119 views

Uploaded by mbolantenaina

- Lecture 11
- Lecture6.handout.pdf
- Course Outline: ECOR 2606-
- LectureNotes_Part02
- Week 6-8
- je300655b.pdf
- Lecture Notes 01-Introduction and Error Analysis(Print Version)
- Application of Numerical Method Eng'Ng
- 1141 Alg Ch1 Doust
- RR-10202- ITNM APR 2003
- s41p01
- Decoupled Newton Load Flow
- Tijsseling-Bergant_2007
- 5. double planetary mixer.pdf
- numerical
- Notes
- r404a Ingles Si
- AceFEMManual
- Numerical Integration(1)vb
- IEM Journal - June 2009

You are on page 1of 7

2006/2007

Chapter 1

Pure Component Properties Using EOS

1.1 Compressibility Factors Using PR-EOS

The gas cylinders distributed by Jordan Petroleum Re nery Company (JPRC) contain

a mixture of propane and n-butane. Assume they contain only n-butane. The volume

of the cylinder is about 30 liters and the net mass of its contents is 15 kg. In winter,

the temperature of the cylinder can be assumed to be 15 C, and the pressure inside the

cylinder is 12 bars.

1. Use the Peng-Robinson equation of state to determine what are the phase(s) inside the

cylinder.

2. Repeat the same calculations as in the rst part if the pressure is reduced to 7 bars.

What are the mass fraction of the liquid and that of the vapor?

The following general solution procedure for the use of EOS in compressibility

calculations is recommended to be followed:

1. Obtain the properties of the component of interest from any reference you deem

useful. I am using the properties package coming with Sandler's book.

Component M W (g/mol) Tc (K) Pc (MPa) ! (-)

.

n-butane

58.124

425.2

3.80 0.199

2. Determine the covolume (b) and energy (a) parameters from the proper EOS. This

time the PR-EOS is used,

RTC

b = 0:07780

;

(1)

PC

= 0:37464 + 1:5422! 0:26992! 2

(2)

(

"

#)2

1=2

T

(T ) =

1+

1

;

(3)

TC

a(T )

0:45724

R2 TC2

(T ):

PC

(4)

3. Determine the reduced covolume (B) and energy (A) parameters. Once the covolume

and the energy parameters are determined, we can make a better utilization of their

values by using their reduced equivalents i.e.,

bP

B =

;

(5)

RT

aP

A =

(6)

(RT )2

Section 1.1

4. Find the coef cients in the compressibility cubic according to the proper EOS. For the

PR-EOS the coef cients of this cubic are given as

0 = Z 3 + a2 Z 2 + a1 Z + a0

(7)

a2 = B 1;

(8)

2

a1 = A 3B

2B;

(9)

2

3

a0 =

AB + B + B ;

(10)

5. Solve for the roots of the compressibility cubic. Two approaches exists: numerical

and analytical solutions. The solution for these conditions yields only one real root

Z =0.0472. This is equivalent to one single phase which is a subcooled liquid

phase since the total pressure is higher than the vapor pressure of n-butane at this

temperature.

Solve for the roots of the PR-EOS using Matlab's roots function. The roots function

is based on solving for the eigenvalues of the companion matrix. One can use the Matlab

built in fzero and solve twice near B and 1. If the two solutions converge to the same

root then a single phase exists, otherwise two phase coexist. In an exam setting one would

use an easy numerical method such as the Newton-Raphson method which is outlined

below.

The Newton-Raphson (NR) nds a re ned estimate of an initial guess to the root using

the simple formula

f (Zi )

Zi+1 = Zi

:

(11)

f 0 (Zi )

The compressibility cubic is easily differentiated to yield

Zi3 + a2 Zi2 + a1 Zi + a0

(12)

Zi+1 = Zi

3Zi2 + 2a2 Zi + a1

1.1.1.1

The butane problem at 288.15 K and 12 bar is solved for the compressibility using the

following sequence of steps

Chapter 1

(8:314)(425:2)

= 7:2446 10 5 ;

3:80 106

= 0:37464 + 1:5422(0:199) 0:26992(0:199)2 = 0:6708;

(

"

#)2

1=2

288:15

(T ) =

1 + 0:6708 1

= 1:2513;

425:2

b

a(T )

A =

a2 =

a1 =

a0 =

0 =

0:07780

(8:314)2 (425:2)2

(1:2513) = 1:8837:

3:80 106

(7:2446 10 5 )(12 105 )

= 0:0363;

(8:314)(288:15)

(1:8837)(12 105 )

= 0:3938;

(8:314)2 (288:15)2

0:0363 1 = 0:9637;

0:3938 3(0:0363)2 2(0:0363) = 0:3173;

0:3938(0:0363) + (0:0363)2 + (0:0363)3 =

3

Z

0:9637Z 2 + 0:3173Z 0:0129:

0:45724

0:0129;

Solution with initial guess Z = B To determine the liquid like root, on starts with an

initial guess Z0 = B and carries out the iterations using NR method.

