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Aspiring Towards a Healthy, Productive & Prosperous Nation

SINDH Vision 2030

Infrastructure

Water

Land Poverty

Education

Integrated & Aligned


Justice

Employment

Prepared by: Consultants

Planning & Development Department Government of Sindh

www.managementconsultants.pk

Final Report SINDH VISION 2030


Prepared on 03 July 2007

Planning and Development Department Government of Sindh

Official Consultants: National Management Consultants (Pvt.) Ltd. 1st Floor, PIDC House, M.T. Khan Road Karachi-Pakistan. Tel: 021-5216396, 5633801 Fax: 021-5217725 E-Mail: nmc@super.net.pk URL: www.managementconsultants.pk

Surah 103: Al Asr (The Flight of Time)

In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the dispenser of Grace.

Consider the flight of time! Verily man is bound to loose himself. Unless he be of those who attain to faith, and do good works. And enjoin upon one another keeping to truth. And enjoin upon one another patience in adversity.

Translation by Mohammad Asad

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Above all we thank Allah Subahanah-u-Taala for giving us this opportunity for developing Sindh Vision 2030. We are grateful to him for all his blessings that he continues to bestow upon all of us. We are grateful to Planning & Development Department, Government of Sindh and all its Senior officials including Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Khero Additional Chief Secretary (Development), Mr. Yahya Wali Ullah Secretary P&DD, Mr. Muhammad Ali Khaskheli Chief Economist, Mr. Manzoor Ahmad Hashmi Chief (Vision) and others for their help, assistance and guidance throughout the study. Without active participation of the Government officials at the district levels, members of the civil society, NGOs, agriculturists, business community, academia and sector specialists who participated in the eleven (11) consultative workshops and gave valuable inputs, it would not have been possible for us to develop the Sindh Vision 2030. We are extremely grateful to all the 585 participants who gave their time, participated actively and gave highly pertinent comments, which form the basis of this document. The consulting team is most grateful to various experts belonging to different areas for giving their inputs in writing. In particular we are grateful to Mr. Kazi Abdul Majeed, Mr. Nisar Shekhani, Mr. Sikandar Brohi, Mr. Mohibullah Shah, Mr. Samir S. Amir, Mr. Khalid Hashmi, Mr. Fayaz Khaskheli, Mr. Ali Nawaz Memon, Cleaner Production Institute, Indus for All Programme Team of WWF Pakistan, Karachi, InterCooperation Pakistan (NWFP). Last but not the lease we are grateful to the different secretaries of the Government of Sindh and their colleagues as well as to all the section chiefs of Planning & Development Department for their valuable inputs.

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The Vision for a Prosperous Sindh


(Sindh Vision 2030: Volume-I)
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ....................................................................ix EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................................... 1 A: SINDH VISION 2030 ...............................................................................1 A.1: REALIZING SINDH VISION 2030.........................................................2 A.2: SYNTHESISING THE VISION ELEMENTS...............................................3 DEMOGRAPHICS POPULATION SIZE ........................................................3 WATER AND SINDH.................................................................................4 C.1: WATER AND INDUSTRY .....................................................................5 C.2: WATER AND ENERGY ........................................................................6 C.3: WATER, EMPLOYMENT AND ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITIES .......................7 C.4: WATER AND SANITATION ..................................................................7 C.5: IRRIGATION AND POWER ..................................................................7 C.6: WATER FOR BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ...............................................................................................8 C.7: WATER, SANITATION AND HEALTH ................................................... 10 C.8: WATER AND INLAND TRANSPORT ..................................................... 11 C.9: WATER SOURCING THROUGH CONSERVATION AND EFFICIENT DELIVERY 11 C.10: SINDHS WATER VISION ................................................................. 12 AGRICULTURE ...................................................................................... 12 D.1: VALUE ADD AGRICULTURE AND AGRO BASED INDUSTRY..................... 13 D.2: LIVESTOCK AND MEAT .................................................................... 14 D.3: OTHER SUB-SECTORS OF FRUITS, FLORICULTURE AND EDIBLE OIL SEEDS 15 FISHERIES........................................................................................... 16 INDUSTRY ........................................................................................... 16 ENERGY............................................................................................... 17 HEALTH ............................................................................................... 18 POVERTY ALLEVIATION.......................................................................... 20 EDUCATION ......................................................................................... 22 ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY..................................................................... 23 EMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY.............................................. 24 EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE, JUSTICE AND PROSPERITY................................ 25 INFRASTRUCTURE................................................................................. 26 THE WAY FORWARD TO LAUNCHING THE SV2030 ..................................... 28

B: C:

D:

E: F: G: H: I: J: K: L: M: N: O:

CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 31 1.1: OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE ............................................................................. 31

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1.2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................................................ 32 1.3: STRUCTURE OF THIS VISION DOCUMENT .................................................... 33 CHAPTER 02: THE SYNTHESIS MATRIX; AN INTEGRATED APPROACH.............. 35 2.1: PRIMARY DATA ........................................................................................ 35 2.1.1: SUGGESTIONS FROM THE CONSULTATIVE WORKSHOPS ........................ 35 2.1.2: SV2030 OPINION SURVEY.................................................................. 36 2.2: SECONDARY DATA.................................................................................... 38 2.2.1: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ......................................................... 39 2.2.2: WORLD LENSES FOR MEASURING PERFORMANCES OF COUNTRIES ......... 39 2.3: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO VISION FORMULATION ...................................... 39 2.4: SINDH VISION 2030 SYNTHESIS MATRIX (SYNMAT)...................................... 41 2.4.1: STRUCTURE OF THE SYNMAT ............................................................. 42 2.4.2: ADVANTAGES OF MATRIX .................................................................. 44 2.5: THE WAY FORWARD TO LAUNCHING THE SV2030 ......................................... 44 CHAPTER 03: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES AND LENSES........................... 51 3.1: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES............................................................................. 51 3.2: MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS) ............................................... 51 3.3: INDEX OF ECONOMIC FREEDOM (IOEF) ....................................................... 54 3.4: INDEX OF DEMOCRACY (IOD) .................................................................... 56 3.5: GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS INDEX (GCI) .................................................... 58 Chapter 04: DEMOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW.......................................................... 59 4.1: BACKGROUND.......................................................................................... 59 4.2: DEMOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN ...................................................................... 60 4.3: PROVINCES OF PAKISTAN: THEIR COMPARATIVE POSITION ........................... 61 4.4: SINDH RETROSPECT ................................................................................. 62 4.5: SINDH: PROSPECTS; DEMOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FOR THE NEXT DECADE .... 63 Chapter 05: POVERTY AND HEALTH ................................................................ 65 5.1: OVERVIEW .............................................................................................. 65 5.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE .......................................................................... 67 5.3: ACCESS TO JUSTICE ................................................................................. 68 5.4: AGRICULTURE, EDUCATION AND WOMEN .................................................... 69 5.5: HEALTH AND GENDER ............................................................................... 70 5.6: POOR INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................... 75 5.7: KHUSHAL PAKISTAN PROGRAMME-1 ........................................................... 75 5.8: ENVIRONMENT ......................................................................................... 77 Chapter 06: EDUCATION ................................................................................ 79 6.1: OVERVIEW .............................................................................................. 79

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6.2: EDUCATION FOR ALL PROGRAMME (EFA) ..................................................... 79 6.3: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE .......................................................................... 81 6.4: WOMEN CHILDREN AND OUR YOUTH........................................................... 83 6.5: WATER.................................................................................................... 84 6.6: AGRICULTURE.......................................................................................... 84 6.7: EDUCATION LANGUAGE............................................................................. 85 6.8: HEALTH................................................................................................... 85 6.9: HERITAGE, CULTURE & TOURISM................................................................ 85 6.10: INDUSTRY ............................................................................................. 87 6.11: ENERGY ................................................................................................ 87 6.12: INFRASTRUCTURE .................................................................................. 87 6.13: ENVIRONMENT ....................................................................................... 88 6.14: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.................................................................... 88 6.15: FUTURE DIRECTIONS .............................................................................. 89 Chapter 07: EMPLOYMENT - ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITIES ............................... 91 7.1: OVERVIEW .............................................................................................. 91 7.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE .......................................................................... 95 7.3: CAPITALISING ON ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FROM INWARD MIGRATION ..... 96 7.4: WOMEN CHILDREN AND OUR YOUTH........................................................... 96 7.5: YOUTH .................................................................................................... 99 7.6: WATER.................................................................................................... 99 7.7: AGRICULTURE........................................................................................ 100 7.7.1: RURAL NON-FARM EMPLOYMENT....................................................... 100 7.7.2: MEAT ............................................................................................ 101 7.7.3: FISHERIES..................................................................................... 102 7.7.4: FRUITS ......................................................................................... 102 7.7.5: FLORICULTURE............................................................................... 102 7.7.6: EDIBLE OIL SEEDS ......................................................................... 103 7.7.7: SPICES AND DRY FRUITS................................................................. 103 7.8: EDUCATION........................................................................................... 103 7.9: HEALTH................................................................................................. 103 7.10: HERITAGE, CULTURE & TOURISM ............................................................ 104 7.10.1: ECO TOURISM .............................................................................. 105 7.10.2: SPIRITUAL TOURISM ..................................................................... 106 7.10.3: HERITAGE.................................................................................... 106 7.10.4: PROJECTS TO PROMOTE TOURISM IN SINDH .................................... 107 7.11: THE HOTEL AND MOTEL INDUSTRY ......................................................... 109 7.12: EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR ............... 109 7.13: EMPLOYMENT IN TRADE SECTOR ............................................................ 109 7.14: ENERGY .............................................................................................. 110 7.15: EMPLOYMENT THROUGH INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS............................... 110

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7.16: TRANSPORT SECTOR............................................................................. 111 7.17: HOUSING & CONSTRUCTION .................................................................. 112 7.18: ENVIRONMENT ..................................................................................... 113 7.19: OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT ....................................................................... 114 Chapter 08: JUSTICE, HUMAN RIGHTS AND PROSPERITY ..............................117 8.1: OVERVIEW ............................................................................................ 117 8.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE ........................................................................ 119 8.3: JUST SOCIETY ....................................................................................... 120 8.4: SINDH: AN AUTONOMOUS FEDERATING UNIT ............................................ 121 8.5: THE CITIZENS OF SINDH IN 2030............................................................. 121 8.6: WATER AND SANITATION ........................................................................ 122 8.7: CULTURE, DIVERSITY AND SOCIETY ......................................................... 123 8.8: INFRASTRUCTURE .................................................................................. 124 8.9: A HOUSE OF ONES OWN......................................................................... 124 8.10: INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING AND TRANSPARENCY ............................ 125 8.11: TRANSPARENT ADMINISTRATION............................................................ 127 8.12: POLICE AND JAIL REFORMS ................................................................... 127 8.13: TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY: .................................................. 128 8.14: VISION STATEMENT FOR 2030: PROSPERITY IN SINDH THROUGH EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE .............................................................................................. 128 Chapter 09: LAND .........................................................................................129 9.1: OVERVIEW ............................................................................................ 129 9.2: AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK ................................................................ 129 9.3: AGRICULTURE........................................................................................ 131 9.4: LIVESTOCK............................................................................................ 133 9.5: EDUCATION (RESEARCH AND EXTENSION) ................................................ 134 9.6: FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS AND IPM............................................................ 134 9.6.1: GROW HEALTHY CROPS................................................................... 135 9.6.2: UNDERSTAND AND CONSERVE DEFENDERS ....................................... 135 9.6.3: OBSERVE THE FIELD REGULARLY...................................................... 136 9.6.4: FARMERS BECOME EXPERTS IN CROP MANAGEMENT ........................... 136 9.7: AGRO-RELATED INDUSTRIALISATION ....................................................... 136 9.8: ECOLOGY - FOREST AND WILDLIFE........................................................... 137 9.8.1: IMMEDIATE ACTION........................................................................ 138 9.8.2: MEDIUM-TERM INTERVENTIONS ....................................................... 138 9.8.3: LONG-TERM INTERVENTIONS ........................................................... 139 9.9: SALINITY AND WATER LOGGING .............................................................. 139 9.10: DIRECTION FOR THE FUTURE ................................................................. 140 Chapter 10: WATER .......................................................................................143

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10.1: OVERVIEW........................................................................................... 143 10.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE ...................................................................... 145 10.2.1: WATER ESCAPAGES BELOW KOTRI. ............................................... 145 10.2.2: COST RECOVERY OF WATER ........................................................... 146 10.3: JUSTICE, HUMAN RIGHTS, PROSPERITY ................................................... 149 10.4: GENDER .............................................................................................. 152 10.5: AGRICULTURE ...................................................................................... 153 10.6: EFFECTIVE UTILITY OF ALREADY AVAILABLE WATER FOR IRRIGATION ......... 153 10.7: FISHERIES........................................................................................... 154 10.8: EDUCATION ......................................................................................... 155 10.9: HEALTH............................................................................................... 157 10.10: TOURISM ........................................................................................... 158 10.11: INDUSTRY.......................................................................................... 159 10.12: ENERGY............................................................................................. 160 10.13: INFRASTRUCTURE............................................................................... 161 10.14: ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................... 162 10.14.1: DEFORESTATION AND DESERTIFICATION ....................................... 162 10.14.2: MANGROVE FOREST DESTRUCTION ............................................... 162 10.15: VISION STATEMENT; SINDH WATER VISION 2030 ................................... 165 Chapter 11: INFRASTRUCTURE ......................................................................167 11.1: OVERVIEW........................................................................................... 167 11.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE ...................................................................... 168 11.3: WOMEN CHILDREN AND OUR YOUTH ....................................................... 169 11.4: WATER ................................................................................................ 169 11.4.1: INLAND WATER TRANSPORT........................................................... 169 11.4.2: DESALINISATION PLANTS .............................................................. 170 11.4.3: CONSERVATION OF WATER THROUGH EFFICIENT DELIVERY SYSTEMS . 170 11.4.4: WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS ................................................ 170 11.5: AGRICULTURE ...................................................................................... 171 11.6: EDUCATION ......................................................................................... 171 11.7: HERITAGE, CULTURE & TOURISM ............................................................ 172 11.8: INDUSTRY ........................................................................................... 172 11.9: ENERGY .............................................................................................. 173 11.9.1: SINDH AND THE ENERGY CRISIS .................................................... 174 11.9.2: THE CASE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY ............................................... 175 11.9.3: INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ......................................................... 175 11.9.4: POLICY FRAMEWORK ..................................................................... 176 11.9.5: SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY.................................................. 177 11.9.6: COAL IN THE CONTEXT OF SINDH ................................................... 181 11.10: TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION....................................................... 184 11.11: ELECTRIFICATION ............................................................................... 185 11.12: CITY PLANNING .................................................................................. 186

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11.13: ROADS NETWORK ............................................................................... 187 11.14: AIRPORTS.......................................................................................... 187 11.15: INTER-CITY BUS COMPANIES AND TERMINALS ....................................... 188 11.16: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT .................................................................. 188 11.17: ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH ................................................................ 189 11.18: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ................................................................ 190 11.19: VISION STATEMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE VISION 2030.............................. 192 CHAPTER 12: INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT................................................193 12.1: OVERVIEW........................................................................................... 193 12.2: POLLUTION DIMENSIONS OF INDUSTRIAL SUB-SECTORS .......................... 193 12.2.1: WATER POLLUTION ....................................................................... 194 12.2.2: AIR EMISSION.............................................................................. 196 12.2.3: SOLID WASTE .............................................................................. 199 12.2.4: ENERGY....................................................................................... 201 12.3: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY (OH&S) .............................................. 203 12.4: REDRESSAL MECHANISM FOR INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ISSUES .................. 203 12.5: EFFORTS NEEDED AT THE INDUSTRIAL ASSOCIATION LEVEL...................... 204 12.6: EFFORTS NEEDED AT THE INDUSTRIAL UNIT LEVEL .................................. 205 12.6.1: WATER POLLUTION ....................................................................... 205 12.6.2: AIR POLLUTION ............................................................................ 206 12.6.3: SOLID WASTE .............................................................................. 207 12.6.4: ENERGY CONSERVATION ............................................................... 208 12.6.5: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY ISSUE ........................................ 209 12.6.6: SOIL POLLUTION .......................................................................... 209 Appendix 1: Commonalities matrix................................................................211 Appendix 2: Opinion Survey ..........................................................................218 Appendix 3: Industry-Environment and the NEQS .........................................224 Appendix 4: Bibliography ..............................................................................230

List of tables Table A: Projected Population of Sindh up to 2030 ........................................... 4 Table B: Healthcare targets for 2030 .............................................................. 19 Table 2.1: Distribution of suggestions by sector sorted by highest counts ...... 35 Table 2.2: Priority rankings against the defined statements ........................... 37

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Table 2.3: Agreements on priority rankings.................................................... 38 Table 2.4: The Synthesis Matrix...................................................................... 46 Table 3.1: Comparison of South Asian nations across critical gender indicators ...................................................................................................................... 53 Table 3.2: Index of Economic Freedom rating for Pakistan ............................. 55 Table 3.3: Comparison of parameters between the GCI indices ...................... 58 Table 4.1: Percentage change and annual rate of growth, Pakistan (1901-1998) ...................................................................................................................... 60 Table 4.2: Province Wise Growth Rate - 1998 Census ..................................... 61 Table 4.3: Projected Population by province up to 2030 ................................. 63 Table 5.1: Percentage change in PRSP expenditures between Q3 FY06 and Q3 FY05 by sector and region.............................................................................. 67 Table 5.2: Progress in health status of South Asia (selected indicators) ......... 70 Table 5.3: Percentage distribution of health expenditures by sectors ............. 71 Table 5.5: Health Facilities ............................................................................. 74 Table 5.6: KPP-1 schemes approved for Q3 FY05-06 and Q3 FY04-05............. 76 Table 6.1: Allocated and actual expenditures on education............................. 82 Table 6.2: Comparison of basic facilities between rural and urban Sindh ........ 88 Table 6.3: Primary School operational targets 2007-2030 .............................. 89 Table 6.4: Curricular/area etc. plans e.g. for Science Department .................. 90 Table 7.1: Distribution of Labour Force by Area And Sex ................................ 93 Table 7.2: Distribution of Employed Labour Force by Area And Sex ................ 94 Table 7.3: Integrated approach towards tourism...........................................104 Table 9.1: Issues listed by P&DD for land, agriculture and water...................130 Table 9.2: Irrigated areas affected by salinity ...............................................140

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Table 9.3: Issues-Strategy table for land, agriculture and water related issues .....................................................................................................................141 Table 10.1: Pakistans water requirements....................................................144 Table 10.2: Variations in definition of safe water by a number of agencies ....150 Table 10.3: Children <5 age with Diarrhoea in 2 weeks prior to the Surveys .157 Table 10.4: Mangrove forest extent change 1992-2000 .................................163 Table 11.2: Interventions Required in Different Areas ...................................189

List of figures and charts Figure 2.1: SV2030 and the linkages to the MDGs........................................... 40 Figure 2.2: Structure of the SynMat................................................................ 43 Figure 3.1: Pakistan through the Index of Democracy lens ............................. 57 Figure 7.1: Pakistan - Unemployment rates compared to total population ...... 91 Figure 8.1: Characteristics of Effective Governance and their effect ..............119 Figure 10.1: Satellite images illustrating the extent of the oil spill ................155

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


$PPP A.D AAQ ADB AEDB AQM ARI B.C BAPP BMP BOD BOT CBO/CBOs CCB CCHD CDA CDG CDGK CDM CDP CEDAW CEDF CER CETP CH4 CMH CNG CNIC CO CO2 COD Co-Mo CP&CT CPI CPI CPP Cr CRC CTP DAF DALY DC DCDS DCO DEMO DHA DHS DNA DOE E. coli EAD EDO Purchaser Price Parity After Death Ambient Air Quality Asian Development Bank Alternative Energy Development Board Air Quality Management Acute Respiratory Infection Before Christ Biodiversity Action Plan for Pakistan Best Management Practice Biological Oxygen Demand Build-Operate-Transfer Community Based Organisation(s) Community Citizens Board Citizens Commission for Human Development Capital Development Authority City District Government City District Government Karachi Clean Development Mechanism City Development Plan Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Citizen Education Development Foundation Certified Emission Reduction Combined Effluent Treatment Plant Tetra Valet Chromium Commission on Macroeconomic Health Compressed Natural Gas Computerised National Identity Card Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Chemical Oxygen Demand Cobalt-Molybdenum Cleaner Production and Cleaner Technology Cleaner Production Institute Corruption Perceptions Index Cleaner Production Programme Chromium Convention on the Rights of Children Cleaner Production Programme Diffused Air Flotation Disability Adjusted Life Years District Council Double Carbonation Double Sulphitation District Coordination Officer Democratised Education Management and Ownership (Project) Defence Housing Authority Demographic Health Survey Designated National Authority Designated Operational Entity Escherichia coli (bacteria) Economic Affairs Division Executive District Officer

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

EEPAL EIA EMP EMS ENERCON EOP EPA ESRA ETPI EU FAO FBS FDI Fe FFC FPAP Ft FY GAD GCA GCI GDI GDP GIS GoP GoS GPS GST GTZ GWh H2SO4 HBFC HDI HDIP HPI HR HVLP Hz IBT ICID ICTP IEE IFAP IFI/IFIs INGAD IoD IoEF IPP IRR ISO IT ITAA IUCN JICA KANUPP KESC KM/Km/km

Environmental Education through Participatory Action Learning Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Management Programme Environmental Management System National Energy Conservation Centre End-of-Pipe Environmental Protection Agency Education Sector Reforms Assistance Environmental Technology Programme for Industry European Union Food and Agricultural Organisation Federal Bureau of Statistics Foreign Direct Investment Iron Federal Flood Commission Family Planning Association of Pakistan Feet Fiscal Year Gender and Development Gross Command Area Global Competitiveness Index Gender Development Index / Gender Related Development Index Gross Domestic Product Geographic Information System Government of Pakistan Government of Sindh Geographic Positioning System General Sales Tax German Technological Corporation Giga Watt Hours Sulphuric Acid House Building Finance Corporation Human Development Index Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan Human Poverty Index Human Resource High Volume Pressure Hertz Indus Basin Treaty International Conference on Irrigation and Drainage Introduction of Cleaner Technology Programme Initial Environmental Evaluation Indus For All Programme 2006-2055 International Finance Institutions Interagency Gender and Development Group Index of Democracy Index of Economic Freedom Independent Private (Power) Producer Internal Rate of Return International Standards Organisation Information Technology Information Technology Association of America International Union for the Conservation of Nature Japanese International Cooperation Agency Karachi Nuclear Power Plant Karachi Electricity Supply Corporation Kilometre

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

kWh kWh/m2 KWSB LBOD LEAD LFS LGO LHV LoLo LPG Ltd. LWP m m3 MAF MC MCWAP MDG/MDGs MICS mm mmcft MoE MoU MoWD MSDS Mt MTDF MTOE MTY MW NADRA NCHD NCS NDWP NEAP NEP NEPRA NEQS NGO NHP-HFA Ni NIH NIST NMC NOC NOX/NO2 NPA NPA-EFA NPDEW NPSL NRM NRSP NSC NTRC NWFP NWP O&G

Kilowatt hour Kilowatt hour per square metre Karachi Water and Sewerage Board Left Bank Outfall Drain Leadership for Environment and Development Labour Force Survey Local Government Organisation Lady Health Worker Load-On, Load Off Liquid Petroleum Gas Limited Living Waters Programme Metre Metre Cube Million Acre Feet Municipal Committee Maternity & Child Welfare Association of Pakistan Millennium Development Goals Multiple Integrated Cluster Survey Millimetres Million Cubic Feet Ministry of Environment Memorandum of Understanding Ministry of Women Development Material Safety Data Sheet Million Tons Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10 Million Tons of Oil Equivalent Million Tons per Year Mega Watt National Database Registration Authority National Commission for Human Development National Conservation Strategy National Drinking Water Policy 2015 National Environmental Action Plan National Environmental Policy 2005-2015 National Electric Power Regulatory Authority National Environmental Quality Standards Non-Governmental Organization National Health Policy/Vision that is based on the Health for All Nickel National Institute of Health National Institute of Silicon Technology National Management Consultants (Pvt.) Limited No Objection Certificate Oxides of Nitrogen National Plan of Action National Plan of Action on Education For All (2001-2015) National Policy for Development and Empowerment of Women National Physical and Standards Laboratory Natural Resource Management National Rural Support Programme National Conservation Strategy 1992 National Transport Research Centre North-West Frontier Province National Water Policy 2025 Oil and Gas

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

O&M C ODS OGRA OHS OVI P&D P&DD PAEC PAK-EPA Pb PCAP PCAT PCP PCRET PCRWR PCSIR PDF PDS PE PEE PEER PEMRA PEPA PEPC PIED PIEDAR PKR PM PMD PMN PNSC PP PPA PPAF PPIB PPP PREM PRSP PRSP PSDP PSI PSQCA PTA PTDC PV PV2030 PVDP Pvt. PVTC PWP PWP RBOD RDF REN RNE RoRo

Operations and Maintenance Degrees Centigrade Ozone Depleting Substances Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority Occupational Health and Safety Objectively Verifiable Indicator Planning and Development Planning and Development Department Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Lead Pakistan Clean Air Programme Pakistan Council for Appropriate Technology Pakistan Centre for Philanthropy Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Pakistan Development Forum Pakistan Demographic Survey Polyethylene Public Expenditure on Environment Public Environmental Expenditure Review Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 Pakistan Environmental Protection Council Pakistan Institute for Economic Development Pakistan Institute for Development Action Research Pakistan Rupee(s) Particulate Matter Pakistan Meteorological Department Pakistan Microfinance Network Pakistan National Shipping Corporation Polypropylene Power Purchase Agreement Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund Private Power and Infrastructure Board Public-Private Partnership Poverty Reduction Environmental Management Pakistan Rural Support Programme Pakistan Poverty Reduction Strategy Public Sector Development Programme Pakistan Standard Institute Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority Pakistan Tanners Association Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation Photo Voltaic Pakistan Vision 2030 Working Draft Pakistan Village Development Programme Private Punjab Vocational Training Council Pakistan Water Partnership Pakistan Wetlands Management Programme Right Bank Outfall Drain Refuse Derived Fuel Renewable Energy Royal Netherlands Embassy Roll-On, Roll-Off

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SAP SBP SCARP SCEA SDPI Sindh EPA Sindh RSP SIP SMC SME SoE SOV SOx SP-SBP SPDC sq.km SSP SSSD SUPARCO SV2015 SV2030 SWM SWOT SynMat TCE TDS TEVTA TKN TMA TOR TPS TPY TRDP TSS TTA TTC TWAA UC UDHR UHT UN UNDP UNEP UNFCCC UNICEF USAID USD VC VLUPs VOC VTC WAPDA WASA WB WEF WEHAB

Social Action Programme State Bank of Pakistan Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects Strategic Country Environmental Assessment Sustainable Development Policy Institute Sindh Environmental Protection Agency Sindh Rural Support Programme School Improvement Plan School Management Committee Small and Medium Enterprise State of the Environment (Sindh Report) Source of Verification Sulphur Oxide Strategic Plan 2005-10 Social Policy and Development Centre Square Kilometre Soil Survey of Pakistan Sindh Strategy for Sustainable Development (2006) Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission Sindh Vision 2015 (working draft) Sindh Vision 2030 (working papers) Solid Waste Management Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunity, Threats Synthesis Matrix Trichloroethylene Total Dissolved Solid Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Tehsil Municipal Administration Terms of Reference Thermal Power Stations Tons per Year Thardeep Rural Development Programme Total Suspended Solids Tolyltriazole Technical Training Centre The Water Apportionment Accord 1991 Union Council Universal Declaration for Human Rights Ultra High Treatment/Treated United Nations United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environmental Programme United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change United Nations Children's Fund (also written as United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) United States Assistance for International Development United States Dollar Village Council Village Land Use Plans Volatile Organic Compounds Vocational Training Centre Water and Power Development Authority Water and Sanitation Authority World Bank World Economic Forum Water, Environment, Health, Agriculture and Biodiversity

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WHO WHR WID WPF-P WS&S WSSD WWF WWF-P www Zn ZTBL

World Health Organisation World Health Report Women in Development World Population Foundation - Pakistan Water Supply and Sanitation World Summit on Sustainable Development World Wide Fund for Nature World Wide Fund For Nature - Pakistan World Wide Web Zinc Zarai Taraqiyati Bank Limited

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This document is not a progress report! Nor is it a critique on the people or the government, of Sindh! It is quite simply, and yet most importantly, a synthesis of the mission statements that embody the aspirations of the people of Sindh in working towards a healthy, productive and prosperous nation. The contents of this document clearly and comprehensively state the symbiotic dynamics of socioeconomic developments, in its entirety, from the perspective of Sindh nestled within the vision of the government of Pakistan. Embarking upon an effort to visualize the scenario of 25 years into the future is, at the best of times, a daunting task. More so when one is trying to do it for a place having as multi-faceted social and physical environment as does our province. However, having some plan for the future is far better than having none at all. Therefore, the efforts of the Sindh Government and other stakeholders for forming Sindh Vision 2030 are heart warming. What makes one excited and really hopeful though, is the fact that this exercise has been carried out in the best way possible, taking all stakeholders into the loop, and formulating practicable strategies rather than hollow words. Preparing the Sindh Vision for 2030 was a overwhelming challenge and required quite a few adjustments in how we, the Government of Sindh, approached and facilitated the development processes. Based on our commentary on the Pakistan Vision 2030 we too have strategically anchored the Sindh Vision 2030 into the Government of Pakistan obligations to the Millennium Development Goals under the Poverty Reduction Strategy. We are of the view that the: MDGs require all developing nations including Pakistan to reduce poverty to half by 2015. Our priority is to further reduce it by another 25% by the year 2030 MDGs require that the population living on less than a dollar a day and the population of people who suffer from hunger, be reduced to half by 2015. Our priority in this context is to further reduce the population under this line by another 40% by the year 2030.

Similarly, we have ascertained that the goals of the Sindh Vision 2030 related to industry and the macroeconomic framework need to be embedded in the World Economic Forum (WEF) obligations and to the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) currently under the purview of the Ministry of Finance through its Competitiveness Support Fund (CSF). In this context we have structured the Sindh Vision 2030 to be aligned to the pillars of the Poverty Reduction Strategy, the Millennium Development Goals and to the Global Competitiveness Index by devising an integrated framework. The integrated approach in processing all the inputs from the consultations, document reviews and guidance from experts and civil society representatives yielded the SV2030 Synthesis Matrix (SynMat).

