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MICRO
MANUFACTURING
Some good reasons
for doing it yourself
5
WE PICK THE
COOLEST
TIMEKEEPERS
WHERE FORM AND
FUNCTION MEET
PROSTHETICS
Designer
DIY

Erect a split-rail fence

Build a kitchen trolley

Easy electroplating
12
GREAT
gadgets
A NEW KIND OF
UNIVERSITY
EXCLUSIVE
WHY AMERICA NEEDS A NEW
STEALTH JET
PLUS: We pilot a B-2 Spirit
Can a heart stop and a pulse race at the same time?
www.hgundl.c0.zvel0>Ier
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U0uble LluIch Trn>ml>>l0n I MulIl FuncIl0n SIeerlng Wheel wlIh Lrul>e L0nIr0l
Fr0m
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C ON T E N T S
BE THE FI RST TO KNOW
JUNE 2013 VOLUME 11, NO. 11
F E ATURE S
26 Why America needs a new stealth jet
Plus we pilot a B-2 Spirit (Cover story)
44 Out on a limb
Designer prosthetics are changing lives
64 Micromanufacturing revolution
Entrepreneurs turn little ideas into the next Big Things
74 Revving the creativity engine
Software makes it all happen
88 A brief history of the rollercoaster
Every thrill has its ups and downs
92 Watching brief
Meet our pick of seriously cool timepieces
SCI E NCE
14 Tech watch

Disaster engineering: how bridges stay up

They came from outer space

Tools of the nuke sleuths

Signs of life on Mars?

How it works: double arm transplant
100 DIY electroplating
You can do it in your kitchen!
TE CH
94 Digital clinic Q&A

Untangling headphones

Social searching

Check yourself
PM DI GI TAL
90

Nano drone

Win Cotton Candy micro-PC
WHE E L S
40 Jay Lenos garage
A spot of luxury: the 1955 Bristol 403
48 New on the block

Into the mainstream: Mercedes-Benz A-Class

Not just skin deep: Kia Sorento

Streetwise charmer: Toyota RAV4

Fundamentally different: Lexus LS 460
106 Saturday mechanic
Springclean your car
TE STE D
42

Samsung Galaxy Note 8.0


Belkin Bluetooth music receiver


UPGRADE
60

Blended Wind Body aircraft shows promise


Algae-powered building

Tapping into the oceans power


Rethinking the wind turbine


HOME
96 Build a kitchen trolley
Useful storage, with castors for mobility
102 How to erect a split-rail fence
The good news: you can do it in a weekend
79
Singularity University embraces the future

Game reviews: Dont Starve and Monaco

YouTube weirdness: try this at home

Making music with junk, changing lives
MONTHLY
4 Contact us
6 Editors notes
8 Letters
12 Time machine
34 Great stuff
120 Do it your way
2 www.popularmechanics.co.za O JUNE 2013
44
WIN!
JUNE 2013 O www.popularmechanics.co.za 3
Subscribe now and you could
drive off in a Ford Focus worth
over R239 300 (see page 78)
8 Oregon Scientifc weather kits
worth R3 000 each (see page 53)
Cover: Viktoria Modesta Moskalova, a performing artist and self-confessed
fashionista, wears her designer prosthesis with huge condence. Picture:
Jon Enoch. This page: A B-2 Spirit bomber from the 509th Bomb Wing ies
over Kansas. Picture: US Department of Defence

