppo > Rapson <&%%$? suggested that in certain social situations0 e/pressive "ehaviors are mimicked automatically0 and the copied responses may directly contri"ute to the self1perception of emotion) (his leads to the conclusion that there is an automatic tendency to catch the mood of the person you are interacting 2ith0 i)e) emotions are transmitted directly from person to person) Emotional reactions of other people around you are difficult to ignore and often seem to demand some sort of interpersonal response) ,f $9

everyone around us is pleased a"out something0 2e often end up feeling pleased ourselves) ,f a group of people are all looking at something or pointing at it0 it is hard to resist looking at the same direction <3arkinson0 &%%6?) Moreover0 2andering around a mall0 2here everyone is e/cited of "uying the ne2 Armani collection 2ill trigger your desire to engage in purchasing as 2ell) Social influence has "een analyzed in the conte/t of consumer suscepti"ility to interpersonal influence <5S,,?) 5S,, is the e/tent to 2hich consumers choices are influenced "y others <Bearden0 &%+%?) 3revious research characterized normative influences as the tendency to conform to the e/pectations of others) (o put it in other 2ords0 normative influences are the individuals identification and conformation 2ith others) 5S,, is associated 2ith different consumer "ehaviors that com"ine lack of impulse control 2ith relief from negative emotions) (he 5S,, scale has an informational and normative component) (he informational component measures the individuals tendency to o"tain information a"out products or services he is actively seeking from other people) (his tendency of actively seeking information is opposite to the cognitive aspects of impulse purchasing 2here the individual seeks or considers no information a"out products or services) (he normative component is simply the individuals need to use purchases to identify 2ith0 enhance an image in the eyes of significant others and conform to the e/pectations of others in making purchase decisions) (he presence of others in a purchasing situation may influence the decision to make a purchase) ,n some situations the mere presence of other may influence "ehavior) 5onsumers may "elieve that other peoples opinion and "ehaviors are credi"le) (hey also may use others "ehaviors as .ustification for their o2n or as visi"le indicators for socially desira"le activities) Moreover0 shopping 2ith others may "e due to social motivations <e)g)0 fun0 en.oyment0 company? or assistance motivations <e)g)0 moral support for decisions and product e/pertiseLinformation?) ,n the case of impulsive "uying0 it is e/pected that the social aspect 2ill take prevalence as a motivation for engaging in such a "ehavior) 7aving discussed already the identifications and conformation aspects of normative influence0 lead to identifying their levels depending on the sources of social influence) 3eers and family mem"ers "eing the primary source of influence have different normative e/pectations) 3eers are more receptive to the urge of purchasing and induce less pressure to monitor ones "ehavior) Monitoring ones "ehavior may refrain himLher from engaging to impulsive $6

purchases) (he motivation to conform to social norms is affected "y the inherent suscepti"ility to social influence and the structure of the group <cohesive or not cohesive? <:uo0 $**9?) !roups cohesiveness refers to the e/tent to 2hich a group is attractive to its mem"ers) (he theory proposed "y 8ish"ein and A.zen <&%A9? assumes that "ehaviors is a function of e/pectations for 2hat others consider to "e socially desira"le and the motivation to comply 2ith these e/pectations) (he nature of the other peoples influence depends on the norms and values of the group) ,n our conte/t0 consumers may perceive peers more likely to re2ard spontaneity and hedonic goals0 to pursue immediately and consider impulsive purchasing desira"le) 7o2ever0 consumers may consider family mem"ers more likely to "e concerned 2ith economic issues <e)g)0 not 2asting money? and consider impulsive purchasing as undesira"le <:uo0 $**9?) 8amily mem"ers may foster a sense of responsi"ility for others and thus discourage 2astefulness and e/travagance) 8urthermore0 the motivation to comply 2ith such normative e/pectations may "e greater among individuals 2ho are suscepti"le to influence in general and 2ho are in a cohesive group) Such a group has clear and consistent social norms) (o illustrate this in terms of the peer group 2ill mean that if the peer group encourages impulsive "uying0 then the tendency to engage in such "ehavior in the presence of peers should increase 2ith the cohesiveness of the peer group <:uo0 $**9?) According to the social comparison theory0 people have the "asic need to evaluate themselves) ,f there is no o".ective standard present according to 2hich they can evaluate their "ehaviors or attitude0 then people use social "ases of comparison) Ehen people use social "ases for comparison0 it is assumed that they compare themselves to those that are highly similar to them) Shopping 2ith friends is a uniCue opportunity for consumers to identify 2ith friends and receive evaluations of them 2hich are significant) Jthers opinions in this case are valued and serve to maintain or enhance self1esteem <Mangle"urg et) al)0 $**4?) Jther research suggested that shopping 2ith friends may mean spending more money) 5onsumers 2ho shop 2ith others spend more and make more unplanned purchases than in the cases of shopping alone) 3eople may 2ant to avoid "eing seen as GcheapH in the eyes of friends and therefore purchase more 2ith friends) (here may also "e some degree of competition or comparison 2hen shopping 2ith others) Also0 the en.oyment of shopping 2ith friends and the positive mood may result in proneness spending more in general and spending more on impulsive purchases <Mangle"urg et) al)0 $**4?) $A

According to Na.oncs <&%69? theory of social facilitation0 the mere presence of others can significantly influence an individuals "ehavior) ,n fact0 the theory posits that Bthe mere presence of others increases arousal and there"y0 the freCuency of dominant responsesI "eing the "ehavioral disposition that e/ist a priori) Research done "y Argo et) al <$**9? demonstrates that even a non1interactive social presence <other shoppers present at the mall? can have an influence on the consumer) (heir research is "ased on the Social ,mpact theory as a theoretical frame2ork and implies that the consumers motives and emotions0 cognitions and "eliefs0 values and "ehaviors are impacted "y the real0 implied or imagined presence or action of another person or group of people at the time of purchase) Some of their findings suggest that 2hen the social size increases "eyond on person0 the consumer e/periences more negative <less positive? emotions due to social cro2ding) (his might refrain the consumer from engaging in any kind of shopping0 even impulsive one0 and leave the shopping center) ,n addition0 the consumers tend to "uy more e/pensive and high Cuality "rands as the social size increases) (his implies the need to appear superior in financial terms and manifests a higher social status) (he pro"a"ility to engage in impulsive purchases rises in this case) Jverall0 consumers that en.oy company during shopping are e/pected to have a higher tendency to involve in impulsive purchases) (herefore: &2' (he presence of others at the time of purchase has a positive effect on impulsive "uying "ehavior

%&t is largely our narrow, individual rationality that ma'es us miss part of the fun others get out of life() (Scitovs'y *++,, p( ,-.) Shoppers could "e often heard to say G, really shouldntH) (he prices are high0 the "udget is tight0 and an item is not desperately needed so it seems that a reasona"le "ehavior for the "uyer 2ould "e not to purchase the item) But there come the alliance of 2ants0 impulses and emotions that all serve to convince the shopper that the item 2ill "ring happiness0 at least for a 2hile) (hus0 the decision in this situation is dependa"le on the conflict "et2een strengths of self1control and desire) Self1control refers to the selfs capacity to alter its o2n states and responses <Baumeister0 $**$?) (he a"ility to maintain self1control and successfully implement $+

long1run decisions depends on the relative strength of the opposing forces of desire and 2illpo2er) ,n psychoanalytic theory0 the conflict of desire and 2illpo2er is presented as a fluctuation "et2een primary process thinking 2hich is impulse driven0 irrational and seeks immediate gratification at any cost0 and secondary process thinking 2hich is patient0 logical and has the 2ill to postpone gratification for future long1run goals <:oe2enstein > 7och0 &%%&?) Some 2riters on consumer "ehavior are fond of the concept of irresisti"le impulses among shoppers) Baumeister <$**$? argue that it is precisely "ecause purchasing impulses are resisti"le that they are of such great interest "oth to research psychologists and to marketers and advertisers) 5laims of irresisti"le impulses are more a matter of rationalization than of genuinely "eing helpless against strong desires) Baumeister <$**$? argues that the same implies for shopping) Ehen the shopper returns "ack home from an unnecessary and e/pensive purchase0 the e/planation to the disapproving spouse 2ould "e G, couldnt resistH than G, 2as too lazy and selfish to resistH) Ehy do people fail to resist impulsesD Resisting an impulse depends on the personOs capacity for self1control) Effective self1control depends on at least three ma.or in1gredients) (hese are the standards0 a monitoring process0 and the operational capacity to alter oneOs "ehavior) ,f any of these fails0 self1control can "e undermined) Standards refer to the goals0 ideals0 norms and other guidelines that specify the desired response) ,f you do not 2ant to change0 then there is no need for self1regulation) ,t could "e logical that consumers 2ho kno2 e/actly 2hat they 2ant are pro"a"ly less likely to involve in impulsive "uying and in general are less vulnera"le to influences from sales personnel0 advertisers0 etc) Uncertain or conflicting goals undermine the "asis for self1control and thus people 2ho go shopping 2ithout particular goal may "e indulged into impulsive "uying "ehavior <Baumeister0 $**$?) (here are situations of conflicting goals such as 2anting to "uy an item to feel "etter and idea of saving money) 3eople generally 2ant to feel good and 2hen they are upset the goal of feeling "etter "ecomes central) (hus0 if the consumer dou"ts 2hether to "uy the item in the sake of feeling "etter or save the money0 emotional distress may shift the "alance in favor of making the purchase) :iterature on self1control reveals that emotional distress contri"utes to "reakdo2ns in self1control) Kormally0 people pursue