A:

SINDH VISION 2030


After much deliberation, consultations and paying careful attention to the visions of Pakistan, the City District Government of Karachi, Badin and all other districts, neighbouring countries, and of many underdeveloped nations, the Vision for Sindh propelling, driving and guiding us into 2030 is:

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A united, just, resilient, productive, innovative, industrialised and prosperous Sindh with a disciplined, caring society comprising of healthy, happy and educated people and built upon the enduring pillars of self-reliance, respect, tolerance, equity and integrity

A.1:

REALIZING SINDH VISION 2030 This is a vision in which:

1. Every citizen of Sindh must have equal opportunity to achieve his/her fullest potential; 2. All citizens of our province enjoy a good quality of life, where quality health care is available to all and where peaceful, secure and environmentally friendly communities are nurtured and maintained; 3. The young and old are empowered to help themselves through sound education systems customised to meet the human resource needs of a modern, progressive technologically competitive province, and Pakistan; 4. Judicious use is ensured of all natural resources and not at the cost of current and future generations; 5. There is respect for the rule of law, human rights, security and democracy is guaranteed for all citizens regardless of creed, class and origin; 6. The diversity and originality of its entire people are valued and nurtured and where heritage is protected and promoted. The path to the envisioned Sindh in 2030 involves the will, skill and resources of the public sector, the private sector, civil society and individual citizens; quite simply EVERYBODY COLLECTIVELY. Governing effectively will be the mandate of the Sindh Government and ensuring transparency and effectiveness should be the mandate of the citizens and of civil society. To do so one must always aspire to take informed actions and decisions. With the revolution of Information & Technology, processed data is available to all. With this availability comes knowledge of what has been taking place. It is unfortunate that we remain distant from using timely information to steer development towards sustainable successes. The amount of money spent on studies, development of strategies & plans, and on the initiation of programmes for the betterment of the province of Sindh is alarmingly high with slow and/or unacceptable results. What remains is a plethora of weakly founded programs that were initiated with the best of intentions. To be accurately demand driven we need to structure a knowledgebase that sufficiently provides information that can be used to deter unwarranted interference and to assimilate evidences of progress. Both aspects feed into better and sustained development. Participatory monitoring that facilitates implementation through timely backstopping and steerage has proved a difficult goal. This situation may well be due to differences in approach and/or the appropriateness of the approach. An integrated, articulated, and accessible system needs be created where everyone would actually be accountable for

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his/her actions. The P&DD department has made a lot of progress in the abovementioned area. However, we need to be able to communicate and share the initiatives and associated information sets to bring a more progressive and consultative approach with backstopping (as opposed to blame throwing) as its main component. The corner stone of effective governance is an informed government and all the people that collectively work for a better future. In this context the vision statement for an informed state is framed as We will by the year 2030 have timely, authentic and easily accessible datasets to review our progress and for pragmatic policy formulations

A.2:

SYNTHESISING THE VISION ELEMENTS The following development priorities were identified during the extensive consultation process: 1. Nurturing a caring society; 2. Developing innovative people; 3. Governing effectively and without debt; 4. Enabling competitiveness in agriculture, business and industry; 5. Securing and investing in sound infrastructure and in the Environment. These development priorities have been mapped to the eight goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The resultant map represents the crosscutting issues that are applicable across the development and/or implementation sectors defined along the rows. Though the Sindh Vision 2030 document is structured according to the thematic areas of poverty, health, education, effective governance, land, water and infrastructure, this Executive Summary is narrated using a sector-based approach to facilitate comprehension using the administrative lens. Demographics, water and the productive sectors are summarised first and followed by the social sectors. The Sv2030 document contains a Synthesis Matrix in both formats and can be used effectively for national/global subscriptions through the thematic approach and for administrative execution using the sectorbased approach. It is important to state that no other province in Pakistan has taken such innovate, integrated and comprehensive approach in compiling the respective Provincial Vision 2030 documents. Furthermore, the level of consultations achieved through discussions, meetings, workshops and e-mail correspondence exceed 1000 persons from all walks of life. This achievement as well, is another novelty for the Government of Sindh and one that far out does all other provinces.

B:

DEMOGRAPHICS POPULATION SIZE


Population projection represents one of the most vital areas of any demographic statistics. In this report after reviewing the past trends the forecasts for the next decade i.e. from 1998 to 2007, have been made on the assumption that the present trends are likely to continue at least during this decade. The growth

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trends during the intercensal period of 1981-98 have provided the basis for these projections. If things move with the current pace and direction, the likely scenario of the province after a decade will be, as shown in Table 4.3. Table A: Projected Population of Sindh up to 2030 S# Province Pakistan Sindh Population, In millions 2020 2025 2030 245.6 63.5 272.1 64.2 326.0 89.8

1998 132.4 30.4

2007 168.1 39.0

2015 208.2 48.7

In 2007, Karachi remained the largest city and Tando Muhammad Khan the smallest districts of Sindh even though their shares in total population changed. The share of Karachi increased from 32.38% in 1998 to 32.4% in 2007, whereas the shares of Nawabshah, Naushero Feroze, Hyderabad, Khairpur and Jacobabad appear to decline because of the low growth rates. The share of Tharparkar will rise substantially from 7.9% to about 9% percent of the total. If the current trends prevail the Government of Sindh is looking at addressing and managing the needs of approximately 90 million people by the year 2030.

C:

WATER AND SINDH


The increasing gap between water supply and demand has led to severe water shortage in almost all sectors. The future holds a darker picture; by 2025, the availability of water will fall to 700 cubic meters per capita (Pak-SCEA 2006), 300 cubic meters below the internationally recognized scarcity rate. Currently as per government figures, Punjab has the best rural water supply with only 7% of the population depending on a dug well or a river, canal or stream. The situation in the other three provinces is considerably worse, Sindh; some 24% of the rural population depends on the above-mentioned sources. The situation in NWFP and Balochistan is even worse with 46% and 72% of the rural population depending on a dug well or from a river/canal/stream (SOE 2005). According to a WWF report Pakistan has now entered an era in which laissez-faire becomes an enemy rather than a friend. Water continues to be the most exigent issue faced by the province of Sindh and as long as both rural and urban Sindhis dont learn to value water, it would be impossible for this issue to be controlled. Sindh is mapped in the arid zone of Pakistan and experiences rainfall ranging between 100-200mm per year with high rates of evaporation, on the other hand, ground water supplies in Sindh are less then 5 MAF, thus making River Indus a lifeline for Sindh. Having a high agricultural sector and limited other sources, Sindh is forced to rely singularly on the 49 MAF (37%) of its share from Indus, according to the Water Accord 1991. The situation of water is apparently deteriorating at an alarming rate. For the past two decades, Sindh has faced severe droughts, scant rainfall and extremely low supplies of freshwater. All of this with politicization of water distribution to the provinces is leading to both economic and social hardships (IUCN 2006). Socioeconomic problems resulting from various water related issues are putting a tremendous strain on the economy and people of Sindh.

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Sindh has had a long-standing issue with the distribution of water and its share. The issue came to the fore in 1901, when the Indian Irrigation Commission prohibited Punjab from taking even a drop of water from Indus without the approval of Sindh. Numerous efforts have been invested since then in alleviating Sindh from being water starved yet the situation prevails. In 1977, the Government of Pakistan established another commission comprising the Chief Justices of the High Courts of the Provinces, headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court to examine the issue of water apportionment. The report of this commission is still pending with the Government of Pakistan. It was finally the Chief Ministers of the provinces who managed to reach consensus on the contentious issue. The breakthrough came in a series of meeting, first in Lahore and finally on March 16 in Karachi (WA 1991). Apparently, the accord has not been implemented. Integrated part of NWP is the implementation of the water accord, acknowledging the fact that the water accord hasnt been implemented. The Government of Sindh has voiced its reservations on the NWP and has reiterated the need to implement the Water Accord. Doing so however, warrants a well thought-out proactive solution. Sindh faces serious problems of water logging and salinity due to the nominal gradient, accretion of riverbeds, inadequate salt exit and traditional watering of crops. The problems of water logging and salinity pose a major threat to sustainability of irrigated agriculture on about 30 percent of irrigated lands in Sindh (2003 FAO). The problem of water logging and salinity coupled with the floods and droughts have adverse effects on the cultivated land hence on the people of Sindh. Effective measures should be taken to deal with these problems if any development is to be foreseen in the province.

C.1:

WATER AND INDUSTRY Water is used by industry in a myriad of ways: for cleaning, heating and cooling; for generating steam; for transporting dissolved substances or particulates; as a raw material; as a solvent; and as a constituent part of the product itself (e.g. in the beverage industry). The water that evaporates in the process must also be considered in accurate assessments as well as the water that remains in the product, by-products, and the solid wastes generated along the way. The balance is discharged after use as wastewater or effluent. The total water withdrawal from surface water and groundwater by industry is usually much greater than the amount of water that is actually consumed. For operational purposes, most industries require processed water. Thus, the provision of processed water to industries is very important. There are many negative industrial impacts on the water environment. The greater concern than the actual volume of water used by industry is the negative impact of industry on the water environment. Water quality is deteriorating all over Sindh, and the marine environment is also being affected by industrial pollution. Much of the water used by industry is usually disposed off to drain. This can mean one of the following things: Direct disposal into a stream, canal or river, or to sea; Disposal to sewer (which may be discharged, untreated, further downstream, or may be routed to the nearest municipal sewage treatment plant);

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Treatment by an on-site wastewater treatment plant, before being discharged to a watercourse or sewer treatment in a series of open ponds.

Major concerns are the situations in which the industrial discharge is returned directly into the water cycle without adequate treatment. If the water is contaminated with heavy metals, chemicals or particulates, or loaded with organic matter, this obviously affects the quality of the receiving water body or aquifer. It is paramount to ensure that disposal of industrial wastewater is dealt with by considering cleaner production practices and cleaner technology solutions in mind. The example is of the Combined Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) in Korangi which is owned and operated by the Environmental Society of the Pakistan Tanners Association-Southern Zone. Numerous evaluators have rated this Plant as the only project in Pakistan that is completed within budget in spite of escalations in the cost of raw materials over the last five years1. The CETP also serves as a replicable example of Public-Private Partnerships. The Plant is designed to keep the effluent of 170 tanneries operating in sectors 7-A and 15 in the Korangi industrial area. More CETPs are needed in all the industrial areas of Sindh such as Korangi SITE Karachi, Landhi, North Karachi, F.B. Area, Kotri, Sukkur etc.

C.2:

WATER AND ENERGY There are different kinds of renewable energy sources using water which include; Ocean based - Ocean energy sources include, wave energy, tidal energy and thermal energy, or River based-River sources and Canals are primarily hydroelectric schemes of varying sizes, many of them associated with irrigation or flood mitigation schemes, such as dams, water turbines etc Construction of large dams is a heavily debated issue in Pakistan and from the Sindh perspective such ventures will be detrimental. There at least four clear reasons for not opting for large dams and these are narrated below: Building a large dam will flood a very large area upstream and dry a lot of area downstream, causing problems for people and animals that used to live there; Finding a suitable site can be difficult - the impact on residents and the environment may be unacceptable; Water quality and quantity downstream can be affected, which can have an impact on human as well as plant life; Capital costs are high.

Instead of constructing large dams attention should be paid to the construction of small hydel projects and water turbines (run of the river or canal) for generation of energy using water.

RNE External Monitoring & Evaluation Reports 2006; PTA-SZ Environmental Society Archives 2006

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C.3:

WATER, EMPLOYMENT AND ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITIES In order to combat the problem of scarcity of water it is mandatory for the government to incorporate strategies which would enhance the knowledge and importance of water amongst both, rural and urban, students, beginning at primary levels. To ensure that water based knowledge is not wasted, schemes should be deployed which would motivate the rural and urban masses to deploy their acquired knowledge. Massive job opportunities will be initiated to facilitate sector-oriented employment by the government. Another important issue that will be tackled concerning water is that of teaching the general masses to be equipped to respond emergencies. Training projects should be initiated, dealing with first aid etc. Flood relief trainings will be given to people located in areas where there is a frequency of floods.

C.4:

WATER AND SANITATION The National Drinking Water policy describes what should be the role of provincial and local governments to develop medium term plans for the drinking water sector in keeping with the Medium-Term Development Framework in conjunction with relevant municipal authorities to guide and steer the future developments in the sector. Safe drinking water is a core issue of urban and rural populations particularly the poor in rural areas as well as urban slums. The SV2030 element with reference to safe drinking water and sanitation is that all people of Sindh are provided safe drinking water and to fully functional sanitation and sewerage facilities by 2030. The main elements of the strategy will include the following: Adoption of an integrated approach, rational resource use, and the introduction of water efficient techniques; Containment of environmental degradation; Institutional strengthening, capacity building & human resource development as emphasized by the participants during the consultative process; Improving performance and utilization of local systems through better planning, management and community participation; Improving quality of, and easy access to water supply, especially for women; Improving sanitation through sewerage and drainage schemes; Promoting increased standards of household sanitation. Improve supply levels (volume, flow, and head) to ensure delivery of water at homes etc. without the need for energy-consuming suction pumps.

C.5:

IRRIGATION AND POWER The entire irrigation network requires continual rehabilitation to keep it strengthened and functioning efficiently and effectively. Pakistan, despite being an agrarian country, has demonstrated extremely low irrigation efficiencies, creating problem related to water conservation and water logging and salinity. The crop yield in Pakistan remains on the lower side of its potential given better water circumstances. This is due to lack of timely and relevant research and from

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inadequate extension services. Improvement in government policies and legal and institutional framework for water management will play an important and effective role in achieving large gains in agricultural output. Functioning for decades, the irrigation and drainage infrastructure is in an alarming and precarious condition. The system has either deteriorated partly or outlived its life, especially due to inadequate maintenance resulting from inadequate funds and due the fact that the structures are being stressed beyond design capacity at higher water withdrawals during Kharif. Consequently, the following conditions prevail: Canal prism/profile is deteriorated. Berms are eroded away. Canal Banks have been rendered week. Damages have occurred at Cross and Head Regulators. Bridges have either collapsed or sustained heavy damages. Silting has occurred in tail reaches of canals due to inadequate variable flows. River training bunds have gone weak.

Special priority attention will therefore be given to irrigation and drainage by undertaking timely maintenance and repair works (properly) and by strengthening the worst affected sections/elements through special repairs. Furthermore, all related development programmes will also to be streamlined. With regard to irrigation the I&P Departments 54-point Water Vision 2030 will be implemented.

C.6:

WATER FOR PROTECTION

BIODIVERSITY

MANAGEMENT

AND

ENVIRONMENTAL

Due to continuous increase in the Indus withdrawals in upstream; the outflow to sea has reduced to a great deal. Consequently, the costal ecosystem has been damaged. The degeneration of the natural resources has deteriorated human settlements compelling people of the coast to migrate to other areas in search of water and food. The coastal environment has changed over time, partly as a result of the massive take-off from the Indus River for irrigation and extensive pollution from domestic and industrial waste, particularly around the Karachi area. Most striking is the reduction in the mangrove forests, which has adversely affected fish and shellfish nurseries. Construction of barrages has reduced the size of fish catches and reduced the sediment load reaching the ocean, causing coastal erosion. For the most part, marine and coastal zone pollution in Pakistan is limited to Karachi, a city of 14 million people that accounts for about 45 percent of the countrys industry. All of Karachis industrial waste, effluents, and domestic sewage, and all of the agricultural run-off from the hinterland and the Indus River find their way, untreated, into the sea. Oil pollution is also a problem; of the 4 million tons of oil imported in 1986, 20,000 tons were believed to have leaked into coastal waters (SCEA 2005). The Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources (Ramsar 1971). There is a Ramsar list of the world in which 19 sites are found in Pakistan. Of those 19 sites, 10 are found in Sindh.

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Mangroves cover a total of 257,500 hectares in Pakistan. Those in the Indus Delta (Sindh) are the world's sixth largest contiguous mangrove forests. The mangrove ecosystem is constantly under pressure from increased human settlement, pollution, freshwater scarcity and over- harvesting (WWF-2006). If water is not allowed to flow in sufficient quantity below Kotri barrage for most of the year, as is the practice now, the mangrove forests will be devastated due to loss of nutrients and silt from the fresh water outflow, increase of salinity in the soil-pore water due to seawater, and rising sea levels. The human population in and around mangrove forests is estimated at 1.2 million people, of which 0.9 million reside in the Indus Delta (Ashraf 2002 WWF Pak/IUCN May 2003), and about 135,000 people depend on the mangroves resources for livelihood (Shah 1998). The annual value of catch from mangrovedependent fish species is estimated at US$20 million, shrimps, particularly important, have a domestic value of US$70 million. Reduced freshwater flows and consequent ecosystem degradation had a negative effect on livelihoods, namely; a steady decline in crop and fish production with an increase in salinity, and (from a case study) approximately 300,000 households have lost about $70,000 in crop damage and $45,000 from decreased fish catch (SCEA 2005). The change in Mangrove forest cover between the years 1992 and 2000 is given in Table 10.4 in Chapter 10. Riverine forests along the River Indus are threatened due to reduced flow in the Indus, as the river water is the only source of regeneration and growth of these forests. Due to upstream water diversion and storage the intensity of floods has been adversely affected. The deforestation followed by soil degradation, salinity, and erosion will then lead to desertification rendering once fertile lands to barren deserts. The Forest Department goals for 2030 are: Develop and implement policies that integrate the objectives of conservation and development to reduce pressure on natural forests, protect their environmental values and conserve biodiversity; Alleviate poverty through creation of forest based income generating opportunities; Continue to meet needs of local people for timber, fuel-wood, fodder and miscellaneous non-wood product from the forest; Rehabilitate degraded ecosystems and create environmental awareness.

With the reduced flows in the River Indus, its natural assimilative capacity diminishes. It receives raw sewage, untreated industrial wastewater, and irrigation returns from the communities spread along the riverbanks. With population growth and reduced water flows, prospects for Indus to remain unpolluted are quite slim. Levels of oxygen are depleting organic contaminants from sewage, toxic compounds from industrial discharges, and pesticides from irrigation returns are increasing in the Indus. Signs of this have already been observed. Water borne diseases are on the rise. Many fish and other aquatic species have declined in number and diversity. If the situation is not reversed further water degradation will occur and impact on the aquatic life, public health, and other uses of water will be very significant. Sindh is home to many natural lakes. Manchar, Kinjhar, Haleji, Hadero, Chotiari, and many more small lakes are spread all over Sindh. Most of these are fed by the Indus. The Haleji Lake has also been declared a bird sanctuary. These lakes and wetlands are being degraded at an alarming rate in the Lower Indus Basin. The lakes in Sindh are an important source of the fish species

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and edible plants that grow in them and provide employment for many people living around these lakes. Also, these bodies of water are host to many species of birds, flora, and fauna. With the destruction of these lakes and wetlands, many economic and aesthetic benefits drawn from them will be lost. Some of these lakes and wetlands have already shown signs of being polluted. Manchar, the largest lake in Sindh, has become a dumping ground for discharge from salinity outfalls originating in upstream. The Manchar ecosystem has thus begun to be destroyed. Fish and bird species of Manchar have not only reduced in numbers but also in diversity. A plan for the restoration of degraded sites, re-plantation, and establishment of nurseries and an extensive programme of environmental awareness is to be initiated. The Indus for All programme has been formulated by WWFPakistan to implement the first five years of the fifty years Vision of Indus Ecoregion Programme. Initial financial support for this Programme has been provided by the Royal Netherlands Embassy, which also remained instrumental during the development process of the Vision.

C.7:

WATER, SANITATION AND HEALTH Drainage/ sewers are one of the main problems related to water in Sindh as well as the rest of Pakistan. Sewerage infrastructure in older and marginal neighbourhoods is poorly designed and corroded, and the result is occasionally the mixing of raw sewage and drinking water. Groundwater from shallow wells contains bacterial and chemical impurities, as does stream or river water used for washing. Disease-causing pathogenic substances that are dumped close to water sources seep into the ground and find their way into the water supply. Proper drainage systems need to be constructed. Poor drainage leads to many problems, which include health and environment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) six out of a total of 25 serious water related diseases are found in Sindh. (WHO 2007) Arsenicosis Diarrhoea Hepatitis (A) Lead Poisoning Malaria Typhoid

The National Conservation Strategy (NCS) indicates that about 40 per cent of deaths are related to water-borne diseases. The lack of sanitation is a major public health problem that causes disease, sickness and death. Poor farmers and wage earners are less productive due to illness. Without safe water and sanitation, sustainable development is impossible. Thus, improvements in safe water supply and in particular in hygiene and sanitation should be enacted. There is also an alarming general lack of awareness about water related diseases and sanitation issues in rural Sindh as well as rural Pakistan. The prevention of water related diseases would require alternate and cost effective sanitation solutions as well as overall awareness of hygiene in rural as well as urban Sindh. Widespread i.e. beyond all existing initiatives, awareness campaigns are required to mitigate losses and to arrest further decline in the health of all Sindhis. Most of the water related diseases are curable and can be prevented from occurring. Initiatives should be taken to create awareness of such

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diseases and their remedies. Awareness should also be created amongst the masses to avoid the occurrence of water born diseases.

C.8:

WATER AND INLAND TRANSPORT The Indus River is used only marginally for transport of passengers and cargo. Definite potential exists in developing water transport using the Indus River. For this purpose berths, piers, jetties and wharfs need to be developed along the Indus at various places like Guddu, Ghotki, Sukkur, Kot Mir Muhammad, Wehar, Mithiani, Sehwan, Qabbar, Budhapur, Kotri and Thatta etc. facilities need to be developed for handling cargo as well as passengers. Godowns, depots, oil/diesel refuelling stations will also need to be developed along with maintenance and repair facilities for River Craft. Detail studies need to be undertaken urgently to evaluate the technical facilities/requirements for developing working water transport system. Locks and other transfer mechanism may need to be developed at barrages such as Sukkur and Kotri etc. A company needs to be promoted on a private public partnership basis for developing and implementing a comprehensive water transport system. The benefits of such a system would result in reduction of transportation costs as water transport is always cheaper than road and rail transport. It will also reduce pressure on the existing road and rail network. A number of new businesses will be created along with thousands of productive jobs. By 2030 we should target that nearly 20% to 25% of all regional cargo and inter-city passenger traffic (small towns and villages) will be handled through water transport.

C.9:

WATER SOURCING THROUGH CONSERVATION AND EFFICIENT DELIVERY According to WWF Pakistan2 agriculture provides numerous opportunities for water saving since much of the water is currently wasted in transit to the farms, in the irrigation systems, and through the growing of crops that are not suited to the local environment. Such wastage of water is further compounded by misplaced subsidies and artificially low water prices (i.e. prices that are unconnected with the amount of water used), poor water management and by low political and public awareness3.In the context of water, we would like to include the need to explore the full potential of potable water through desalination along the entire coast of Pakistan interfaced through Balochistan and Sindh. A target for SV2030 is to provide water and sanitation to the entire population of the province. As we are already facing a shortage of water, the strategy shall be devised for conservation of water, increasing the storage capacity of water and to provide clean water through the implementation of water treatment plants in the coastal areas. This however ambitious vision will require a holistically designed infrastructure and of course necessary funding. Sindh has large deposits of Gypsum which should be used for pitching and lining canals as well as for lining of Howdies for tube well water. The lining of the

Sustainable Sugar Initiative; National Project Planning Workshop Report; WWF Pakistan, Feb 19, 2004 3 Living Waters Conserving the source of life; Thirsty Crops, WWF, 2003 (also www.livingwaters@wwf.nl)

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canal walls may be investigated further to determine the merits and demerits of lining versus groundwater recharge. Except a few sewerage treatment plants in Karachi (which also treat a small quantity of water), no other city in Sindh has any sewerage treatment plant. As a consequence raw sewage, both domestic and industrial is being discharged directly into water bodies. Besides the CETP in Korangi, there is no industrial effluent treatment plant in Sindh. Sindh Vision 2030 envisages setting-up of domestic waste water treatment and recycling plants in all urban centres along with effluent treatment and recycling plants for all industrial estates and clusters. Initiatives should be taken to make the general public aware of the scarcity of water in Sindh as well as Pakistan. Water saving methods, both for home and work places should be introduced. Effective usage of water should be taught in schools as well as other learning institutes. Water wastage should be minimized by means of awareness. This may well mean that water wastage is eventually considered a social crime. The education process should involve the education of farmers, especially poor farmers. New techniques, with effective water management as its main theme should be taught.

C.10: SINDHS WATER VISION Adapting the NWP Vision into the Sindh context we believe that by 2030, Sindh must have adequate water available through effective conservation, quality management, and proper distribution that meets the needs of all water users. In this context we will undertake interventions that create and foster efficient management, institutional development, and environmental considerations with due legal coverage and internalisation. In this manner we aspire to ensure sustainable utilization of the water resources and support economic and social development with due consideration to the environment, quality of life, economic value of resources, ability to pay and participation of all stakeholders.

D:

AGRICULTURE
It is estimated that 62% of geographical area of Sindh is Arid, comprising Thar, Nara and Kohistan, beside a large area under coastal belt (350 Km) and Katcha area. Water, for all uses and in sufficient quantities, remains our most critical concern. Agriculture is the mainstay of Pakistan's economy at one-fourth of the total output (Gross Domestic Product-GDP) and 44% of total employment generated. 67.5% of the country population living in rural areas is directly or indirectly linked with agriculture for their livelihood. The economic development of Sindh is largely dependant on the development and growth of the agriculture sector. The province contributes significantly to the overall national agriculture production in major crops: 32% in National Rice Production 24% in National Sugarcane Production

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12% in National Cotton Production 21% in National Wheat Production

Modernization of agriculture research is an urgent need and must be tackled proactively beyond what is the national perspective. Advancement of mechanized agriculture is an urgent requirement if we are to become self contained and eventually competitive in the national share of agricultural production. Valueadded agro-based industry must be given top priority by launching a provincewide assessment of the potential, development and market scope. There are numerous ideas that have been floated and/or pilot tested. However, this subsector requires a more holistic and an integrated approach. At the same time developing an efficient market information system and improving (through strengthening) our agriculture extension service are also pivotal interventions. Last but not least, it is vital that we reassess our entire Water Management by innovatively reviewing our water losses, irrigation practices, status of water resources, pollution and contamination levels and the state of our user knowledge & education to maximise water conservation and efficiency of use. If the existing supply of water is effectively managed it would lead to sustainable increases in the productivity and better livelihoods for poor people in rural areas. Modern agricultural practices such as drip and sprinkler agriculture should be used to conserve water and meet agricultural demands. The practice of flood irrigation should be stopped as it wastes a lot of water. A number of agricultural practices have negative impacts on the natural resources used; land, water and air. Measures should be taken to avoid such practices. Compounds that are necessary for successful farming may be unwanted in fresh water. For example, phosphorus is essential to plant growth, but too much of it can cause problems in water. Another example is of sediment. It is mineral or plant material suspended in water and wind. It can fall in waterways, ruin fish spawning areas, contribute to the transport of plant nutrients which are bound to soil particles and greatly increase the costs of water treatment. To avoid such problems Best Management Practices (BMP) should be incorporated in agriculture. The major crops of Sindh are sugarcane, maize, wheat and rice. They are all thirsty crops i.e. they require high intakes of water compared to other crops. Incentives for selection of drought-tolerant crop species should be available for farmers. WWF Pakistan has made considerable headway in this direction under their living waters programme. The lessons from this programme can easily be mainstreamed into the Sindh agricultural canvas for all three crops. In areas such as Kacho, Kohistan and hilly areas of Thar, rain water harvesting should be promoted. The education process should involve the education of farmers, especially poor farmers. New techniques, with effective water management as its main theme should be taught.

D.1:

VALUE ADD AGRICULTURE AND AGRO BASED INDUSTRY Development of value added agricultural products and agro-based industry have not been adequately covered in the Pakistan Vision 2030 document. Particular attention needs to be paid to production of oil seeds such as soya bean and sunflower on an industrial scale. Horticulture also needs to be organized on a large scale. Meat, livestock and fisheries need to be paid much greater attention

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and need to be developed on modern lines. Production and processing of Halal food should be a major objective of Sindh. The present Halal food market is USD 250 billion, which is likely to exceed USD 500 billion by 2010. This sector will exceed over USD 1.5 trillion by 2030. Sindh should attempt to get 5% of the above, amounting to USD 75 billion. Innovative products will need to be identified and selected on the basis of more economic value addition and greater relevance to marginalized communities to diversify income opportunities for them. All the given means for value addition are addressed essentially at local level, including quality production, post harvest activities and processing. Relevant opportunities for poor/landless/women are related to farm forestry, agricultural crops and non-timber forest produce including medicinal and aromatic plants have been successfully promoted in NWFP and can be so for Sindh as well. Such an integrated approach will increase the market share of the poor communities significantly enough to bring about a change in their poverty level. Application of improved low-cost/indigenous technologies and pragmatic practices will add value for collectively marketing produce. An effort is required to elucidate the link between conservation and livelihood. The Government of Sindh aims to actively promote market orientation, farmercentred approaches and enterprise development in all our projects to encourage farming as an enterprise. Successful examples of such approaches can be found in the work done in NWFP by InterCooperation Pakistan4. Small farmers and selfoperators will be assisted to help them identify most promising options to retrieve their business potentials and acquire self sufficiency. Gaps in the valuechain will be addressed through interventions that involve engaging relevant actors across the value-chain and thereby, making markets work for the poor. All poverty centred projects will clearly demonstrate the need to map the poverty & economic wellbeing continuum and to link it to the livelihood-conservation nexus. The approach focuses on enhancing the entrepreneurial and management capacities of the farmers and on facilitating their access to quality inputs, market information and credit. Women will be equally encouraged in terms of their representation and recognition in all farm forestry activities. The role of the railway system and air transport in supporting agriculture is important and must be given particular attention, because of distances between smaller towns and cities. Ports, shipping and aviation are also important to Sindh and must be given more attention beyond the federal prerogative.

D.2:

LIVESTOCK AND MEAT Mutton, beef and poultry production has tremendous scope both for local markets as well as for exports. Cattle breeding farms may be established in most of the rural areas of Sindh. Modern slaughter houses, cold storages and meat processing units may be established near large meat consuming urban areas. A project on the pattern of Dairy Pakistan should be launched for developing meat production through cattle breeding and poultry. Cattle breeding, poultry and meat processing will create many thousands of jobs in the rural areas. It is recommended that proper targets be fixed for this sector, as it can certainly contribute positively in poverty reduction through employment

Topic Papers (Working Draft) Series of InterCooperation Pakistan; 2007

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creation in the rural areas. Halal foods preparation and exports offer a tremendous potential for increasing export earnings and for job creation in both formal and informal sectors. The existing training institutions would need to be upgraded and expanded to handle the increased load. Separate training programs need to be developed and implemented for cattle breeders, cattle farmers, slaughterhouse staff and meat processors, distributors etc. on all related subject/ areas.

D.3:

OTHER SUB-SECTORS OF FRUITS, FLORICULTURE AND EDIBLE OIL SEEDS Sindh produces a large variety of fruits. A large amount of fruits produced in the province are totally wasted and they do not reach the market. The major factors being non-availability of farm to market roads, adequate storage facilities, poor transport arrangements, badly managed wholesale markets, lack of processing facilities, etc. Fruits and Vegetable Processing Zones should be established on public-private partnership basis near all the urban centres of the province such as Karachi, Hyderabad, and Sukkur as well as near the production areas. This should be done on a priority basis to help save the wastage of Countrys fruits and vegetables. Floriculture is another high value activity which needs to be promoted in rural Sindh. Although in the recent past flowers have been successfully grown and marketed. Usage of flowers in the province has been growing due to increasing affluence as well as increase in population. This potential needs to be tapped which will result in creating thousands of jobs in the rural areas and increasing the household incomes. Edible Oil Seeds production and oil extraction is an area which has been neglected for many years. Pakistan presently imports 950,000 tons annually edible oil worth over US $ 350 million against 620,000 tons of local production. The Country presently produces only about 4.0 million tons of edible oil seeds annually. Out of this, 3.6 million tons are cottonseeds. As such there is a large scope for edible oilseeds production. The Edible Oilseed Development Board has been in existence for many years without much to show. This activity will create many jobs in agriculture as well as in the non-farm oil extraction, trade and transportation sectors. Sindh due to its large coastal area can greatly contribute towards the production of edible oil seeds and in the process increase employment substantially. Spices and dry fruits is another high value agricultural products group which needs to be looked into. There is substantial potential for increasing production of these crops and establishing small processing units in the rural areas for cleaning, grading, processing and packing for both local markets as well as for exports. The potential of this market should be realized for increased employment opportunities. The entire discussion in this section is consolidated into an issues-solution strategy table. The table is a consolidation based on the issues identified by P&DD, the participants of the 14 consultative workshops and from various research papers. Table 9.3 in Chapter 9 presents the Issues-Strategy table for land, agriculture and water related issues.

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E:

FISHERIES
The role of fisheries in national economy is crucial in contributing approximately 9.3% of GDP with rupees 8 billion worth of annual exports. It provides livelihood to the poor fishermen and also creates different levels of economic activities. The fisheries sector not only creates economic opportunities for the poor people but also contributes in meeting the food requirements of the country. Availability of fresh water in traditional lakes, ponds and water reservoirs to protect the fish species is an important issue. Due to the shortage and contamination of water out of 52 species only 10 species remain existent in the Manchar Lake. For the past few years there has remained a controversy over the method of fishing among fishermen community and government. The fishermen community demanded a license system for the fishermen; the government initially deemed a contract system for the community of fishermen. However, recently the government formally announced the abolishment of the contract system in Sindh. The government of Sindh should work towards improving and introducing the following sectors which are closely linked to the fisheries department; credit facilities for hatcheries and private fish farming as well as research centres on breeding, management, nutrition, disease control and training of fishermen. The quality and amount of fish produced in Pakistan is directly related to the quality of water available. Hence the water quality of areas where inland fishing takes place as well as the water quality of the areas where marine fishing takes place should be well taken care of. Industrial effluent and untreated sewage have already affected the fisheries sector. The recent European Union (EU) ban on fish/fish products from Pakistan (essentially Sindh) has already affected the fisheries sector (Dawn 2007). The reports indicate that the process of fishing, storage at sea and the fisheries harbour facilities still warrant major interventions before this ban can be lifted. The remedial measures proposed in the EU recommendations do not appear difficult or unrealistic. What will be required however is a review of the implementation shortcomings of the past and an integrated action plan to eliminate all EU objections. Subsequently to ensure sustainable success an integrated implementation monitoring and backstopping system requires immediate attention. This should be given top priority and the ensuing success model will serve Sindh in launching many more plausible, meaningful and well-structured interventions.