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EDITOR: Alan Duggan PUBLISHER: Neil Piper
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COMPETITION WINNERS... Details online at www.popularmechanics.co.za
FROM ANCIENT EGYPTIAN
PRACTICALITY TO 21st
CENTURY STYLE
W
hile researching this months
cover story on designer pros-
thetics (Out on a limb, page 44),
we stumbled upon a fascinating study
by Ihe UhiversiIy o! MahchesIer's Dr
1acky Fihch ihIo Ihe e!!cacy o! whaI
may be the worlds oldest prosthetic
body parIs - arIi!cial Ioes daIihg back
aI leasI 2 600 years. Ohe is a Ihree-
part wood and leather toe made some
Iime beIweeh 950 Io 710 8C ahd
found on a female mummy buried
hear Luxor ih LgypI, Ihe secohd is
ah arIi!cial Ioe daIihg !rom be!ore
600 8C ahd made o! carIohhage, a
sort of papier mach mixture made
!rom liheh, glue ahd plasIer.
8ecause boIh prosIheses displayed
sighi!cahI sighs o! wear, wiIh desigh
features suggesting they may have
been more than cosmetic additions,
Dr Fihch wahIed Io khow wheIher
they could be used as practical tools
Io help Iheir owhers walk. 1o !hd
out, she recruited two volunteers,
boIh missihg Iheir righI big Ioe.
Replicas of the ancient toes were
made Io !I each voluhIeer, alohg wiIh
copies o! ahciehI LgypIiah-sIyle
leaIher sahdals. 1he IesIs were carried
out in the Gait Laboratory at Salford
UhiversiIy's CehIre !or RehabiliIaIioh
ahd Humah Per!ormahce Research.
Lach voluhIeer was asked Io walk
bare!ooI oh a 10 m walkway, !rsI
wearing their own shoes and then
the replicas, with and without the
sahdals. 1heir movemehI was Iracked
usihg 10 special cameras ahd Ihe
pressure of their footsteps was
measured usihg a special maI.
It was surprising how well both
voluhIeers were able Io walk usihg
Ihese devices. Accordihg Io Dr Fihch,
the camera footage revealed that
when wearing the sandals with the
cartonnage replica, one of the volun-
Ieers achieved 87 per cehI o! Ihe
fexion achieved by their normal left
Ioe, agaihsI a !gure o! 78 per cehI
for the three-part wood and leather
desigh. Pressure measuremehIs show-
ed no overly high pressure points,
indicating that the false toes were
not causing any undue discomfort
or possible Iissue damage.
Says Dr Fihch: "1he pressure daIa
tells us that it would have been very
di!!culI !or ah ahciehI LgypIiah
missihg a big Ioe Io walk hormally
wearihg IradiIiohal sahdals. 1hey
could, of course, have remained
barefoot or perhaps have worn some
sorI o! sock or booI over Ihe !alse
toe, but our research suggests that
wearihg Ihese !alse Ioes made walk-
ihg ih a sahdal more com!orIable."
Which brihgs us Io a remarkable
woman named Sophie de Oliveira
8araIa, direcIor o! 1he AlIerhaIive
Limb Project, a specialist consultancy
IhaI works wiIh ampuIees ahd Iheir
prosIheIisIs Io creaIe bespoke arIi!-
cial limbs. As she puIs iI, Ihe idea is
not only to delight the eye, but also
Io help Io break dowh social barriers
and encourage a positive dialogue
about the human body, and differ-
ehce. II's a greaI cohcepI, ahd as
our sIory reveals, Sophie's work has
resulIed ih a sIuhhihg array o! arIi!cial
limbs that combine art with cutting-
edge design and functionality, help-
ing and inspiring people from all
walks o! li!e.
So much for one of the more
counter-intuitive articles to appear in
POPULAR MECHANICS (surely you werent
expecIihg predicIabiliIy?). NexI up -
a thoroughly researched perspective
oh America's hexI sIealIh bomber,
IogeIher wiIh wriIer 1oe Pappalardo's
account of his time aboard the legen-
dary 8-2 SpiriI. (Okay, leI's admiI iI -
we're hugely |ealous.)
We also dish up a !easI o! DIY
pro|ecIs, ihcludihg a use!ul kiIcheh
Irolley IhaI you cah build ih a week-
end, play with all manner of desirable
gadgets, and introduce you to the
micromanufacturing revolution in
essence, an array of success stories
that may prompt you to transform
your liIIle idea ihIo Ihe hexI 8ig 1hihg.
If this article inspires you to go out
there and become rich and famous,
dont forget where you read it
aland@ramsaymedia.co.za
EDITOR'S NOTES
Page 34
34 www.popularmechanics.co.za 1UNL 2013
C O MP I L E D B Y S E A N WO O D S seanw@r amsaymedi a. co. z a
GREAT STUFF
H E R E S T H E N E WE S T G E A R Y O U L L WA N T T O O WN
1UNL 2013 www.popularmechanics.co.za 35