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desira"le0 long1term goals and try to restrain aggressive impulses) Ehen people are feeling "ad0 these restrains "reak do2n) A second crucial ingredient of self1control is the process of monitoring 2hich indicates keeping track of the relevant "ehavior) Ehen people lose track of their "ehavior0 self1control "reaks do2n) Relevant to consumer "ehavior0 it can "e e/pected that 2hen consumers keep track of their e/penditures and financial assets0 engaging in impulsive "ehavior 2ill "e less likely) (he third ingredient of self1control is the capacity to alter the self) ,n the conte/t of the impulse purchases0 the person should "e a"le to resist the temptation to "uy) (he Cuestion is to 2hat e/tent) 8urthermore0 performing any act of self1control seems to deplete some crucial resource 2ithin the self and that resource is no longer availa"le to help the person on the su"seCuent self1 control task) Such state of reduced capacity for self1control is called Bego1depletion) 3eople in the state of Bego1depletion are more likely to involve in impulsive purchases) Such consumers 2ill "e less likely to regulate their "ehavior to2ard their long1lasting goals0 so they yield to temptation and "uy impulsively) (he concept of ego1depletion could "e e/tended "eyond self1regulation) Making choices and decisions appear to reduce the same resource as is used for self1control) 5onsumers are often faced to make multiple decisions) ,f each decision along the 2ay depletes the resources slightly0 then people should "e more impulsive and less self1controlled to2ard the end of the series of decisions) ,n the purchase conte/t "eing at the mall after a long day or a long trip to the grocery store 2ould mean small decisions that translate to depleted resources0 lo2er self1control and more impulsivity regarding the "ehavior) Baumeister <$**$? goes even further to ackno2ledge that certain people have chronically more pro"lems 2ith self1control than others) (here are certainly individual differences among individuals) (angney > Baumeister <$**&? have developed a trait measure of self1control) 3eople 2ith high levels of self1control have "etter interpersonal relationships0 fe2er psychological and symptoms and pro"lems0 fe2er emotional pro"lems0 and higher self1 acceptance and self1esteem) 3eople 2ith "etter self1control might manage their money "etter0 save more and spend less) (his idea may predict consumer "ehavior in terms of impulse purchases) 3eople 2ith lo2 self1control may "e vulnera"le to "eing seduced "y the moment) ,ndividuals 2ith "etter initial self1control are a"le to employ rule1follo2ing "ehavior #*

involving internal speech 2hich further facilitates self1control) Use of internal speech shifts the deli"eration process to the sym"olic level and reduces the saliency of prepotent stimuli) ,f 2e go one step "efore0 in the trade1off "et2een necessities and indulgences <lu/uries?0 the latter at inherent disadvantage "ecause "y definition necessities have higher status in the hierarchy of needs) 7o2ever0 decision rules regarding spending money on necessities that appear locally optimal may in fact lead to glo"ally su"optimal outcomes) Mustifying a spending on a necessity may seem rational at the local level "ut the consumer may feel that on the glo"al level heLshe is neglecting important "enefits of indulgence) (he tendency of particular consumers to under1 or overindulge varies over time0 individuals and consumption categories <=ivetz > Simonson0 $**$?) Many consumers recognize that the advantage of necessities and savings in local decisions creates an im"alance in their lives 2here"y they do not spend enough time and money on pleasura"le things) 5onseCuently0 under certain conditions may precommit to indulgencies to ensure that they do not end up spending their resources all on necessities) (his is actually consistent 2ith the notion of Gself1giftH 2hich is an attempt to constraint the persistent urge to say Bno to ourselves in daily life) !iven the tendency to limit consumption of hedonic lu/uries in everyday life0 consumers may feel that they have earned the right to indulge and "e pampered) A single trip to the mall after a stressful day may "e a self1gift for the day 2hich can then transform into impulsive "uying "ehavior since no previous plans 2ere made "efore for any purchases) Recent research has "een trying to defend the vie2point that there is considera"le difference "et2een people 2ho are Bimpulsive "uyers and those that are not) ohs > 8a"er <$**A? argue in contradiction that almost everyone engages in impulsive spending occasionally and that even identified impulse "uyers can and in fact do control their impulses at times) (he authors try to investigate 2hat separates impulsive from non1impulsive "uyers) Ehen people possess underlying urges to "ehave inappropriately or in opposition to a goal they have set0 they may attempt to control these urges) 8or some people0 "eing e/posed in a "uying environment for e/ample0 may <even non1consciously? activate the impulse system) 3eople 2ould 2ant to refrain from the "uying situation and control the urge having a full compliment of regulatory resources) ,n this case ohs > 8a"er <$**A? found no difference "et2een impulsive and non1impulsive "uyers 2hen their self1regulatory resources are intact) After a loss of self1regulatory resources0 ho2ever0 people 2hose systems are activated "y "uying environment had particular difficulty controlling their spending "ehavior) #&

Eork on generalized impulsiveness and impulsive "uying in consumer "ehavior and psychology has focused mainly on the urge to act) ,n contrast0 the psychiatry literature has focused more the pro"lematic side of the issue F peoples ina"ility to control their urges) 3ro"lems such as compulsive "uying0 kleptomania and "inge eating are la"eled as ,mpulse 5ontrol 'isorders "y the American 3sychiatric Association <&%%4?) Research on self1 regulation and other factor connected 2ith peoples ina"ility or un2illingness to control their urges give insight into different spending pro"lems <e)g)0 impulsive vs) compulsive spending? < ahs > 8a"er0 $**A?) ,t is possi"le that there is a link "et2een stress and impulsive "uying) 7ighly stress1reactive individuals engage in impulsive "uying to escape from negative emotions) Rook > !ardners <&%++? previous research found that the ma.ority of people <A9- of the participants? reported feeling "etter after an impulse purchase) !iven that stress and negative emotions might lead to impulsive "uying0 one 2ay to prevent such a "ehavior 2ould "e to simply avoid stressful situations causing negative emotions) 7o2ever0 this might not al2ays "e possi"le) Another more effective 2ay to avoid the urge to impulsively spend 2ould "e effectively control ones stress response and therefore immunize oneself from the negative conseCuences of stress) (he term emotional regulation is in fact the modification of any aspect of emotional response0 e/perience or "ehavior) ,f you deli"erately control your emotions0 it may reCuire high levels of effort 2hich 2ould deplete ones self1control resources and as a result engage in impulsive "uying "ehavior) (herefore0 automatic emotion regulation0 i)e) 2ithout e/plicit effort0 "ut having norms0 "eliefs and ha"its0 2ould "e a "etter solution) 'holakia <$***? refers to a similar mechanism0 namely motivation control 2hich is the set of self1regulatory activities aimed at "ringing high level of attention and effort to resist the consumption impulse) Pou can successfully "elieve to have overcome the consumption impulse and decide on the spur of the moment .ust to "uy this dress0 let the guard do2n for only this very impulse) (he motivation control prevents this from happening and includes strategies such as su"stitution) (he consumer may give herself a small re2ard for successfully resisting a larger consumption impulse thus reaching a self1efficacy level)

#$

Jverall0 people that are not a"le to control their impulsivity and emotions are e/pected to have a higher tendency to involve in impulsive "uying "ehavior in contrast to people that can self1regulate their impulsivity and engage less often into such "ehavior) (herefore: &3: 3eople 2ith high self1control 2ill less likely involve in impulsive "uying "ehavior than those 2ith lo2 self1control)