F:

INDUSTRY
Sindh already has a large industrial base producing over 40% of Pakistans industrial output. A number of industrial estates have been developed in many areas of Sindh for example, Karachi has five industrial estates, Kotri, Sukkur and others. All the existing industrial estates require substantial upgradation of their old and dilapidated infrastructure, e.g. roads, water and sewage systems, storm water drains, electricity, telephone and public amenities. None of the existing industrial estates has an industrial effluent treatment plant. None of them has a proper solid waste collection and disposal system, as well. Besides improving infrastructure and environmental conditions of the existing industrial estates, it is essential to develop new integrated industrial estates away

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from the main urban centers near the new Satellite towns. These new industrial estates will be developed on PPP basis either with foreign or local private parties. It will be ensured that industrial effluent treatment plants and proper solid waste management systems are implemented soonest at all the existing industrial estates. The new ones will be developed using cluster approach to ensure that proper combined effluent treatments can be developed as has been done for Korangi tanneries. Each industrial estate will have facilities for proper testing of products under the Pakistan Quality Control Standards. Proper access to ports, airports and markets will be provided for speedy delivery to local and export markets. Each industrial estate will be encouraged to generate and distribute electric power for the use of the industrial units. Similarly, water treatment facilities and water distribution will also be undertaken independently by each industrial estate. Technical and vocational training centres will be developed in each industrial estate for training of skilled workers. Internships will be provided to the graduates of all TTCs and VTCs and university graduates to ensure better marketability of the skills and knowledge acquired. Agro-based industrial development will be fostered using the agricultural raw materials of Sindh. Specially designed fruits and vegetable processing zones will be developed near the major production centers. Mineral based industry will be promoted using the various mineral deposits of Sindh such as gypsum, coal, limestone, dolomite, marble, granite, china clay, etc. In addition the existing industrial base comprising of textiles, leather, pharmaceuticals, auto parts, automobiles, steel, light engineering, consumer durables, chemicals, petro-chemicals, confectionary, food processing, beverages, etc. will be further strengthened.

G:

ENERGY
Sindh is blessed with Thar Coal having coal deposits of over 182 billion tons which if used to generate power or gas can meet the energy requirements of the country for over 200 years. Maximum attention will be paid to the development of power plants based on Thar coal. Other coal mines of Sindh at Lakhra, Sonda etc. will also be developed to their full potential. Sindh is also endowed with a major wind corridor in and around Gharo. Studies have shown a potential of over 55,000 mega watts of power production using wind. Although the Government has already taken a number of steps for generating wind based power, this renewable source of energy will be developed on priority basis. Both Solar Photo Voltaic as well as Solar Thermal Power has considerable potential as renewable energy for Sindh. Efforts will be made to maximize benefit of this abundant source of renewable energy.

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Waste to energy is another major source of renewable energy which will be harnessed effectively. Using solid waste generated by Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur and other urban areas of Sindh, power plants will be set-up. This will have a positive effect on the environment as well. Domestic and industrial waste water can be used to not only generate methane gas for power production but also to produce water fit for irrigation. These plants will be set-up in all mega, large and small urban centers to mitigate environmental pollution and for generating energy and also water for irrigation. Bio fuels from plants such as Jetropha, ethanol from molasses and other plants will be developed to meet the growing energy needs of Sindh.

H:

HEALTH
The entire Vision is constructed on the fact that a healthy, productive and prosperous nation. The inclusion of the proverb health is wealth is of significance here. Water is a critical component of health of all living things in terms of consumptive use and sanitation. The high pollution level of rivers and groundwater has led to different environmental consequences such as reduction of biodiversity, increase in water related diseases, and decrease in agricultural productivity. In addition, mismanagement of water resources has strong socioeconomic repercussions, especially on food security and health (SOE 2005). Water-related environmental health risks impose the most significant environmental health burden. The commonly encountered infectious and noninfectious waterborne diseases are diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, helminthiasis and enteric fever. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that Pakistan and Bhutan rank second among 31 Asian countries in annual diarrhoeal episodes among young children. Exposure to waterborne diseases is an important contributing factor to infant mortality, which remains high despite improvements in demographic indicators. Lack of sanitation is a major public health problem that causes disease, sickness and death. Poor farmers and wage earners are less productive due to illness. Without safe water and sanitation, sustainable development is impossible. Thus, improvements in safe water supply and in particular in hygiene and sanitation should be enacted. There is general lack of awareness about water related diseases and sanitation issues in rural Sindh as well as rural Pakistan. The prevention of water related diseases would require alternate and cost effective sanitation solutions as well as overall awareness of hygiene in rural as well as urban Sindh. Widespread i.e. beyond all existing initiatives, awareness campaigns are required to mitigate losses and to arrest further decline in the health of all Sindhis. Most of the water related diseases are curable and can be prevented from occurring. Initiatives should be taken to create awareness of such diseases and their remedies. Awareness should also be created amongst the masses to avoid the occurrence of water born diseases.

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Hygiene remains one of the most important issues of poverty and of health. . Hygiene would only come through education on water related diseases and the condition of sanitation. Special emphasis should be laid on women and hygiene education. Women play a very important role in the distribution of water in rural Sindh, they usually fetch water. Women should be made aware of all water related diseases and their implications. With the overall vision for health being Health for All the Government of Sindh will: Protect people against pollutions of all forms and types, and from communicable, non-communicable and hazardous diseases by promoting public health and by upgrading curative care facilities. This level of intervention will be coordinated with the Environment Protection Department, Medical Associations, Medical Universities, Apex Industry Associations, Town Municipal Administrations and with all health care providing institutions; Enhance basic health care by making it more accessible & affordable, efficient, effective and timely. This will be achieved by diversifying outlets through the involvement and support of other organisations that provide health or healthrelated services. An important inclusion in this direction will be the extension and enhancement of basic healthcare education in schools, colleges, universities and other technology/vocational training institutions; Regulate protection from disease and the quality of healthcare across the province. In this context the Health Department will regularly survey and analyse healthcare statistics, particularly on women, children and the elderly; Enhance and improve existing emergency care facilities and trauma centres, including ambulatory services and paramedic forces; Assess the impact of past campaigns to arrest malnutrition, improve maternal and child healthcare and on preventing extraneous causes of fatalities caused by road accidents, poor sanitation, etc. Civil society organisations have contributed to womens material well-being and to quite an extent such organisations have empowered, both socially and politically, the women within their constituencies. The work of most civil societies in this direction will be studied through focus group discussions and the lessons learnt from the dialogue will be used to bolster the poverty alleviation strategy for poor women.

In quantitative terms the healthcare targets are reflected in the following table: Table B: Healthcare targets for 2030 Scope 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IMR Child Mortality Rate under 5 years MMR Fully Immunized Children 12-23 months Birth attendant by skilled birth attendant Total Fertility Rate Proportion of antenatal care Contraceptive Prevalence Rate TB Cases detective and cured under DOTs Current 71 100 350 57% 37% 4.73 59% 43% 2015 40 52 140 90% 90% 2.1 100% 55% 85% 2030 20 30 90 100% 100% 1.1 100% 70%

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Scope 10

Current

2015

2030

Prevalence of under weight Children (5 40% <10% <5% Years) 11 LHW Coverage 60% 100% 100% 2015 targets are defined in alignment with the Millennium Development Goals To improve and strengthen the environmental and living conditions of all citizens of Sindh, including rural towns and villages, we believe that in this way the environment sector, the health sector and municipal administration can be collectively addressed and thus some of the more alarming problems faced by the population can be effectively eliminated. Tackling the issues and problems of all three sectors is a daunting task. However, with a wellplanned integrated approach many of the common areas can be dealt with in the first instance. This phase of development can be followed up with more sectororiented projects. The table below presents a broad outline of the interventions required and identifies the areas in which the Government of Sindh and allied stakeholders can be of valuable service to the people of Sindh. Assistance of the district administration, elected representatives and civil society organisations will be necessary to initiate work through awareness building, concept sharing, providing local workforce and eventually maintenance staff. The interventions listed in Table 11.2 in Chapter 11 can be undertaken in phases. All interventions will require the production and dissemination of awareness material (such as posters, booklets etc.) through training workshops, seminars, awareness walks etc. Implementation will include the transfer of technology through focused and well-planned training modules.

I:

POVERTY ALLEVIATION
According to the PRSP poverty in Sindh is not merely an outcome of economic ills but a result of ineffective governance over past years. Poverty alleviation is only possible when economic, political, and social dimensions of governance are addressed by forging a partnership between the government, the private sector, and the civil society. The Government of Sindh aims to make the necessary changes emanating from the reviews of the UNDP, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, DFID and many international NGOs operating in Pakistan, in the existing Sindh PRSP-I to customise the strategy more emphatically to the Sindh context. This is particularly relevant if we are to proactively address poverty across the board. It may be noted here that the SV2030 Synthesis Matrix of the Government of Sindh embodies the multi-sector and multi-issue coverage. Using the best possible means the government aims to implement the core principles of the strategy which include (i) engendering growth, (ii) implementing broad based governance reforms in support of poverty alleviation, (iii) improving social sector outcomes through the complement of civil society organisation operating in Sindh and last but not least, (iv) working through a coordinated effort with all departments to reduce vulnerability to shocks.

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The civil society organisations that have been empowered through the Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF) offer a well established base to initiate and improve social sector outcomes and the partnership with the Government in this regard will strengthen the otherwise turbulent relationship with the NGO community. Equally important and pivotal to this coordinated, orchestrated and multidisciplinary approach is the establishment of the Sindh Poverty Baseline. In this regard the Government of Sindh aims to launch a comprehensive evaluation to accurately assess the situation on ground and to solicit more contextualised action areas for further enhancement of the attitude and attention to poverty eradication. According to the participants of the consultations and respondents of the Opinion Survey5 many studies indicate that with exception of rural Balochistan, rural Sindh suffers the highest poverty levels. There is an urgent need of introducing programs to alleviate poverty in rural Sindh and initiate equal opportunity and affirmative action programs for rural Sindhis. The challenge then is to at least bring poverty rates in rural Sindh at par with poverty rates in other areas of Sindh and Pakistan. A case in point is found in the natural resource exploration industry. There is an urgent need to enforce the laws and regulations that require the private and semi-government companies that are earning massive amounts of revenue from the oil and gas fields of Sindh to hire, to the maximum extent possible, from the particular area and/or neighbouring districts. The following holistically: measures will be taken to combat poverty more

Legal empowerment of the poor and vulnerable, and improvements in judicial governance and human resource development, is being framed in coordination with Pakistans development partners such as ADB, World Bank etc.; Our overall aim will be to address poverty alleviation in rural areas by working through innovative pro-poor approaches and committed partnerships. The approach will focus in three broad spheres: o Natural Resource Management (agriculture, forestry) o Rural Economy (savings and credit, small enterprise promotion, marketing of agricultural and forest products) o Local/Resource Governance and Civil Society (promotion of self-help groups and professional associations); An effort is required to elucidate the link between conservation and livelihood. The Government of Sindh aims to actively promote market orientation, farmer-centred approaches and enterprise development in all our projects to encourage farming as an enterprise. Successful examples of such approaches can be found in the work done in NWFP by InterCooperation Pakistan6. Small farmers and self-operators will be assisted to help them identify most promising options to retrieve their business potentials and acquire self sufficiency. All poverty centred projects will clearly demonstrate the need to map the poverty & economic wellbeing continuum and to link it to the livelihood-conservation nexus. Women will be equally encouraged in terms of

Mr. Khalid Hashmani, Mr. Fayyaz Khaskheli and Mr. Ali Nawaz Memon in particular, emphasised upon this aspect and advocated adding questions structured in this manner into the Opinion Survey to assess the peoples priority for poverty alleviation. 6 Topic Papers (Working Draft) Series of InterCooperation Pakistan; 2007

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their representation and recognition in all farm forestry activities. The concept of farmer-centred approaches for technology transfer was pioneered by IC in its project in NWFP and includes three main components: o Farmer Field Schools (FFS) o Participatory Technology Development (PTD) o REFLECT activity which is an innovative approach to adult learning; Proactively solicit larger allocations for Sindh under the PRSP-II by demonstrating a positive and proactive attitude. This will require the compilation of a detailed Sindh PRSP 2030, and nothing less; Effective governance is often the missing link between anti-poverty efforts and poverty reduction7. What remains a challenge for the Government of Sindh is the widespread understanding of the link between decentralization and peoples empowerment. This link must be fortified to make inroads against poverty; Wholeheartedly support and promote the Indus For All Programme that aims to work with all relevant stakeholders at district and provincial level to build capacity, support and influence planning and mainstreaming of poverty - environment issues; The Sindh Forest Department envisions the management, conservation and development of forest & wildlife resources to increase productivity, alleviate forest-related poverty, help improve environment and promote rural economic development. The prime goal of the Department will be to develop and implement policies that integrate the objectives of conservation and development to reduce pressure on natural forests, protect their environmental values and conserve biodiversity. The Department also intends to help alleviate poverty through the creation of forest based income generating opportunities and by continuing to meet the needs of local people for timber, fuel-wood, fodder and miscellaneous non-wood product from the forest. However, it also remains paramount that we rehabilitate degraded ecosystems and create environmental awareness; In the fisheries and livestock sector focus on poverty alleviation of the poor rural masses by helping them increasing their income through enhanced production, transformation of subsistence towards commercialization and contribution towards food security and exportable surpluses. It is expected that poverty will be reduced as the socio-economic conditions of poor livestock raisers and fish farmers improve; With reference to costal development the CDA envisages the fostering of integrated and sustainable coastal and marine zone management practices to increase productivity, alleviate poverty, help improve environment and promote rural economic development. In this context the CDA along with the Sindh EPA, Tourism Department and the Sports Board plan to introduce ecotourism and suitable water sports that can be enjoyed without harm to the environment and at the same time offer jobs to the local costal communities; For all of the above stated goals it is paramount that resources mobilization and transparent financial management is given top priority for Poverty Alleviation through community development and NGO support.

J:

EDUCATION
The prime objective here is to implement, in letter and spirit, the National Action Plan Education For All without prejudice and with complete

UNDP report at www.undp.org/povertyreport/ENGLISH/ARchap5.pdf

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transparency. In this context the pivotal interventions deemed necessary are as follows: Impart Basic Education (free); Vocational & applied education centres within rural, per-urban and industrial areas; educate all mothers especially in rural context; Languages of education should be standardized. Sindhi & Urdu should be mandatory for all. English should be given its due importance as an international language; Mandatory inclusion of IT courses starting at the school level (e.g. Private schools already do this); Development of Teachers and professional substitutes; Eliminate gender bias in curriculum development; Encourage young women and girls through opportunities and facilities for participation in sports; develop women development centres; Introduce farmer field trainings in rural schools to ensure that the next generation of farmers is already tuned to BMP, market intelligence and opportunities. Introduce wider farm mechanisation (contextual relevance); Importance of water; Water saving methods at home and at work; Water misuse chowkidars; Construct required schools and higher education institutions (building and all associated facilities in context to the location and level of education) in all districts. Take stock of operational and staffed schools and eliminate ghost schools; Launch a rural education programme to educate all mothers, regardless of location, age, cast or creed. Subscribe to the philosophy of educate a woman educate a family.

To do this the Government of Sindh envisions that serious improvements in the present system of education will be required to deliver a system that yields: The permanent elimination of gender inequality in education; That provides quality of education in the elementary sector; That significantly improves the enrolment rate in the Province; Which provides skilled education to meet the national and international requirements of a competitive society; That ensures improvement in the competency of educators and teachers; and One in which we can eliminate all types of disparities and imbalances.

K:

ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY
Pakistans showing in both of the main indexes of the World Economic Forum (WEF) gives cause for encouragement. Pakistans ranking in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) improved from 94 in 2005. This understates the true performance of Pakistan because more countries were included in 2006. On a percentile basis, Pakistan improved from the 20th percentile to the 28th percentile. In the Business Competitive Index (BCI), Pakistan came in at a respectable 67th position among 121 countries The CSF was able to ensure implementation of the World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey, Pakistan was included in the Global Competitiveness Report and came to the attention of the world community. Pakistan was mentioned by the BCI author, Dr. Michael Porter, as a country showing significant improvements in key indicators that are highly correlated with future economic growth. Among low income countries, India followed by Pakistan registers the

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highest rate of dynamism. Pakistans improvements are so far concentrated in business environment upgrading perhaps a reflection of the countrys ambitious national competitiveness program. The Global Competitiveness Index 2006 (GCI-2006) provides a holistic overview of factors that are critical to driving productivity and competitiveness and groups them into nine pillars: Institutions, Infrastructure, Macro economy, Health and Primary Education, Higher education and training, Market efficiency, Technological readiness, Business Sophistication and Innovation. These nine pillars are organised into three sub indexes, each critical to a particular stage of development; a) basic requirements, b) efficiency enhancers, and c) innovation and sophistication factors (Lopez-Carlos/WEF 2006). Increasing economic productivity will entail focusing on the nine pillars upon which the GCI is calculated. In absence of provincial indices it is our intent to adopt the current GCI index for Pakistan as that for Sindh and to then work towards (i) calculating the Sindh GCI by the year 2009 and (ii) improving Sindhs ranking accordingly. Some of the key interventions related to economic productivity are listed here. These interventions are closely linked to poverty alleviation as well: The export development boards need to work closely with SMEDA, SME Bank, Khushhali Bank and other small industries organizations to develop SMEs in their respective sectors. Only a well coordinated effort will enable the SMEs to develop on sound lines, otherwise they will continue to grow only marginally as they do presently; There is no institution offering courses in entrepreneurship and project development. These programs need to be developed and implemented at all levels such as university, college, TTC, and VTC. Trainees attending these courses should be given financial support by SME Bank, Khushhali Bank, ZTBL and other such organizations throughout Sindh; Proactively engage and foster the symbiotic linkage between industry/services and academia to evolve innovate products and value-add goods. Such an intervention will require comprehensive research and development and linkages with international institutes, industry associations and universities.

L:

EMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY


It is generally recognized that public expenditure directly or indirectly induces productive employment and thus results in reducing poverty. Public investment in health, education, safe water and sanitation, vocational and technical training enhances the capabilities of people to seek productive employment and get better wages. The main way in which public investments may contribute to generating productive employment, both directly and indirectly, is through investments in and development of supporting infrastructure. Construction of farm to market roads results in reducing the transportation costs of the farmers. Similarly, creation of storage facilities and improvement in irrigation system also results in reducing the input costs of agriculture. All of this results in increasing the overall prosperity of the region, which in turn results in the establishment of non-farm SMEs.

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Development of good transport and communication system, provision of piped water, sanitation and utilities stimulates the development of a large number of SMEs which generate employment and increased household incomes. Productive employment generation needs to be kept in focus while preparing and planning public-sector development projects. Due attention should be given to use of suitable technologies as in many cases use of labour intensive technologies may be economically beneficial for the project. Two proposals are presented below to meet the particular requirements of the poor .Sponsor a Shelter Foundation and Social Housing Projects. These are briefly described below: Under the Sponsor a Shelter Foundation, funds will be made available to the poor to partially meet the mortgage payments. The Foundation will generate funds through solicitation of Zakat, Kherat and other charitable contributions by individuals and the corporate sector. The Foundation will be managed professionally and transparently. Social Housing projects will require provision of housing units to the poor and low income groups on incremental basis as in the case of Khuda Ki Basti in Karachi. Under this scheme low cost housing projects and schemes will be developed on specially allocated government land to ensure affordability. Sindh government should allocate lands for developing satellite towns and large housing schemes for the poor. By increasing the supply of land by bringing into market erstwhile unutilized government land, the prices of land in the urban areas is likely to come down, making land for housing units more affordable. There is a large shortage of trained/ qualified construction workers both for domestic and overseas markets. There is an urgent need to upgrade and expand all the TTCs and VTCs in the province for training of plumbers, steel fitters, electricians, masons, tile fixers, carpenters and other construction related trades. Private sector representatives should be invited on the Boards of all TTCs and VTCs to monitor development of suitable curriculum and proper conduct of training and exams The heavy migration of people from Baluchistan, Punjab and N.W.F.P to Karachi annually it is estimated that more than 250,000 immigrants settle in Karachi. Out of Karachi's population of 16 to 18 million nearly 10 million are migrants. Ways will have to be found to stop this inward migration as it puts tremendous pressure on the city's infrastructure and at the same time it is vital that we learn how to maximise the economic benefits from migrants that have settled in Sindh. The target for manpower exports need to be fixed and communicated to all concerned federal and provincial departments and agencies. A rough estimate would be around 350,000 workers per year may be placed in overseas employment, thereby, creating over 1.0 million overseas jobs during the tenure of PRSP II for Pakistan. Sindh should be able to send at least 100,000 skilled workers to overseas markets.

M:

EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE, JUSTICE AND PROSPERITY


Governance is a concept that has broadened considerably since its emergence in discourse for development issues around the late 1980s. The significant update

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in the concept is its transformation from governability towards the systematic negotiation among different and diversity of interests in the society. The dominant stance on effective governance describes effective governance as the manner in which potential authority effectively manages the social and economic resources8. Our Sindh Vision 2030 provides an approach towards transparent and accountable institutional arrangement to enable the people of the province to initiate sustainable development as well as to ensure justice, human rights and prosperity. It also foresees provision of equal rights and status to marginalised sections of society, ensuring their mainstreaming and participation in public life. In this context we will endeavour to: Involve citizens and will ensure accountability of government to them; Build capacities to deliver effectively; Formulate and implement public sector reforms; Ensure the transition of the non-profit sector; Ensure and enforce an effective and transparent legal and judicial framework; Eliminate corruption; Enforce the Rule of Law uniformly and without prejudice; Make more efficient civil society cooperation in all socio-economic developments, particularly in the health and education sectors; Devolve authority and resources as required; Ensure freedom of expression and free media; Develop professional capacity and to resist influence of any particular interest; Interface between public and private sectors for development mainstreaming, ownership and accountability; Guarantee human security in conflict situations and in the mitigation and response to natural disasters; Ensure just and equitable resource distribution; Emphasise upon and ensure equal and equitable opportunities to all citizens; And most importantly, ensure that the rights of the vulnerable and weak segments of society are protected.

N:

INFRASTRUCTURE
Rural infrastructure differs from urban infrastructure in the amount of public investment per unit of geographical area. Sindh Vision 2030 focuses on infrastructure in Sindh with reference to Information Technology, Transport and Road Sector, City Planning, Administrative Infrastructure to improve the service delivery by the social sector departments of the governance. While federal institutions provide major players of physical infrastructure like power, telecommunication, highways and transport etc. The provincial government can play an important role in provision of urban and rural infrastructure like water & sewerage, urban, rural and intercity transport systems.

Johnson, Isabelle. Redefining the Concept of Governance; Political and Social Policies Division, Canadian International Development Agency, July 1997; the broadened definition stated in this document was adapted from UNDP, World Bank, Institute on Governance, Asian Development Bank, DAC-OECD.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Provincial government would develop a frame work in which the private sector can provide the infrastructure at a reasonable price and quality would be one of the corner stone areas of future development. The Karachi Mega Projects and the Karachi City Master Plan need to enhance the planning and designing process and to engage civil society organizations to facilitate the concerns of citizens with respect to protecting heritage, environment and existing ascetics of the city; All Katchi Abadis will require detailed land utilisation surveys and demographic profiling before any restructuring and renovations are possible; We in Sindh need to identify land banks near all the cities and develop intermediate cities on the National Highways as well as on the Motorways. Smaller cities would be self contained and will benefit from all experiences of private public partnership and latest technology for waste water treatment, solid waste management, health care, education, community living, quality of life, etc.

Suggestions are made to fill the housing gap. Some suggestions are as follows: Construction of low income housing Regularisation of Kutchi Abadi's High-rise mass housing construction Availability of developed land with more small sized plots Enhanced supply of long-term fixed interest rate financing options Increased community participation in housing and service delivery Affordable credit for rural housing for landless poor Develop satellite towns all along the motorways and national highways for reducing pressure on large cities. It is to point out that the structure plans were prepared for 17 cities of Sindh Province including Hyderabad, Sukkur, Nawabshah, and Larkana. Therefore, there is a need to update these plans by respective district governments for undertaking the development activities accordingly.

The most important goal under the Sindh Vision 2030 for infrastructure development in the education sector is to bring at par all rural and urban centres of learning. This primarily includes upgrading all existing rural schools to the basic global standard for local community schools and connecting these schools into a school network of the type demonstrated by the Pakistan Teacher Association Network (a CIDA and AKES funded initiative). Upgrading existing rural and peri-urban schools involves properly constructed buildings, boundary walls, new classrooms, libraries, playgrounds, water and sanitation and many such other requirements that a quality school should have. Improved infrastructure, such as boundary walls and sanitation, will ensure an increase in the overall enrolment as well as enrolment of girl students by providing a more secure environment. With regard to the women, children and the elderly, we need to establish crisis centres and rehabilitation centres in all districts. A network of such centres would then be fostered to enable improved sharing and reporting of incidences and for the uniform approach to dealing with an otherwise difficult issue. Day care/childcare centres are required at the least, in all districts. A survey of working mother will be organised to design and implement an appropriate network of day care centres. The civil society organisations will be included in the survey to facilitate accurate data collection. UNICEF and other

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

such organisation that cater to development funding and programming will be approached for funds and to monitor the development process. Youth centres, other than the standard game or recreational centres will be established to cater to all types and ages of our youth, including the street children of all urban areas. Water related infrastructure in Sindh needs substantial investments and proactive interventions. These relate to development of small reservoirs for storage of rain water, improvement of the decaying irrigation network, better utilisation of Indus River for transport purposes, establishing water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, industrial effluent treatment plants etc. There is a need to analyze the institutional setup of providing water supply and sanitation facilities to determine its deficiencies and give recommendations for improvements at provincial, district and TMA levels in achieving the realistic targets for SV2030.

O:

THE WAY FORWARD TO LAUNCHING THE SV2030


The most important, administratively speaking, action on our part would be the creation of a centralised research agenda. If common goals on R&D can be identified and coordinated a Repository of efforts and results will automatically be created - A centralised web-based knowledge database and discussion portal would make the emerging knowledge base available to all. Designing and commissioning one external monitoring & evaluation team that specifically looks into, backstops and reports on the integration status or (lack thereof). Information generation and utilisation under the Communication Strategy would need to (at least) address: Sharing expertise; what, when, with whom, and how; Processes of dissemination would need to include the public, direct beneficiary, and national interests. A key item on common information sharing would be tracking the SV2030 agenda; Lessons on technology transfers and consultancy assignments, undertakings could be widely disseminated through a newsletter and/or a special page on the website; Importance of intellectual property rights and common/programme rights will need to be addressed to avoid elements of conflicts and/or embarrassments; Knowledgebase of all the initiatives, efforts, achievements, tracking, human capital gains, resource utilisation, etc. The Government of Sindh will have to be strengthened to implement various components, programmes and projects envisaged in SV2030. A number of new organizations will need to be established including: a) Sindh Highway Authority to undertake development and maintenance of inter-district highways, roads, bridges etc. b) Sindh Intercity Transport Development Company on a public-private partnership basis for development of inter-city Bus and Truck terminals of international standard in all major cities and towns of Sindh. Further, this Company will assist the private sector in developing world class bus and trucking companies.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

c) Sindh Inland Water Transport Company on a public-private partnership basis to develop use of Indus River for transportation of passengers and goods. This IWTC will work closely with private sector in developing jetties, godowns, repair and maintenance facilities, passenger handling facilities and establishment of modern fleets of river craft. d) Sindh Agriculture Development Company to work on a PPP basis for promoting development and marketing of high-value agriculture crops such as fruits, vegetables and edible oil seeds. e) Sindh Livestock Development Company will work with the private sector in developing the potential of milk and dairy products as well as meat and meat processing. f) Sindh Halal foods Development Company working with the private sector to develop manufacturing and export of halal foods from Sindh. Using the agricultural and livestock potential of Sindh, the SHDC will endeavour to take a major share of world Halal Food market presently valued at over US$250 billion. g) Sindh Industrial Development Company will work on a PPP basis in developing manufacturing units using agricultural and mineral endowments of Sindh. The SIDC will also be responsible for developing new industrial estates on PPP basis for further industrialization of Sindh. h) Sindh Public Private Partnership Development Fund will be responsible for identifying projects which may be undertaken on PPP basis and then developing frameworks for their successful implementation. The SPPPF will also provide funding, if needed, to the selected projects. Funds for PPPs will be raised from local and international capital markets through floatation of equity units and Islamic debt instruments such as Sakuks, etc. i) Sindh Towns Development Authority will be primarily responsible for developing satellite and new towns along the highways between the existing large urban centres. The STDA will identify the sites and get initial town planning done using top class town planners. The actual development works will be undertaken on PPP basis in order to develop world class integrated urban developments with all modern amenities. j) Sindh Shelter Foundation will be responsible for developing low-cost housing schemes throughout Sindh to meet the growing shortage of housing units. The SSF will also be responsible for developing and implementing innovative housing schemes and commercial developments for the rehabilitation of the inhabitants of Katchi Abadis as has been successfully done in Manila, Bangkok, etc. Funding for the SSF will be generated through a well organized and transparent system of receiving Zakat, Khairat and other philanthropic contributions. The Government will provide matching grants to ensure long term sustainability of the Foundation. k) Poverty Reduction Secretariat will be set-up to ensure a well coordinated implementation of Sindh PRSP. This Secretariat will also ensure development of PRSPs for each of the 23 districts and their implementation by district authorities. l) On-line Monitoring of PSDP and PRSP at provincial and district level will be developed and implemented. This will help the line departments and all the other concerned departments in proper monitoring of all projects and programs. m) Singh Development Report should be issued on an annual basis. This document will help all the stakeholders in evaluating their own performance on a regular basis. This will also help all the external financing agencies in understanding the views of Sindh and thus aligning themselves with its requirements.

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Capability development will require widespread awareness and training of project staff and will also necessitate the framing of Standards & Guidelines and SOPs to ensure sustainable integration and continued coordination. The next step, and a crucial one at that, would be to look at the conceptual elements of the Sv2030 integration (i.e. consensus on stakes, roles and responsibilities geared towards programme delivery). The appropriate staring point in the series of next steps is to work out detailed action plans and corresponding set of objectively verifiable indicators for measuring progress.