IN A FLASH
Okay, so 16 C8 !ash drives are hardly hew. 8uI SahDisk's
hew LxIreme US8 3.0 !ash drive is someIhihg di!!erehI:
iI !eaIures super-!asI read speeds o! up Io 190 M8/sec,
allowihg you Io Irahs!er large HD videos, pho-
Ios ahd !les ih a !racIioh o! Ihe Iime you're
used Io. You also geI 128-biI !le ehcrypIioh
ahd password proIecIioh !or your privaIe !les,
while leavihg Ihe resI o! Ihe drive accessible.
Price: abouI R310. CohIacI SyhIech oh
0861 274244 or visiI www.sandisk.com

ITS A HEAD THING


Discerhihg head-bahgers who expecI a loI !rom Iheir headphohes will ho doubI
approve o! Sohy's laIesI opIioh, Ihe X8920. ParI o! Iheir LxIra 8ass series, iI !eaIures
50 mm driver uhiIs ahd heodymium magheIs Io !aiIh!ully reproduce Ihe origihal
souhd, !rom Ihe deepesI bass Io Ihe highesI Ireble. Keepihg iI all IogeIher is a solidly
cohsIrucIed, sIylish desigh IhaI !uhcIiohs as a per!ecIly sealed acousIic ehclosure.
Pressure-relievihg ureIhahe !oam cups hoI ohly cuI ouI ambiehI hoise, buI also
make Ihe dual-!oldihg headphohes very com!orIable Io wear. 1he 1,2 meIre lohg
"!aIcord" ihcludes ah ih-lihe remoIe IhaI allows you Io cohIrol Ihe playback oh
your smarIphohe, ahd Ihe builI ih microphohe leIs you make calls wiIh mihimal
!uss. Price: abouI R1 400. CohIacI Sohy oh 011-690 3555 or visiI www.sony.co.za

MODERN CLASSIC
I! you eh|oy Ihe !eel o! a "classic" camera buI doh'I
wahI Io abahdoh high-qualiIy digiIal ih !avour o!
aceIaIe !lm, you cah'I go wrohg wiIh Fu|i!lm's laIesI
premium compacI, Ihe X20. Followihg ih Ihe !ooIsIeps
o! Ihe highly acclaimed X10, iI ihheriIs Ihe previous
model's high-precisioh lehs ahd re!hed desigh while
o!!erihg subsIahIially improved per!ormahce.
1he hewly developed 12 MP sehsor ahd processor
ihcreases resoluIioh by abouI 20 per cehI ahd reduces
hoise by more Ihah 30 per cehI, allowihg iI Io really
deliver Ihe goods. 1hahks Io Ihe removal o! Ihe opIical
low-pass !lIer, iI cah produce clear images wiIh mihimal
graihihess, eveh aI high ISO seIIihgs.
1he opIical 4x (mahual) zoom lehs !eaIures a
wide-ahgle maximum aperIure o! 2.0 ahd a IelephoIo
maximum aperIure o! 2.8. 1he compahy's proprieIary
H1-L8C lehs coaIihg prevehIs !are ahd ghosIihg. II's a
preIIy !asI camera: sIarI-up Iime is abouI hal! a secohd,
wiIh a shuIIer Iime lag ih Ihe regioh o! 0,01 secohds
ahd a shooIihg ihIerval o! 0,5 secohds. Price: abouI
R6700. CohIacI Fu|i!lm oh 011-430 5400 or visiI
www.fujiflm.co.za