Many hedonic consumption activities such as shopping in a mall0 going on vacation0 and so forth are usually shared 2ith other people) arious phrases like Bhappiness shared is dou"led and sadness shared is halved and Bmisery loves company suggest that sharing pleasant and unpleasant e/periences can have a positive effect on en.oyment of shared e/periences <Raghunathan > 5orfman0 $**6?) Shopping is inherently social e/perience) Shoppers go shopping either alone or 2ith a company) 'uring the shopping process of the main sources of influence might "e the shopping companion) A companion <a friend0 family mem"er0 2ork colleague0 etc)? might enhance the shopping e/perience "y means of facilitating shared e/perience0 opportunity for support and assistance in decision1making and interfere in the emotions that might occur other2ise) Marketing research suggests that shopping 2ith others leads to positive outcomes) Jther research attempts point out that spontaneous "ehavior "ecomes particularly likely 2hen consumers feel a strong degree of group cohesiveness and thus0 consumers e/perience enhanced feeling of readiness for impulse decisions) Ehen peer group norms encourage such type of "ehavior0 then the tendency to engage in it is higher 2hen the cohesiveness of the focal peer group is higher) Borges et) al) <$*&*? e/pect that a shopper e/perience different emotions and shopping values 2hen shopping 2ith others) (he reduced stress and increased rela/ation 2hen shopping 2ith a friend may "e0 ho2ever0 in controversy of 2hen shopping 2ith a family mem"er) Shopping en.oyment could "e lo2er in that case since shoppers tend to adopt a utilitarian orientation 2hen shopping 2ith a relative) Borges et) al <$*&*? propose that the presence of others might have t2o contrasting effects) ,f the retail outlet is one that the shopper identifies highly 2ith0 the presence of a companion may reduce the positive effects) A friend can "e distracting or adding tension to 2hat could "e other2ise a personally re2arding e/perience) Especially if ##

the companions shopping orientation contrasts 2ith the consumers <the friend is not eager to engage in spontaneous "uying of an e/pensive perfume at a counter?) (hus0 the likelihood of diminished e/perience e/ists) Jn the other hand0 2hen a shopper visits a mall that heLshe does not have a strong attachment to0 the need to protect the e/perience is lo2er) (herefore0 "eing 2ith a shopping companion of any type may in fact "e "etter than "eing alone) ,n the e/treme0 this could "e similar to the shared misery effect) As already has "een discussed a"ove peer and family influence on shopping0 attention "y marketing researchers have "een "rought on hus"and12ife .oint purchasing) Married couples generally <++-? report disagreeing 2ith each other during the "uying process) 7us"ands are less 2illing to compromise on purchase decisions) Spouses are reluctant to purchase "rands and product categories associated 2ith the opposite se/) Shopping 2ith a spouse has the potential to introduce friction into the shopping e/perience in the 2ay that shopping "ehaviors and orientations may "e in conflict) (he 2ifes spontaneous decision to "uy ne2 curtains for the house might "e seen as an e/cessive and unnecessary e/pense for the hus"and given the good condition of the current curtains) Being 2ith her hus"and0 the 2ife may e/press her negative emotions in a stronger 2ay than "eing alone in the mall) (he friction "et2een them into the shopping e/perience may greatly increase her anger and increase the pro"a"ility for her involvement into impulsive "uying "ehavior) Jverall0 not only that shopping 2ith others may increase happiness and produce a 2ave of emotions "ut also these emotions are strongly activated and e/pressed) Jne can "e happier 2hen shopping 2ith a companion "ut moreover0 one e/presses this happiness in a stronger 2ay and there is strong activation in involvement in the shopping activity) (he same logic is "ehind the emotional state of anger or dissatisfaction that a consumer may e/perience 2hich is intensified "y the presence of others <friendsLfamily? at the time of purchase) &%: (he effect of emotional state on impulse "uying "ehavior is stronger 2ith the presence of others) E/periencing negative emotions imply a state of diseCuili"rium and naturally a desire to return to normal state0 i)e) feeling positive emotions) 5oping 2ith positive emotions differs from negative in that it often involves sharing ones good fortune0 increased physical activities and also such that 2ill preserve the positive state) As noted earlier in the thesis0 #4

emotions are also accompanied sometimes "y high arousal levels of increased optimism and increased readiness for adventuresome activities) Some theorists maintain that emotions also include tendencies as part of their meaning) An action tendency refers to the readiness to engage or disengage from interaction and includes impulses of moving to2ards0 a2ay or against) 7appy consumers 2ould tend to maintain their happiness <self1regulate emotional state? and "e prone to act on impulsivity0 i)e) engaging into impulsive "uying "ehavior) ,t 2as pointed out already in the thesis that emotions differ in some characteristics from mood "ut there is a great amount of research as 2ell that suggests mood is a steady1state phenomenon that follo2s emotions) (hus0 assuming that e/citement and .oy 2ill lead to a happy mood is Cuite logical) Morris > Reilly <&%+A? consider the idea that people self1 regulate their good moods) Bad moods may provide their o2n incentive leading to self1 regulation "ut in the case of good mood the need for self1regulation is less o"vious) ,f you are feeling good 2hy not .ust en.oy itD 3eople do self1regulate in order to maintain positive mood) 8or e/ample0 if a man has .ust "een une/pectedly promoted and is in a good feeling state0 he may not 2ant to go home to his usual routine) ,nstead0 he may feel like going out 2ith friends and cele"rate "ecause such "ehavior 2ill likely maintain his positive mood) (he motive to maintain good mood arise 2hen events or certain activities that are incompati"le 2ith the current good mood threaten to reduce or eliminate it) ,mpulse regulation as discussed earlier is close to emotion regulation and mood control that are in the conte/t of general self1control) Most forms of self1control involve denying impulses or forcing the self to do something contrary to hedonistic tendencies) 'enying ones hedonistic impulses can lead to a negative effect) Many people feel that engaging in a certain type of "ehavior like shopping0 drinking0 gam"ling make them feel "etter) Refraining from such a "ehavior and the related activities can result in negative emotional states) (he main types of emotion1control tasks are: a person could "e trying to get into0 get out of0 or prolong either a "ad or good mood) (he most common attempt to control moods involves getting out of various "ad moods) (ice and Bratslavsky <$***? clearly state that self1control can result in negative mood and that negative mood predisposes people to fail at self1 regulation) (hus0 emotions can have the potential to create negative spirals in ones effort to control oneself) Emotional distress is often so aversive that people often give their highest priority to ending it and trying to feel "etter) 7o2ever0 2hile people are "usy controlling or #9

repairing their "ad mood0 other self1control goals are a"andoned 2hich results in self1control failures) 'enying oneself creates a negative mood and peoples preoccupation 2ith repairing this mood may fail at self1control) !iving top priority to mood control may involve using many pleasant distracters as a 2ay of regulating emotions) (his could "e e/cessive drinking0 eating0 gam"ling and other types of addictive "ehaviors) Some previous research sho2s that people in negative mood tend to engage in greater su"seCuent self1gratification and self1re2ard than people in neutral mood) 3eople 2ould prefer an immediate small re2ard over a more distant large re2ard) (hus0 people are ready to sacrifice long1term gains for the short1term goal of emotion regulation <(ice > Bratslavsky0 $***?) Rook <&%+A? defined impulsive "uying as fundamentally a pro"lem of failing to delay gratification) (he ina"ility to delay gratification in that immediate re2ards and temptations out2eigh long1term planning0 results in the person making unplanned purchases) Mood can contri"ute to a shopping control loss if the consumer focuses on the things other have <relative deprivation?) Ehen consumers lose control of their "udget as a result of unplanned purchases0 they may need to engage in increasing 2illpo2er or trying to reduce temptation) (he link "et2een negative mood and shopping is 2ell recognized "y consumers 2hich may e/plain slogans like B2hen the going gets tough0 the tough go shopping and Bshop till you drop) Mood regulation is a determinant of impulsive "uying <7och > :oe2enstein0 &%%&?)

Jverall0 people 2ith high levels of self1control regulate their emotional state and thus their tendency to engage in impulsive "uying "ehavior may decrease) Ehether one maintains a positive mood or 2ants to escape a negative emotion0 the a"ility to regulate your o2n emotional condition affects the impulsive purchases that could "e made) Self1control moderates the effect of emotions on impulsive "uying "ehavior) &(: (he effect of emotional state on impulsive "uying "ehavior is stronger for people 2ith high levels of self1control)

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,nterpersona l interactions &%

&2

&1 Emotional State &(

,mpulsive "uying "ehavior

&3

Self1control

#igure 2. Conceptual framewor

#A

3. )ethodology
,n the current chapter0 the research methodology 2ill "e presented) 8irst0 the sample and data collection process 2ill "e discussed0 follo2ed "y the measurements chosen for the research) 8inally0 the analyses leading up to the results 2ill "e discussed)

3.1 *ample and data collection


(he data for the present study 2ere collected through Cuestionnaire) ,n order to capture the influence of others 2hile shopping0 t2o Cuestionnaires 2ere developed) (he first one included a scenario 2here one shops alone and the other one included the same scenario 2ith the distinction that the consumer is accompanied "y hisLher "est friends) All the other Cuestions 2ere the same) (he choice for the different products that are part of the scenarios 2as made considering typical product categories that are "ought on impulse) Evidence from previous research pointed into the direction of the fact that unplanned purchasing rates are high for candies and che2ing gums <+9-?0 for dental hygiene products <A9-?0 and for cosmetics <A*-?) 8inally0 Mars candy0 shampoo0 perfume0 5's and magazines 2ere chosen for the scenarios) (he t2o Cuestionnaires 2ere sent to different groups of people 2ith the o".ective of avoiding the same person to complete "oth Cuestionnaires 2hich 2ill lead to unsatisfying results)