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CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

1.1: OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE


The Scope of study as per Contract is given as under: Analysis of Provincial economic status on the basis of provincial GDP and assisting the Client in making possible projections for growth; Identification of possible policy instruments required for Provincial Government for facilitating growth in various sectors and for removing impediments to growth at various levels and the future economic scenario; Taking into account the existing mineral and mines resources to generate the financial resources in future development including alternate energy resources of the Province; Examination of the demographic features of the Province including the foreign immigrants and people of other Provinces who settled in the Province making projections on the demographic scenario by 2030; Undertaking an analysis of the human development status especially education, health, water and sanitation and availability of services for population of the Province by 2030; Presentation of an analysis of existing situation of employment in the Province, the future job market and the policy inputs required to prepare the job entrants for the needed skills; Provision of self employment strategy in order to utilize the skilled as well as non skilled workers in order to increase the income of their families; Assessment of present status of infrastructure, e.g: electricity, roads, bridges, irrigation networks, housing, transport, drinking water, sanitation and solid waste-management in various major cities of the Province for facilitating their development of vision on the infrastructure requirement for speeding up growth in the urban and rural areas of the Province; Assessment of the situation of overall poverty in the Province today and as to what levels to reduce it in the next two decades on the basis of a vision that is based on a future poverty reduction strategy by considering adequate social safety nets that benefit the poor such as food support programme, micro-credit, women uplift programmes and to devise mechanism in view of anticipated inflation of safeguard the poor from it; Arranging workshops in Karachi and four other districts (Hyderabad, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah and Sukkur) with stakeholders, officers of District Government, Economists, Researchers, Public Representatives and NGOs/Community members occupational groups, Chambers of Commerce, Agriculture and Industry to solicit their views; Addressing a concrete proposal keeping in view proper utilization of agriculture bi-products will be proposed; With a view to generate employment opportunities in every district of the Province, as well as marketing of agriculture products, proposing, establishment of agro-based industries; Devising the strategy in the vision 2030 to overcome the macro and micro economic problems of districts of the Province by taking into account the parameters of MTDF; Analysis in vision 2030 of the environment problems and suggestions and elaborate health environment;

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CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

1.2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The entire process of determining our vision for Sindh in the year 2030 is primarily based on the overarching vision statement for Pakistan in the Pakistan Vision 2030 document. The vision statement framed by peers and the Government of Pakistan is an adventurous and challenging undertaking.

Developed, industrialised, just and prosperous Pakistan through rapid and sustainable development in a resource-constrained economy by developing knowledge inputs National Economic Council; May 2007

All consultations, the base ingredient in the preparation of this Vision document, have focused on identifying the common values and common goals that are fundamental to determining a fresh and bias-free vision for Sindh. Each of the 23 districts that make up the Sindh province is unique in many ways and each district is rich with demographic diversities and heritage assets. Such diversity normally also gives rise to the need for a balanced development approach that is at the same time contextually relevant. Where diversity tension arise we have regarded these instances as Gateway Events that, if dealt with honestly, can serve as opportunities for increased understanding and hence ownership of the gigantic tasks ahead of us in implementing the Sindh Vision 2030. The responsibility for reducing biases and making diversity work rests on each and very citizen of Sindh, the administration and civil society organisation (catalysts of change) of the districts to which they belong; men, women, children, immigrant, native-born. We all have biases, and we all need to work on getting them out of the way of our ability to work effectively in realising the goals for a prosperous Sindh. The process of the consultative workshops has helped ensure that all types of people had a chance to contribute in the vision building process. The worksheets, charts and other input solicitation formats have indeed been instrumental in documenting and analysing the views, concerns and recommendations of all the 500 plus participants of the 14 consultative workshops held in six districts with people from all 23 districts. On the whole the Project Team consulted, through the first workshop series, 435 people from 23 districts of Sindh (see Table 1.1), representing the Officials and Officers of the Government of Sindh, elected representatives, civil society, academia, businessmen, industrialists, and agriculturists/zamindars. In the second round of consultations more than 150 people were briefed on the outputs and analysis of the first round of workshops. Participants of all six workshops in the first round were briefed on the vision statement of the Pakistan Vision 2030 (Working Draft) and on its salient features. After the presentation on the background to the vision compilation process the participants were asked the questions - Should the vision be adventurous? The answers were to the effect:

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CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

Yes certainly! It should be realistic with determined targets Yes, and it should be attainable or near attainable It should be based on analysis and true statistics It can be adventurous and imaginary at the broader level First we should know the Pakistan vision Vision should be accurate where is Pakistan going?

Pleasantly, the quality of participation has been beyond expectations and the blend of government, civil society and private sector has proved to be a tremendous success. The quality of the consultations is also reflected in the fact that a total of 259 suggestions were generated. Another indicator demonstrating the high interest levels has been the extension of the closing time from 1600 hours to 1800 hours. Groups invariably wanted more time for the deliberations. The objective of the consultative process was defined as: To determine the goals for the near-term (5 years), mid-term (15 years) and the long-term (25 years) in priority areas that will be considered in the compilation of the Sindh Vision 2030 document; To identify key problems that hinders the realisation of the goals; To solicit comments and views on possible solutions for the near-term, mid-term and the long-term

Workgroups were formed based on district relevance to deliberate upon the goals, associated problems and possible solutions. The consolidated and sector coded recommendations/suggestions received from the participants has been used in the analytical process. All these inputs and information from a large number of visionoriented documents, reference materials and international reports were used to develop the Synthesis Matrix. This matrix was shared with the P&DD Chiefs of Sections, experts and with the participants of the second series of workshops. Comments received on the structure and content of this matrix have been considered and appropriately incorporated into the final synthesis matrix attached as Appendix 2. The structure and approach in developing this matrix and the Opinion Survey conducted as a supporting analytical tool is explained in more detail in the next chapter. Between the information and recommendations narrated in the Chapters of this vision document and the Synthesis Matrix, we have attempted to cover all aspects of development deemed necessary for moving and working towards a prosperous Sindh. A conscious effort has been made to identify relevant long-term policies, strategies and plans developed at the provincial and national level. The strategic directions therein have been analysed (see Appendix 1) and wherever appropriate, the guidance and/or direction has been used. This approach ensures that we do not reinvent a new wheel; rather we take stock of all that has been done in the past and build further upon those foundations. The bottom line in this context is to ensure sustainable successes through many small and pivotal changes.

1.3: STRUCTURE OF THIS VISION DOCUMENT


The structure of this document flows on the basis of the statement a healthy, productive and prosperous nation. The inclusion of the proverb health is wealth is of significance here.

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CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

The first section of the Sindh Vision 2030 largely deals with the health of the Sindhi people. Jan hey tu jahan hey a famous Sindhi saying which means if you are healthy then you have every opportunity to be wealthy. This relationship between health and wealth essentially determines the first priority of any vision. It is with this perspective in mind that the Sindh Vision 2030 document has been consultatively compiled. Issues such as health have been discussed in the chapter on poverty. Health is directly proportional to productivity hence the second section of this document is productivity which is based on human resource development of the people of Sindh. It covers the twin, broad spectrums of education and employment. Emphasis should be laid on the education of the people of Sindh. The second section then leads to the third section which is prosperity. Prosperity of a nation is ensured through justice and provision of all basic human rights of the masses. The tools for achieving prosperity are the gifts of Allah, land and water, their proper utilization, which can only be achieved through proper infrastructure. Thus as stated the structure of this document is highly integrated and can only be a workable vision if all parts are in unison.

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CHAPTER 02: THE SYNTHESIS MATRIX

CHAPTER 02: THE SYNTHESIS MATRIX; AN INTEGRATED APPROACH


As stated un the previous chapter, Sindh Vision 2030 has been developed on the basis of inputs received from the two series of workshops conducted at Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Mirpurkhas and Sukkur, workshops and meetings held with chiefs of all the sections of P&DD, experts and inputs/ comments received from interested public through the internet. As such extension use of primary data collected through the above means has been done. Further, secondary data from various sources has been obtained and analyzed for this document. The following sections contain description of the same and the approach used by the consulting team.

2.1: PRIMARY DATA


In the period January 11 to May 25, 2007 more than 500 suggestions on the Sindh Vision 2030 (SV2030) through 14 consultation workshops and group meetings were collected, collated and analysed. The list below summarises the sources of primary inputs: 1. Recommendations and guidance from P&DD Sections and Line Departments; 2. 259 recommendations from the first series of seven consultative workshops; 3. 220 respondents of the SV2030 Web Survey Questionnaires and numerous emails etc.; 4. Meetings and interviews with senior experts, industrialists, civil society organisations, etc.; 5. Data from 15 out of 23 districts of Sindh on forms specially compiled for the specific purpose of Sv2030.

2.1.1: SUGGESTIONS FROM THE CONSULTATIVE WORKSHOPS The list of suggestions received in the first series of consultative workshops was sorted on the period relevance and then coded using the eight sector/thematic groups (see Table 2.1). Education is a sector most commented upon followed by effective governance and the health-poverty-employment category. Water, land and agriculture have also proved to be a critical and pivotal agenda. Table 2.1: Distribution of suggestions by sector sorted by highest counts
S#
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sector
EDU EGJP HPEEAO AGWT INDI GDR TRSM ENR

Description
Education & Human Resource Development Effective Governance, Justice, Human Rights and Prosperous Society Health, Environment (&NR), Poverty, Employment and Access Opportunities Water and agriculture Industry, Infrastructure, Competitiveness and Waste minimization Gender equality, equal opportunities for all Tourism, particularly on cultural and heritage Energy (renewable and alternate forms) to

Percentage 25% 21% 21% 19% 9% 3% 2% 1% 100%

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Furthermore, the following observations and articulated vision statements were stated by the participants of the consultation workshops: o Baseline creation and associated data collection process identified as pivotal starting points, maybe also to the extent of including it in the Sindh Vision 2030 document; Complete projects! Ensure that implementation management and monitoring is made part of the vision sharing and implementation process; Political will and its influences on the outcome of initiatives has historically been a derailing factor and thus this aspect must be managed somehow; Education for all must be strived for by 2030; We will by the year 2030 have timely, authentic and easily accessible datasets to review our progress and for pragmatic policy formulations; Water and its judicious sharing and efficient use must be the prime agenda; In documents we see that 100% teachers are trained - however they still need training and follow up refresher courses; 0 % mortality rate is our vision health for all; Continuous Improvement and Benchmarking (CIB) as well as Citizen Ranking Cards (CRC) are required; Judicious implementation judicious governance judicious distribution; Exploration and judicious utilization of natural resources ensuring benefits to local people as well; Small dams and water reservoirs should be given priority. No large dams please!; Deforestation should be stopped and to start reforestation it is directly linked with poverty and environment; Tourism especially cultural tourism is important it should be promoted; particularly Jamshoro, Dadu, Thatta districts have great potential; Law and order should be improved within the next five years - it affects the prosperity of everybody; Control on illegal immigrants and deporting them to their native countries is necessary to stop the overload on the resources of Sindh; Pakistan has a 3% share of the world textile trade. The textile industry needs an economic package to hold this position and to grow to compete with international standards. The industry has a maximum capacity for creating employment opportunities; The population of Pakistan in 2030. It should include risk analysis and management plan.

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

2.1.2: SV2030 OPINION SURVEY A total of 220 persons from all walks of life responded to the SV2030 Opinion Survey. This survey was initially launched on the internet and then followed through in the second round of consultation workshops as well. The average priority based on these responses was computed and rounded off for analytical purposes. A few of the respondents commented upon the structure of the sections and statements of the survey and suggested improvements and inclusions. Some believed that more statements within each section would have allowed for more accurate issue coverage and hence better prioritisation. The objective of the survey was to gauge the general trend of perceptions, opinions and focus issues of the people of Sindh. The response to the survey, both supportive and critical, endorse the need to undertake a similar and improved survey based on a representative sample and may well be one of the instruments used as inputs

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for future development dialogues. Table 2.2 lists the statements in order of highest priority and for priority 2 and 3 only. The full priority listing is attached as Appendix 3 of this vision document. Table 2.2: Priority rankings against the defined statements
Statement Q# A1 B3 E2 H3 Statement Education should be compulsory and free up to secondary level for both boys & girls. Availability of life saving medicine and immunization vaccines should be ensured in all major health facilities. Continuous electricity must be ensured (Especially vital for industrial development and for rural areas). The justice system should be modernized and corrupt elements therein should be rooted out. The Jirga-system should also be abolished completely and replaced by small local courts with registered and authorized practitioners in rural areas. A well maintained and extensive road network should be developed which includes inter-city highway routes, link routes, inner city dual-carriage road systems in all cities and paved ways in small communities. Mass transit system should be introduced in all major cities. The current irrigation system should be improved by measures such as lining, remodelling and revamping of canals. Developing the vast and untapped potential of the livestock sector for meat and dairy industries is crucial. Fish farming should be given an industry status and modern techniques should be introduced to develop this sector for catering to the rising seafood demand both locally and internationally. Potable water should be available for everyone including processed water for the industry. Government sponsored health care program that must include an element of public awareness building for them to take due preventive measures to reduce the general incidence of ill-health should take place along with more health facilities need to be created in every district especially those which presently lack adequate facilities. Education and awareness among the general public of conservation, preservation and protection of (Forest and Wildlife) the environment is imperative. Easy-access public courts should be setup where petty disputes maybe resolved at very legal cost. Encourage the development of craft-based industry of local products such as bangles and Hala tiles with a view to reach out to international markets. A cohesive strategy for combating air pollution must be developed and implemented, such as phasing out of smoke-emitting two-stroke vehicles and moving towards more eco-friendly technologies for polluting industries. Existing technical and vocational training centres should be strengthened and new ones should be set-up to impart livelihood skills. Pharmacological products' prices should be controlled and subsidized for lowincome families. Eco-system, natural habitats of indigenous animals, such as mangrove forests should be preserved and enhanced. Lack of teaching staff and their absenteeism should be taken care of. Implement wide-ranging reforms that encompass all related law enforcement agencies to curb internal corruption and mal-practice. Overall 220 Avg. Say 1.923 2 2.475 2.659 2.744 2 3 3

E3

2.750

D3 G1

2.786 2.811

3 3

E1 B1

2.898 2.949

3 3

F4 H2 G3 F1

2.976 3.088 3.226 3.266

3 3 3 3

C2 B4 F2 A2 H1

3.377 3.383 3.398 3.416 3.488

3 3 3 3 3

The survey results were also used to understand the much talked about disparity in development agendas between rural and urban Sindh and between Karachi and the rest of Sindh. Responses were classified by Karachi and rest of Sindh and Table 2.3 was compiled which lists the agreement on priorities in this context.

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Table 2.3: Agreements on priority rankings


Overall Statement 220 Q# A1 E2 D3 E1 F4 Statement Education should be compulsory and free up to secondary level for both boys & girls. Continuous electricity must be ensured (Especially vital for industrial development and for rural areas). The current irrigation system should be improved by measures such as lining, remodelling and revamping of canals. Potable water should be available for everyone including processed water for the industry. Education and awareness among the general public of conservation, preservation and protection of (Forest and Wildlife) the environment is imperative. Easy-access public courts should be setup where petty disputes maybe resolved at very legal cost. Encourage the development of craft-based industry of local products such as bangles and Hala tiles with a view to reach out to international markets. Avg. 1.923 2.659 2.786 2.898 2.976 Say 2 3 3 3 3

H2 G3

3.088 3.226

3 3

2.2: SECONDARY DATA


More than 300 publications were reviewed and numerous discussions were held with experts. Out of the 300 plus publications reviewed (see Appendix 4 for Bibliography), the 18 documents listed below offered long-term perspectives with respect to Pakistan and Sindh and were meticulously scanned, reviewed and analysed. The data within brackets represents the age of the document in years from the date of publication: 1. The Water Apportionment Accord 1991 (+ 16) 2. National Conservation Strategy 1992 (+ 15) 3. Biodiversity Action Plan for Pakistan 2000 (+7) 4. Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (I-PRSP) Nov 2001 (+6) 5. National Plan of Action on Education For All (2001-2015) 2002 (+5) 6. National Health Policy/Vision that is based on the Health for All 2001 (+6) 7. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP-I) Dec 2003 (+4) 8. National Water Policy 2025 2004 (+3) 9. Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10 (+2) 10. Discussion Paper on National Strategy and Action Plan; Water Supply & Sanitation (2005-2025) (+2) 11. National Environmental Policy 2005-2015 (+2) 12. National Drinking Water Policy 2015 2005 (+2) 13. Sindh Strategy for Sustainable Development (2006) (+1) 14. Sindh Vision 2015 (working draft) (+2) 15. Indus For All Programme 2006-2055 (Inception) 16. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP-II 2006-09) Jul 2006 (+1) 17. Pakistan Vision 2030 Working Draft (GoP/PC Jan/2007) 18. Strategic Plan 2005-10 (State Bank of Pakistan/Apr 2007) Appendix 1 presents an integrated purview of the main targets and interventions for selected strategies from the above listing.

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2.2.1: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES In addition, the documents of the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, United Nations, European Union, International Donor Agencies, International NGOs and various international associations/collations on poverty, health etc., were reviewed. Foremost in this context were the documents: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. United Nations Declaration on Human Rights (UNDHR) 1948 (+59) Performance reports on the Millennium Development Goals Country Assessment Reports Country Policies Poverty Assessment Reports Reports on the Poverty Reduction Strategy I and II Pakistan Development Forum publications (delegate kits)

2.2.2: WORLD LENSES FOR MEASURING PERFORMANCES OF COUNTRIES The world has continually enhanced the manner in which countries are rated. Some of these yardsticks are listed here and were reviewed as secondary data: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Millennium Development Goals 1990 (+17) Index of Economic Freedom (+13) Human Development Index (+10) World Development Index (+10) Global Competitiveness Index (+5) Doing Business Index (+5) Corruption Perception Index Earth trends Index of Democracy (recent, in its current form)

Information related to international perspectives and lenses (described in Chapter 3) was extracted and analysed. The objective of this exercise was to simply identify the minimum set of lenses through which the Sindh Vision 2030 would be reviewed and to which our vision should subscribe to in order to complement the Government of Pakistan in its international obligations. Finally, data from the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS/also called StatGov), Sindh Bureau of Statistics (SBS), Planning Commission, Health Department, Census Bureau, and Civil Society organisations was collected and collated into an analytical framework.

2.3: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO VISION FORMULATION


The overwhelming inputs from the primary and secondary information collection processes clearly required an integrated approach. As the word suggests, integrating means that there will be places where the elements of the Sv2030 conform to one another and places where they remain independent, as shown in figure 2.1.

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Figure 2.1: SV2030 and the linkages to the MDGs

SV 2030 Effective Governance


Energy

Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

Achieve Universal Primary Education

Promote Gender Equality and empower Women

MDGs

Reduce child Mortality

Improve maternal health


Health

Heritage, Culture and Tourism Gender {Men and Women}


Education

Combat HIV/ AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure Environmental Sustainability Develop a global partnership for development

Water

Agriculture

Industry

Infrastructure

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The task of identifying, within each of the sectors listed in Table 2.1, involved understanding where to expect a seamless fit and where to let each sector retain an independent identity. As with any mapping process the key is determining the starting point itself. In this case it was the determination of the basic sectors of that required attention mapped to the two international lenses of the MDGs and the GCI/WEF. Additionally, achieving a clear understanding of commonsense commonalities that emanated from the 18 long term policies and strategies (also see Appendix 1), together with the recommendations from all the consultations, a review of documents and the prioritisation in the Opinion Survey, necessitated the need for an integrated approach. The six criteria used in this context were: Have similar characteristics in terms of scope, target group, approach, technology, difficulty level, periodicity, and resource involvement. Strategies and recommendations that have the most similar elements fall into one group and so on; Are dependant on similar implementation paths; Use the same (existing & intended) technological, planning and/or information infrastructure within the organization of stakeholders; Relate to the flow of data, information and documentation; Depend heavily on similar standardisation requirements; Closely involve Government agencies/departments; Involve NGOs and other second tier stakeholders.

2.4: SINDH VISION 2030 SYNTHESIS MATRIX (SYNMAT)


The undertaking posed a daunting challenge and required quite a few adjustments in how we, the Government of Sindh, approached and facilitated the development processes. Based on our commentary on the Pakistan Vision 2030 we too have strategically anchored the Sindh Vision 2030 into the Government of Pakistan obligations to the Millennium Development Goals under the Poverty Reduction Strategy. We are of the view that the: MDGs require all developing nations including Pakistan to reduce poverty to half by 2015 MDGs require that the population living on less than a dollar a day and the population of people who suffer from hunger, be reduced to half by 2015.

Similarly, we have ascertained that the goals of the Sindh Vision 2030 related to industry and the macroeconomic framework need to be embedded in the World Economic Forum (WEF) obligations and to the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) currently under the purview of the Ministry of Finance through its Competitiveness Support Fund (CSF). In this context we have structured the Sindh Vision 2030 to be aligned to the pillars of the Poverty Reduction Strategy, the Millennium Development Goals and to the Global Competitiveness Index by devising an integrated framework. The integrated approach in processing all the inputs from the consultations, document reviews and guidance from experts and civil society representatives yielded the SV2030 Synthesis Matrix (SynMat).

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2.4.1: STRUCTURE OF THE SYNMAT The column structures are determined based on the five development priorities that emanated from the recommendations of the participants of the 14 workshops. Development priorities: 6. Nurturing a caring society; 7. Developing innovative people; 8. Governing effectively and without debt; 9. Enabling competitiveness in agriculture, business and industry; 10. Securing and investing in sound infrastructure and in the Environment. These development priorities have then been mapped to the eight goals of the MDGs. The resultant matrix represents the cross-cutting issues that are applicable across the development and/or implementation sectors defined along the rows. The intersection of a sector and an issue yields a focus cell that provides us with a special LENS to understand and thus deal with the relationship between umbrella issues and sector-wise development. For example, we need to ensure that poverty is simply not just a case of PRSP or PPAF nor institutionally heavy, nor is it independent of health and education, etc. and vice versa.

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Figure 2.2: Structure of the SynMat


On the vertical axis (columns) we have the cross-cutting issues
COLUMNS

SINDH VISION 2030

CELL: Intersection between sector and cross-cutting issue

WATER

S E C T O R

CELL

The advice received from the Chief of Sections on May 5 was to split the column on WATER into WaterAgriculture, WaterEcology, WaterIndustry, and Water for Human Consumption

Sectors are structured to align the SV2030 with the Pak Vision 2030

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Most importantly; it helps us understand concepts better and helps shape strategies e.g. poverty alleviation requires an integrated approach and NOTHING LESS. The SynMat provides us with a classic opportunity to design indicators for the umbrella issues such as the MDGs as well.

2.4.2: ADVANTAGES OF MATRIX The Matrix allows us to holistically visualise each sector against the complete spectrum of cross-cutting themes. The approach gives the Government of Sindh the opportunity to design an effective implementation management & monitoring strategy. The SynMat further helps us relate the administrative structures (e.g. Health Department) to the cross-cutting issues and this automatically also implies that we can make more pragmatic budgetary allocations for all development costs by department and by thematic areas. Last but not least, it allows us to effectively design interdepartmental and community coordination & participations. The first draft of the Synthesis Matrix was shared within the P&D Department and with all the participants of the second series of four consultation workshops. Views and opinions on the Matrix were also solicited from various town planners, environmental experts, environmental engineers and institutional experts. Appendix 3 is the final culmination of the integration process and embodies the concerns and recommendations for the stated people. All chapters representing the issues sets of this Sindh Vision 2030 document are structured accordingly and each chapter concludes with individual vision statements and a list of goals and planned timelines.

2.5: THE WAY FORWARD TO LAUNCHING THE SV2030


The most important, administratively speaking, action on our part would be the creation of a centralised research agenda. If common goals on R&D can be identified and coordinated a Repository of efforts and results will automatically be created - A centralised web-based knowledge database and discussion portal would make the emerging knowledge base available to all. Designing and commissioning one external monitoring & evaluation team that specifically looks into, backstops and reports on the integration status or (lack thereof). Information generation and utilisation under the Communication Strategy would need to (at least) address: Sharing expertise; what, when, with whom, and how; Processes of dissemination would need to include the public, direct beneficiary, and national interests. A key item on common information sharing would be tracking the SV2030 agenda; Lessons on technology transfers and consultancy assignments, undertakings could be widely disseminated through a newsletter and/or a special page on the website; Importance of intellectual property rights and common/programme rights will need to be addressed to avoid elements of conflicts and/or embarrassments;

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Knowledgebase of all the initiatives, efforts, achievements, tracking, human capital gains, resource utilisation, etc.

Capability development will require widespread awareness and training of project staff and will also necessitate the framing of Standards & Guidelines and SOPs to ensure sustainable integration and continued coordination. The next step, and a crucial one at that, would be to look at the conceptual elements of the Sv2030 integration (i.e. consensus on stakes, roles and responsibilities geared towards programme delivery). The appropriate staring point in the series of next steps is to work out detailed action plans and corresponding set of objectively verifiable indicators for measuring progress.

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Table 2.4: The Synthesis Matrix


CH-05
SECTION Poverty Encourage and foster participatory approach across all forums; Judicious distribution of resources; create new contextually relevant economic activities; Market intelligence embedded in EBaithak Concepts; Ensure that the Sindh PRSP-I is implemented as required particularly with reference to social protection Opportunities; Bridge gap between Micro enterprise & market; Basic Poverty line; Child Nutrition

CH-06
Education (formal, vocational, other) Effective, sustainable implementation of the EFAP; ensure TEVTA with an integrated purview at the onset; teachers' training and real assessments

CH-07
Employment (Job creation) Gender (Male & Female) Ensure equitable participation at all levels and in all areas; enhance capacities and capabilities to avail opportunities; create parity in all opportunities

CH-08
Justice, Human Rights and Prosperity Enable decision making through informed approach; formalize and regulate Jirga system; Find appropriate equivalents for the much politicized and over due land reform

CH-09
Land Implement a digital Land Management Information System

CH-10
Water Proactively demonstrate implementation of Water Accord 1991; ensure judicious use of available resources; minimize conveyance losses; ensure NDWP in letter and spirit; All previous accords should be accounted for

CH-11
Infrastructure Kachi abaadis may need proactive attention as oppose to reactions; complete mega projects by starting with judicious rehabilitation of affected communities; empower such communities with alternate livelihood option wherever applicable

Effective Governance (considering all users)

Free education up to Matric

Women, children and our youth

Access to drinking water (define How)

Water

Introduce water conservation and contamination prevention into the school curriculum

Promote and support the recent Internship Programme through organized youth orientations and diverse opportunities Water cost management and vigilance taught and employed; First responder to emergencies.

Rights; Security e.g. Karokari etc

Users of forests (State owned)

Stop water theft at all costs; Ensure NWP/TWAA in accordance to provincial priorities of Sindh and give the TWAA legal cover

Ground water aquifers; Catchments; Improve irrigation water distribution (and contribute to the National frame)

Impact on women for: employment; migration; social issues; work load; Encourage and foster participatory approach across all forums Cost recovery; improve water quality at source for all users

Crisis Centres, Rehabilitation Centres, M&C Health Care Centres

Reservoirs (tanks, Rodhkohi, etc.); Distribution system (process & potable); Drainage/sewers; Explore and establish in-land water transport

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CH-05
SECTION Poverty Best Management Practices; Farmer Co-operations; Micro financing; Agricultural extension; Modern Agricultural practices of drip irrigation; corporate farming; social security for tenants e.g. medical, legal etc. Basic Education (free); Vocational & applied education centres within rural, per-urban and industrial areas; educate all mothers especially in rural context

CH-06
Education (formal, vocational, other) Education about new ways of harvesting, planting etc; Farmer field schools; use of water; R&D Coordination

CH-07
Employment (Job creation) Gender (Male & Female) Farm workers; Agro-based industry; Home enterprises; Kitchen gardens

CH-08
Justice, Human Rights and Prosperity Land reforms or plausible, pragmatic phased changes; WA-1991; Kotri (particularly on sea intrusion); enforcement of cotton act

CH-09
Land Obsolete Pesticides; Land Degradation; Solidity/salinity; Sea instruction; Fertilizer; generic seed (farms); Integrated pest management (IPM); Optimize land use through effective planning (e.g. cluster cropping) Introduce farmer field trainings in rural schools to ensure that the next generation of farmers is already tuned to BMP, market intelligence and opportunities; Introduce wider farm mechanisation (contextual relevance)

CH-10
Water Water for irrigation; effective management of thirsty crops; Effective use of water e.g. stop flood irrigation; effective use of flood water; seed banks/ grading units; Ensure water supply to tail enders

CH-11
Infrastructure Conveyance system; Irrigation System; farm-to-market roads; Lining of canal with gypsum and also for the water courses; laboratories for research and development

Agriculture and Forests

Education

Languages of education should be standardized. Sindhi & Urdu should be mandatory for all. English should be given its due importance as an international language; Mandatory inclusion of IT courses starting at the school level (e.g. Private schools already do this)

Development of Teachers and professional substitutes; Eliminate gender bias in curriculum development; Encourage young women and girls through opportunities and facilities for participation in sports; develop women development centres

Education for all

Importance of water; Water saving methods at home and at work; Water misuse chowkidars

Schools and Higher Education Institutions (building and all associated facilities in context to the location and level of education)

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CH-05
SECTION Poverty Free Health Facilities; Availability of Doctors; Hygiene; Inoculations; Promote Allopathic and Homeopathic medical solutions; ; maternity care; Fertility/ mortality; A legal marriage age to be determined ( Population control); Involvement of women in hygiene implementation Develop Domestic and international tourism for employment creation

CH-06
Education (formal, vocational, other) Awareness towards different kind of general diseases and their medication & prevention; hygiene education; Create awareness on vaccinations and population planning

CH-07
Employment (Job creation) Gender (Male & Female) Availability of IUCH services; LHWs/LHV's; Institutionalized knowledge base of traditional medicine as well as training

CH-08
Justice, Human Rights and Prosperity Health for all; food rights;

CH-09
Land Ensure Clean living areas; Structure Abaadis (introduce innovative town planning/Re-plan all cities

CH-10
Water Safe drinking water through community involvement and equipment ; water related diseases

CH-11
Infrastructure Hospitals; Basic Health Units; District Health Unit; Viral treatment centres and investigation labs

Health

Heritage, Cultural & Tourism

Educate people about cultural heritage; Sindhipromotion as a language for all rich, oldest etc.

Cottage industry; heritage/ folk; Resorts, tourist sites; opportunity of infrastructure construction and management of labour; maintenance of heritage sites

Protection of Archaeological sights; Ensure safety for tourists

Heritage; Forests (e.g. Mangroves)

ECO tours; Indus

Vocational training; Small & Medium Enterprise; Medium Micro Enterprise

Industry

Internships; jobs; education about new technology; Strengthen the National Internship Programme

Skilled labour through vocational training schools for top performers

Opportunity for All; Opportunity for Development; Support systems at plausible costs; Security

Pollution in all forms; Air emissions (Acid rain)

Process water, cleaner production cleaner technology

Hotels/ Resorts; Restaurants; Development/Access to Tourist Sights Develop Gorakh hill, Tal NagarParker, Kot Diji, Bithshah etc; display centres at district level; Develop and preserve all heritage assets Access to functional utilities; Cluster Management; Organized Industry Areas; Road & Transport systems; Port facilities improvements; Quality testing & standards centres in Is; Encourage, induce foreign investment

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CH-05
SECTION Poverty Initiate ConservationLivelihood programmes (e.g. IFAP of WWF Pak); Alternate, costeffective options for sanitization; educate all mothers in environmentfriendly rural context

CH-06
Education (formal, vocational, other) Awareness of wastage usage; Conservation; Distillation before use; Field trips to natural water bodies (lakes, etc.) and treatment facilities; Nature walks along costal areas; Ensure that the National Internship Programme also covers all fields of environment; Introduce environmental education at the school level

CH-07
Employment (Job creation) Gender (Male & Female) Conservation measures to be taught and used; Management and maintenance of Public toilets; Establish separate toilets facilities for females in all areas particularly on all commuter routes; Costal area (Beach) management

CH-08
Justice, Human Rights and Prosperity Enforce PEPA-1997; Formulate Rules & Regulations for sectors not yet covered in relevance to Sindh; Formulate National Environmental Sustainability Indicators and allied Management Information System; Revise the Sindh Conservation Strategy (alligned to the NCS); Esnure safe, usable water for all types of users & uses; Enforce pesticide act and fertilizer act Establish and enforce Energy Conservation Laws

CH-09
Land Organic Farming and natural farming; Prevent any further loss to rare and endangered species

CH-10
Water Protect all fresh water bodies (e.g. Lakes, mangroves, rivers, RAMSAR sites); Prevent E.coli and toxic contamination of all water bodies; Prevent any further loss to rare and endangered species

CH-11
Infrastructure Introduce environmentalfriendly public transport system (e.g. 8000 dedicated CNG buses for Karachi); Combined Effluent Treatment Systems including reuse for process water; BioMedical Waste Disposal collection system; Solid Waste Management

Environment

Fuel Efficiency; Wind Energy; Share Industry; Bio Fuels

10

Energy

Specialized courses to produce skilled labour; Introduce the concept of energy efficiency and conservation at all levels

Development of Work Force

Coal; Gas; Reserves; Wind corridors; Solar; Bio Fuels; Apply Jatropha

Small hydel projects; Low-head turbines

Generation (Independent Power Plants); Distribution network; Alternate Energy/Waste to Energy; Develop wind farms in the Gharo area and supply to local industry and new industrial zones

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CH-05
SECTION Poverty Old peoples' home for the homeless; Orphanages; Marginalized/ Street children, destitute & beggars

CH-06
Education (formal, vocational, other) Schools at every taluka/ town; Support system; Vocational and Technical institutes

CH-07
Employment (Job creation) Gender (Male & Female) Management and maintenance of all public facilities such as bus terminals, ports, mega projects etc; Invest in the MDGs through public, private publicprivate partnerships and community organisations

CH-08
Justice, Human Rights and Prosperity Access to courts; Jail Reforms; Police Stations

CH-09
Land Roads; Railways; Communication (internet); Ports; Warehousing/goods; Town planning for all (large and small cities) in view of rapid population growth

CH-10
Water Maintenance of all existing systems with particular emphasis on conservation; tube well; Locate and build de-salinisation plants

CH-11
Infrastructure Karachi mega projects; Karachi master plan; Disaster Management & Mitigation; city management projects for all districts; Develop satellite towns near all major cities; Refurbish, renovate, upgrade the airports of Hyderabad, Larkana, Nawabshah and Sukkur for special cargo facilities for handling fruit & vegetable shipments; Integrate bus and truck terminals with air and railways; Connect highways to the North-South Trade Corridors; Upgrade and build inter-city highways and develop the National Highway; Establish special industrial zones for foreign companies

11

Infrastructure

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CHAPTER 03: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES AND LENSES


3.1: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES
There are many global perspectives through which the world leaders and the United Nations addresses global issues such as poverty, health, human rights etc. and measures development across countries to determine achievements and gaps in the continuity of sectoral coverage. The narration on the global lenses in this chapter is a literal extracts from the documents and website of the representative agencies. This approach is simply to reiterate the concepts and agendas embedded within each of the listed lenses without any alterations and thus avoiding any misinterpretations. The indicators/lenses listed here have been selected from a large complement of indicators. The criteria were simply the seamless link to our SV2030. These selected lenses also easily map to the seven pillars of the Pakistan Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper-II. The PRSP-II was framed based on the necessity to rethink the poverty reduction strategy to align it with the new global realities and capitalize on the upcoming demographic dividend, in order to achieve maximum gains in poverty alleviation and attain the MDGs by 20159.