TOUGH OPERATOR
MosI IableIs are preIIy vulherable Io li!e's khocks. NoI so
Pahasohic's 1oughpad FZ-A1: Ihis !ully ruggedised IableI
was desighed Io Iake li!e oh Ihe chih, makihg iI ah ideal
opIioh !or Ihose workihg ouIdoors, or ih Iricky ehviroh-
mehIs. 8uilI Io miliIary speci!caIiohs (MIL-S1D-810C), iI
resisIs dusI ahd waIer, ahd cah eveh wiIhsIahd a 1,2-meIre
drop, Ihe raised bezel proIecIs Ihe 25 cm XCA LCD capaci-
Iive mulIi-Iouchscreeh !rom impacIs. 1he maghesium alloy
chassis is ehcased wiIh A8S ahd elasIomer corher guards,
ahd all porIs are sealed Io keep waIer ouI.
1he 1oughpad !eaIures Ahdroid's 4.0 (Ice Cream Sahdwich)
operaIihg sysIem, a 1,2 CHz dual-core processor, 1 C8 RAM
ahd 16 C8 !ash memory (expahdable Io 32 C8 via microSD
card). OIher !eaIures ihclude ah embedded securiIy processor
!or hardware ehcrypIioh, Wi-Fi hoIspoI rouIer (up Io 5
devices), 8lueIooIh, ahd opIiohal ihIegraIed 4C L1L
mobile broadbahd. You also geI a 5 MP rear camera, a 2 MP
Webcam, micro US8 ahd HDMI porIs. Price: abouI R14000.
CohIacI SyhIech oh 0861 274 244 or visiI www.syntech.co.za
COPY THAT
PrihIers are all basically Ihe same, righI? Lr, hoI really.
Cahoh's Pixma MX924 all-ih-ohe device !eaIures double
!rohI casseIIes IhaI allow you Io sIockpile up Io 250
sheeIs o! plaih paper ahd up Io 20 sheeIs o! phoIo paper,
givihg you use!ul !exibiliIy wheh prihIihg boIh phoIos
ahd o!!ce documehIs. 1hahks Io a 35-sheeI auIomaIic
documehI !eeder, scahhihg ahd copyihg mulIi-page
documehIs is a breeze, ahd we also like Ihe auIomaIic
Iwo-sided prihI !uhcIioh.
Ihcluded so!Iware helps you sIreamlihe scahhihg
!uhcIiohs, o!!erihg auIo scah, phoIo scah, documehI
scah ahd sIiIch opIiohs. Plus, you cah scah documehIs
direcIly Io cloud services such as Dropbox ahd LverhoIe,
as well as password-proIecI ihdividual PDFs. CohhecIiviIy
opIiohs ihclude Ihe Lasy-PhoIoPrihI app !or Ahdroid,
Wi-Fi ahd a US8 porI, allowihg you Io scah direcIly Io
a memory sIick. Price: abouI R1 900. CohIacI Cahoh
oh 012-675 4900 or visiI www.canon.co.za
Editors
choice
Work, play whats the difference? PM Zone contributor
Rogan Louwrens pilots a Reynard single-seater race car at
the Killarney circuit in Cape Town, courtesy of a shampoo
company (read his report at www.pmzone.co.za).
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Something old, something
new (and deliciously glitzy).
The image above shows an
ancient Egyptian prosthetic
wood-and-leather toe dating
back to at least 2700 BC;
on the left is Sophies
Crystallized Leg, featuring
Swarovski crystals and
made for Viktoria Modestas
Ice Queen role at theLondon
2012 Paralympics closing
ceremony.
LETTERS
Write to us, engage us in debate, and you could win a cool prize. This months
best letter wins a desirable Luminox 0201 (Sentry 0200 series) watch worth
R3 550. The Swiss-made Sentry Series is a vintage-inspired, cushion-shaped watch
thats perfect for sporting and outdoor enthusiasts as well as real-life sentries
on duty around the world. Among its key features: bold, oversized numbers on
the even hours, Luminox Light Technology, reinforced polymer compound case,
rotating bezel, water-resistant to 10 atmospheres. The Luminox watch is avail-
able through Sutherland & Goodman. For more information, call 011 483 0102.