3.2 )easurement
(he initial Cuestionnaires 2ere generated from previously validated academic literature in the area of emotions0 self1control and impulsive "uying "ehavior) (he final Cuestionnaires consisted of 4 main parts 2ith the a"ove mentioned notions including a scenario 2ith alone version and 2ith a friends version) ,n essence0 each respondent 2as asked0 "ased on his e/perience and emotional status0 to rate the different attri"utes of emotions0 self1control0 and impulsive "uying tendencies) ,t 2as a considera"le thought 2hich emotions should "e included in the analysis of the hypothesis) (hey had to "e some2hat universal "ut also applied to the consumption e/perience so as a result the choice came to Binterested0 Bsatisfied0 Bhappy0 Benthusiastic0 Be/cited0 Bdepressed0 Birrita"le0 Bannoyed0 Bunsatisfied Some may

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dou"t 2hether Bdepression is an emotion "ut rather a mood condition) ,n fact0 depression may "e thought of as a secondary emotion0 i)e) there are other negative feelings that contri"ute to it) (he responses 2ere measured on a seven1point :ikert scales ranging from totally disagree to totally agree0 and not likely at all to very likely) Kote that the statements used for each construct in the present research are "ased on scales that 2ere validated in previous studies) 8irst0 the scale used to measure the emotional state of the respondents 2as a com"ination of the 3AKAS scale "y Eatson0 5lark0 and (ellegen <&%++? and the 3A' scale "y Mehra"ian and Russell <&%A4?) (he 3AKAS scale <Eatson et al)0 &%++? consists of t2o &*1item mood scales developed to provide "rief measure of positive affect <3A? and negative affect <KA?) A num"er of different time1frames have "een used 2ith the 3AKAS scale "ut in the current study the time1frame adopted 2as Bright no2) (he 3A' scale <Mehra"ian > Russell0 &%A4? consisted of # dimensions F pleasure0 arousal and dominance F and captured a 2ide range of emotional states e/perienced during consumption) ,n essence0 a com"ination of "oth scales 2as used in the present study since the com"ination of emotions e/tracted from "oth scales 2ill "est represent the most common and "asic emotions a consumer might e/perience) Ehen it comes to the control measurement0 the impulsivity component of Arneklev et al <&%%#?s lo2 self1control items e/tracted from !ottfredson > 7irschis A general theory of crime scale 2as used) (his scale 2as preferred over a simple control in general scale since it is connected 2ith impulsivity and applies to this studys goal) 8urthermore0 in order to measure impulsivity in general among participants0 an impulse "uying tendency scale proposed "y Eenn0 Mones0 and Beatty <&%%A? 2as used) (he scale consists of 9 items and 2as preferred over Rook > 8isher <&%%9? measure of impulsive "uying tendency in terms of "etter performance) 8inally0 t2o slightly different scenarios 2ere developed according to real1life shopping situation resem"lance) A1point :ikert scales 2ere used for the rating of the different items proposed that are likely to "e "ought on impulse) Also Cuestions a"out the ha"its of "uying the items 2ere asked since if a respondent does not like the product in general0 the pro"a"ility of "uying it on impulse may diminish) An overvie2 of the statements used to measure each of the main components of this study and the t2o Cuestionnaires is presented in Appendi/ A)

#%

%. Analysis and results


As previously mentioned0 the main purpose of the present study is to investigate ho2 emotions influence impulsive "uying "ehaviour and 2hether and ho2 this relationship alters 2ith the presence of other people and the presence or lack of self1control) ,n order to o"tain a "etter understanding of the phenomenon of impulsive "uying "ehaviour from a consumers perspective0 several hypotheses 2ere proposed) (he hypothesized relationships0 2hich are consistent 2ith relationships that have "een proposed and validated in earlier studies done in the area of "ehavioural economics and psychology0 2ere tested "y conducting factor analysis and several regression analyses) &$$ responses 2ere collected from the Cuestionnaire "ut after careful analysis of the data and deleting some inconsistencies the final sample consisted of &&4 responses)

%.1 #actor analysis results


A component factor analysis 2as first conducted in order to define the structure of interrelationships among the varia"les0 derive underlying dimensions and ultimately descri"e the data in a reduced num"er of concepts than the original varia"les) (he o".ective 2as to o"tain results <factors? that could "e "etter interpreted and su"seCuently used for further analysis) ,nitially all varia"les 2ere simultaneously included in a factor analysis) 7o2ever0 an e/tensive e/amination of the data sho2ed several inconsistencies 2hich made the results difficult to interpret) (he Cuestions in the Cuestionnaire 2ere initially designed to encompass the separate constructs of emotions0 self1control0 presence of others and impulsivity tendency) 8ollo2ing this initial path0 the decision to run a separate factor analysis for each construct 2as taken) 8or each factor analysis that 2as conducted0 several measures 2ere analyzed) An initial inspection for correlations a"ove *)# in the correlation matrices 2as conducted 2hich revealed that there is "asis for proceeding 2ith the factor analysis) (he =MJ and Bartletts test 2ere run for each construct) (he =MJ has to "e a"ove *)9 in order to indicate relatively compact patterns of relationships among the varia"les and so that factor analysis yields

4*

distinct and relia"le factors) (he pro"a"ility of the Bartletts (est satisfied the reCuirements of all the 4 factor analysis as it sho2ed that the correlations have a pro"a"ility higher than *)9) After accessing that running a factor analysis is adeCuate in the current research0 the num"ers of factors to "e retained for further analysis 2ere selected) ,n general0 it is assumed that a factor solution should e/plain at least half of each original varia"leOs variance) (herefore0 varia"les 2ith communalities less than *)4* 2ere stated to "e removed from the analysis) Su"seCuently0 the arima/ rotation method 2as employed in order to achieve more interpreta"le and theoretically more meaningful factor solutions) A smaller num"er of varia"les 2ere loaded highly onto each factor resulting in more interpreta"le cluster of factors) (he patterns of factor loadings 2ere e/amined in order to identify varia"les that sho2ed a comple/ structure or had lo2 factor loadings) (herefore0 after careful evaluation varia"les that did not e/ceed the threshold of *)4 2ere removed from the analyses for interpretative purposes) Before rotation0 most varia"les loaded highly onto the first factor and the remaining factors didnt really get a look at) 7o2ever0 the rotation of the factor structure has clarified the analysis considera"ly) (he information regarding the results of the Bartletts test and the num"er of factors to "e retained and their relative e/planatory po2er as e/pressed "y their eigenvalues can "e vie2ed in appendi/ B) After the unrelia"ility of the initial factor analysis including all constructs together0 several su"seCuent factor analysis 2ere conducted for each construct0 i)e) emotions0 self1control0 presence of others in the different scenarios and the general impulsivity tendency in terms of Cuestionnaire statements) After analysis and refinement of the data0 the results sho2 loadings on each factor) 7ence0 considering that the results that 2ere o"tained sho2ed that the loadings on each factor 2ere clearly measuring the same concept0 the decision 2as made to rename the factors o"tained according to the specific items they 2ere measuring) 8actors 2ere made for the emotions construct0 self1control construct0 impulsivity construct and the presence of others in the scenarios) Some statements 2ere e/cluded from further analysis since their loadings 2ere less than *)4) Moreover0 some statements like the emotions Bstimulated0 Bcalm and Brela/ed 2ere e/cluded on the "asis of o"taining more relia"le results since their inclusion into the emotion factor is Cuite am"iguous) Also0 after the e/clusion of these emotions0 the o"tained 5ron"achs alpha as a measure of internal consistency estimate of relia"ility increased as the intercorrelations among the test items increased)

4&

,n addition0 the product items BMars candy0 B5's and Magazines 2ere e/cluded from further analysis since their factor loadings 2ere "elo2 *)4 and the correlations among the items 2ith their presence 2ere not meaningful) (he results for these items in the Cuestionnaire 2ere am"iguous may"e "ecause people that do not "uy these items regularly or do not like them 2ill also not "uy them on impulse) ,t could "e that people tend not to "uy 5's no2adays "ut rather do2nload music from internet so they 2ere not a relia"le measurement of impulsive "uying "ehaviour) Similar to this for Mars candy0 the fact that a lot of people love chocolate and are first tempted to eat it 2hen depressed or even as a re2ard 2hen happy0 makes it am"iguous 2hether it is a true impulse purchase or rather a Bal2ays1on1the1mind planned one) ,n order to determine the internal consistency of the different scales0 the 5ron"rachs alpha 2as computed for each scale separately) (he aim of computing the relia"ility inde/ is to measure ho2 2ell the different items measure a single one1dimensional construct) (he relia"ility inde/ o"tained for positive and negative emotions as 2ell as general impulsivity tendency is around the value of *)%* indicating that the different scales sho2ed a high degree of internal consistency and that each items included in the different scales 2ere measuring the same concept) 7o2ever0 due to the fact that not a validated scale "ut rather a made1up scenario items 2ere used0 the 5ron"achs alpha for the scenarios is rather lo2) Almost the same is true for the self1control construct since t2o different scales 2ere used for the item development) (he results are presented in (a"le &)