3.2: MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS)10


The Millennium Development Goals2 were derived from the United Nations Millennium Declaration, adopted by 189 nations in 2000. Most of the goals and targets were set to be achieved by the year 2015 on the basis of the global situation during the 1990s. It was during that decade that a number of global conferences had taken place and the main objectives of the development agenda had been defined. The baseline for the assessment of progress is therefore 1990 for most of the MDG targets. For most of the indicators, 2004 is the last year for which comprehensive data are available. Data to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals are compiled by specialized agencies within their area of expertise. They are drawn from national statistics provided by Governments to the international statistical system the United Nations Statistics Division and the statistical offices of the various international organizations and adjusted for comparability. In some cases, national Governments may have more recent statistics that have not been reported to the international statistical system. In other cases, countries do not
9 Presentation of the Minister of State and Chairman Competitiveness Support Fund (CSF) (OmarAyub-presentation-prsp.pdf) 10 Official MDG Indicators website. This site presents the official data, definitions, methodologies and sources for the 48 indicators to measure progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. The data and analyses are the product of the work of the Inter-agency and Expert Group (IAEG) on MDG Indicators, coordinated by the United Nations Statistics Division. You will also find the official progress reports and documents produced by IAEG. Links to related sites and documents and constantly updated news will keep you up to date with the ongoing activities on MDG monitoring.

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produce the data required for the compilation of indicators. When this occurs, international statistical agencies make estimates based on the data of neighbouring countries or of countries with similar levels of income. Most of the organizations and agencies of the United Nations system, along with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, contribute to this exercise. Many of the indicators for example, on child mortality and malnutrition, malaria prevention and treatment, and knowledge of and behaviour related to HIV/AIDS are derived from surveys sponsored and carried out by international agencies. These include, most importantly, the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and the Demographic and Health Surveys, which help fill the frequent data gaps that exist. Country data derived from international surveys and national sources or estimated by the responsible agencies are aggregated into regional and global figures. It is these aggregates that are used in this report to provide an overall assessment of progress. Since the periodic assessment of progress towards the MDGs began five years ago, the international statistical community has been concerned about the lack of adequate data to compile the required indicators in many parts of the developing world. At the same time, the monitoring requirements themselves have focused attention on this shortcoming and raised awareness of the urgency to launch initiatives for statistical capacity building. Though there have been many steps in this direction, many remains to be done until all countries are able to produce a continuous flow of social and economic data needed to inform their development policies and track progress. The Inter-Agency and Expert Group (IAEG) on MDG Indicators includes various Departments within the United Nations Secretariat, a number of UN agencies from within the United Nations system and outside, various government agencies and national statisticians, and other organizations concerned with the development of MDG data at the national and international levels including donors and expert advisers.
Resolution of the heads of state We, Heads of State and Government reaffirm that our common fundamental values, including freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for all human rights, respect for nature and shared responsibility, are essential to international relations. We reaffirm our commitment to eradicate poverty and promote sustained economic growth, sustainable development and global prosperity for all. We strongly reiterate our determination to ensure the timely and full realization of the Millennium Development Goals. We underline the need for urgent action on all sides, including more ambitious national development strategies and efforts backed by increased international support.

IAEG is responsible for the preparation of data and analysis to 2005 World Summit Outcome, United Nations, 16 monitor progress towards the MDGs. September 2005 Published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) The Group also reviews and defines June 2006 methodologies and technical issues in relation to the indicators, produces guidelines, and helps define priorities and strategies to support countries in data collection, analysis and reporting on MDGs. Over the past few years, the IAEG has worked to promote improvement and better documentation on the standards and methods used in compiling and analyzing MDG indicators, including finding ways to aggregate country data in a meaningful way, overcoming problems of comparability and, even more importantly, providing a meaningful analysis of the aggregate figures that represents the local situation. This work is undertaken through thematic sub-groups established within IAEG and through other inter-agency mechanisms bringing together specialized agencies in the various fields covered by the MDGs.

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Table 3.1: Comparison of South Asian nations across critical gender indicators
Aspect/parameter Human Development index (global rank) Gender-related development index (global rank) Gender empowerment measure (global rank) Life expectancy at birth (in years) Maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) Adult literacy rate: ages 15 and above (percentage) Adult literacy: female rate as percentage of male rate Female youth literacy: ages 15-24 (percentage) Youth literacy: female rate as percentage of male rate Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary level schools (percentage) Estimated earned income: GDP per capita (PPP US$) Ratio of estimated female to male earned income Female economic activity rate: ages 15 and above (percentage of female population) Female employment by economic activity (percentage of female labour force) Female employment by economic activity (percentage of male rate) Sri Lanka 96 73 74 75.8 (F) 69.8 (M) 92 89.6 (F) 94.7 (M) 95 96.9 100 66 (F) 64 (M) 2,570 (F) 4,523 (M) 0.57 43.3 49 (A) 22 (I) 27 (S) 129 (A) 98 (I) 74 (S) NA NA India 127 103 NA 64.4 (F) 63.1 (M) 540 46.4 (F) 69.0 (M) NA NA NA 48 (F) 62 (M) 1,442 (F) 3,820 (M) 0.38 42.4 NA Bhutan 134 NA NA 64.3 (F) 61.8 (M) 420 NA 50.3 (M) NA NA NA NA 53 (M) NA 2,035 (M) NA 57.1 NA Bangladesh 138 110 76 61.5 (F) 60.7 (M) 380 31.4 (F) 61.6 (M) 62 41.1 71 54 (F) 67 (M) 1,150 (F) 1,776 (M) 0.56 66.6 77 (A) 9 (I) 12 (S) 144 (A) 82 (I) 40 (S) NA Nepal 140 116 NA 59.4 (F) 59.9 (M) 740 26.4 (F) 53.4 (M) 43 46 59 55 (F) 43 (M) 891 (F) 2,789 (M) 0.5 56.8 NA 0.33 36.3 73 (A) 9 (I) 18 (S) 164 (A) 46 (I) 50 (S) 33 (F) 67 (M) 9 26 20.8 1947/1947 915 (F) 53 42 64 31 (F) Pakistan 142 120 64 60.7 (F) 61.0 (M) 500 28.5 (F)

Contributing family workers in 56 (F) NA NA 81 (F) NA economic enterprise without pay 44 (M) 19 (M) (percentage) Female legislators, senior officials 4 NA NA 8 NA and managers (percentage of total) Female professional and technical 49 NA NA 25 NA workers (percentage of total) Seats in parliament held by women 4.4 9.3 9.3 2 NA (percentage of total) 1972/1972 1964/1964 The year women received full 1931/1931 1950/1950 1953/1953 voting rights/ rights to stand for election Ratification, accession, succession Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes to Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Data Source: UNDP, Human Development Report 2004 Abbreviations: NA-Not Available A-Agriculture I-Industry S-Services F-Female M-Male Data compiled and analysed by Research and Analysis Division of OWSA

Yes

Table 3.1 shows a comparison of South Asian countries on critical gender issues as an example of data available on MDG from IAEG. The MDGs are global, but their implementation must occur at the country level, through country owned and led development strategies. In low-income countries, the Poverty

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Reduction Strategy Paper is the vehicle through which country policies and programs and resource requirements are linked to the MDGs. The targets specified are expected to be framed against the backdrop of the Millennium Development Goals. They also need to take account of initial conditions and national priorities so that they set out credible policies and programs for making progress toward the goals. The indicators chosen in PRSPs are often consistent with the MDGs; they frequently differ from the specific indicators chosen to track the MDG targets. Data limitations and methodological issues associated with the time spans covered by PRSPs (three to five years) and the MDGs (up to 2015) make it difficult to compare the respective targets. However, a recent review by World Bank staff suggests that in some areas (malnutrition, access to water) targets set out in full PRSPs tend to be at least as ambitious as the MDG targets.

3.3: INDEX OF ECONOMIC FREEDOM (IOEF)11


Overall economic freedom, defined by multiple rights and liberties, can be quantified as an index of less abstract components. The index we conceive uses 10 specific freedoms, some as composites of even further detailed and quantifiable components. A detailed discussion of each of these factors and their component variables follows this overview. Business freedom is the ability to create, operate, and close an enterprise quickly and easily. Burdensome, redundant regulatory rules are the most harmful barriers to business freedom. Trade freedom is a composite measure of the absence of tariff and non-tariff barriers that affect imports and exports of goods and services. Monetary freedom combines a measure of price stability with an assessment of price controls. Both inflation and price controls distort market activity. Price stability without microeconomic intervention is the ideal state for the free market. Freedom from government is defined to include all government expenditures including consumption and transfersand state-owned enterprises. Ideally, the state will provide only true public goods, with an absolute minimum of expenditure. Fiscal freedom is a measure of the burden of government from the revenue side. It includes both the tax burden in terms of the top tax rate on income (individual and corporate separately) and the overall amount of tax revenue as portion of GDP. Property rights is an assessment of the ability of individuals to accumulate private property, Secured by clear laws that are fully enforced by the state. Investment freedom is an assessment of the free flow of capital, especially foreign capital. Financial freedom is a measure of banking security as well as independence from government control. State ownership of banks and other financial institutions such as insurer and capital markets is an inefficient burden, and political favouritism has no place in a free capital market. Freedom from corruption is based on quantitative data that assess the perception of corruption in the business environment, including levels of governmental legal, judicial, and administrative corruption. Labour freedom is a composite measure of the ability of workers and businesses to interact without restriction by the state.

11

For detailed guidance on how the data in the Index can be used in statistical research, see www.heritage.org/research/features/index/downloads.cfm#methodology

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In the Index of Economic Freedom, all 10 factors are equally weighted in order not to bias the overall score toward any one factor or policy direction. As described earlier, economic freedom is an end in itself. The ability of economic freedom to establish a foundation for the rapid development of wealth for the average citizen explains contemporary interest, but it is not a valid rationale to weight some components over others. Nor would it be proper to weight the Index in a manner that caused the relation between democracy and economic freedom to be statistically stronger. This is a common-sense approach. It is also consistent with the purpose of the Index to reflect the balanced economic environment in every country surveyed. The Index has never been designed specifically to explain economic growth or any other dependent variable; that is ably done by empirical econometricians elsewhere. Nor it is clear how the 10 economic freedoms interact. Is a minimum threshold for each one essential? Is it possible for one to maximize if others are minimized? Are they dependent or exclusive, complements or supplements? These are valid questions, and they are beyond the scope of our more fundamental mission. The Index, then, offers a simple composite based on an average of the 10 freedoms. It also offers the raw data for each factor so that others can study and weight and integrate as they see fit. The Grading Scale: Each one of the 10 freedoms is graded using a scale from 0 to 100, where 100 represent the maximum freedom. A score of 100 signifies an economic environment or set of policies that is most conducive to economic freedom. The grading scale is continuous, meaning that scores with decimals are possible. For example, a country could have a trade freedom score of 50.33. Many of the 10 freedoms are based on quantitative data that are converted directly into a score. In the case of trade, a country with zero tariffs and zero non-tariff barriers will have a trade freedom score of 100. This will often be described using percent terminology. In previous years, the Index used a scale of 1 to 5, in which 1 represented the best score. All of the old scores have been converted seamlessly to the new scale. If a country had an overall score of 3.00 and a trade freedom score of 2.00 in the year 1997, for example, those have been converted to 50 percent and 75 percent, respectively. Table 3.2: Index of Economic Freedom rating for Pakistan Pakistan: 2007 Rank 89/154 (58.2 freedom percent) Regional rank 15/30 Source: 2007 Index of Economic Freedom Copyright 2007 by The Heritage Foundation and Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Economic Freedom 2007 Business Freedom Trade Freedom Fiscal Freedom Freedom from Government Monetary Freedom Investment Freedom Financial Freedom Property Rights Freedom from Corruption Labour Freedom 58.2 70.9 53.6 82 89.3 72 50 40 30 21 73.2

In past years the Pakistans ranking under this index was; 1996-97=88, 1995=81, 1990=84, 1985=85 and in 1980=94

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3.4: INDEX OF DEMOCRACY (IOD)


There is no consensus on how to measure democracy, definitions of democracy are contested and there is an ongoing lively debate on the subject. The issue is not only of academic interest. For example, although democracy-promotion is high on the list of American foreign-policy priorities, there is no consensus within the American government on what constitutes a democracy. As one observer recently put it, the worlds only superpower is rhetorically and militarily promoting a political system that remains undefinedand it is staking its credibility and treasure on that pursuit (Horowitz, 2006, p 114). Although the terms freedom and democracy are often used interchangeably, the two are not synonymous. Democracy can be seen as a set of practices and principles that institutionalise and thus ultimately protect freedom. Even if a consensus on precise definitions has proved elusive, most observers today would agree that, at a minimum, the fundamental features of a democracy include government based on majority rule and the consent of the governed, the existence of free and fair elections, the protection of minorities and respect for basic human rights. Democracy presupposes equality before the law, due process and political pluralism. Is reference to these basic features sufficient for a satisfactory concept of democracy? As discussed below, there is a question of how far the definition may need to be widened. Some insist that democracy is necessarily a dichotomous concepta state is either democratic or not. But most measures now appear to adhere to a continuous concept, with the possibility of varying degrees of democracy. At present, the best-known measure is produced by the US-based Freedom House organisation. The average of its indexes, on a 1 to 7 scale, of political freedom (based on 10 indicators) and of civil liberties (based on 15 indicators) is often taken to be a measure of democracy. The index is available for all countries, and stretches back to the early 1970s. It has been used heavily in empirical investigations of the relationship between democracy and various economic and social variables. The so-called Polity Project provides, for a smaller number of countries, measures of democracy and regime types, based on rather minimalist definitions, stretching back to the 19th century. Freedom House criteria for an electoral democracy include: A competitive, multiparty political system. Universal adult suffrage. Regularly contested elections conducted on the basis of secret ballots, reasonable ballot security and the absence of massive voter fraud. Significant public access of major political parties to the electorate through the media and through generally open campaigning.

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Figure 3.1: Pakistan through the Index of Democracy lens12

The Economist Intelligence Units index is based on the view that measures of democracy that reflect the state of political freedoms and civil liberties are not thick enough. They do not encompass sufficiently or at all some features that determine how substantive democracy is or its quality. Freedom is an essential component of democracy, but not sufficient. In existing measures, the elements of political participation and functioning of government are taken into account only in a marginal way. The Economist Intelligence Units democracy index is based on five categories: electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. The five categories are interrelated and form a coherent conceptual whole. The condition of having free and fair competitive elections, and satisfying related aspects of political freedom, is clearly the basic requirement of all definitions. The Economist has in a study examined the state of democracy in 167 countries and rated the nations with a Economist Intelligence Unit Index of Democracy which focused on five general categories; free and fair election process, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation and political culture. Sweden scored a total of 9.88 on the scale of ten which was the highest result, North Korea scored the lowest with 1.03. Pakistan is ranked 113 with an overall score of 3.92 under the Authoritarian regimes Pakistan is not on the Watch List Hong Kong is on the positive watch Taiwan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Russia, Nigeria, Burundi, Guinea & Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania are on the negative watch

12

The Economist Intelligence Unit 2007 Report, page x Democracy table 1

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3.5: GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS INDEX (GCI)


The Global Competitiveness Index 2006 (GCI-2006) provides a holistic overview of factors that are critical to driving productivity and competitiveness and groups them into nine pillars: Institutions, Infrastructure, Macro economy, Health and Primary Education, Higher education and training, Market efficiency, Technological readiness, Business Sophistication and Innovation. These nine pillars are organised into three sub indexes, each critical to a particular stage of development; a) basic requirements, b) efficiency enhancers, and c) innovation and sophistication factors (Lopez-Carlos/WEF 2006). Under the GCI a low Index indicates a higher rating. Table 3.3: Comparison of parameters between the GCI indices
I# 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 Index Overall Basic requirements Efficiency enhancers Innovation factors Pakistan 91 93 91 60 China 54 44 71 57 India 43 60 41 26

On the GCI-2006 Indias overall rank of 43 demonstrates remarkably high scores in capacity for innovation and sophistication. Pakistan, on the other hand, with an overall ranking of 91 lags far behind India in both innovation and sophistication, and in efficiency enhancers. Pakistans ranking in the GCI improved from 94 in 2005 however this understates the true performance of Pakistan because more countries were included in 2006. On a percentile basis, Pakistan improved from the 20th percentile to the 28th percentile. In the Business Competitive Index (BCI), Pakistan came in at a respectable 67th among 121 countries13. The Competitiveness Support Fund (CSF) operating under the Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, was able to ensure implementation of the World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey. Subsequently, Pakistan was included in the Global Competitiveness Report and came to the attention of the world community. Pakistan was mentioned by the BCI author, Dr. Michael Porter, as a country showing significant improvements in key indicators that are highly correlated with future economic growth14. Among low income countries, India followed by Pakistan registers the highest rate of dynamism. Pakistans improvements are so far concentrated in business environment upgrading perhaps a reflection of the countrys ambitious national competitiveness program. In the absence of any benchmark or baseline or sub-detailing for the provinces, we opt to state that lets us assume that the global indices portrayed in this chapter for Pakistan apply to Sindh. The challenge then becomes to actually compute these indices for Sindh using the established methodologies. In this context, it will be one of our ambitions to establish the GCI for Sindh by the year 2009.

13 14

Annual Progress Report 2006-07; Competitiveness Support Fund World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007, page 70

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Chapter 04: DEMOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW


4.1: BACKGROUND
Sindh (2007 pop. 39.4 million) is a province in south-eastern Pakistan, extending over the lower Indus River valley, including the alluvial plain and river delta, between India and the Arabian Sea. Karachi is its capital and largest city. Sindh is an arid region with some hilly and desert areas and depends largely on irrigation for agriculture. Its major crops are wheat, rice, millet, cotton, and sugarcane. Sheep, cattle, and poultry are raised, and fishing is important in the area along the Arabian Sea. It is estimated that 62% of geographical area of Sindh is Arid, comprising Thar, Nara and Kohistan, beside a large area under coastal belt (350 Km) and Katcha area. In Sindh, out of total geographical area of 140,914 square km15, 5.7 million hectares land is cultivated, which is rapidly degrading leading to decline in agriculture product and seriously affecting the livelihood of rural communities. The riverine forests are locally known as "bela" in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab16. The existence of belas depends on flooding by the rivers. They are flooded by the spate of River Indus, Jehlum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej on lands and soils over their banks. The Riverine Forests are the mainstay of forestry in Sindh. They provide products and services such as timber; firewood; pit props for mines; forage and browse for livestock, biodiversity and game animals, other non-timber forest products including tannin from bark, gum, honey and even fish from dhands and dhoras (old river beds). They act as carbon sink, moderate climate, stop soil erosion and also protect soils and settlements from the ferocity of flood waters17. The chief language is Sindhi, a member of the Indo-Aryan group related to Baluchi and Urdu. The province of Sindh has two large seaports and both are located in Karachi. The biggest international airport of Pakistan is also situated in Karachi and is widely known as Quaid-e-Azam International airport. Sindh derives its name from the Indus River, which was traditionally called Sindhu. It was an early centre of the Indus Valley civilization (c. 25001600 BCE); the ancient site of Mohenjo Daro is located in northwest Sindh. The region was apparently settled by several waves of Indo-Europeanspeaking peoples between 1500 and 1000 BCE (whether this settlement was peaceful is a matter of dispute among scholars). The Persians conquered Sindh in the late sixth century BCE, and Alexander of Macedon invaded it in 325 BCE. Following the dissolution of Macedonian hegemony, Sindh was fought over by numerous empires, including the Mauryan empire (c. 324c. 200 BCE) of central India, the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, the Iranic Sakae and Kushans, and the Epethalites or White Huns. By the late 600s CE, Sindh was composed of numerous states owing varying degrees of fealty to Sasanid (224/228651) Persia. The majority of the inhabitants were Buddhist or Hindu. The Arabs conquered Sindh in 712 A.D. which gave muslims a firm foothold in Sindh. The Arab rule brought Sindh within the Islamic civilization and Sindhi language was developed and writtern a naskh script. Education became widely diffused and Sindhi
15

P&DD/GoS website, Lari, Suhail Z. (1994) History of Sindh. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 7 210 and Encyclopedia of Modern Asia on Sindh 16 Pakistan Water Gateway at http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/artlds.htm 17 IUCN Pakistan at http://edu.iucnp.org/themeRforest/index.htm

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scholars attained fame in the Muslim world. Agriculture and commerce progressed considerably. Ruins of Mansura, the medieval Arab capital of Sindh (11 kms south east pf Shahdadpur) testify to the grandeur of the city and the development of urban life during this period. Karachi, city in southern Pakistan, capital of Sindh Province, on the Arabian Sea, at the north-western edge of the Indus River delta. The hub of a sprawling metropolitan area, Karachi is the nation's largest city and its chief transportation, financial, commercial, and manufacturing centre. Most of the international trade of Pakistan and landlocked Afghanistan pass through the city's busy modern ports, centred on the island of Keamari. Major highways and railroads focus on the city, and the modern airport here is a stopover and refuelling point for intercontinental flights. Among the many products of Karachi are steel, automobiles, auto parts, textiles, chemicals, garments, pharmaceuticals, refined petroleum, leather tanneries and garments, footwear, machinery, handicrafts, and processed food. The city also is an important banking centre and has the countrys largest stock exchange18 and commodity exchange.

4.2: DEMOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN


The data used to compile this demographic overview has been derived from District Census Reports and Population Census Bulletins issued from time to time by the Census Organization Government of Pakistan. Since Census in Pakistan does not deal with all the areas mentioned above, this report has also its limitations and is confined to only those rates and ratios which could be calculated on the basis of available data. The history of census taking in the sub-continent spreads over a century. Between 1867 and 1872, the first attempt was made for a systematic census enumeration in some parts of the sub-continent. This was followed by a regular census in February, 1881 and since then it has become a regular feature every ten years. The exception was 1971 when census was postponed and carried out in September 1972. Data for the areas now constituting Pakistan are however, only available since 1901. Table 4.1 provides the number of persons enumerated in each census conducted during the last 80 years. Table 4.1: Percentage change and annual rate of growth, Pakistan (1901-1998)19
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Census Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1972 1981 1998 Population (Million) 16.60 19.40 21.10 23.60 28.30 33.70 42.88 65.31 83.78 132.35 Percentage change in Population over Previous Census 16.87 8.76 11.85 19.92 19.08 27.24 52.31 28.28 57.97 Average Growth Rate 1.57 0.84 1.13 1.83 1.76 2.44 3.65 2.99 2.80

18

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopaedia http://www.greatestcities.com/Asia/Pakistan/Karachi_city.html 19 Sources: (1) Census Bulletin No.2, 1961; Population Census Organisation, Pakistan, (2) Census Bulletin No.2, 1972; Population Census Organisation, Pakistan, (3) Census Bulletin No.7, 1981; Population Census Organisation, Pakistan, and (4) Provincial Census Report of Sindh 1998.

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According to 1901 Census, the population of this area was only 16.60 million while in 1998 it was recorded as 132.352 million. Thus during the past 97 years, there had been an eight fold increase in Pakistan's population. During the first four decades the increase was quite modest. It means that in 40 years only 11.7 million people were added recording a growth of about 70 percent. Independence of the sub-continent in 1947 resulted in exodus of people to and from India and Pakistan. According to some estimates nearly 14 million people left their homelands. The number of immigrants was, largely offset by emigrants and hence the net gain in Pakistan's population in this process was one million. As compared to the modest growth in first four decades of the century, the next 40 years recorded a quite rapid increase. While it took 50 years to double the population from 16.6 million in 1901 to 33.7 million in 1951, the population was again doubled in 21 years to 65.3 million in 1972. The 1981 census also 84.3 million suggests continuation of a high growth rate and if the present pattern continues the population will exceed 1998 census 132.35 million projected population 159.378 million then projected population 293.478 in 2030.

4.3: PROVINCES OF PAKISTAN: THEIR COMPARATIVE POSITION


The characteristic features of Pakistan's demography are: rapid and accelerating rate of growth, uneven distribution of population among provinces, pre-dominantly rural structure, great variations in land/man ratio among provinces, skewed age distribution of population in the direction of a high dependency burden, low average and medium age and low literacy ratios. Some of the statistical findings regarding comparative position of provinces are given below: 4.3.1: GROWTH RATE During the inter-census period 1981-98, Pakistan recorded an average annual growth rate of 2.69 percent. The growth rates were not uniform among the four provinces, three experienced higher rates than the national average while only Balochistan had a growth rate lower than this average. In numerical terms, the respective growth rates of NWFP, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan were 2.82, 2.64, 2.80 and 2.47 percents (Table 4.2). Table 4.2: Province Wise Growth Rate - 1998 Census
Average Growth Rate 2.82 2.64 2.80 2.47

S# 1 2 3 4

Province N.W.F.P Punjab Sindh Balochistan

4.3.2: POPULATION SHARES Despite inter-provincial variations among growth rates, there had not been any significant change in population shares of provinces. This, has happened because the higher rates in smaller provinces did not result in large additions in absolute terms and

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the largest province i.e. Punjab which constitutes more than half of Pakistan recorded a growth rate slightly lower than the national average. Consequently, the population shares of Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, NWFP, FATA and Islamabad changed from 22.59, 56.13, 5.14, 13.13, 2.61 and 0.4 percents in 1981 to 23.00, 55.63, 4.96, 13.41, 2.4 and 0.61 in 1998 respectively. 4.3.3: POPULATION DENSITY Like population shares, the variations in population densities among provinces of Pakistan are also quite wide. The most densely populated province is Punjab having a density of 359 persons per sq. km and the most sparsely populated is Balochistan, having only 19 persons per sq. km. Sindh, NWFP, FATA and Islamabad have densities as 216, 238, 117 and 889 persons per sq. km respectively. 4.3.4: URBAN-RURAL DISTRIBUTION: In Pakistan 32.52 percent of the total population live in urban localities. The most urbanized province is Sindh, where 48.75 per cent of the population lives in towns and cities. NWFP and Balochistan are least urbanized with 16.87 and 23.89 per cent of population living in urban areas respectively. In Punjab 31.27 percent of the population live in urban areas.

4.4: SINDH RETROSPECT


Sindh's recorded population history starts from February 1881 when first population census in the Indian sub-continent was conducted. Throughout the century the structures and boundaries of administrative districts kept on changing, therefore, these figures are close approximations. The data available in the Imperial Gazette reveals that in 1901 the population of Sindh Province was only 3.4 million while in 1998, it is 30.4 million. This suggests eight fold overall increase in 117 years.. After a slight decline in the growth rate in the next intercensal period, the decade of 1951-1961 registered accelerated growth i.e. 3.15 per cent annually. The major shift in population pattern could be on account of the continuous immigration from India as well as from within the country. Again during 1961-1972, population of Sindh showed a marked increase, rising at a rate of 4.5 per cent annually. Considering this on high side, certain adjustments were allowed between these intercensal periods of 1961-1972, on the basis of PmE research 1974. The realistic estimates for Sindh then worked out to 3.9 per cent i.e. 0.6 per cent less than the earlier calculation of 4.0 per cent. In 1972 the population of Sindh was reported as 14.2 million and for 1981 is 19.03 million showing an increase 3 percent and an annual growth rate of 3.5 percent during the intercensal period 1972-1981. In 1998 the population of Sindh was reported to 30.44 million showing an increase of 59.97 per cent at on annual growth rate of 2.80 percent during the intercensal period 1981-1998. Since the focus of this report is on Sindh, the information has been further classified and analysed in various ways. Some of the findings based on 1998 census are as follows:

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4.4.1: POPULATION SHARES Districts of Sindh are greatly diverse in their demographic composition. The census figures reveal wide differences even in population sizes besides other characteristics. In terms of number, the range varies from Karachi having a population of 9.856 million followed by Khairpur and Umerkot district consisting only of 0.663 million people. The remaining twenty one districts are lying in between these two extremes. 4.4.2: GROWTH RATES Considerable differences are found in growth rates of various districts. Although Sindh as a whole recorded a higher growth rate than the national average during 1981-98 i.e. 2.99 per cent as compared to 2.69 per cent, two of the districts, Naushehro Feroze and Nawabshah grew at rates even less than 2 per cent, This was compensated by rapidly accelerating districts like Karachi, Ghotki and Umerkot where annual growth rates had been higher than even 3 per cent. During 1981-98 period it was revealed that the share of Karachi to the total population stood 32.38% followed by 5.08% Khairpur and 4.9% Hyderabad whereas the lowest share of population was noted to 1.45 T.M.Khan 1.54 Tando Allahyar and 1.70 Matiari. 4.4.3: POPULATION DENSITY Density rises with the increase in population because the denominator i.e. is inflexible and constant. In Sindh this figure has increased from 135 to 216 from 1981 to 1998. Since population is not evenly distributed, inter district variations in density are quite substantial. The province has very densely populated districts as Karachi where on an average 2794 persons are residing in an area of one square kilometre and on the other hand as sparsely populated districts as Thar (Mithi) and Thatta where the density per square kilometre is only 46.6 and 64.1 respectively.