(0:0363)3 0:9637(0:0363)2 + 0:3173(0:0363) 0:0129

Z1 = 0:0363

= 0:04677

3(0:0363)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:0363) + 0:3173

(0:04677)3 0:9637(0:04677)2 + 0:3173(0:04677) 0:0129

Z2 = 0:04677

= 0:04716

3(0:04677)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:04677) + 0:3173

(0:04716)3 0:9637(0:04716)2 + 0:3173(0:04716) 0:0129

Z3 = 0:04716

= 0:04716

3(0:04716)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:04716) + 0:3173

Iterations are repeated until a convergence criteria is reached. Convergence criteria

may be the absolute or relative tolerance in the compressibility and/or function value.

Solution with initial guess Z = 1 To determine the liquid like root, on starts with an

initial guess Z = B and carries out the iterations using NR method.

(1)3 0:9637(1)2 + 0:3173(1) 0:0129

= 0:7549

3(1)2 + 2( 0:9637)(1) + 0:3173

(0:7549)3 0:9637(0:7549)2 + 0:3173(0:7549) 0:0129

Z2 = 0:7549

= 0:5668

3(0:7549)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:7549) + 0:3173

Iterations are carried out until the convergence criteria is met. This is achieved after 13

iterations as

(0:04716)3 0:9637(0:04716)2 + 0:3173(0:04716) 0:0129

Z13 = 0:04716

= 0:04716:

3(0:04716)2 + 2( 0:9637)(0:04716) + 0:3173

The same root is arrived at as that with the initial guess Z = B. Consequently, we

have only one phase which is a liquid phase.

Z1

Section 1.1

1.1.1.2

The butane problem at 288.15 K and 7 bar is solved for the compressibility using the

following sequence of steps

(8:314)(425:2)

= 7:2446 10 5 ;

3:80 106

= 0:37464 + 1:5422(0:199) 0:26992(0:199)2 = 0:6708;

(

"

#)2

1=2

288:15

(T ) =

1 + 0:6708 1

= 1:2513;

425:2

b

a(T )

A =

a2 =

a1 =

a0 =

0 =

0:07780

(8:314)2 (425:2)2

(1:2513) = 1:8837:

3:80 106

(7:2446 10 5 )(7 105 )

= 0:02117;

(8:314)(288:15)

(1:8837)(7 105 )

= 0:22973;

(8:314)2 (288:15)2

0:02117 1 = 0:97883;

0:22973 3(0:02117)2 2(0:02117) = 0:18605;

0:22973(0:02117) + (0:02117)2 + (0:02117)3 =

Z 3 0:97883Z 2 + 0:18605Z 0:0044052:

0:45724

0:0044052;

Solution with initial guess Z = B To determine the liquid-like root, on starts with an

initial guess Z0 = B and carries out the iterations using NR method.

(0:02117)3 0:97883(0:02117)2 + 0:18605(0:02117) 0:0044052

Z1 = 0:02117

= 0:02731

3(0:02117)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:02117) + 0:18605

(0:02731)3 0:97883(0:02731)2 + 0:18605(0:02731) 0:0044052

Z2 = 0:02731

= 0:02756

3(0:02731)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:02731) + 0:18605

(0:02756)3 0:97883(0:02756)2 + 0:18605(0:02756) 0:0044052

Z3 = 0:02756

= 0:02756:

3(0:02756)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:02756) + 0:18605

Solution with initial guess Z = 1 To determine the vapor-like root, on starts with an

initial guess Z = B and carries out the iterations using NR method.

0:97883(1)2 + 0:18605(1) 0:0044052

= 0:8349

3(1)2 + 2( 0:97883)(1) + 0:18605

(0:8349)3 0:97883(0:8349)2 + 0:18605(0:8349) 0:0044052

Z2 = 0:8349

= 0:7562

3(0:8349)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:8349) + 0:18605

Iterations are carried out until the convergence criteria is met. This is achieved after 6

iterations as

(0:7333)3 0:97883(0:7333)2 + 0:18605(0:7333) 0:0044052

Z6 = 0:7333

= 0:7333:

3(0:7333)2 + 2( 0:97883)(0:7333) + 0:18605

This is a different root and the same as the root arrived at with the initial guess Z = B.

Z1

(1)3

Chapter 1

Contrary to the numerical solution using Matlab's roots function, one can use analytical

solution to the cubic equation obtained.