Factors Emotions Self1control ,mpulsivity Scenarios 2ith products Table 1 Cronbach+s alpha

Cronbachs alpha *)%#* *)64* *)+*& *)9*&

A small minority of respondents that "ehaved in an inconsistent 2ay 2as found after a cluster analysis and 2as decided to "e e/cluded from further analysis) (he cluster 2ith %9 respondents remained 2hich is the "asis for the follo2ing results in the regression analysis

4$

that follo2s) (he final empirical research consisted of testing the hypotheses that 2ere previously posed) ,n order to do so0 several regression analyses 2ere conducted) (he factors that 2ere derived from conducting the factor analyses 2ere included in the regression analyses and served as the independent or dependent varia"les)

%.2. ,egression analysis results

%.2.1 $irect effects (his part of the results discusses the direct effects of the independent varia"les on the impulsive "uying of shampoo and perfume) (he constructs of self1control0 emotions and presence of others are e/amined in relationship 2ith impulsive "uying and their positive or negative effect that they have on impulsive purchases) (he first hypothesis theorized that emotional state0 2here higher values denote positive emotions and lo2 values denote negative emotions0 has a positive effect on impulsive "uying "ehavior) (he e/pectations 2ere that 2hen you are happy or e/cited the pro"a"ility that you 2ill "uy a product on impulse rises) Belo2 is presented (a"le $ 2ith the results of the regressions done including different varia"les) ,n general0 the dependent varia"le is the scenario for the t2o products F perfume and shampoo F that are "ought on impulse) Several com"inations of independent varia"les 2ere tried in order to receive results that are 2orth interpreting) R sCuare provides an indication of the e/planatory po2er of the regression model) ,t is the percentage of variance in the dependent varia"le e/plained "y the collection of independent varia"les) (he decision rule 2hen e/plaining the results is if pQ)*9 then 2e re.ect the null of nonsignificance and conclude that the independent varia"le is a significant predictor of the dependent)

4#

Variables Constant Average-"motions Presence of others Control , s.uare


Table 2 ,egression results /10

Unstandardized coefficients Significance #)%*9 )$4# )#4& 1)4#9 )&AA

)*** )*** )*+A )*#*

$ependent variable' Impulsive buying intention

(he initial results sho2 that emotional state and control are significant at a 9- level) (he presence of others is significant at &*- level) (he model sho2s that &A)A- of the variation in scenarios is "eing e/plained "y the emotional state0 control and presence of others) As e/pected0 emotions <BR)$4#? have a positive influence on impulsive "uying0 i)e) the happier you are0 the higher the pro"a"ility that you 2ill "uy impulsively shampoo or perfume0 other things held constant) (his supports 7&) (heir effect is of lo2er intensity to impulsive purchases than the presence of others) ,t can "e said that the fact that you are 2ith friend 2hile shopping has a greater effect on the pro"a"ility to "uy on impulse shampoo or perfume than your emotional state) 7$ proposes that the presence of others <friendsLfamily mem"ers? at the time of purchase has a positive effect on impulse "uying "ehaviour) Shopping 2ith others tend to result in more purchases as a 2hole and more impulsive purchases in particular Although significant at &*level0 the presence of others in the regression model <BR)#4&? influences in a positive 2ay the impulse "uying of perfume or shampoo) 5onsumers that en.oy the company of a friend during shopping have a higher tendency to involve in impulsive purchases like "uying a shampoo or perfume) (he mere presence of a friend increases arousal and also may lead to mimicking "ehavior0 i)e) if the friend "uys the shampoo or perfume0 you also "uy it) Another e/planation is that 2hen in company0 people spend more in order to sho2 themselves superior in financial terms and implies social status) (he pro"a"ility to engage in impulsive purchases rises in that case) Although product like shampoo is not a lu/ury item0 perfume may "e a good e/ample for sho2ing yourself superior in front of your friend) As e/pected0 the results from the regression analysis sho2 that the less self1control you possess0 the more likely it is to engage in impulsive "uying "ehavior) (he independent varia"le control <BR 1)4#9? is significant and the negative sign implies a negative relationship

44

2hich supports 7#) 3eople that cannot control their impulsivity and emotions 2ill have a higher tendency to involve in impulsive "uying "ehavior in contrast to people that can self1 regulate their impulsivity and engage less often into such "ehavior) Spontaneous people 2ho 2ill "e tempted to "uy the shampoo or perfume even though they do not need this purchase in terms of necessity0 are those that have lo2 levels of self1control) 8aced 2ith the promotion of the items on cash counter0 they 2ill make an impulse purchase 2ithout "eing a"le to resist the temptation like people 2ith high levels of self1control 2ould do)

%.2.2 )oderation effects After discussing the direct effect0 a further notice 2ill "e given to the moderating effect of the presence of others and self1control) (hey are "oth e/pected to influence impulsive purchases in a positive 2ay and to intensify the influence of emotions on impulsive "uying "ehavior) Variables Constant Control-"motions Presence-"motions Presence-Control ,espondent1s se2 Average emotions Control , s.uare
Table 3 ,egression results /20

Unstandardized coefficients Significance #)#%6 )4$6 1)4*6 &)#44 1)A+6 )4$6 1)4$& )&%9

)*** )**$ )*$& )*4* )**& )**$ )*$A

$ependent variable' Impulsive buying intention

,n this part of the regression analysis the moderation effects are e/plored) (he dependent varia"le is again the scenario 2ith shampoo and perfume and as independent varia"les are included the interaction "et2een self1control and emotions0 the interaction "et2een the presence of others and emotions0 the interaction "et2een presence of others and control and respondents se/) (he results are all significant at a 9- level) (he model sho2s that &%)9 - of the variation in the scenario could "e e/plained "y the included varia"les and respondents se/) Ee take into account the coefficient of the interaction "et2een the presence of others and emotional state <BR 1)4*6?) (he direct effects remained significant and 2ith the same sign) 7$ 2as supported in terms of the direct effect of the presence of others) ,t is implied that

49

shopping 2ith friends enforces our positive emotions at a greater rate and this leads to impulsive shopping) (he moderating effect of presence of others indicates that 2hen you are 2ith friends and you are happy0 this further increases the pro"a"ility that you 2ill purchase something on impulse rather than if you are happy "ut alone) (his supports 74 that states that the effect of emotional state on impulsive "uying is stronger 2ith the presence of others) Reasons for this may "e that friends enforce emotional intensity and also due to the tendency to catch and feel emotions that are similar to and influenced "y those of others) 79 theorized that the effect of emotional state on impulsive "uying is stronger 2ith the presence of self1control) ,t 2as previously supported that high self1control implies lo2er tendency to involve in impulsive "uying) (he interaction "et2een self1control and emotions <BR)4$6? has a positive influence on impulsive "uying) (his implies that the presence of self1 control increases the effect of emotional state on impulsive "uying) ,t may "e that controlling your emotions may mean maintaining your current positive emotional state 2hich may lead to "uying impulsively the shampoo or perfume on discount) 8urthermore0 the results sho2 a strong positive effect of the interaction "et2een presence of others and self1control <BR&)#44? and impulsive purchasing of shampoo and perfume) As complimentary results to 7$0 the idea is that 2hen one is alone at the time of purchase0 one can "etter control hisLher emotions and actions) (he rate of self1control is greater 2hen you are faced 2ith a promotion of your favourite perfume or shampoo on impulsive "uying tendency than 2hen you are 2ith your friends and more vulnera"le to influence)

%.2.3 Additional results Some additional results 2ill "e presented that highlight the effect of the demographic factors on impulsive purchases) Se/0 age and income Cuestions 2ere part of the Cuestionnaire and although not part of the hypotheses0 their inclusion in the analysis revealed some interesting results that can serve as "asis for future research) Age and income appeared to "e insignificant

46

from the "eginning and 2ere not included further in the analysis) (he effect of se/ might have "een stronger 2hich may .ustify the only significant result of the demographic factors) Se/ and impulsive "uying "ehavior have "een a matter of research and have important marketing implication like 2hat marketing strategies to apply in order to target men and 2omen) (he results from the regression sho2 that men are less likely to "uy shampoo and perfume on impulse than 2omen) (he coefficient in (a"le # and 4 slightly differ "ut they are "oth negative and imply the same relationship that 2omen are acting more impulsively and "ase their decisions on their emotions) Eomen are generally more suscepti"le to emotions and mood in general 2hich may "e one e/planation for the results) 8urthermore0 the nature of the items <shampoo and perfume? included in the analysis may lead to these results) Men may "uy other type of items on impulse like 5's or car accessories) As previously stated0 emotions <BR)4$$? have a positive effect on impulsive purchases) ) (he model sho2s that &+)6- of the variation in scenarios is "eing e/plained "y the emotional state and respondents se/)

Variables Constant Presence-"motions Average-"motions ,espondent se2 ,espondent age Presence of others , s.uare
Table % ,egression results /30