4.5: SINDH: PROSPECTS; DEMOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FOR THE NEXT DECADE


Population projection represents one of the most vital areas of any demographic statistics. In this report after reviewing the past trends the forecasts for the next decade i.e. from 1998 to 2007, have been made on the assumption that the present trends are likely to continue at least during this decade. The growth trends during the intercensal period of 1981-98 have provided the basis for these projections. If things move with the current pace and direction, the likely scenario of the province after a decade will be, as shown in Table 4.3. Table 4.3: Projected Population by province up to 2030
S# Province Pakistan Sindh 1 2 3 Punjab NWFP Balochistan 1998 132.4 30.4 73.6 17.7 6.6 2007 168.1 39.0 93.1 22.7 8.2 2015 208.2 48.7 114.6 28.5 9.9 Population, In millions 2020 2025 2030 245.6 63.5 130.6 32.7 11.2 272.1 64.2 148.8 37.6 12.7 326.0 89.8 169.5 42.0 14.3

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S# 4 5

Province F.A.T.A. Capital Territory

1998 3.2 0.8

2007 3.8 1.3

2015 4.6 1.9

Population, In millions 2020 2025 2030 5.1 2.4 5.7 3.2 6.4 4.1

In 2007, Karachi remained the largest city and Tando Muhammad Khan the smallest districts of Sindh even though their shares in total population changed. The share of Karachi increased from 32.38% in 1998 to 32.4% in 2007, whereas the shares of Nawabshah, Naushero Feroze, Hyderabad, Khairpur and Jacobabad appear to decline because of the low growth rates. The share of Tharparkar will rise substantially from 7.9% to about 9% percent of the total. If the current trends prevail the Government of Sindh is looking at addressing and managing the needs of approximately 90 million people by the year 2030.

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Chapter 05: POVERTY AND HEALTH


5.1: OVERVIEW
Towards the end of 2000 the international community turned towards a new global strategy against poverty20; a strategy with more resources, a sharper focus and a stronger commitment. Based on commitments made at the 1995 World Summit for Social Development, developing countries were encouraged to launch full-scale campaigns against poverty. According to the UNDP Poverty Report of 2000 more than three-quarters of countries at that time had poverty estimates, and more than two-thirds had plans for reducing poverty. The Report further elaborates that even fewer countries had set targets for eradicating extreme poverty or substantially reducing overall poverty under the Social Summit commitments. The Report summarises some of the serious shortcomings that had been identified as reasons (reproduced below) that hinder a holistic approach to poverty alleviation: Effective governance is often the missing link between national anti-poverty efforts and poverty reduction. For many countries it is in improving governance that external assistance is neededbut not with a new set of povertyrelated conditionality imposed on top of the existing economic conditionality. Countries establish their own estimates of poverty, set their own targets and elaborate their own plans. The role of external assistance is to help them build the capacity to follow through on their decisions and resolutions. Yet despite having set ambitious global targets for poverty reduction, donor countries are cutting back on aid and failing to focus what remains on poverty. UNDP, too, has to do more to honour its commitments made at the Social Summit.
A billion South Asians live on less than $2 a day ISLAMABAD, May 25: The number of people living on $2 a day has grown to over one billion in South Asia in recent years from 821 million in 1981. This demonstrates how little the latest macro economic growth has trickled down to the poor in this poorest region of the world. South Asias share in the global income is just 7 per cent while one-fifth of the worlds population and 43 per cent of the worlds poor live here, the Human Development in South Asia 2006 report prepared by the Mahbub ul Haq Development Centre says. The report was launched here on Friday at a ceremony with Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz in attendance as the chief guest. The report highlights flaws in the methods of poverty measurements in South Asia, including Pakistan. The report states that an estimated 437 million South Asians live below $1 a day, while 80 per cent of the regions population survives on less than $2 a day. Three out of every four persons in this region survive on less than $2 a day, the report says. The per capita income of $594 in the region is lower than SubSaharan Africas $601 and far below the developing countries average of $1,502. The poverty of opportunity (when people are deprived of opportunities) in Pakistan is twice the poverty measured by $1 a day. An estimated 460-480 million such poor people live in the region. The report says that the Zakat programme in Pakistan lacks financial transparency. It also criticized the coverage of the Pakistan Baitul Mal.

Moreover, the poverty targets Source: http://www.dawn.com/2007/05/26/top16.htm set at the Social Summit are based on monetary measures, while most development practitioners now agree that poverty is not about income alone, but is multidimensional. Thus countries should begin incorporating explicit human poverty targetssuch as reducing

20

Overcoming Human Poverty, UNDP Poverty Report 2000

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malnutrition, expanding literacy and increasing life expectancyinto poverty programmes. Another shortcoming: many anti-poverty plans are no more than vaguely formulated strategies. Only a minority of countries have genuine action plans with explicit targets, adequate budgets and effective organizations. Many countries do not have explicit poverty plans but incorporate poverty into national planning. And many of these then appear to forget the topic.

A missing link between anti-poverty efforts and poverty reduction is [effective] governance. Even when a country tries to implement economic policies to foster propoor growth and mount targeted poverty programmes, inept or unresponsive governance institutions can nullify the impact UNDP -Governance: the Missing Link (Chapter 5) Pakistans response to these challenges was the Pakistan Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP) launched in 2001. The PRSP focuses on four intervention levels, namely; (i) accelerating economic growth while maintaining macroeconomic stability, (ii) improving governance and devolution, (iii) investing in human capital, and (iv) targeting [by uplifting] the poor and the vulnerable. Various Pakistan Integrated Household Surveys21 suggests that poverty is declining from 32% in 2001 to 25% in 2004. According to DFID a headcount ratio of 32% implies around 50 million poor people in the country22. The DFID report states that Pakistan has made progress and recent papers23 indicate that the Sindh PRSP-I is evidence of the provincial commitment and of an explicit allocation of resources to the envisioned tasks. In this regard the Government will focus on building a constituency for change. Without such organized public action, marketdriven economies in countries like Pakistan will find it difficult to sustain efforts to promote social justice. Experts claim that a major problem with most poverty programmes is that they are too narrow and are invariably confined to a set of targeted interventions. Furthermore, it has been established (UNDP 2000) that macroeconomic and national governance policies have as much impact on poverty as targeted interventions, if not more. The Synthesis Matrix consultatively compiled and discussed at length in chapter 2 in pursuit of the SV2030 attempts to make Government policies more pro-poor. Our concept remains embedded in a coordinated effort across all sectors. In this context the Government of Sindh will work with international donors, under debt-free schemes, to prevent the Sindh PRSP-I from becoming disjointed. All donors will be required to either channel, or keep involved, the Government of Sindh while allocating funding for individual projects. A case in point has been established with the Indus For All Programme executed by WWF Pakistan and the Government of Sindh through funding from the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Islamabad. Such measures will ensure that provincial purview and coordination do not get elbowed aside and that need to build the Sindh Governments long-term capacity to administer poverty programmes is not neglected. The global campaign against poverty needs reinforcements and a more focused and effective strategy. UNDP and many of the European countries have over the years
21 22

Pakistan Integrated Household Surveys of 2000-2001 through 2003-2004 Pakistan Decision Report; DFID, March 2006 23 Appendix 3: Proceedings from the Provincial Roundtables; GHK/ERM/IUCN DFID sponsored report 2003 and other similar documents

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pledged to provide more targeted assistance, concentrated on helping countries improve national policymaking and reform governance institutions. The Government of Sindh will initiate Coordination Dialogues for grants from international donors to mainstream and customise the Sindh PRSP-I in line with the Social Summit commitments made by Pakistan.

5.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE


According to the PRSP 2005-06 report24 the largest proportion of expenditures was made by Punjab (34.5%), followed by Federal Government (28.4%), Sindh (17.5%), NWFP (13.5%) and Balochistan (6.1%) during Q3 FY06. The largest change in PRSP expenditures was observed in NWFP province (79.7%) in Q3 FY06 over Q3 FY05, due to increase in expenditures made on natural calamities, owing to October 8, 2005 earthquake, as was the case in the previous quarter. Increase in PRSP expenditures during Q3 FY06 as compared to Q3 FY05 by Federal Government stood at 61.0%, Punjab at 14.4%, Sindh at 27% and Balochistan at 12.9%. Sindh observed substantially large increase in expenditures made on natural calamities and social security & welfare. NWFP spent only Rs.3 million on population planning compared to Rs.3.8 billion by Federal Government, Rs.569 million by Punjab, Rs.420 million by Sindh and Rs.153 million by Balochistan during Q3 FY06. SV2030 aims at increasing the importance to rural development, similar to that of Balochistan for the Q3 FY06. Budget allocations for population planning need to be extended as the anticipated growth rates in the Pak Vision 2030 Working Draft indicate. According to the PRSP poverty in Sindh is not merely an outcome of economic ills but a result of ineffective governance over past years. Poverty alleviation is only possible when economic, political, and social dimensions of governance are addressed by forging a partnership between the government, the private sector, and the civil society. The Government of Sindh aims to make the necessary changes emanating from the reviews of the UNDP, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, DFID and many international NGOs operating in Pakistan, in the existing Sindh PRSP-I to customise the strategy more emphatically to the Sindh context. This is particularly relevant if we are to proactively address poverty across the board. Table 5.1: Percentage change in PRSP expenditures between Q3 FY06 and Q3 FY05 by sector and region Sector Roads, Highways & bridges Water supply and sanitation Education Health Population Planning Social Security & Welfare Natural Calamities Irrigation Land reclamation Rural development Rural electrification
24

Federal 6.3 -66.7 124.6 41.8 141.3 -78.8 235.6 94.3 -86.8 56.3 51.8

Punjab 18.5 459.1 6.5 10 23.2 4.4 72.2 37.7 78.6 9 0

Sindh 38.8 -27.1 29 23.9 15.4 528.8 667.5 59.4 11.8 -82.7 0

NWFP 63.8 29.5 30.3 5.2 -25 38.5 0 52.9 -12.7 93.2 0

Balochistan 17.2 -31.4 10.4 14.3 47.1 -13 -13 22.7 0 83.5 0

Pakistan 23.7 56.4 30 19.2 97.3 -26.1 2873.5 69.4 0.7 9.2 0

Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Progress Report For The Third Quarter Of Year 2005-06; PRSP Secretariat - Finance Division, Government of Pakistan; June 2006

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Sector Food Subsidies Food Support Programme Tawanna Pakistan Low cost housing Administration of justice Law and order Total

Federal 90 767.1 -100 -26.4 30.1 61

Punjab 0 -67.5 0 -19.3 19.2 15 14.4

Sindh -29.8 -55.5 0 0 24.4 15.4 27

NWFP -36 88.7 0 0 -6.4 16.7 79.7

Balochistan 0 -17.2 0 0 8.1 17.6 12.9

Pakistan 5 -20.9 0 18.1 8.2 20.2 34.3

It may be noted here that the SV2030 Synthesis Matrix of the Government of Sindh embodies the multi-sector and multi-issue coverage. Using the best possible means the government aims to implement the core principles of the strategy which include (i) engendering growth, (ii) implementing broad based governance reforms in support of poverty alleviation, (iii) improving social sector outcomes through the complement of civil society organisation operating in Sindh and last but not least, (iv) working through a coordinated effort with all departments to reduce vulnerability to shocks. The civil society organisations that have been empowered through the Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF) offer a well established base to initiate and improve social sector outcomes and the partnership with the Government in this regard will strengthen the otherwise turbulent relationship with the NGO community. Equally important and pivotal to this coordinated, orchestrated and multi-disciplinary approach is the establishment of the Sindh Poverty Baseline. In this regard the Government of Sindh aims to launch a comprehensive evaluation to accurately assess the situation on ground and to solicit more contextualised action areas for further enhancement of the attitude and attention to poverty eradication. According to the participants of the consultations and respondents of the Opinion Survey25 many studies indicate that with exception of rural Balochistan, rural Sindh suffers the highest poverty levels. There is an urgent need of introducing programs to alleviate poverty in rural Sindh and initiate equal opportunity and affirmative action programs for rural Sindhis. The challenge then is to at least bring poverty rates in rural Sindh at par with poverty rates in other areas of Sindh and Pakistan. A case in point is found in the natural resource exploration industry. There is an urgent need to enforce the laws and regulations that require the private and semigovernment companies that are earning massive amounts of revenue from the oil and gas fields of Sindh to hire, to the maximum extent possible, from the particular area and/or neighbouring districts.

5.3: ACCESS TO JUSTICE


The Government of Sindh recognizes that Judicial and legal reforms are necessary to stimulate economic growth and encourage private investment both local and foreign. However, the basic problems of judicial administration in Pakistan relate to governance and administration, case management and delay reduction, automation and court formation systems, human resources, and infrastructure.

Mr. Khalid Hashmani, Mr. Fayyaz Khaskheli and Mr. Ali Nawaz Memon in particular, emphasised upon this aspect and advocated adding questions structured in this manner into the Opinion Survey to assess the peoples priority for poverty alleviation.

25

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Currently the judiciary in Pakistan26 lacks a voice to articulate the constraints and problems faced by the judicial system or make recommendations about its reform. The following new initiatives are also being considered for implementation. They include: A comprehensive judicial reforms program, encompassing improvements in policy making for a more efficient and citizen oriented judicial and legal sector that promotes access to justice; Strengthening of judicial independence by complete separation of the judiciary from the executive and ensuring that mandates of the judiciary are adequately funded; Ensuring efficient and inexpensive justice; Legal empowerment of the poor and vulnerable, and improvements in judicial governance and human resource development, is being framed in coordination with Pakistans development partners such as ADB, World Bank etc.

5.4: AGRICULTURE, EDUCATION AND WOMEN


Our overall aim will be to address poverty alleviation in rural areas by working through innovative pro-poor approaches and committed partnerships. The approach will focus in three broad spheres: Natural Resource Management (agriculture, forestry) Rural Economy (savings and credit, small enterprise promotion, marketing of agricultural and forest products) Local/Resource Governance and Civil Society (promotion of self-help groups and professional associations). InterCooperation in Pakistan has successful evidences of projects that make markets work for the poor only by putting them at the core/heart of economic development. This model can also be easily replicated and may have a much wider impact in the Sindh province. Understanding of the specific system, environments the poor are involved in along with determining and developing the right combinations of approaches and services needed for the poor to access markets are two crucial ingredients. Innovative products will need to be identified and selected on the basis of more economic value addition and greater relevance to marginalized communities to diversify income opportunities for them. All the given means for value addition are addressed essentially at local level, including quality production, post harvest activities and processing. Relevant opportunities for poor/landless/women are related to farm forestry, agricultural crops and non-timber forest produce including medicinal and aromatic plants have been successfully promoted in NWFP and can be so for Sindh as well. Such an integrated approach will increase the market share of the poor communities significantly enough to bring about a change in their poverty level. Application of improved low-cost/indigenous technologies and pragmatic practices will add value for collectively marketing produce. An effort is required to elucidate the link between conservation and livelihood. The Government of Sindh aims to actively promote market orientation, farmer-centred approaches and enterprise development in all our projects to encourage farming as an enterprise. Successful examples of such approaches can be found in the work done in
26

Interim - Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (I-PRSP), Government of Pakistan; 2005-06

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NWFP by InterCooperation Pakistan27. Small farmers and self-operators will be assisted to help them identify most promising options to retrieve their business potentials and acquire self sufficiency. Gaps in the value-chain will be addressed through interventions that involve engaging relevant actors across the value-chain and thereby, making markets work for the poor. All poverty centred projects will clearly demonstrate the need to map the poverty & economic wellbeing continuum and to link it to the livelihoodconservation nexus. The approach focuses on enhancing the entrepreneurial and management capacities of the farmers and on facilitating their access to quality inputs, market information and credit. Women will be equally encouraged in terms of their representation and recognition in all farm forestry activities. The concept of farmer-centred approaches for technology transfer was pioneered by IC in its project in NWFP and includes three main components: Farmer Field Schools (FFS) Participatory Technology Development (PTD) REFLECT activity which is an innovative approach to adult learning

5.5: HEALTH AND GENDER


The DFID sponsored magazine, Mainstreaming ICTs28, reports that the overall progress of South Asian countries lagged behind in 2005. The table below illustrates the situation as depicted in the stated document. This portrayal is based on the documents reviewed in the Beijing Conference in June 2005. All (government officials, elected representatives, civil society members, businessmen, industrialists etc.) participants of the consultative workshops indicated a similar picture, leading to the inference, which is also supported by newer reports, that the situation has not improved. Table 5.2: Progress in health status of South Asia (selected indicators)
Health Concern Inequalities and inadequacies in and unequal access to healthcare and related services Progress Initiatives to enable womens access to appropriate, affordable and quality health care, information and related services (safe motherhood, family planning programmes); strengthening of preventive programmes promoting womens health (countering violence, streamlining traditional methods) Continuing Gaps and Challenges: Need for a rights-based approach in health policies; to recognise women as agents Health programmes in most countries have not sufficiently addressed the impact of violence on womens health Special needs of women with disabilities need to be factored into health policies and programmes Adequate facilities and resources for womens health to be made available in a holistic manner, addressing reproductive morbidity Need to invest in facilities and resources for mental health Special initiatives required to raise the age of marriage, with implications for maternal health Inadequate public spending on health Need to build on the supportive role of males, to build leadership on gender-sensitive issues Little or no progress with regard to gender-sensitive initiatives addressing sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and sexual and reproductive health issues

27 28

Topic Papers (Working Draft) Series of InterCooperation Pakistan; 2007 Mainstreaming ICTs; Vol.II No.3, May-June 2005; DFID: Mainstreaming ICTs is South Asias first magazine on the Millennium Development Goals published by OneWorld South Asia, New Delhi, India

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Health Concern

Progress

Continuing Gaps and Challenges: Paucity of research and information mechanisms on womens health. dissemination

The distribution29 of health expenditures in Q3 FY06 and Q3FY05 shows that the largest proportion of health expenditures is made on general hospital and clinics, followed by health facilities and preventive measures, other health facilities and mother & child. Federal and Sindh governments made hardly any expenditure under the head of mother & child, whereas proportion of expenditure made under this head by other provinces is negligible, except Balochistan, which spent 7.8% of health expenditure on mother & child in Q3 FY06. The data indicate that the PRSP health expenditure increased by 19.2% to Rs.23 billion in Q3 FY06 over Q3 FY05, which accounted for 0.3% of GDP. Table 5.3: Percentage distribution of health expenditures by sectors
General Hospitals & Clinics Mother & Child Health Facilities and Preventive Measures 46.1 1.1 8.6 5.1 22.9 14.5 43.5 0.7 8.5 4.6 12.8 14.9 Other Health Facilities

Province / Region

Total Health

Federal Punjab Sindh NWFP Balochistan Pakistan Federal Punjab Sindh NWFP Balochistan Pakistan

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Q3 FY2004-05 45.6 0 85.8 0.5 83.4 0 79.8 0.4 41.5 0.1 72.8 0.2 Q3 FY2005-06 51.1 0 84.2 0.5 81.7 0 79.8 0.5 39.2 7.8 71.1 0.7

8.2 12.6 7.9 14.7 35.6 12.4 5.4 14.6 9.9 15.1 40.1 12.8

Note: PRSP budgetary expenditures are cumulative for July-March FY05 and July-March FY06 Source: PRSP Reports for 2005-2006

An increase was seen in health expenditure in all categories of health during the same period. Largest increase of 58.7% to Rs.3 billion was seen in expenditure on general hospital by Federal Government, followed by Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan. Punjab made largest expenditure under this head, of Rs.7 billion during Q3 FY06, as compared to the other regions. A decline in health expenditures made on health facilities and preventive measures, was seen in Punjab, NWFP and Balochistan.

29

Source: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Progress Report For The Third Quarter Of Year 200506; PRSP Secretariat - Finance Division, Government of Pakistan; June 2006

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Table 5.4: Percentage change in PRSP health expenditures between Q3 FY06 and Q3 FY05 by sectors*
General Hospitals and Clinics Health Facilities &Preventive Measures Other Health Facilities -7.1 27.3 53.8 8.3 28.9 22.3 FY06

Provinces / Federal

Total Health

Mother & Child

Federal 41.8 Punjab 10 Sindh 23.9 NWFP 5.2 Balochistan 14.3 Total 19.2 *PRSP budgetary expenditure are

58.7 0 33.6 7.8 11.1 -24.7 21.3 0 21.6 5.2 30 -6.2 8.2 9900 -35.9 17.4 229.8 22.4 cumulative, for July-March FY05 and July-March

Under other health facilities, all provinces witnessed an increase in expenditures during Q3 FY06 over Q3 FY05. Mother and child is generally a neglected sector as Sindh made absolutely no expenditure on this sector, Federal Government spent Rs.2 million, Punjab spent Rs.40 million and NWFP spent Rs.13 million, whereas Balochistan made some relatively reasonable expenditure of Rs.100 million during Q3 FY06. The PRSP Progress Report of 2005-06 reports that Tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization (Phase-I) coverage of pregnant women of target population increased by 5 percentage points to 42% and TT-2 immunization coverage increased by 4 percentage points to 45% in Q3 FY06 over the same period in FY05 (table 5.3). Regional variations of TTimmunization coverage are very large, as TT-1 immunization coverage during Q3 FY06 in regions varies in the range 18% to 55% and TT-2 immunization coverage in the regions during the same period varies from 20% to 64%. Largest coverage of both types of immunization occurred in FATA in Q3 FY05. Increase in coverage of both types of immunization was observed in Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, FATA, FANA,ICT and CDA during Q3 FY06 over Q3 FY05. During the same period decline in coverage of both types of immunization occurred in Balochistan and JK.20063. About 54% of LHWs are appointed in Punjab, 21% in Sindh, 13% in NWFP, 6% in Balochistan and 3% in AJK by March 2006. While reviewing the health facilities (see Table 5.5), the general impression that appears to prevail is that Karachi has comparatively, the best health facilities (hospitals & beds) in the province. This impression may be acceptable if one considers the data to include private hospitals. However looking at data from the districts on public sector health facilities Karachi appears to be the 13th best district of the province. This impression also may be unrealistic. The population of Karachi, based on the 1998 census is about 9.856 million, which is considered grossly underestimated. The data shows the districts of Larkana, Hyderabad and Nawabshah as the best three districts in health facilities and mainly so due to the presence of large teaching hospitals. The Chandka Medical College Hospital in Larkana, the Nawabshah Medical College Hospital in Nawabshah, the Liaquat Medical College in Jamshoro with the affiliated hospital in Hyderabad city. The Sukkur District appears 4th on the list mainly due to the small size of the population with a comparatively big civil hospital in the city and CMH in the Panoo Aqil cantonment. The remaining 18 districts seem to offer more or less the same service level in terms of health facilities. The average data (person/bed) may not portray an accurate picture if we consider the uneven geographic distribution of hospitals/health facilities to the degree of access to such facilities by the segment of the population living far away from

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such facilities. In Karachi alone the four largest30 multi-disciplinary hospitals are concentrated in four parts of the city. According to the UNDP Poverty Report31 states that gender-blindness of most poverty programmes reveals the weak links, theoretical and practical, between gender and poverty. The report argues that the weak linkage is mainly due to problems on both sides. Poverty programmes have not ordinarily incorporated gender as an important dimension and though the PRSP has focused on health in general and TT-immunizations for women our gender programmes do not appear to do as well as envisioned in focusing on poverty at the onset of the programme. UNDP draws the conclusion that combating gender inequality is not the same thing as combating poverty and in attempting to mainstream these issues, poverty programmes and gender programmes appear to often neglect the poor women as the intersection between these types of programmes. Increasing the focus on Poor Women in Sindh will be one of our prime objectives. Allocating and judiciously spending on mother and child initiatives will be the starting point. Initiatives to promote basic education and health care require an integrated approach to link the work done at the district level to the provincial canvas and finally to the national poverty alleviation programmes. Civil society organisations have contributed to womens material well-being and to quite an extent such organisations have empowered, both socially and politically, the women within their constituencies. The work of most civil societies in this direction will be studied through focus group discussions and the lessons learnt from the dialogue will be used to bolster the poverty alleviation strategy for poor women.

30

Civil Hospital, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Aga Khan University Hospital, Liaquat National Hospital, Ziauddin Hospital 31 UNDP Poverty Report at www.undp.org/povertyreport/ENGLISH/ARchap9.pdf

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Table 5.5: Health Facilities


Population 1998 (million) 1.0 1.5 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.3 0.6 1.5 1.1 1.1 9.9 1.1 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.5 0.7 30.4 HOSPITAL No. 5 7 2 5 5 3 5 5 3 5 3 5 12 4 1 3 4 4 1 1 3 1 2 89 Bed 1535 2240 895 391 348 326 262 368 90 330 142 192 3221 248 32 172 200 132 20 36 80 32 50 11,342 DISPENSARY No. 20 13 25 11 21 20 14 20 8 32 28 6 37 11 4 6 9 24 12 3 36 3 5 368 14 2 6 2 Bed 4 No. 3 1 9 2 9 6 6 5 6 9 8 6 5 2 6 3 4 4 4 2 1 1 2 104 RHC Bed 38 20 122 30 130 58 90 66 108 96 150 80 70 40 100 24 60 82 58 30 10 10 18 1,490 No. 30 20 36 26 48 37 34 55 18 77 45 40 29 46 19 23 29 27 34 14 32 15 14 748 BHU Bed 54 42 62 52 92 74 70 104 34 152 92 86 56 88 40 46 54 48 72 28 66 32 28 1,472 2 35 0 20 92 1 1 10 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 1 4 1 1 5 1 2 7 16 16 3 20 1 3 22 4 2 MHC No. Bed Maternity Home No. 2 Bed 4 Total Beds 1,635 2,302 1,079 473 572 480 422 538 232 598 386 380 3,363 376 172 242 314 266 150 94 166 74 96 14,410 Person per Bed 917 479 835 2,353 1,751 1,849 3,139 1,082 6,666 1,819 2,860 25,938 329 1,371 4,313 4,011 2,944 2,499 2,940 9,727 2,822 9,239 3,17,082

S# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

DISTRICT Larkana Hyderabad Nawabshah Sukkur Thatta Mirpurkhas Shikarpur Sanghar Jamshoro Khairpur Naushero Feroze Badin Karachi Dadu Matiari Jacobabad Ghotki Kambar @ Shahdadkot Umerkot Tando Muhammad Khan Tharparkar Tando Allahyar Kashmore @ Kandhkot Totals:

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5.6: POOR INFRASTRUCTURE


In recent years Pakistan has faced extreme urbanization. Most of the urban cities targeted by such communities are growing unabated and without the support of concrete plans. Cities continue to expand without direction. This is leading to congestion in every form. Transportation networks are poor and/or under renovation. Signal-free corridors are under implementation by the CDGK. Sewerage systems etc. remain weak and ineffective for the most part, thus becoming an environmental and health hazard. Car financing has dramatically increased the number of cars. Lack of policies or mismanaged implementation has resulted in the continued use of old unfit vehicles that contribute greatly to air pollution, an environmental hazard of alarming proportions in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. Over burdened water supply and sewerage systems continue to leak and overflow and further contribute to the prevailing health hazards. Most hospitals are incognisant of the required level of safe disposal of biomedical waste. The hospitals that are aware need better disposal standards and institutional strengthening. We continue to plan and build mega projects/cities ignoring the urgent need to structure and efficiently operate the existing urban settlements. Changing mindsets and bad practices is a dauntingly gigantic task and all the people of Sindh need to participate in arresting further degradation of environmental health.

5.7: KHUSHAL PAKISTAN PROGRAMME-1


The Khushal Pakistan Programme (KPP) was initially launched for a period of two years (Jan 200-Dec 2001) and was later extended to the end of FY 200232. The Programme attempted to involve local people in identification, management and implementation of small projects and inculcates a spirit of ownership. The funds were to be spent on productive purposes and not as administrative expenditure. Large number of farm to market roads, water supply schemes and schools were constructed or renovated. The Programme provided job opportunities to around 2 million people. An amount of about Rs.36 billion was spent on this Programme in two years time. The Tameer-e-Pakistan Programme (TPP) was launched in April 2003 with the active participation of the public representatives. The sectors covered under this Programme are roads, electrification, provision of gas and telecommunication. TPP was later on nomenclatured as Khushal Pakistan Programme -1, and five more sectors, viz. health, sanitation, education, water supply and bull dozer hours were added. The Khushal Pakistan Programme-I (KPP-I) is based on the need to focus on people and their needs by involving national, provincial and local representatives of the people in planning process. The KPP-I due to its transitory nature is a social intervention aimed at generating economic activity through public works in the country. A sum of around Rs.9 billion was released under this program in the period 1999-2001 by the federal government to the districts through the provincial government. According to the Smith report33, the Program has resulted in the construction of 2055 farm to market roads, 1145 water supply schemes, 118 spurs, and 2746 repair and operationalisation of schools. Under the
32

Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development at http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/divisions/ContentInfo.jsp?DivID=45&cPath=618_621&ContentID=327 0 33 Smith, B.; Report of the EC Rapid Reaction Mechanism Assessment Mission Pakistan, education; ARCADIS BMB and Euroconsult Pakistan; June 2002

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IT component of the program Rs.1 billion was released for rural based vocational training in computers. The Government of Pakistan reports34 that during the year (2005-06) an amount of Rs.5306.65 million including Rs.712.88 million of foreign aid was allocated in the PSDP for rural development sector. Out of this allocation an amount of Rs.4883.44 million including foreign aid Rs.276.50 million has been utilized mainly for the on-going program. The Local Government & Rural Development sector was provided an amount of Rs.50.00 million, KPP-I program was provided Rs.4420.00 million. In 2006-07 Rs.4420.00 million was allocated to the KPP-I. Under this Programme, as on 15 May 2007, Rs.11906 million has been disbursed to Executing Agencies in the Federal, Provincial and District Governments for executing 23475 schemes in approved sectors. So far 16995 schemes have been completed. Table 5.6: KPP-1 schemes approved for Q3 FY05-06 and Q3 FY04-05 Electrification Water Supply Telephone Education Sanitation

Total Schemes

Bld. Dzr Hours

Health

Road

Gas

Province

FY2005-06 Punjab Sindh NWFP Balochistan FATA ICT Total FY2004-05 Punjab Sindh NWFP Balochistan FATA ICT Total 112 31 73 12 6 6 240 34 133 189 36 12 1 715 23 3 1 1 10 20 3 6 4 6 49 7 5 2 8 22 4 3 39 31 45 122 23 6 6 1 523 202 318 88 75 13 1,219 267 56 211 17 10 9 570 290 75 252 62 3 3 685 18 2 3 9 63 6 4 8 90 1 7 4 7 19 6 7 90 53 149 4 309 15 3 6 1 62 7 606 275 572 144 177 16 1,790

23

25

69

27

36

According to the PRSP Progress Report35 for the third quarter of 2006, the total number of schemes under KPP-1 increased by 47% to 1,790 during Q3 FY06 over Q3 FY05 (Table 5.6). The largest increase in number of schemes was observed in FATA (136%) to 177 schemes while the increase in the number of schemes in Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, Balochistan and ICT was 16%, 36%, 80%, 64% and 23%, respectively. It is reported that the largest proportion of KPP schemes i.e. 33.8% was approved for Punjab with schemes approved for electrification (38%) in Q3 FY06. About 32% schemes were

34

RURAL DEVELOPMENT: Review of 2005-06 at www.pakistan.gov.pk/.../annual%20plans/200607/Chapter_6/Rural%20Development.pdf 35 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Progress Report for the Third Quarter of Year 2005-06; PRSP Secretariat Finance Division, Government of Pakistan

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identified for roads, 17% for water supply and 5% for education. It will be one of our objectives to proactively solicit larger allocations for Sindh.