1. Write your cubic in the form

Z 3 + bZ 2 + cZ + d = 0

(13)

2. Compute

p

2b3

b2

9bc + 27d

54

3c

(14)

q3

(16)

(15)

p2

4. Two cases may arise

a. The cubic has only one real root if p2

following sequence of steps

p

r =

p2

Z1

p

jpj

the following sequence of steps

=

Z1

Z2

Z3

1.1.2.1

=

=

=

arccos

q 3 + jpj

1=3

r +q

r

q3

p

p

q3

(17)

b

:

3

(18)

!

p

2 q cos( =3) b=3

p

2 q cos[( + 2 )=3]

p

2 q cos[( + 4 )=3]

(19)

b=3

b=3:

(20)

(21)

(22)

Solving for the compressibility of butane in the cylinder problem requires the cubic

equation. The coef cients for 288.15 K and 12 bars are available from the PR-EOS as

Discriminator is used loosely since this is not the same as the discriminator for a quadratic equation.

Section 1.1

2( 0:9637)3 9( 0:9637)(0:3173) + 27( 0:0129)

p =

= 0:01135

54

( 0:9637)2 3(0:3173)

q =

= 0:002571

9

2

3

2

3

p

q = 0:01135

( 0:002571) = 1:289 10 4

The discriminator in this case is positive. Therefore, we have one phase equivalent to one

real root which can be calculated as:

p

p

1=3

1=3

r =

p2 q 3 + jpj

=

1:289 10 4 + j0:01135j

= 0:2832;

0

Z1

1.1.2.2

p

jpj

r2 + q

r

b

=

3

0:01135

j0:01135j

0:28322 + ( 0:002571)

0:2832

( 0:9637)

= 0:04716:

3

The sequence of calculations are the same as the case with one single real root. However,

the discriminator is negative in this case which means we need to calculate the three roots

using equations 19-22. Solving for the compressibility of butane in the cylinder problem

requires the cubic equation. The coef cients for 288.15 K and 7 bars are available from

the PR-EOS as

= Z 3 0:97883Z 2 + 0:18605Z 0:0044052

2( 0:97883)3 9( 0:97883)(0:18605) + 27( 0:0044052)

p =

= 0:006585

54

( 0:97883)2 3(0:18605)

q =

= 0:04444

9

p2 q 3 = ( 0:006585)2 (0:04444)3 = 4: 440 3 10 5

The discriminator in this case is negative. Therefore, we have two phases equivalent to

three real roots which can

! be calculated as:

p

0:006585

= arccos p

= arccos p

= 2:3503

3

0:044443

q

p

0:97883

p

Z1 =

2 q cos( =3) b=3 = 2 0:04444 cos(2:3503=3)

= 0:027562

3

p

0:97883

p

Z2 =

2 q cos[( + 2 )=3] b=3 = 2 0:04444 cos((2:3503 + 2 )=3)

= 0:73331

3

p

0:97883

p

Z3 =

2 q cos[( + 4 )=3] b=3 = 2 0:04444 cos((2:3503 + 4 )=3)

= 0:217 95

3

The maximum root Z = 0:73331 is assigned as the vapor compressibility, while the

minimum root Z = 0:027562 is assigned as the liquid compressibility.

0

- Lecture 11Uploaded byHossamKamal
- Lecture6.handout.pdfUploaded byMuhannad AbdulRaouf
- Course Outline: ECOR 2606-Uploaded byf22archrer
- LectureNotes_Part02Uploaded byAadarshPotluru
- Week 6-8Uploaded bysiti suraya
- je300655b.pdfUploaded by方琳 徐
- Lecture Notes 01-Introduction and Error Analysis(Print Version)Uploaded byJuan Sebastian Yela V
- Application of Numerical Method Eng'NgUploaded byjamal_jmy
- 1141 Alg Ch1 DoustUploaded byshadowos
- RR-10202- ITNM APR 2003Uploaded bympssassygirl
- s41p01Uploaded bytariq76
- Decoupled Newton Load FlowUploaded bykurupirockero
- Tijsseling-Bergant_2007Uploaded byAlan Hatkic
- 5. double planetary mixer.pdfUploaded bysuganya
- numericalUploaded bykasandra01
- NotesUploaded byAlan Ordóñez
- r404a Ingles SiUploaded byKELVYN43
- AceFEMManualUploaded byozMute
- Numerical Integration(1)vbUploaded byajdnsj
- IEM Journal - June 2009Uploaded byPenjejak Awan
- 605741Uploaded byBilel Aydi
- FEMPrimer-Part1Uploaded bySenthil Ramajayam
- h47765 SuvaMP39 Thermo Prop SiUploaded byFelipe Miguel Sánchez Clements
- CS-BT-CSE-2014Uploaded byhey there
- FEA part1Uploaded byRajanarsimha Sangam
- 470-1-1562-1-10-20120701Uploaded bysomrup
- 55507Uploaded bybhandi sujata
- 0 c 9605252901023 a 93000000Uploaded byMayita Contreras
- Linear Equation SolverUploaded byRamendra Thakur
- Nsds 11 SmallUploaded bydbcooperdk