Unstandardized coefficients Significance #)666 1)4** )4$$ 1)AA& 1)*&* &)#*9 )&+6

)*** )*$A )**$ )**$ )9%$ )*99

$ependent variable' *cenarioAverage

(he results sho2ed that the demographic varia"le respondents age included in this research do not have a statistically significant influence on the impulsivity "uying) 7o2ever0 this does not necessarily mean that the respondents age is in general totally irrelevant) (hese results simply sho2 that the current research could not find undenia"le statistical evidence in order to claim that the demographic varia"le have a significant influence on impulsive purchases) 3revious research done "y =acen > :ee <$**$? and Eood <&%%+? point out the relationship "et2een impulsive purchases and age) ,t is e/pected that shoppers under the age of #9 are 4A

more prone to impulsive "uying than compared to those over #9) (his is consistent 2ith the logic that older consumers demonstrate greater control of their emotions and actions) 7o2ever0 only assumptions could "e made since the results of the regression analysis in this research are insignificant) A possi"le e/planation could "e that the effect of se/ is stronger or that the sample of respondents consists mainly of students and there is no diversity of respondents age) ,n summary0 the results of the current research validate the previously proposed hypotheses) 8irst0 it can "e concluded that the emotional state of a customer have a positive effect on hisLher impulsive purchases) Ehen the customer is happy or e/cited0 hisLher emotions influence impulsive "uying "ehavior) Jnly the reasons "ehind are differentI either to maintain the current positive emotional state or to improve it) (he presence of others at the time of purchase <BR )#4&? also has a positive effect on impulsive purchases and as e/pected the lack of self1control <BR 14#9? has a negative effect) More interesting 2ere the results of the moderating effects presence of others and control) (hey also partly e/plain the reason "ehind the direct effects) Shopping 2ith friends enforces our positive emotions at a greater rate and this leads to impulsive shopping) 8urthermore0 2hen you shop alone0 it appears that one is "etter a"le to control hisLher emotions and "ehavior and the pro"a"ility of engaging in impulsive purchases of shampoo or perfume in this case decreases) ,t 2as also sho2n that gender in fact is a varia"le that has to "e considered 2hen analyzing impulsive "uying "ehavior) (he additional results that 2omen are more prone to "uying impulsively shampoo or perfume give "asis for future research) (his could "e a general tendency or also a su".ect to change according to the type of personality and product category)

Hypotheses Results &1: Emotions have a positive influence on impulsive "uying "ehavior) Supported &2' (he presence of others at the time of purchase has a positive effect on Supported impulsive "uying "ehavior) &3: 3eople 2ith high self1control 2ill less likely involve in impulsive "uying Supported "ehavior than those 2ith lo2 self1control) &%: (he effect of emotional state on impulse "uying is stronger 2ith the Supported presence of others) &(: (he effect of emotional state on impulsive "uying "ehavior is stronger Supported 2ith the presence of self1control)

4+

Table ( 3verview of results

(. Conclusions
(.1 4eneral conclusions
,mpulsive "uying disrupts the normal decision1making process among consumers) 8or a long time0 impulsive "uying has "een associated 2ith immaturity0 lo2er intelligence and social deviance) 7o2ever0 the approach to this type of purchase is changing) Emotions "eing the main driver of impulsive "uying "ehavior have "een the su".ect of this research 2hich 2as a motivation to com"ine their effect 2ith the one of presence of others at the time of purchase) ery little research has e/amined ho2 individuals can in fact use emotion regulation to prevent themselves from engaging in impulsive "ehaviors 2hich 2as a motivation to e/plore 4%

ho2 self1control influences impulsive purchases) (he results of the study confirmed the e/pectations stated in the hypotheses 2ith the main contri"ution of the positive effect of emotions on impulsive purchases) (he respondents that 2ere in a positive emotional state 2ere more likely to engage in approach "ehavior than avoid a "ehavior) ,n the scenario0 such "ehavior is the purchase of shampoo or perfume) 3ositive moods cause people to re2ard themselves generously0 to feel as if they have more freedom to act0 and produce "ehaviors that aim at maintaining a positive mood state) ,t can "e assumed that the respondents as happy consumers seek ne2 consumption e/periences as long as they provide pleasure (his is also the reason for high levels of consumption creativity and also higher tendency to engage in impulsive "uying "ehavior) (he respondents that possess lo2 levels of self1control 2ere not a"le to resist the temptation and reported that they 2ould "uy shampoo or perfume on impulse) 8urthermore0 the presence of a friend on the time of purchase has a positive effect on impulsive "uying) (his sho2s that consumers are influenced "y the opinion or "ehavior of a companion 2hen shopping) Self1control and presence of others as moderating the relationship "et2een emotions and impulsive "uying "ehavior sho2ed interesting results) (he effect of emotional arousal is higher 2hen one shops 2ith a companion and the level of self1control is lo2) Ehen one is alone0 the self1regulatory mechanisms are stronger than 2hen you are 2ith friends or family mem"ers) (he reasons should "e a su".ect of further investigation as 2ell as the demographic factors that might "e of great importance such as gender0 age0 or income) Being a2are of the different factors and their intensity 2ould help retailers and marketers to develop "etter strategies and increase their sales) ,mpulse "uying is a pervasive and distinctive aspect of the consumers lifestyle and is also a focal point for considera"le marketing management activity also due to the ,nternet era and fast1moving consumer goods that are part of our life no2adays)

(.2 )anagerial implications


Marketers need to understand such consumer "ehavior in order to formulate appropriate marketing strategy0 allocate marketing "udget "elo21the1line and design effective marketing tactics) (his may seem an o"vious implication "ut is in fact sometimes underestimated since research found out that price1related promotions might not al2ays "e the ans2er to high

9*

impulse categories) Shoppers might "e tempted "y a discount or a merchandise display "ut there are also a larger num"er of inputs in the decision1making process) Both retailers and direct marketers need to kno2 ho2 "est to attract a significant share of impulse purchases) Retailers have the opportunity to encourage shoppers to spend on urge and make unplanned purchases "y constantly 2orking on creating positive shopping environments) Appropriate displays and interesting events0 friendly staff0 appropriate aromas and lighting 2ill encourage customers to spend more time at the store0 positively influence hisLher emotional state and most likely result in impulsive purchases) Jne of the social roles of advertising is educating people ho2 to feel a"out products and services and this can "e seen from current trend to2ards Bemotionalizing many product categories) 7o2ever0 an emotional positioning strategy must "e applied 2ith caution and "e culturally appropriate 2hen marketing across "orders takes place) Moreover0 emotion1driven choice is an instantaneous process and marketers have to ensure that there are no o"stacles to immediate purchase) (his may include easy access to certain impulsive item categories0 creating stimulating atmospherics and customer support either during or post1purchase <Elliot0 &%%+?) Retailers should pay attention to consumers emotional state and their in1store hedonic e/perience since this can trigger impulsive purchases) 8urthermore0 impulse purchases may "e encouraged "y retailer through store design0 "etter product displays0 package design and sales) Some products are impulsively purchased 2ith more freCuency than others and 2ere purchased differently "y men and 2omen) Retailers should pay attention to the careful merchandising of these items that 2ill increase the freCuency of impulse purchases) Moreover0 identifying and profiling the market regularly 2ill ensure the customer that is attracted is the one that is targeted and hisLher impulsive desire is sparked) Marketers and retailers should consider family1 and peer1"ased groups 2hen developing promotions and advertising strategies) 3romotional group1"ased coupons and price discounts targeted at customers shopping 2ith their family could lead to impulsive purchases and enhance store sales)

(.3 5imitations and future research

9&

Jne of the main limitations of this study 2as that the data 2as collected thorough a Cuestionnaire that 2as sent to individual e1mails and social net2orking 2e"sites) (he sample is relatively small) A larger sample size 2ould help to dra2 definitive conclusions) Although the Cuestionnaire captured the current emotional state of the respondents0 there could still "e room for "ias since the respondents had to choose "et2een possi"le emotional options that may not "e their actual emotional condition at the time) 8urthermore0 there is this possi"ility that some people come to the mall Gto shop)H ,s this a need recognized "efore entering the store or is this an impulseD ,f a purchase 2as triggered "y a "ill"oard display outside the store or a discount as 2as the case in the scenarios in the Cuestionnaire0 is this still an impulse "uyD Another limitation is the fact that the participants only imagined the scenarios and did not actually e/perience the situation) (his might have led to slightly different results) (his might "e a matter for consideration of applying an e/perimental study 2here the respondents actions 2ill "e spontaneous) A study done in a real shopping environment may capture peoples emotions and "ehavior on the spur of the moment and present "etter results) 8uture research may e/plore other factors that influence impulsive "uying and are connected 2ith the emotional state of the customers) 8actors like mood and culture are closely connected to impulsive "uying tendency and also differ among customers) Both positive and negative moods trigger impulsive purchases and are usually a result of emotions) Although previous research have e/plored the influence of mood and culture on impulsive purchase0 rene2ed attention could "e dra2n to2ards their effect on emotions and 2hich one e/erts the strongest influence 2ithin different cultural conte/t) 8urthermore0 different levels of impulsiveness trait among consumers could "e investigated not only at the marketplace "ut also online) ,s the online environment a"le to influence our emotions and trigger our impulsivity the same 2ay as the mall 2here you can see0 smell or hear thingsD Ehat a"out if you "ro2se online together 2ith your friendsD Are you su".ected to more influence sitting in front of the 35 or in real retail environmentD Moreover0 further attention could "e dra2n to2ards the reverse side of the relationship "et2een emotions and impulsive "uying) (he case 2hen impulse "uyers use the purchase of a product a mean of group identification0 re2arding oneself or comforting oneself might reveal other perspectives of the phenomenon) (hen0 impulse purchases are not a result of emotions "ut emotions are a result of impulsive "uying) 8uture research may deal 2ith gender differences that may seem apparent at first glance "ut actually might reflect more fundamental underlying processes) ,s it gender differences or simply personality and emotional differences among men and 2omen of different age and "ackground that e/plain 9$