5.8: ENVIRONMENT
Effective governance is often the missing link between anti-poverty efforts and poverty reduction36. What remains a challenge for the Government of Sindh is the widespread understanding of the link between decentralization and peoples empowerment. This link must be fortified to make inroads against poverty. According to the UNDP report on environmental poverty, if decentralization involves real devolution of power to local levels, the enabling environment for poverty reduction is likely to be stronger. Whether the poor indeed benefit is a more complex issue of their own organization and empowerment and the coalitions that they can build with other popular forces. The current devolution of power to the district and tehsil level provides an opportunity to enhance decision making at a more decentralized level than before. The Indus For All Programme37 attempts to integrate, and set forth, the strategic approach for addressing the dynamics of poverty-environment degradation at different scales. The Programme aims to work with all relevant stakeholders at district and provincial level to build capacity, support and influence planning and mainstreaming of poverty environment issues. According to the ADB38 the environmental poverty perspective categorizes poor people in a manner that demonstrates how environmental conditions affect their well being. It draws attention to the needs of the dry-land poor (i.e. those living on arid and desert land areas) and to the flood-prone and disaster-affected poor (i.e. those frequently affected by flooding and natural disasters). Furthermore attention must also be paid to the people classed as upland poor (i.e. those living in remote upland or mountainous areas), the coastal poor who live adjacent to coasts and are dependent upon coastal and/or marine resources, and the people who dwel in slums and areas that are generally considered substandard settlements with high exposure to urban pollutants. The ADB report argues that while pro-poor growth policies should continue to have positive impacts on reducing the incidence of poverty, it is crucial that these and related social and economic policies take significant account of environmental poverty issues. Particular focus is needed on investments for rural dry-land areas and urban slums with high pollution exposure. The complexity of the problem clearly requires integrated and cross-sectoral approaches. The Indus for All Programme aims to promote the development of district Sustainable Development Plans for Sindh as have been formed in some other provinces. At this level collaboration between stakeholders is sought in order to contribute to institution building and improved governance. Dialogue on specific issues or on priority areas will contribute to finding solutions, acceptable for different stakeholders. The envisioned IFAP outcomes are listed here and it will be our intension to replicate the model to other relevant parts of Sindh: Outcome 1.1 Improved understanding of the dependencies and priorities of the poor in relation to natural resources;

36 37

UNDP report at www.undp.org/povertyreport/ENGLISH/ARchap5.pdf Indus for All Programme; The First Five Years Implementation of a Fifty Years Conservation and Livelihood Plan for the Indus Ecoregion; Jan 2006 38 Environmental Poverty: New Perspectives and implication for sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific; ADB, Jan 2007

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Outcome 1.2 Community-based institutions strengthened; Outcome 1.3 Improved natural resource management in Keti Bunder, Kinjhar, Chotiari and Pai forest; Outcome 1.4 Improved livelihood security and equitable benefit sharing through better Natural Resource management practices.

Engaging development frameworks such as PRSPs (at national and provincial level), National Development Plans and Sectoral Development plans, is seen by WWF Pakistan as a priority for achieving long term sustainable development, poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation targets. The present PRSP provides some opening for WWF support and highlights the need for activities that address the vulnerability of the poor towards natural disasters like droughts39 and activities that investigate the environment-poverty nexus40. This Programme will also assist in refining and monitoring the Environmental Indicators listed in the PRSP.

39 40

PRSP document, pg 16, section 3.15 (a) PRSP document, pg 102, section 6.27

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Chapter 06: EDUCATION


6.1: OVERVIEW
The DFID Report41 on Pakistan's achievements against UNIVERSAL EDUCATION indicates that the progress appears to be off track; however there has been recent progress: Primary school enrolment rates have improved recently. There are now 3 million more children in primary schools compared to 2001; In 2004/05 52% of 5-9 year olds were in primary school, up from 42% in 2001; This is still low compared to South Asia as a whole, where net primary enrolment is 88%. During the consultative process that was part of Sindh Vision 2030 exercise described in chapter which included consultative workshops, discussions with concerned citizens and meetings with government representatives, time and time again the need to improve the education sector was mentioned. Out of 259 valuable suggestions that arose from the consultations 64 were regarding education. These suggestions address a range of issues and areas regarding improvement of education in Sindh. Topics include human resources, financial resources, governance, curriculum and socio-economic conditions that influence the education sector. Sindh Vision 2030 spearheads the Governments commitment to place primary education on the fast track42. In addition, responding to the emphasis that participants in consultative workshops placed on free education till matriculation, the government visualizes a comprehensive and practical program providing every citizen access to to matriculation. The participants of the workshops also identified the issue of poor infrastructure of the schools especially in rural areas, including buildings, toilets, electricity supply and furniture. Sindh Vision 2030 also emphasizes the need to develop a system for access to quality education at all levels and a completely new system of quality technical education of international standard43. The participants of the consultative workshops have commented considerably on curriculum and its relevance to prevailing socio-economic conditions. They referred to development of skilled human resource so that people are able to attain jobs in the formal or informal sector or explore self employment. The participants also recommended that the curriculum be relevant to our socio-cultural condition and value system. Sindh Vision 2030 will provide a guideline for a curriculum to educate our children to become socially responsible and economical productive citizen of the future. It is our recommendation that the goals outlined in the Education for All program and the Education Sector Reforms be considered as common goals along with Sindh Vision 2030, and the government should commit to achieve them as such.

6.2: EDUCATION FOR ALL PROGRAMME (EFA)


Pakistan has a 10 year Perspective Development Plan (2001-11) which visualizes the long term macro-economic and sectoral growth strategies. Sector wide development
41 42 43

Pakistan and the MDGs, DFID, Aug 2006 Millennium Development Goals and Education For All Reference Material P & DD Government of Sindh

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approach covering all the sectors of education has been adopted under the Perspective Plan. In order to honour the international commitment reflected in the Dakar Framework for Action, EFA National Plan of Action (NPA) has been developed through broad based consultation with principal actors of EFA and stakeholders. In order to translate the Education Policy (1998-2010) into an action plan, the Education Sector Reforms (200105) were developed. The Education Sector Reforms (ESR) is aimed at development of this sector as a whole with a special focus on EFA and became the foundation to NPA. The allocated Rs.3.57 bn for ESR implementation in the 2001-02 budget (in excess of regular budget) shows the commitment on part of the government. Main objectives of NPA: to reach disadvantaged populations groups in rural and urban areas with emphasis on illiterate girls and women. to promote community participation and ownership of basic education programs at the grass roots to improve relevance and quality of basic education through enhancing learning achievements of the children, youth and adults. A) Elementary education B) Adult literacy C) Early Childhood Education Sub plan: o Future strategies and action; o Implementation and monitoring; o Evaluation.

The NPA is linked to poverty alleviation and development strategies (PRSP). Capacity Building of districts in planning and management has already been initiated. Based upon the district plans, Provincial and National Plans of Action are to be revised and fine tuned. Characteristics of ESR: The Education Sector Reforms (ESR) is a long-term framework with an action plan. The main features of the reform agenda are: Macro level reforms in planning, procedures, resource mobilization and output-based utilization of funds. Sector Wide Approaches for reinforcement of linkages between subsectors (i.e. primary / elementary / non-formal literacy, secondary / technical, higher education and quality assurance structures) to eliminate gaps and ensure optimum utilization of resources in education sector. Internally driven strategies and internally developed milestones for implementation of the ESR. The executing agencies own the programme land shall be accountable for implementation. A holistic basis for planning of human resource development in the country under-girded by the principles of efficiency and equity. Others: o Maximizing equal opportunities and reducing the Gender Gap at all levels of education. o Education for All is integrated with ESR Action Plan and 77% allocation relates to SAP and all other areas of Education For All (EFA). o Institutional reforms at all levels, i.e. federal, provincial and district levels to be triggered by the ESR as an integral part of devolution plan. o Literacy through Education For All for a literate Pakistan is ensured by institution of comprehensive programmes supported by the Compulsory Primary Education Ordinance and broad based institutional support for adult literacy initiatives.

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The Delivery of Quality Education at all levels for improving the quality of social capital through a comprehensive, logical and integrated approach. This is to be achieved by rewarding expertise, transparency and honesty in planning and implementation, providing access to improved teacher training programmes, curriculum, reforms, multiple textbooks and other innovative projects. Examination Boards are being strengthened to conduct quality audit for recognized standards and value of certification to be regularized for global equivalence. To bridge the digital divide, Information Communication Technology (ICT) is being encouraged in all public sector institutions through public private partnerships. Punjab, Sindh and NWFP have made major breakthrough in introduction of courses at secondary and higher secondary level through private sector initiatives such as providing the facility of premises of Government schools to private sector for second shift. The IT Division is providing IT labs and IT education to 1100 secondary schools by 2005/6. By 2005/6 over 8000 schools will have access to IT facilities. Poverty Reduction Strategy is integrated with ESR linked through social safety nets, asset creation and by ensuring cost effective provision of basic education needs of the poor.

6.3: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE


According to Pakistan MDG report44 2006,the performance against Goal 245 amongst the ten fastest growing districts of Pakistan two are from Sindh ,namely Tharparkar and Shikarpur. Tharparkar has moved up to the rank of 51 in 2005 from the rank of 91 in 1998. Similarly Shikarpur is now ranked at 34 as compared to its 1998 ranking of 78. Unfortunately Jacobabad is now ranked at number 94 and falls in the bottom ten list. Within the province ranking of districts between 1998 and 2005 for the four provinces there are seven districts that remain in the top rankings in both years with some gains and some slippages within the category. In Sindh, among the top five, Hyderabad and Khairpur lost their place and are replaced by Shikarpur and Ghotki. Among the bottom five, Badin, Shikarpur and Tharparkar graduated from their lowest ranking and are replaced by Dadu, Nawabshah and Sanghar in 2005. In terms of literacy rates Karachi stood at the rank of 2 in 1998 and has now moved up to the top position with an overall literacy rate of 78.1%. Rawalpindi and Lahore rank at positions 2 and 3 respectively. Tharparkar shows the fastest growing literacy rate from 18.3% in 1998 to 36.2% in 2005. Larkana has demonstrated the slowest growth rate from 34.9% in 1998 to just 38.2% in 2005. The overall management of the education system including curriculum, schools and administration reflects the weaknesses and gaps prevailing in governance. The participants of the consultative process identified these gaps in the education system. The participants were of the view that the education system of the country particularly in Sindh is affected by high social, political and administrative interference. The education department and institution lack a professional approach in team building at all levels. The professional approach requires a permanent professional and committed team of educationists and dedicated professional managers at all levels. These objectives have

Pakistan Millennium Development Goals 2006 at www.crprid.org Planning Commission Government of Pakistan. 45 Achieve universal primary education

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not yet materialized due to ad hoc approach towards team building. Political instability has led to an increase in ad hoc measures. Sindh vision 2030 will provide a framework for a consistent and stable education team of well trained educationists and managers at provincial and district level. This team will be empowered to lead the education system without any interference. A task such as this requires that government ensure by involvement and sensitization of the relevant authorities, as well as national and provincial legislators belonging to Sindh. The participants of the consultative process stressed that consensus on all issues be sought from legislators of Sindh and the federal government as well. The participants of the consultative process identified the issue of misuse and underutilization of already lesser allocated funds. Every one including government officers throughout Sindh was talking about malpractices and mismanagement of the funds on different reasons. However everyone identified the underutilization of the available funds. The table 6.1 analyzing the annual budget documents confirms the issue. Table 6.1: Allocated and actual expenditures on education46
Fiscal Year 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-03 2003-04 Allocated Budget Total 16,287 14,251 15,078 14,338 18,876 19,015 4,838 dev 14 % 9% 8% 8% 8% 9 46 Recur. 86 % 91 % 92 % 92 % 92 % 91 % 54 % Actual expenses Total 10,174 11,602 12,332 14,427 dev 1% 2% 1% 2% Recur. 99 % 98 % 99 % 98 % Percent Utilized Total 62 81 82 101 dev 4 18 10 25 Recur. 72 88 88 107

The above situation requires an effective capacity building program for education managers at all levels so that available financial resources can be utilized more effectively. Sindh Vision 2030 will provide a framework to empower the education managers for hiring the teachers which will be solely on merit. Also recommended (by the participants of consultative workshops) are effective teacher training programs. The possibility of posting the teachers in the school nearest to their homes was also discussed. Such efforts will be supported and ensured through transparent and accountable monitoring mechanisms. Other plans to be given effect are the school management committees, and other citizen forums at various levels for parents and others to interact with educationists, teachers and education managers. Sindh Vision 2030 ensures proactive and affirmative measures for increasing enrolment in backward and remote areas such as Kachho, Kohistan, Naro and Thar. In addition, it will ensure continuity of education up to certain grade levels and prevention of drop out from schools. The participants of the consultative workshops also mentioned the issue of dropout and absenteeism. As yet the focus of the governments initiatives remained to increase enrolment; however the focus of future endeavour will be to ensure continuity in education.

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6.4: WOMEN CHILDREN AND OUR YOUTH


Girls education in the country as well as in Sindh remained affected by adverse customs, traditions and biased interpretation of Islamic injunctions and teachings. There has been little improvement in the past few decades. Sindh vision 2030 will boost girls education through effectual and visible measures. Such measures require substantial financial commitment as well as massive community mobilization and sensitization to the importance of educated women. According to the Social Policy and Development Centre (SPDC) report on Gender Inequality in Education Attainment there are many economic and non-economic factors that explain gender inequality in acquiring education. Since, low income groups have almost no resources, education remains on the lowest rung of priorities. In these circumstances the question of educating one child over the other does not arise. However, in the case of lower middle class groups who have few resources yet some are left over and where education is seen as human capital development, priority is usually given to male offspring. Therefore, a link is effectively drawn between income levels and female education. It is expected that with the increase in income level, demand for education of girls should increase and growth in per capita income should reduce gender inequality in attainment of education. Another factor that affects girls education is lack of educational facilities and the arising ratio of schools for girls to boys. The way that this has an impact is if fewer schools are built for girls and more are constructed for boys, then gender inequality in attaining education is the outcome, which demonstrates discriminatory public policy. Another factor that explains the gender inequality is the non-availability of requisite number of female teachers per school. In most of the villages in Pakistan, girl schools are usually ghost schools as they are there in terms of structure only. The SPDC report47 demonstrates that The growth in per capita income has enabled more households to provide education to females. Therefore, increase in per capita GDP played an important role in reducing gender inequality in attainment of education through the entire sample period (1973-05). Lagged ratio of girl schools to boy schools contributed towards reducing gender inequality in education attainment by 0.11, 0.71, and 1.06 percent during 1976-80, 1991-95, and 1996-00, respectively. However, decline lagged ratio of number of girl schools to number of boy schools during 1981-85, 1986-90 and 2001-05 increased inequality by 0.2, 0.19, and 1.8 percent, respectively. Decline in the number of female teachers relative to female schools during 1981-85, 1991-00 has further aggravated the gender imbalance prevalent in Pakistan. However, the number of female teacher per girl school has reduced gender inequality massively during 2001-05. Supply side factors such as per-school female teachers and ratio of girl schools to boy schools have remained quite important in explaining the variation in the inequality of educational attainment among girls and are quite representative of public policy priorities.

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Social Policy and Development Centre (SPDC) report on Gender Inequality and Trade Liberalization: A case Study of Pakistan; March 2007

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The SPDC report concludes that prevailing cultural, traditional and social-economic rigidities in less developed societies create distortions that increase bias against females. It hypothesized that gender inequalities reduce or slow down with an increase in level of development and outward orientation of the less developed economies. This argument was investigated, using Pakistans data from 1973 to 2005. The constructed gender inequality index shows high degree of gender inequality in Pakistan. However, during the last 31 years the index has fallen significantly. Empirical analysis has shown that variables related to trade liberalization, income and public policy have played an important role in explaining the changes of gender inequality. Analysis explains that gender inequality in education attainment is primarily the result of the imbalance in the provision of education facilities. Changes in per capita income along with the ratios of girl and boy schools and the number of female teachers to the number of schools have also played a vital role in reducing the gender inequality in Pakistan48. The participants of the workshops have suggested creating and engendering a favourable and conducive social environment which includes ease of mobility for women and girls. Sindh Vision 2030 emphasizes the need to initiate a massive sensitization campaign such as Education for All which focuses on the significance of educated women for a civilized and developed society. Sindh Vision 2030 considers increased mobility will lead to scores of opportunities for women to become dynamic and productive citizens. This includes furthering economic opportunities for women.

6.5: WATER
One of the most exigent issues faced by the province of Sindh is water. As long as both rural and urban Sindhis dont learn to value water, it would be impossible for this issue to be controlled. In order to educate the populace of Sindh about the importance of water and its conservation the government will initiate water conservation into the curriculum of education alongside with contamination prevention. As it is clearly evident that water has direct impact on the health as well as the wealth of nation, it has been deemed mandatory by the Government of Sindh to ensure that the masses are educated about water. The syllabi will be revised and relevant sections of water will be added.

6.6: AGRICULTURE
Majority of the Sindhi population is located in rural areas and is mainly dependant on agriculture related sources as means of livelihood. Schemes and projects will be prepared to educate our local Sindhi farmers about new ways of harvesting, planting etc. The techniques will be taught by qualified teachers in their respective fields. The Sindhi farmers will be taught cost efficient use of available resources through trainings organized by public private partnerships (PPP). These trainings will organize farmers, prepare them for enhancements, and help them incorporate latest technologies in agriculture. Farmer Field schools are going to be planned. Proper research and development (R&D) departments with dedicated attention on the needs of agriculture and farmers will be inculcated by the government. Furthermore, the participants of the consultative workshops also stressed upon relating the education system through curriculum expansions to enhance future economic opportunities, in the field of agriculture. The majority of the participants were of the view
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Social Policy and Development Centre report on Gender Inequality in Education Attainment

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that the educational institutions, especially vocational training institutions, should help those taught there to explore different trades and skills related to agriculture. Those, trained, would be in a position to help the farmers as technical advisors to improve production and help in introducing best management practices into agriculture cultivation.

6.7: EDUCATION LANGUAGE


Sindh is blessed with a very rich language. It is one of the oldest languages in the sub continent and every Sindhi is proud to associate with Sindhi. To ensure that every generation of Sindh knows the art of writing, reading and speaking Sindhi and be proud of it, the Government of Sindh will initiate Sindhi as a compulsory subject throughout the province alongside with Urdu. A plan has been conceived to standardize the language of Education. Standardization would help in decreasing the rural urban disparity. With the standardization of language throughout the province, the government would be able to ensure that the quality of education in rural Sindh is at par with urban Sindh. English is a universal language. In order to ensure economic and social prosperity to the province of Sindh it has been deemed necessary by the government to clarify the importance of English, making it the medium of instruction. English should not be taken as a threat to Sindhi, it should be taken as a business language. It would also help to reduce the rural and urban disparity within the province as mentioned earlier. The world is becoming a global economy. To be at par with this fast paced progress of an ever changing world, the Government of Sindh plans to initiate plans of introducing IT as a mandatory part of the syllabi throughout the province. The example of IT subjects can be seen in private schools. Following the stated example the government will include IT subjects alongside with IT labs throughout the province, making it possible for every Sindhi to have an equal chance. The provincial government has already initiated many steps in the direction of IT enlightenment.

6.8: HEALTH
Education in the Department of Health is an issue of high priority for the Government of Sindh. An integral part of health education is Hygiene Education. Hygiene education would help in eradicating many of the diseases currently incurred in the province. In addition awareness towards different kind of general diseases and their medication and prevention, it would also include awareness on vaccinations and population planning.

6.9: HERITAGE, CULTURE & TOURISM


The land of Sindh has a hoary past with some of the most striking episodes in history having occurred in its bosom. It has given a slightly different variation of its name to our neighbouring country and to the religious majority of its inhabitants. Both the words India and Hindu are derived from Sindhu, which, in Persian became Hind and Hindu (the letter H substituted for S) and in Greek and Roman, Ind (the letter S of Sind having being dropped). The meaning of the word Sindhu is water, referring to the great

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river. There is an old belief among Muslims that four rivers had sprung from Heaven: Neel (Nile), Furat (Euphrates), Jehoon (Juxartes) and Sehoon (Sindh). Dawn of history reveals an Aryan dynasty in power in Sindh. In the Mahabharata (12th or 13th century B.C.) Jayadrath, King of Sindh appears as a partisan of Panduas against their cousins Kauruas. Next historical mention of Sindh is found about 575 B.C. during the time of Achaemenian dynasty. The Iranian General, Skylax, explored Indus in a flotilla equipped near Peshawar, conquered the Indus Valley and annexed it to the Empire of Darius the Great. The conquered province of the Punjab and Sindh was considered the richest and the most populous satrapy of the Empire and was required to pay the enormous tribute of fully a million sterling. Next historical record is that of Alexander's invasion in 326 B.C. A tribe called Mausikanos whose capital is usually identified with Alor (Rohri) is said to have submitted. According to Greek historians the territories of this chief were the most flourishing of all that the Greeks had seen. A few centuries later Roman historians have mentioned Sindh as a rich country. Patala in lower Sindh was known to them as an emporium of trade. The Arabs conquered Sindh in 712 A.D. which gave muslims a firm foothold in Sindh. The Arab rule brought Sindh within the Islamic civilization and Sindhi language was developed and written a naskh script. Education became widely diffused and Sindhi scholars attained fame in the Muslim world. Agriculture and commerce progressed considerably. Ruins of Mansura, the medieval Arab capital of Sindh (11 kms south east pf Shahdadpur) testify to the grandeur of the city and the development of urban life during this period. Sindh is a repository of varied cultural values and has remained the seat of civilization and meeting point of diverse cultures from times immemorial. After Independence on August 14, 1947 with the influx of Muslims from India, its culture has progressively assumed a new complexion. Sindhs cultural life has been shaped, to a large extent, by its comparative isolation in the past from the rest of the subcontinent. A long stretch of desert to its east and a mountainous terrain to the west served as barriers, while the Arabian Sea in the south and the Indus in the north prevented easy access. As a result, the people of Sindh developed their own exclusive artistic tradition. Their arts and craft, music and literature, games and sports have retained their original flavour. Sindh is rich in exquisite pottery, variegated glazed tiles, lacquer-work, leather and straw products, needlework, quilts, embroidery, hand print making and textile design. According to renowned European historian H.T. Sorelay, Sindhis had not only contributed to literature but also to astronomy, medicine, philosophy, dialectics and similar subjects. All of this proves that Sindh has a rich history. The history of Sindh will be made a mandatory part of the education system at the primary level49.
49

REFERENCES: 1. The Wonder that was India, By A.L. Bhasham 2. The peoples of Pakistan, By Yu. V. Gankovsky 3. Arab-o-Hind ke Talluqat, By Sulaiman Nadvi. 4. The Gazetteer of Pakistan: The Province of Sind, edited by T.H. Sorly 5. Gazetteer of the Province of Sind, compiled by E.H. Aitkin 6. Ancient Trade in Pakistan, By Sir Mortimer Wheeler, Pakistan Quarterly, Vol VII #1957 7. Sindhi Culture, By U.T. Thakkur. 8. Tareekh-Sind, By Manlana Syed Abu Zafar Nadvi. 9. An Advanced History of India, Part II, By R.C. Majumdar, H.C. Roychandra and Kalikinkar Ditta 10. The Land of five rivers and Sind, By David Ross11. Arab~o-Hind ke Tallukat, By Suiaiman Nadvi 12. Tareekh-e-Sind, Part I, By Ijaaul Haq Quddusi.13. Dr. Mohammad Ishaque in Journal of Pakistan Historical Society Vol 3 Part114. A Study of History, Vol VII, By Arnold Toynbee.15. Ibid.16. Sind: A General Introduction, By M.T. Lambrick. 17. A greater portion of the area now called Baluchistan was then known as Makran. The word Baluchistan came into vogue much later.18. Journal of Pakistan, Historical Society, Vol.111, Part 1 19. Tauzeehat-e-Tareekh-e-Masoomi. 20. Muslim Community of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, by Dr. I.H Qureshi 21. Tareekh-e-Sind, Part 1, by Aijazul Haq Quddusi 22. The Making of India, By Dr. Abdulla Yusuf Ali. 23. Jaunat-us-Sind, By Maulai Shaidai. 24. Imperial Gazetteer of India.

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6.10: INDUSTRY
Enhancing skills development for higher labour productivity would be central requirement for the development of industry. Countries with high labour productivity tend to be wealthier societies. In order to develop as a province collectively, the government, through collaborations with the private sector, would have to improve the quality of labour in order to improve labour productivity. This level of intervention would yield a potential to become/remain competitive, both nationally and internationally. Technical and basic management education is the first step towards improving productivity. Occupational trainings should be offered throughout the province. Specialties of Sindh, things for which Sindh is famous for, should be promoted. The Government of Pakistan and the Government of Sindh has initiated a number of programs in this direction. However, the interventions may lack an integrated approach and the element of reinventing the wheel continues to haunt the efforts. How do we overcome these problems and strive to be competitive?

6.11: ENERGY
The Government of Sindh plans to take concrete steps towards the development of institutes in the different sectors of energy. These institutes would foster to the growing needs of the ever growing energy sector by offering specialized courses. They will be equipped with labs that cater to all the needs of the sector. Qualified Pakistani as well as foreign instructors will be hired to impart the required knowledge. As the energy sector requires a specific knowledge base at every level, these institutes would equip all the necessary human resource to handle their respective fields in the energy sector, ranging from a normal technician to an engineer. As qualification would be a necessity in the energy sector, the literacy rate will be bound to increase, hence in compliance to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the energy sector would help in reducing the high rates of unemployment and increase literacy. Due to lack of general awareness throughout the province little attention is paid to the conservation of energy. The government will conceptualize and initiate a plan to introduce energy conservation at all levels in educational institutes, all over Sindh. In addition to that the government will work with the civil society to help enhance the concept of energy conservation in rural Sindh. The basic idea behind making the people understand the importance of energy conservation is to empower them for a better future.

6.12: INFRASTRUCTURE
The participants of the consultative workshops accentuated the need to upgrade and improve physical conditions of schools. This included the provision of well constructed buildings, boundary walls, new classrooms, libraries, playgrounds, water and sanitation and many such other requirements that a quality school should have. Improved infrastructure, such as boundary walls and sanitation, will ensure increase in the overall enrolment as well as enrolment of girl students.

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The SPDC Report50 on the physical conditions of the primary schools in Sindh and describes the over all situation in Pakistan as well. Gender wise the physical condition of girls schools in general appears to be significantly better in general than that of boys schools. A disturbing situation is that between one-fifth and one quarter of girls schools in urban areas are without water or a toilet. The situation is worse in rural areas where about 40% of girls schools lack these two basic facilities. There is a great deal of evidence from around the world showing that a lack of adequate toilet facilities contributes to lower attendance and increased dropout rates for girls. Table 6.2 gives a comparison between rural and urban educational institutes. Table 6.2: Comparison of basic facilities between rural and urban Sindh
Area / condition Without Building Without boundary wall Without electricity Without water Without toilet Sindh Rural 9% 23 % 39 % 28 % 23 % Sindh Urban 30 % 61 % 83 % 57 % 61 % Pakistan 16 % 55 % 79 % 44 % 60 %

6.13: ENVIRONMENT
The definition of environment is no longer limited to the air we breathe in or the world we live in. The conservation of environment has now become the way to prosperity of a nation. In order to deal with environmental issues efforts will be made to educate the younger generation. Interactive modes of education would be proposed to be used by educational institutes all over Sindh which would include field trips to natural water bodies, the Ramsar list of the world in which 19 sites are found in Pakistan. Of those 19 sites, 10 are found in Sindh. Not only would the students see these gifts of nature they would be facilitated to learn the importance of the preservation of these sites. Student bodies would be encouraged to take nature walks along the coastal belt, organized trips to all the coastal areas would be initiated by public private partnerships (PPP) in the education sector. Educational institutes all over the province will introduce environmental studies in their syllabi as an integral part, starting at the lower levels. These studies would include awareness programs in wastage of usage, conservation, pollution etc. The government would ensure that the national internship programme also covers all the fields of environment. In this regard it is important to enhance the scope of environmental studies at all levels to develop an attractive prospect for employment throughout the province.

6.14: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


Today, the term information technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term is more prominent than ever before. The Information Technology umbrella can be quite large, covering many fields including communication. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include:
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Data Management Computer Networking Database Systems Design Software design Management Information Systems Systems management

In Pakistan the use of IT for personal development as well as for professional purpose is still in infancy. There is already a much discussion in society about negative use of the IT particularly internet. However it relates with our social and educational value system. It also closely relate to the opportunities for people especially youth for professional use of Information and communication Technology. What we do need is careful long-term planning, with emphasis on development of hardware expertise alongside the sharpening of reason and logic for enhanced programming skills. We need to establish a proper channel for the funnelling of latest books into the country. We must give priority to the establishment of chip-manufacturing industry in Pakistan. We have to retain IT professionals by stopping the export, for these brains before they can serve their own country. Proper incentives along with enabling social and political environment must be provided in the educational and professional institutions. Effective measures must be taken to block the undesirable sites and greater number of Internet connections with enhanced speed must be provided to research groups at the universities. Concept of EBaithak should be introduced as a non formal IT literacy centre that must be connected with industries, business organizations, and professional bodies requiring semi-skilled IT persons. IT policies mainly relate to national level, it should also cover Vision/Policy at provincial level.

6.15: FUTURE DIRECTIONS


Davies and Ellison51 state that in the context of educational development it is important to link the outcome targets to the processes or the activities listed in the plans so that approaches to learning and teaching and changes to management arrangements are not seen in isolation but are seen in relation to those targets. The strategy tables (6.3 and 6.4) illustrate the linkage between outcomes and processes with particular references to hold school operational targets and relationships between curricular/area planning. Table 6.3: Primary School operational targets 2007-2030
Target 1 50% of students in Year 5 to have a reading age at least as high as their chronological age 100% of students in Year 5 to have a reading age at least as high as their chronological age Responsibility Teachers Desired outcome Active support of parents and use of literacy hour to ensure 80% reach the target in standardised tests. Active support of parents and use of literacy hour to ensure 80% reach the target in standardised tests; More active teaching and use of IT and extension activities to ensure results as per target. Completed by 2015 Reviewed by School

Teachers

2030

School

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Brent Davies and Linda Ellison, Strategic Direction and Development of the School:1999

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Target 3 50% of students have higher reading capabilities

Responsibility Parents School Community Parents School Community School Teacher Teachers / /

Desired outcome Active support of parents and more active teaching and use of IT and extension activities to ensure results as per target. Active support of parents and Community support to help resolve financial issues of the children/parents Teachers trainings; commitment Teachers

Completed by 2020

Reviewed by School / Parents

0% dropout ratio of students from school

/ /

2030

School / Parents

5 6

Improve level of education 100% of students in Year 5 to have clear understanding of reading and writing Sindhi Language all over Sindh

2015 2030

School, Teacher, Parent School

Active support of parents and use of literacy hour to ensure 80% reach the target in standardised tests; More active teaching and use of IT and extension activities to ensure results as per target. / / syllabus shall be up to-date and in accordance with the need of the time

Syllabus update

School Teacher Government

2030

School Teacher Government

/ /

Table 6.4: Curricular/area etc. plans e.g. for Science Department


Desired outcome (how know achieved?) students understand meaning of words and can spell them each has growing dictionary calculations used at least once a month 4 planned review points in Y11 all staff have observed 2 others and discussed styles

Whole school Target

Actions/ task/ strategies Creation of science dictionaries; Creation of Dictionaries in English, Urdu and Sindhi

Who Involved all staff

Completed by 2015

Monitored by SMC

Literacy

Numeracy

Regular use calculations

of

all staff all staff

2015 2020

DO-Edu Board

SSC results

Use existing data to set targets and mentor Peer review - varied styles, interests, differentiation and pace (further targets in this area for next year) Monitor attendance and follow-up absence ensure that lessons are interesting

all staff

2015

SMCs and DO-Edu

Teaching quality

all staff

Attendance

Whole school systems implemented and utilised 90 per cent lessons rated good or above

2015

SMCs and DO-Edu

These strategy tables have been prepared using the frame work proposed by Davies and Ellison (1999) and the customization is based on inputs received from a variety of participants of the fourteen consultative workshops and a review of the Education for All program. The intent is to give more impetus to the NPA-EFA by particularly addressing the concerns on total quality management of the education delivery system which inherently includes the qualitative measurements of performance for both students and teachers.

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Chapter 07: EMPLOYMENT - ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITIES


7.1: OVERVIEW
According to an AERC working paper prepared for the P&DD (2006) the labour force stood at around 9 million in 2002 in the province of Sindh, 58% of which is literate. Women participation rate in the labour force was very low at around 6% in both urban and rural areas. Comprehensive reforms should be under taken to facilitate women to actively participate in the economy by giving them better access to education, improve working conditions and environment, and the availability of credit. Unemployment rate in Sindh was around higher at 7% than 3% in the rural areas. labour to improve competitiveness has further in economic policy and strategy will be needed employment needs. 5%. Urban unemployment rate was A recent trend towards shedding excess deteriorated the situation. Major changes to incorporate ground realities and future

Figure 7.1: Pakistan - Unemployment rates compared to total population

Future rates of employment will depend on many factors including growth rate of the labour force and changes in the structure of employment between different sectors as well as the growth rate of the economy. In view of the high growth rate of the labour force, the decline in elasticity for the overall economy as well as for major sectors like agriculture and large scale manufacturing is alarming. Besides these two sectors, other sectors indicate great potential for job creation, as shown by the high elasticity in small scale manufacturing, construction and services. Nearly 50% of the population in Sindh live in the rural areas and majority is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. There is utmost need to develop this sector by increasing the cultivable land, raising crop yields, diversification of cropping patterns and production of high value crops like fruits, vegetables and flowers, etc. for a sustained employment generation and reduction in poverty, sectors like agro-industry, agrobusiness, livestock and water sector development would be critical.