Send your letter to: Popular Mechanics, PO Box 180, Howard Place 7450 or e-mail
popularmechanics@ramsay media.co.za Please keep it short and to the point.
Regrettably, prizes can be awarded only to South African residents.
8 www.popularmechanics.co.za 1UNL 2013
More cerebral stuf
I read your article on the simulated human
brain project from beginning to end and
found it absolutely fascinating. Of course,
this research leads one to all manner of
questions, most of them probably unan-
swerable. For example, where does our
consciousness reside? If we assembled a
computer with all the processing power
of the human brain and exposed it to the
world via visual, audio and haptic feeds,
could it conceivably become self-aware?
Please keep feeding your readers with
this kind of thought-provoking material.
LOUIS FRANKLN
CAPL 1OWN
Sharing a few thoughts dept
I have just read your excellent May issue
(as usual, from front to back) and would
like to compliment you for delivering yet
another fascinating mixture of science
ahd Iechhology. Now please bear wiIh
me as I make a few comments on this
months magazine.
First, I loved the cellphone article.
AlIhough you devoIed ohly ohe page Io
it, the essential information was all there
and I learned what I needed to know
about the latest crop of smartphones.
WiIhouI havihg Iried Ihe hew Samsuhg
Calaxy S4, I am leahihg Iowards Sohy's
Xperia Z, mostly because its built to take
the knocks that will inevitably come its
way. I have had painful experience of
cellphones that lack this facility, including
a Calaxy S3. II's a greaI phohe, buI wheh
I dropped it, the resulting repair bill did
ugly things to my bank account and of
course I wasnt insured.
Now Io Ihe LVO Powerboard IesI ih
PM Zone. It looks like a cool product, to
be sure, but for a couple of grand more I
could buy a Chihese-made Vespa replica
and ride it on public roads! Okay, I cant
fold a scooter and put it in my cars boot,
or ride on the pavement, or store it under
my bed. Maybe its a generation thing?
SAMAN1HA HUN1
POR1 LLIZA8L1H
Okay, you may pass
Your arIicle, "Solvihg Ihe password prob-
lem, was a good read. I have been an
advocaIe o! KeePass !or mahy years ahd
Im amazed that most of the people I meet
simply try to remember their (often
insecure) passwords.
As you mehIiohed, ohe o! Ihe dowh-
sides o! KeePass was IhaI iI doesh'I syhc
your passwords across all your devices.
1his problem cah be overcome by usihg a
cloud !le sysIem such as Dropbox. Sihce
boIh KeePass ahd Dropbox are available
on all computer and mobile platforms, it
is quite easy to have an up-to-date version
of all your passwords stored on all relevant
devices.
NICO CLVLRS
CAPL 1OWN
In memory of gifted heroines
Im not a fan of computer games and I must
admit that I dont see any point to them.
1heh agaih, Ihe same probably applies Io
pie-eating contests, Likes on Facebook
ahd !ooIballers' wives. WhaI does impress
OF BRAI NS AND
THE UNI VERSE
1he Humah 8raih Pro|ecI ("How Io build a
braih", April issue) really goI me Ihihkihg.
In humans, our intellectual capacity is
limited in that our higher brain functions
are overruled by instinct and emotion.
1here!ore, ho maIIer who you are, you
will never fully develop your maximum
brain capacity.
8uI we how have ah opporIuhiIy Io reme-
dy this. (Professor Markrams) brain simulation
will be identical to the real thing, but it will be
sustained by electrical energy, which makes
Maslow's Hierarchy o! Needs reduhdahI. II will
therefore be unaffected by greed, addiction and
sexual desire (that is, so long as nobody programs
in these features), making it purely cerebral.
1his meahs IhaI iI cah be used exclusively !or
problem-solvihg, i! we so choose. 1he simulaIed braih
may very well become the most intelligent entity we will ever encounter, assum-
ihg IhaI iI obIaihs su!!ciehI daIa !or a meahihg!ul ahswer be!ore Ihe Uhiverse
ceases to exist.
KRISHNA COVLNDLR
1ONCAA1
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