the higher impulse "uying tendency among 2omen than menD ,s this tendency universal or also influenced "y cultural and economic factorsD Moreover0 the change of emotional state prior0 during and after an impulse purchase 2ill "e of interest for future research) ,f you are depressed and you "uy a product on impulse0 2ill you improve your emotional state or "ecome even more depressedD Are there differences in this case among men and 2omenD

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Appendi2
6uestionnaire
Version 1 'ear participant0 My name is ictoria !enova and , am a graduate student at the Erasmus University

Rotterdam in (he Ketherlands) , am currently 2riting my Masters thesis and this Cuestionnaire is aimed at o"taining valua"le information on the su".ect) , kindly ask you to ans2er all Cuestions honestly0 imagine yourself into the situations and ans2er intuitively 2ithout spending too much time thinking on a Bcorrect ans2er) 9+

(hank you very much in advance for your participation) Part 1' &ow do you feel now7 (he follo2ing items descri"e various emotional states you might encounter) Ee 2ould like you to choose from & to A <2here & means GKot at AllH and A means GE/tremelyH? the e/tent to 2hich you e/perience the follo2ing emotional states RIGH !"#) & Kot at all ,nterested Satisfied Enthusiastic 7appy E/cited Stimulated Part 2 Control 3lease indicate ho2 likely is it that you identify yourself 2ith the follo2ing statements: &) , often act on the spur of the moment) $) , feel a"le to control my o2n "ehavior) #) , often do 2hatever "rings me pleasure here and no20 even at the cost of some distant goal) 4) , devote much thought and effort to preparing for the future) 9) ,Om more concerned 2ith 2hat happens to me in the short run than in the long run) $ # 4 Moderately ,rrita"le Unsatisfied Annoyed 'epressed 5alm Rela/ed 9 6 A ery much

&

A (otally agree

(otally 'isagree

Part 3'

9%

3lease read the follo2ing scenario and put yourself into the situation descri"ed) After reading the scenario you 2ill "e asked to ans2er some Cuestions regarding ho2 2ould you react in a situation like this) 8ou are returning bac home alone and on your 2ay "ack home you pass "y the hypermarket) After "uying everything from your shopping list you move to the cashier to pay) Ehen 2aiting in the line "efore the cashier0 you see a $Special offer only today % &'( off) sign for one of the follo2ing products: &) A "ag of Mars candy0 $) (he shampoo you are usually "uying0 #) (he perfume you are using0 4) A compilation 5' of your favorite music genre 9) (he latest issue of your favorite magazine) 3lease let us kno2 ho2 likely is it that you 2ould "uy each of the follo2ing items: & $ # 4 Moderately 9 6 A ery :ikely Kot :ikely at All

7o2 much do you like Mars 5andyD & Kot at All Much 7o2 often do you "uy: 5'sD MagazinesD & Kever Part % 9In : 3ut; of the shopping list 3lease indicate the e/tent you agree or disagree 2ith the follo2ing statements: &) Ehen , go shopping0 , "uy things that , had not intended to purchase $ # 4 9 6 A ery Jften $ # 4 9 6 A ery

6*

$) , am a person 2ho makes unplanned purchases #) Ehen , see something that really interests me0 , "uy it 2ithout considering the conseCuences 4) ,t is fun to "uy spontaneously 9) , avoid "uying things that are not on my shopping list Kote: ,tem 9 reCuires reverse scoring & $ # 4 9 6 A (otally agree MaleL8emale (otally disagree Ehat is your genderD 7o2 old are youD Ehat is your monthly incomeD A) B) 5) Under S 9** S 9*&1 &*** S &**&1 &9** ') S &9*&1 $*** 8) Jver S $***

Version * 'ear participant0 My name is ictoria !enova and , am a graduate student at the Erasmus University Rotterdam in (he Ketherlands) , am currently 2riting my Masters thesis and this Cuestionnaire is aimed at o"taining valua"le information on the su".ect) , kindly ask you to ans2er all Cuestions honestly0 imagine yourself into the situations and ans2er intuitively 2ithout spending too much time thinking on a Bcorrect ans2er) (hank you very much in advance for your participation) Part 1'

6&

&ow do you feel now7 (he follo2ing items descri"e various emotional states you might encounter) Ee 2ould like you to choose from & to A <2here & means GKot at AllH and A means GE/tremelyH? the e/tent to 2hich you e/perience the follo2ing emotional states RIGH !"#) & Kot at all much ,nterested Satisfied Enthusiastic 7appy E/cited Stimulated Part 2 Control 3lease indicate ho2 likely is it that you identify yourself 2ith the follo2ing statements: &) , often act on the spur of the moment) $) , feel a"le to control my o2n "ehavior) #) , often do 2hatever "rings me pleasure here and no20 even at the cost of some distant goal) 4) , devote much thought and effort to preparing for the future) 9) ,Om more concerned 2ith 2hat happens to me in the short run than in the long run) ,rrita"le Unsatisfied Annoyed 'epressed 5alm Rela/ed $ # 4 Moderately 9 6 A ery

&

A (otally agree

(otally 'isagree Part 3'

3lease read the follo2ing scenario and put yourself into the situation descri"ed) After reading the scenario you 2ill "e asked to ans2er some Cuestions regarding ho2 2ould you react in a situation like this)

6$

8ou and your best friends are on your 2ay "ack home and pass "y the hypermarket) After "uying everything from your shopping list you move to the cashier to pay) Ehen 2aiting in the line "efore the cashier0 you see a $Special offer only today % &'( off) sign for one of the follo2ing products: &) A "ag of Mars candy0 $) (he shampoo you are usually "uying0 #) Pour perfume0 4) A compilation 5' 2ith all the latest hits 9) (he latest issue of your favorite magazine) 3lease let us kno2 ho2 likely is it that you 2ould "uy each of the follo2ing items: & $ # 4 Moderately 9 6 ery :ikely A Kot :ikely at All 7o2 much do you like Mars 5andyD & Kot at All Much 7o2 often do you "uy: 5'sD MagazinesD & Kever Part % 9In : 3ut; of the shopping list 3lease indicate the e/tent you agree or disagree 2ith the follo2ing statements: &) &Ehen , go shopping0 , "uy things that , had not intended to purchase $) , am a person 2ho makes unplanned purchases #) Ehen , see something that really interests me0 , "uy it 2ithout considering the conseCuences $ # 4 9 6 A ery Jften $ # 4 9 6 ery A

6#

4) ,t is fun to "uy spontaneously 9) , avoid "uying things that are not on my shopping list Kote: ,tem 9 reCuires reverse scoring & $ # 4 9 6 A (otally agree MaleL8emale (otally disagree Ehat is your genderD 7o2 old are youD Ehat is your monthly incomeD ') E) 8) Under S 9** S 9*&1 &*** S &**&1 &9** ') S &9*&1 $*** 8) Jver S $***

*P** Tables #actor analysis


KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett s !est of Sp"ericity Appro#. $"i-Square df

.906 %&0.0'( &6

64

Sig.