- Hemicellulose bioconversionUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Compatibilization of Starch–Polyester Blends Using Reactive ExtrusionUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Extraction and Characterization of Hemicellulose From the Corn Fiber Produced by Corn Wet-Milling ProcessesUploaded bymbolantenaina
- 1-s2.0-S2212670814000311-mainUploaded byVictor Darwin Silupu Risco
- 1556-276X-3-397.pdfUploaded byPeeyush Rathor
- Determination of the oxidation state for iron oxide minerals by energy-filtering TEMUploaded bymbolantenaina
- jp993593c.pdfUploaded bymbolantenaina
- ZVI PentachlorophenolUploaded bymbolantenaina
- A New Hybrid Nanocomposite Prepared by Graft Copolymerizat Ion Ofbutyl Acrylate Onto Chitosan in the Presence Oforganophilic MontmorilloniteUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Reinforcement of Adhesion and Development of Morphology at Polymer–Polymer Interface via Reactive Compatibilization: A ReviewUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Effect of Ultrasound on the Extractibility of Corn Bran HemicellulosesUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Mastering Small Stakes No-Limit Hold'EmUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Murad Clays and Clay Minerals What Can Mossbauer Spectroscopy Do to Help Understand ThemUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, Lignin..Uploaded byAyban Wan
- exercice de chimie des solides.pdfUploaded byAmin Salhi
- Removal of Methylene Blue From Aqueous Solutions Using Yemen BentoniteUploaded bymbolantenaina
- Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution by Magnetic Alginate Beads Crosslinked With EpichlorihydrinUploaded bymbolantenaina
- 4AA4-6108ENWUploaded bymbolantenaina
- CIA Cinetique RappelsUploaded byKhalid Zeg
- exam_1Uploaded bymbolantenaina
- exam_1Uploaded bymbolantenaina
- genie_chimique_cg_2003.pdfUploaded bymbolantenaina
- DistillationUploaded bySanaa Laslami
- adsorbtion in water treatmentUploaded byEyuelAdam
- Redlich Kwong MathematicaUploaded byEmiliano Velázquez
- p1260 thermogravimetrieUploaded bymbolantenaina
- 06Extrait Equilibres SeparationsUploaded bytotoafifi
- mecafluBTSUploaded bymbolantenaina
- CinetiqueUploaded byHandila Driss
- Chap-2 Statique Des FluidesUploaded bymbolantenaina

- ws transformation practice 2Uploaded byapi-334137347
- alg 2 unit 2 timelineUploaded byapi-261379705
- Math1081 Topic1 NotesUploaded byBenjamin Leung
- home link 6 13Uploaded byapi-259537321
- Geometry HistoryUploaded byManilyn Requejo Obal
- 1) C1 Algebra and FunctionsUploaded byAhmed Nurul
- CleanCodeHandbook_v1.0.1 (1).pdfUploaded bydasd
- Week5 HomeworkUploaded byyashar2500
- (Optical Science and Engineering) Partha P. Banerjee, John M. Jarem-Computational Methods for Electromagnetics and Optical Systems-CRC Press (2000)Uploaded bysrikumar sandeep
- 13Feb2017 SlidesUploaded byAnkush Shaw
- RAO, capitulo 14, vibracionesUploaded bykazekage2009
- Theorem of Dedekind for IdealsUploaded byEdwar Salazar
- AlgebraUploaded bynsec123
- Floating Point NumbersUploaded bySanchita Kadambari
- Fundamentals of business mathematics for cmaUploaded bySujay Kumar
- 403 Hw4Uploaded byapg5070
- Charts of the Power Function for Analysis of Variance Tests, Derived From the Non-Central F-Distribution Pearson y HartleyUploaded bygabsys
- 01 Intro DucUploaded byPotnuru Vinay
- 16 Deflection of Beams.pptUploaded byAlexLion
- Assignment 2Uploaded byGurvir Singh
- OMAE-37022Uploaded byJean David Chan
- matdis 1.1-1.2 Teknik informatikaUploaded bySatria Hafizhuddin
- Frits Staal - Artifical Languages Across Sciences and Civilizations (2006, OCR)Uploaded byAnders Fernstedt
- Richard Dawkins Interviews Satish Kumar (Enemies of Reason Uncut Interviews) - YouTubeUploaded bykarthik_77
- 2132Mid Practice AnswersUploaded byHector Naranjo
- Ejemplo Superposicion 8-WtUploaded byjohndo3
- Control System 32 Important McqUploaded byDINESH
- Cartesian components_vector.pptUploaded byYat Hash
- DualityUploaded bySafwan mansuri
- Bachelor-Project42.pdfUploaded byMarco Figueira