.000 Total Variance Explained )nitial *igen+alues *#traction Sums of Squared ,oadings !otal 0.(99 - of .ariance 61.1&( $umulati+e 61.1&(

$omponent / ' & 1 0 6 ( % 9

!otal 0.(99 /./6( .0&& .10/ .&60 .'69 ./%0 ./('

- of .ariance 61.1&( /'.96' 0.9'0 1.106 1.00% '.99& '.00' /.9//

$umulati+e 61.1&( ((.&99 %&.&'1 %(.((9 9/.%&( 91.%&/ 96.%&' 9%.(1& /00.000

.//& /.'0( *#traction Met"od2 3rincipal $omponent Analysis. Component Matrix(a) $omponen t / *motion )nterested 45ot at all6075ot t"at muc"6/7 5ot slig"tly6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly617 Muc"607 .ery muc"66 8 *motion Satisfied 45ot at all6075ot t"at muc"6/7 5ot slig"tly6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly617 Muc"607 .ery muc"66 8 *motion *nt"usiastic 45ot at all6075ot t"at muc"6/7 5ot slig"tly6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly617 Muc"607 .ery muc"66 8 *motion 9appy 45ot at all6075ot t"at muc"6/7 5ot slig"tly6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly617 Muc"607 .ery muc"66 8 *motion *#cited 45ot at all6075ot t"at muc"6/7 5ot slig"tly6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly617 Muc"607 .ery muc"66 8 *motion )rrita:le 45ot at all6075ot t"at muc"6/7 5ot slig"tly6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly617 Muc"607 .ery muc"66 8 *motion ;nsatisfied 45ot at all6075ot t"at muc"6/7 5ot slig"tly6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly617 Muc"607 .ery muc"66 8

.(0(

.%%6

.(99

.9&1

.69(

.690

.%6'

69

*motion Annoyed 45ot at all6075ot t"at muc"6/7 5ot slig"tly6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly617 Muc"607 .ery muc"66 8 *motion <epression 45ot at all6075ot t"at muc"6/7 5ot slig"tly6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly617 Muc"607 .ery muc"668

.%/'

.(90

8actor analysis for scenarios


KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett s !est of Sp"ericity Appro#. $"i-Square df Sig.

.000 /&.1&0 / .000 Total Variance Explained

)nitial *igen+alues !otal - of .ariance $umulati+e /.&&( 66.%1& 66.%1& .66& &&./0( /00.000 *#traction Met"od2 3rincipal $omponent Analysis. Component Matrix(a) $omponen t / Scenario Buy S"ampoo 45ot likely at all607 ;nlikely6/7 Moderately unlikely6'7 5eutral6&7 Moderately likely617 ,ikely607 .ery likely668 Scenario Buy 3erfume 45ot likely at all607 ;nlikely6/7 Moderately unlikely6'7 5eutral6&7 Moderately likely61 ,ikely607 .ery likely668 $omponent / '

*#traction Sums of Squared ,oadings !otal /.&&( - of .ariance 66.%1& $umulati+e 66.%1&

.%/%

.%/%

*#traction Met"od2 3rincipal $omponent Analysis. a / components e#tracted. Reliability Statistics $ron:ac" s Alp"a .00/

5 of )tems '

66

8actor analysis control


KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett s !est of Sp"ericity Appro#. $"i-Square df Sig.

.66' (/.0%' /0 .000 Total Variance Explained

)nitial *igen+alues $omponent / ' & 1 0 !otal '.060 /.006 .(%& .660 - of .ariance 1/./9% '0./'% /0.66( /&./99 $umulati+e 1/./9% 6/.&'6 (6.991 90./9' /00.000

*#traction Sums of Squared ,oadings !otal '.060 - of .ariance 1/./9% $umulati+e 1/./9%

.190 9.%0% *#traction Met"od2 3rincipal $omponent Analysis. Component Matrix(a) $omponen t / $ontrol Act on spur of moment 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668=re+erse question $ontrol My o>n :e"a+ior 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668 $ontrol <o >"at :rings pleasure no> 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668= re+erse question $ontrol <e+ote effort and time for t"e future 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6' 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668

.601

.60%

.690

.0%(

6A

$ontrol $oncerned >"at "appens to me in t"e s"ort run 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668= re+erse question

.660

*#traction Met"od2 3rincipal $omponent Analysis. a / components e#tracted. Reliability Statistics $ron:ac" s Alp"a .610

5 of )tems 0

,mpulse
KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett s !est of Sp"ericity Appro#. $"i-Square df Sig. .(&1 /%&.0%9 /0 .000 Total Variance Explained )nitial *igen+alues $omponent / ' & 1 0 !otal '.(9' .%/0 .66' .16' - of .ariance 00.%&' /6.'00 /&.'&1 9.'1& $umulati+e 00.%&' ('.0&' %0.'66 91.00% /00.000 *#traction Sums of Squared ,oadings !otal '.(9' - of .ariance 00.%&' $umulati+e 00.%&'

.'(0 0.19' *#traction Met"od2 3rincipal $omponent Analysis. Component Matrix(a) $omponen t / )mpulse Buy t"ings not intended to purc"ase 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668

.(&1

6+

)mpulse Make unplanned purc"ases 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668 )mpulse Buy >it"out considering consequences 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668 )mpulse ?un to :uy spontaneously 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668 )mpulse A+oid :uying t"ings not on my s"opping list 4!otally disagree607 <isagree6/7 Slig"tly disagree6'7 5eutral6&7 Slig"tly agree617 Agree607 !otally agree668

.%16

.699

.6%/

.(60

$ron:ac" s Alp"a .%0/

5 of )tems 0

*#traction Met"od2 3rincipal $omponent Analysis. a / components e#tracted. Reliability Statistics

,egression Analyses
Model Summary

@ A+erage ,inkage 4Bet>een Broups8 6 ' AdAusted @ Std. *rror of Model 4Selected8 @ Square Square t"e *stimate / .1'04a8 ./(( ./19 .9001/ a 3redictors2 4$onstant87 A+erageCemotions7 3resence of ot"ers 4alone6/7 friends6087 $ontrol Coe icients(a!b) Model ;nstandardiDed $oefficients StandardiDed $oefficients t Sig.

6%

4$onstant8 $ontrol 3resence of ot"ers 4alone6/7 friends608 A+erageCemotions

B &.900 -.1&0 .&1/

Std. *rror .'%0 ./9( ./9(

Beta -.'// ./66 .&1( 6 ' /&.960 -'.'0/ /.(&& &.616 .000 .0&0 .0%( .000

.'1& .06( a <ependent .aria:le2 A+erageCscenario : Selecting only cases for >"ic" A+erage ,inkage 4Bet>een Broups8

Model Summary

@ A+erage ,inkage 4Bet>een Broups8 6 ' AdAusted @ Std. *rror of Model 4Selected8 @ Square Square t"e *stimate / .6064a8 .&6( .&// .(9//( a 3redictors2 4$onstant87 @espondent se# 4male6/7 female6087 $ontrolC*mo7 3resenceC$ontrol7 3resenceC*mo Coe icients(a!b) ;nstandardiDed $oefficients Model / 4$onstant8 $ontrolC*mo 3resenceC*mo 3resenceC$ontrol @espondent se# 4male6/7 female608 B &.&96 .1'6 -.106 /.&11 -.(%6 Std. *rror .0/% ./'% ./(0 .6&( .''6 StandardiDed $oefficients Beta .60& -.%1% .(/0 -.11( 6 ' t 6.006 &.&&0 -'.&%( './/0 -&.1%0 Sig. .000 .00' .0'/ .010 .00/

a <ependent .aria:le2 A+erageCscenario : Selecting only cases for >"ic" A+erage ,inkage 4Bet>een Broups8 Model Summary

@ A+erage ,inkage 4Bet>een Broups8 6 ' AdAusted @ Std. *rror of Model 4Selected8 @ Square Square t"e *stimate / .6064a8 .&6( .&// .(9//( a 3redictors2 4$onstant87 @espondent se# 4male6/7 female6087 A+erageCemotions7 3resenceC$ontrol7 3resenceC*mo Coe icients(a!b)

A*

;nstandardiDed $oefficients Model / 4$onstant8 3resenceC*mo A+erageCemotions 3resenceC$ontrol @espondent se# 4male6/7 female608 B &.&96 -.106 .1'6 /.&11 -.(%6 Std. *rror .0/% ./(0 ./'% .6&( .''6

StandardiDed $oefficients Beta -.%1% .60& .(/0 -.11( 6 ' t 6.006 -'.&%( &.&&0 './/0 -&.1%0 Sig. .000 .0'/ .00' .010 .00/

a <ependent .aria:le2 A+erageCscenario : Selecting only cases for >"ic" A+erage ,inkage 4Bet>een Broups8 Model Summary

AdAusted @ Std. *rror of @ @ Square Square t"e *stimate .11/4a8 ./90 ./&( /.'1(0/ a 3redictors2 4$onstant87 3resence of ot"ers 4alone6/7 friends6087 A+erageCemotions7 @espondent se# 4male6/7 female6087 3resenceC*mo Model / Coe icients(a) ;nstandardiDed $oefficients Model / 4$onstant8 3resenceC*mo A+erageCemotions @espondent se# 4male6/7 female608 3resence of ot"ers 4alone6/7 friends608 B &.&96 -.00% .&// -.(%6 Std. *rror .(90 .'00 ./96 .&'0 StandardiDed $oefficients Beta -.%6/ .'9( -.&%9 t 1.11/ -'./%6 /.0%6 -&.019 Sig. .000 .0&& .//% .00/

/.(11

.9%%

.60/

/.(66

.0%&

a <ependent .aria:le2 A+erageCscenario

A&