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There is enormous potential in the IT sector for job creation within and outside the country. Vision 2030 should have proper manpower planning keeping in view the fast development of this sector. It has been learnt from the experience of other high achieving countries that it is important to tap the potential for job creation in the unorganized or informal sector. In the year 2002 this sector accounted for about two-third (64.6%) of employment outside the agricultural sector. The percentage of persons engaged in this sector in urban Sindh was significantly higher at 74% as compared to 26% in rural areas. Therefore, the informal sector must play a central role in any employment strategy formulated for Vision 2030. This will require easy availability of credit, increase in productivity, quality and competitiveness. Future projection of labour force and employment should be done keeping in view population growth, growth of the working age population, labour force participation rates, educational enrolment at higher levels and school drop-out rates. It is very difficult to project unemployment rate for twenty or thirty years from now, but if education reforms are successful and the full potential of job opportunities in the informal sector have been exploited, the incidence of unemployment rate could be brought down to negligible levels. As economic growth picked up in the tenure of PRSP-1 (2003-06), it is important that it should be aligned with an employment strategy that can ensure broad based growth.

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Table 7.1: Distribution of Labour Force by Area And Sex


(In millions) Growth Rate Long Short term term 1999-00 to 200304 (%) 3.31 2.6 6.9 2.4 1.34 7 5.37 5.23 6.53 (2003-04 to 2005-06) (%) 5.87 4.05 13.81 6.58 4.14 15.36 4.33 3.87 7.74

1999-00 Labour Force All Areas % Male % Female % Rural Areas % Male % Female % Urban Areas % Male % Female % 39.95 33.71 (84.38) 6.24 (15.62) 28.10 (70.34) 23.18 (58.02) 4.92 (12.32) 11.85 (29.66) 10.53 (26.36) 1.32 (3.3)

2001-02

2003-04

2005-06 (Jul-Sep 2005) 1999-00 to 200102 2.63 2.03 0.6 0.87 0.55 0.32 1.76 1.48 0.28

Net increase 2001-02 to 200304 2.93 1.62 1.31 1.93 0.72 1.21 1 0.9 0.1 2003-04 to 200506 5.5 3.09 2.41 4.2 2.07 2.13 1.29 1.02 0.27

Average increase 1999-00 to 200506 3.69 2.25 1.44 2.33 1.11 1.22 1.35 1.13 0.22

Overall 1999-00 to 200506 (%) 4.16 3.08 9.61 3.78 2.27 9.72 5.02 4.77 6.93

42.58 (100) 35.74 (83.94) 6.84 (16.06) 28.97 (68.04) 23.73 (55.73) 5.24 (12.31) 13.61 (31.96) 12.01 (28.21) 1.60 (3.76)

45.51 (100) 37.36 (82.09) 8.15 (17.91) 30.90 (67.90) 24.45 (53.72) 6.45 (14.17) 14.61 (32.10) 12.91 (28.37) 1.70 (3.74)

51.01 (100) 40.45 (79.30) 10.56 (20.70) 35.10 (68.82) 26.52 (51.99) 8.58 (16.38) 15.90 (31.18) 13.93 (27.31) 1.97 (3.87)

Source: Labour Force Surveys 1999-00, 2001-02, 2003-04 & 2005-06 Data for 2005-06 (1st Qtr.) has been provided by Ministry of Labour Manpower & Overseas Pakistanis.

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Table 7.2: Distribution of Employed Labour Force by Area And Sex


(In millions) Growth Rate Long Short term term 1999-00 to 200304 (%) 3.35 2.47 8.34 2.46 1.29 7.98 5.44 4.98 9.97 (2003-04 to 2005-06) (%) 6.37 4.43 15.45 7.08 4.51 16.8 4.82 4.26 9.59

1999-00

2001-02

2003-04

2005-06 (Jul-Sep 2005) 1999-00 to 200102 2.23 1.68 0.55 0.63 0.36 0.27 1.6 1.32 0.28

Net increase 2001-02 to 200304 2.96 1.56 1.4 2.04 0.79 1.25 0.92 0.77 0.15 2003-04 to 200506 5.53 3.16 2.37 4.22 2.13 2.09 1.31 1.04 0.27

Average increase 1999-00 to 200506 3.57 2.13 1.44 2.3 1.09 1.2 1.27 1.04 0.23

Overall 1999-00 to 200506 (%) 4.35 3.12 10.66 3.98 2.35 10.84 5.24 4.74 9.84

Employed Labour Force All Areas % Male % Female % Rural Areas % Male % Female % Urban Areas % Male % Female %

36.82 (100) 31.66 (85.99) 5.16 (14.01) 26.15 (71.02) 21.92 (59.53) 4.23 (11.49) 10.67 (28.98) 9.74 (26.45) 0.93 (2.53)

39.05 (100) 33.34 (85.38) 5.71 (14.62) 26.78 (68.58) 22.28 (57.06) 4.50 (11.52) 12.27 (31.42) 11.06 (28.32) 1.21 (3.10)

42.01 (100) 34.90 (83.08) 7.11 (16.92) 28.82 (68.60) 23.07 (54.92) 5.75 (13.69) 13.19 (31.40) 11.83 (28.16) 1.36 (3.24)

47.54 (100) 38.06 (80.06) 9.48 (19.94) 33.04 (69.51) 25.20 (53.01) 7.84 (16.50) 14.49 (30.49) 12.86 (27.05) 1.63 (3.44)

Source: Labour Force Surveys 1999-00, 2001-02, 2003-04 & 2005-06 Data for 2005-06 (1st Qtr.) has been provided by Ministry of Labour Manpower & Overseas Pakistanis.

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7.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE


Strengthening SMEs for employment generation is essential. Presently Small & Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA) and the SME Bank are the two major organizations functioning under the direct control of the Federal government for the promotion of SMEs. In addition, all the four provinces have had small industries development corporations/ boards such as PSIC in Punjab, SSIC in Sindh, SIDB in NWFP and BSIC in Balochistan. There is an urgent need to revamp and modernize the functioning of the above mentioned provincial small industries organizations to play their due role in the promotion and development of SMEs. Their staff, systems, approaches and strategies need to be changed radically to give them customer focus and market orientation. SMEDA up till now has prepared a large number of feasibility studies for establishing SMEs in different sectors. It does not have a system of providing business advisory services and assistance to entrepreneurs in establishing SMEs. Unless, SMEDA and the provincial small industries/ organizations/ corporations develop the capacity to provide the required business advisory and support services, the SME sector shall continue to flounder. They should contract out provisioning of the business advisory services to private consultants and experts who should be paid on their out put/ results. SMEDA being a new organization may find it easier to adopt modern systems and approaches. Development and introduction of local/home grown franchises can be used effectively to promote SMEs. Under the franchising model, the franchisor provides the technology, machinery, training, business systems and marketing support to the franchisee. The franchisee on the other hand provides capital, labour and management for the business. And, thus franchising results in creation of hundreds of outlets and many thousand jobs without trial and error. Many type of businesses may be franchised. These may include restaurants and fast food outlets, bakeries and mithai52 shops, garment stores and boutiques, furniture and household stores, pharmacies and super markets, shoes and leather goods stores, jewellery and novelty items stores, dry fruits and specialty food stores, etc throughout Sindh. Besides goods, franchising is ideally suited for services business as well such as beauty and barber salons, clinics and hospitals, schools, pathology and radiology labs, household repair services, TV and computer repairs, travel and tour operators, bus and radio taxi, goods transport, catering, car repairs, etc. SMEDA and SSIC should be mandated to develop and promote local level franchising. They may be directed to identify local franchisors, develop franchising models and agreements, assist the franchisors in developing the required manuals, systems and training programs for the selected franchisees, assist the franchisors in identifying franchisees and in finally doing match making. The above mentioned export development boards need to work closely with SMEDA, SME Bank, Khushhali Bank and other small industries organizations to develop SMEs in their respective sectors. Only a well coordinated effort will enable the SMEs to develop on sound lines, otherwise they will continue to grow only marginally as they do presently. There is no institution offering courses in entrepreneurship and project development. These programs need to be developed and implemented at all levels such as university, college, TTC, and VTC. Trainees attending these courses should
52

Mithai is an Urdu word meaning sweetmeat

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be given financial support by SME Bank, Khushhali Bank, ZTBL and other such organizations throughout Sindh.

7.3:

CAPITALISING ON INWARD MIGRATION

ECONOMIC

OPPORTUNITIES

FROM

Inward migration brings with it multiple economic opportunities. Skilled and unskilled labour, investors, entrepreneurs and transfers within the corporate structures all yield economic value for Sindh in the form of resources, new opportunities and investments. It is believed that about 80% of the income generated by the migrants is spent in Sindh. The Government of Sindh needs to identify a pragmatic solution to maximise the economic opportunities brought in by the migrants. The Government of Sindh is more than prepared to work with other Provincial Governments to ensure that cross fertilisation takes place and that opportunities can be germinated for all the people of Pakistan, regardless of where they work and generate their income. We need to be better prepared to manage the inflow and support the process that retains the migrant as a contributing resident of Sindh. Examples of such an approach are visible in the context of Australia and Canada. What are the gaps in how we welcome and manage inward migration? How can we strive to capitalise on this opportunity?

7.4: WOMEN CHILDREN AND OUR YOUTH


As per the MTDF Pakistans ranking in terms of per capita GDP ($PPP) is higher than the ranking in terms of Human Development Index (HDI) suggesting that economic development does not always result in human development. However, the ranking in terms of HDI is higher than the Gender Development Index (GDI) reflecting inequalities between men and women in Pakistan. As per the data provided in the Labour Force Surveys, more than 70% of rural women work in agriculture including livestock. More than 75% women in the urban areas work in the non-formal sector such as domestic servants, construction workers etc... As per the Medium Term Development Framework, fixing of employment quotas in the age of in-formalization of economy, amount to very little. It further goes on to state that the 5% quota fixed for women in the federal and provincial governments many years ago has remained unfulfilled due to lack of capacity and level of education and required skills. This was a good step and all levels of the government need to make concerted effort to fill this quota. This quota for women has been recently increased to 10% by the Federal Government. The federal Ministry of Women Development (MoWD) and the Sindh provincial department of Women Development need to not only do advocacy and provide input for gender sensitization of all national level policies, programmes and projects but also to work closely with all the line ministries and departments to ensure the adequate employment opportunities are identified and allocated for women. For example, the National Commission for Human Development has plans to create nearly 304,000 jobs from 2005 to 2011 for their programmes which include Universal Primary Education 46,000 jobs; Adult Literacy programme 250,000; National ORS Campaign 7,000; and School Health Program 750 jobs. The MoWD should interact

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with the NCHD and ensure that at least 50% of these jobs (152,000) are allocated for women. This should not be difficult to achieve given the large number of female graduates available in the market In addition, the MoWD and the Sindh provincial department of women development need to work closely with SMEDA SME Bank, Khushhali Bank, ZTBL, small industries, organizations to ensure proper allocation of resources and micro-credit for women owned/operated SMEs in the rural and urban areas. A comprehensive Women Employment Strategy needs to be prepared and incorporated in PRSP II and especially in SPRSP. The last such effort was made by the National Manpower Commission in late 1980s. Many of the recommendations contained in the report of the National Manpower Commission for employment of women are still valid and are being reproduced below only as a stop-gap arrangement till an updated strategy is prepared as suggested above. Bringing a Change in Social Attitudes Towards Women; a large scale motivational campaign needs to be launched for educating the general public at large and in particular parents, teachers, children, employers, employees, men a and women to take equal part in the process of economic development. This campaign should aim at changing the traditional attitude of the society towards work of men and women in the home and in working life. Mass communication media and text books as well as the social welfare organizations working at the grass root level can play a major role in this respect. The tremendous growth in electronic media needs to be tapped for this campaign Raising the Education and Skill Level Education is the basic tool for improvement of the status of women as well as fulfilment of their roles as members of the society. It is an important tool for developing of occupational capacity so that sexual discrimination in all types of occupations is limited. Elimination of discriminatory Practices Training, Promotion and Hiring; these practices can be eliminated by providing incentives to Employers in the form of tax rebates, Employees equal opportunities can be made mandatory on the basis of employment ratio. Myths against women have to be eliminated. Malpractices of employers against women workers should be stopped. Help of electronic media should be solicited for this purpose. Improvement of Working Conditions Regarding Provision of Maternity Benefits, Washroom and Toilet Facilities, Child Care Facilities, Protection Against Health Hazards and Working Hours; this requires strict enforcement of labour laws and making women workers aware as to the existence of these laws and provision of support services. Department of Women Development as well as local and international NGOs in Sindh need to interact strongly with the labour department to ensure that strict compliance is enforced. Increasing Participation of Women in Labour Unions; the only way to increase participation is to create awareness of women regarding the purpose and functions of labour unions. For professionally qualified women there is a need to: Introduce campaign to change social attitudes through electronic media; Review of the overall policy framework for transportation; Refresher courses for women to ease re-entry; Ensure of well trained ayahs/ babysitters; Introduction of flexi hours/ job sharing and part time work; New job opportunities should be created that are of benefit to women working in both formal and informal sectors; Summer holiday Camps can also be established for children of working women.

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A detailed study should be conducted to identify the problems faced by professionally qualified women. Since a lot of cost is incurred by the economy on their training it is necessary that steps be taken to resolve their problems so that professionally qualified women re-enter their professions without much difficulty. Income generating projects for women in handicrafts and other home based activity (paper bag making, bottling of pickles and jams, etc.) that have profitable markets, have to be identified and implemented for women in the informal sector and women have to be trained to take part in them. The target market for income generation projects must be identified by women NGOs working at grass root level. The formation of appropriate Womens Groups should be dealt with by a team of development women workers who then identify the target market and carefully study the capabilities of the area women along with providing training in education, health and hygiene. This will greatly improve the income generation capability of the projects. Feasibility Studies to identify suitable and profitable projects for women must be conducted using experts. SMEDA and SSIC may be asked to create a separates sector for women entrepreneurs. Programme for income generation must be linked with the existing institutions for technical cooperation. Workers at the Brick Kilns, Quarries and Construction Sites Special teams need to be formulated for ensuring that facilities with respect to medical care, education of children, proper accommodation and protection against malpractices of employers are provided to women workers employed at the kilns, quarries and construction sites. Support services must be provided to ease employment conditions of domestic servants. Training must be provided to the team of development workers in community development and cooperatives. Motivational campaigns to encourage women to take part in community development and social welfare activities should be started and implemented on a regular basis over the next 10 to 15 years to help reduce/ illuminate bias against women. A number of recommendations were made relating to training for the formal and informal sectors as follows: Determination of Market Needs. Systematic manpower surveys should be conducted every two years to determine the training needs of women in relation to job opportunities. Linkage with the Job Market. Training institutions involved in training and teaching of women should maintain close contacts with the job market to bring changes commensurate with market needs in their training programmes Co-ordination with Planning Agencies. Close co-ordination between training centres, Manpower and Planning Directorates and industrial units should be maintained through the MoWD and the Sindh department of women development. Co-ordination between various Training Centres. A national coordinating unit must be designated with the responsibility for co-ordination of training programmes for women. Training Women for Self-employment. Training institutions must aim at imparting training in entrepreneurship and business concepts for promoting selfemployment and entrepreneurship among women. Training in modern marketing methods management, accounting and record, keeping, needs to be given. Establishment of properly maintained vocational guidance and placement bureaus for women are necessary.

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The entrance requirements of training institutions must be relaxed considering the fact that the majority of the women are illiterate and enter the labour market at a later stage. Skill Diversification opportunity must be provided for working women to undergo training in skill diversification. For this purpose evening courses may be started. Provision of Support Services. Child care and accommodation facilities must be provided to women by the training institutions. Stipends must be given. Apprenticeship programmes for women should also be started Production-Cum-Training Centres. Production-cum-training centres are essential for improving the quality of training as well as for providing monetary incentives for women to undergo training. Self Employment among women belonging to Middle and Upper Income Groups Specially designed training programmes must be conducted to encourage entrepreneurship among women of these income groups.

A comprehensive study to develop strategy and action plan for increasing women employment in the Country should be conducted every alternate year. The study would need to involve all stakeholders from the federal, provincial and local governments, private sector employers, etc. Based on the approved strategy and the agreed action plan, implementation should be monitored on a quarterly basis and progress reported to all the stakeholders.

7.5: YOUTH
A large percentage (43%) of Country population comprises of young persons who have a lot of energy and potential which needs to be tapped. In order to involve youth in economic activities, following recommendations are being made: Education and training programs should be oriented towards skills development having market relevance; Entrepreneurship training for youth should be promoted strongly. Youth are ideally suited for the tourism, hotels, motels, restaurants, ICT and similar services. They may be provided micro-credit along with business advisory services to ensure success; Proper career counselling should be mandatory for the youth to help and guide them to select appropriate/suitable careers and/or business for themselves.

The recently launched National Internship Programme (NIP) of the Government of Pakistan should be reviewed and strengthened by introducing Terms of Reference, Job Descriptions and task-based assignments. It is vital that the youth enrolled in this programme are not caught up in doing mundane jobs as temporary staff. All youths in the NIP require carefully compiled orientation sessions and explanations on the role they will play in the organisations of internship.

7.6: WATER
In order to combat the problem of scarcity of water it is mandatory for the government to incorporate strategies which would enhance the knowledge and importance of water amongst both, rural and urban, students, beginning at primary levels.

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To achieve the aforementioned task the government would have to inculcate special courses on water cost management and water vigilance at every level. To ensure that water based knowledge is not wasted, schemes should be deployed which would motivate the rural and urban masses to deploy their acquired knowledge. Massive job opportunities will be initiated to facilitate sector oriented employment by the government. Another important issue that will be tackled concerning water is that of teaching the general masses to be equipped to respond emergencies. Training projects should be initiated, dealing with first aid etc. Flood relief trainings will be given to people located in areas where there is a frequency of floods. Proper emergency relief teams and departments in every locality specifically made for the purpose relief and trained likewise would be created over a course of time equipped for every emergency.

7.7: AGRICULTURE
The agriculture sector already employs majority of workers in Sindh. It has great potential to create and absorb more workers productivity. The following paragraphs contain specific recommendations in this regard.

7.7.1: RURAL NON-FARM EMPLOYMENT Besides expansion and growth in the agriculture sector, both for main crops, as well as for high value crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, oil seeds, etc., the MTDF has laid considerable emphasis on developing farm and non-farm sectors such as livestock, agro industry and agribusiness. Recommendations in this regard are presented below. The livestock sector, both dairy and cattle breeding offers a large scope for employment creation. Presently, this sector contributes 11.4% to the GDP. Recently, the government has initiated Dairy Pakistan under the Ministry of Industries, Production and Special Initiatives for integrated development of the dairy sector in particular. The Project entails hiring of 2,500 veterinary doctors for provision of extension services to 30,000 livestock farmers in breed improvements, proper feeding, disease control, productivity improvement, etc. In addition, plans are afoot to improve market infrastructure, credit availability from ZTBL, SME Bank and KBL, etc., increase in per animal yield of milk, further value addition to milk, better insurance coverage, etc. The capacity of producing UHT processed milk is also planned to be increased. Presently only about 2.5% to 3% of milk is UHT processed and packaged out of a total availability of 32 to 36 billion litres per year. The UHT milk processors presently employ 13,500 workers directly buying milk from 0.5 million livestock farmers. These livestock farmers are employing at least 1.0 million workers. In addition, another 20,000 persons are employed upstream and downstream. Thereby presently this sector has a total of nearly 1,550,000 work force attached with UHT milk processors. In addition to processing and packaging of milk, efforts should be made urgently to develop high value dairy products for both local consumption and export markets. This activity will increase the demand for milk to be supplied by livestock farmers resulting in increased incomes as well as creation of new employment opportunities.

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A Sindh Dairy initiative needs to be deployed. Besides establishing model farms on small scale, assistance should be provided to establish large UHT milk processing plants near the major urban centres of the province. Conversion of milk into powder milk on large scale has not been attempted in Sindh. Technology for this should be obtained from international sources and work initiated for attracting private investment in this highly lucrative activity. The existing livestock training and extension centres need to be upgraded and expanded to train a larger number of livestock farmers, middle men, distributors and processors to handle the increased activity. Food safety standards need to be developed and taught at these centres. Modern techniques of livestock handling, milking, animal health, and hygiene and farm management need to be taught at the training centres.

7.7.2: MEAT Mutton, beef and poultry production has tremendous scope both for local markets as well as for exports. Cattle breeding farms may be established in most of the rural areas of Sindh. Modern slaughter houses, cold storages and meat processing units may be established near large meat consuming urban areas. A project on the pattern of Dairy Pakistan should be launched for developing meat production through cattle breeding and poultry. Halal food market has now reached US$250 billion mark and Sindh can help in contributing, giving Pakistan the chance to take a sizable portion of this market. Cattle breeding, poultry and meat processing will create many thousands of jobs in the rural areas. It is recommended that proper targets be fixed for this sector, as it can certainly contribute positively in poverty reduction through employment creation in the rural areas. Halal foods preparation and exports offer a tremendous potential for increasing export earnings and for job creation in both formal and informal sectors. The halal food market presently is over US$200 billion and it is expected to cross US$ 500 billion by 2010. Sindh can enter this market in a big way and take a share of 5 to 10% i.e. export of $25 to $50 billion in the next few years. The halal foods mostly comprise of halal meats such as beef, mutton, lamb and poultry and preparations made thereof. Perhaps, we cannot compete with other meat producing countries such as Australia, U.S.A., Canada, Brazil, Argentina etc. However, we can easily compete and beat all competition in prepared foods. There is a US$12 billion market for meat in GCC countries which are only 2 to 4 hours away. These countries also have a large population of Pakistanis and other South Asians. Not only raw meat but prepared foods in both frozen and gamma radiated forms can be exported. PAEC Foundation a subsidiary of PAEC has been operating a gamma radiation plant near Lahore Paras Pharma for the last 20 years for gamma radiation of injections, injectibles, etc. Paras Foods is under implementation for Gamma radiation of food items. Gamma radiation can increase the shelf-life of foods at ambient temperature from one day to up to 6 months in certain cases by killing all forms of bacteria and living organisms. USA has over 150 gamma radiation plants, China over 100 and even India now has over 10 plants. PAEC Foundation can put up Gamma Radiation plants in partnership with carefully selected private parties. The PAEC Foundation would supply the equipment and operate it; the private party would invest in land, buildings and other infrastructure.

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Marketing, finance and logistics would be handled by the private party. The investment required is around Rs.300 million for one plant which can be easily generated. After gamma radiation very large market for our foods would open up in E.U, U.K, Canada, U.S.A, M.E, CARs etc. After all, our cuisine is not only tasty and smells great, it has made successful entry in the above markets. It may be well imagined that this activity can be undertaken at SME level and nonresident/expatriate Pakistan can play a very important role in it. Use of gama radiation takes away the risk of contamination as gamma rays kill all living organisms. The existing training institutions would need to be upgraded and expanded to handle the increased load. Separate training programs need to be developed and implemented for cattle breeders, cattle farmers, slaughterhouse staff and meat processors, distributors etc. on all related subject/ areas.

7.7.3: FISHERIES The fisheries potential of the province of Sindh largely remains untapped. There are many sweet water lakes and canals offering good fishing grounds. However, there is not a single fish processing unit to cater to the requirements of inland fisheries. Inland fisheries need to be given due attention as it provides opportunity to small fishermen all across Sindh to earn a decent living. By establishing fish processing units and cold storages on private- public partnership basis, wastage will be reduced and better quality fish will become available for local consumption as well as for exports. Again, Fisheries Sindh project may be developed and launched as an integrated project with foreign technical and financial support.

7.7.4: FRUITS Sindh produces a large variety of fruits. A large amount of fruits produced in the province are totally wasted and they do not reach the market. The major factors being non-availability of farm to market roads, adequate storage facilities, poor transport arrangements, badly managed wholesale markets, lack of processing facilities, etc. Fruits and Vegetable Processing Zones should be established on public-private partnership basis near all the urban centres of the province such as Karachi, Hyderabad, and Sukkur. This should be done on a priority basis to help save the wastage of Countrys fruits and vegetables.

7.7.5: FLORICULTURE Floriculture is another high value activity which needs to be promoted in rural Sindh. Although in the recent past flowers have been successfully grown and marketed. Usage of flowers in the province has been growing due to increasing affluence as well as increase in population. This potential needs to be tapped which will result in creating thousands of jobs in the rural areas and increasing the household incomes.

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7.7.6: EDIBLE OIL SEEDS Edible Oil Seeds production and oil extraction is an area which has been neglected for many years. Pakistan presently imports 950,000 tons annually edible oil worth over US $ 350 million against 620,000 tons of local production. The Country presently produces only about 4.0 million tons of edible oil seeds annually. Out of this, 3.6 million tons are cottonseeds. As such there is a large scope for edible oilseeds production. The Edible Oilseed Development Board has been in existence for many years without much to show. It needs to be activated and a target given to ensure that Pakistan stops importing edible oilseeds in the next two to three years. This activity will create many jobs in agriculture as well as in the non-farm oil extraction, trade and transportation sectors. Sindh due to its large coastal area can greatly contribute towards the production of edible oil seeds and in the process increase employment substantially.

7.7.7: SPICES AND DRY FRUITS Spices and dry fruits is another high value agricultural products group which needs to be looked into. There is substantial potential for increasing production of these crops and establishing small processing units in the rural areas for cleaning, grading, processing and packing for both local markets as well as for exports. The potential of this market should be realized for increased employment opportunities.

7.8: EDUCATION
Teacher training is one of the most important issues up to date in the province. Teaching has lost its esteemed position with the passage of time. It is no longer considered to be the occupation of respect; it has rather become a substitute profession for all those who cannot actualize other employment opportunities when they do get a chance. Those who do become teachers are not qualified in the art of teaching. A series of teacher training programs should be initiated as the first step in the process of eliminating illiteracy in the province. The Daily DAWN of May 28, 2007 reports that Sindh Education Minister, Dr Hamida Khuhro, stated that the Education Department was imparting training to 12,000 primary teachers, particularly to improve their English language skills. The objective of this training she said was to empower the teachers to impart better quality education to their students. Dr. Khuhro said that English had been made a compulsory subject from the primary level and Sindh was the first province in Pakistan, which has introduced a new syllabus this year under the Sindh Text Book Board. Furthermore, special attention was being given to education in Information Technology, for which Rs1.2 billion had been allocated to boost its implementation in the province.

7.9: HEALTH
The hospital and health-care sector can be developed quite rapidly on publicprivate partnership basis Innovative arrangements will need to be developed for these projects. These new hospitals and health care facilities may also be able to tap the large pool of philanthropic contributions available in the province as has

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been done by charitable trusts such as SUIT, Shaukat Khanum, Sahara for Life, Alamgeer Welfare, Seelani Welfare, LRBT, Mary Adelada, etc. Although the output of medical colleges has increased in the past few years, the number of nurses and paramedics has not increased in the required proportion. More schools/ colleges need to be established for training of male and female nurses and paramedics. The nursing profession needs to be actively promoted amongst men because of the cultural issues involved in the employment of female nurses. Similarly, the profession of laboratory technician, radiologists, etc. need to be promoted amongst women for use in female wards and women patients. If the government is able to move fast on finalizing the PPP model for hospitals and health care facilities, than BHCs, Secondary and even Tertiary care hospitals can be set-up in rural, peri-urban, urban and in metro cities by the private sector. A separate special initiative may be launched with active support of the government for provision of land and infrastructure facilities to private investors. Safely, it may be stated that 300,000 new jobs can be created in this sector up to 2010. This estimate is based on studies of 14 private hospitals which were conducted by the consultants for various clients in Karachi during the last 10 years.

7.10: HERITAGE, CULTURE & TOURISM


Sindh is a province rich in cultural heritage. From religious sites in Sukkur, Thatta and Sehwan districts to relics of ancient civilizations like Mohenjodaro and Rannikot Fort, it is marked by its diversity and its close ties to the great Indus Valley Civilization of the Third Millennium B.C. Sindhs cultural heritage has been acknowledges by outsiders as an integral component of the history of the subcontinent with references found in the Rig Veda, Ramayan, and the Mahabharata. Despite this, there has been a failure to acknowledge the remarkable value of this cultural heritage as a tool for understanding history, archaeology as well as for the promotion of tourism in the area. It is for this reason that the sector literally lies in ruins, waiting to be discovered, restored and redeemed53. An effort has been made to collect information to form a basis to promote tourism in Sindh. A specially designed matrix has been used to generate required inputs to uplift tourism in Sindh. The cross cutting themes for an integrated approach are described in Table 7.3. Further elaboration is narrated in the relevant sections of each chapter. Table 7.3: Integrated approach towards tourism
Aspect Poverty Education Gender Justice Land Water Infrastructure Recommended action Develop domestic and international tourism for employment creation. educate people about cultural heritage; Sindhi- promotion as a language for all- rich, oldest etc. Cottage industry; heritage/folk protection of archaeological sights heritage; forests (e.g. mangroves) Fresh water bodies (Lakes/Mangroves); ECO tours; Indus Hotels/resorts; restaurants; development/access to tourist sights (develop Gorakh Hill (DADU), Kot DG, Tal Nagarparkar)

53

Sindh Strategy for Sustainable Development, Vision 2013 Prepared by IUCN for Planning and Development Department, Government of Sindh.

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The above mentioned themes should be kept as goals in the promotion and effective implementation of policies for tourism in Sindh. Tourism in the province continues to be generally a neglected sector. The institutions involved in promoting tourism lack vigour and vision, their strategies, approach, manpower and their systems are outdated. Government policies have been inconsistent which have not encouraged participation of the local and foreign investors in a big way. Besides schemes to attract tourists from abroad, domestic tourism needs to be developed and promoted actively. There are a number of natural and man-made lakes in Sindh. Schemes should be developed for establishing world class tourist facilities at these lakes on public-private partnership basis. The government may provide land on long term lease at concessional rates to the private sector and develop the supporting infrastructure such as roads, provision of electricity, etc... The private sector would invest in hotels, restaurants, public amenities, bus and taxi stands, petrol and CNG stations, gift shops, advertising and promotion of facilities, etc... A recent example of this type of development is the tourist resort being built at Mangla Dam lake by a Malaysian company. Similar type of tourist resorts may be developed at Haleji lake, Keenjhar lake, Manchar lake. Work on Gorakh Hill station in Sindh has been going on at snails pace for the past over two decades. It needs to be expedited as it is likely to emerge as a Muree of the South which is likely to usher-in an era of a lot of construction and tourist activity in the near future. Besides the northern areas, innovative tourist schemes such as Sikh Pilgrimage, Budhist Pilgrimage, Sufi Safari, Desert Safari, Cultural Safari, need to be promoted for both international and domestic tourists. Sindh has a number of holy shrines of both Sikh as well as Budhist religions. Hotel, motels, restaurants, retail outlets, gift shops, bus and taxi services, tour operations and tourist guides, and related services may be developed through involvement of foreign and local investors. The public sector would be required to develop the support infrastructure such as roads, provide electricity gas, etc.. Promotion of Sikh and Budhist pilgrimage will greatly help in improving the overall image of the Country as well. With the improvement of relations with India the situation has even become better. Foreign experts need to be hired having relevant expertise in developing the above schemes and projects and their services should also be used for generating foreign and local investments in the planned facilities. Future directions in this sector can be undertaken as follows:

7.10.1: ECO TOURISM54 Marine Turtles & Mangrove Forests: A drive to the beaches of Hawks Bay and Sandspit (near Karachi) is one of the greatest sources of pleasure to a nature lover. A unique tour of the shores of the Karachi coast where the Green Turtle and Olive Ridley are found during the nesting seasons on the beaches of Hawks Bay and Sandspit. During autumn, after the monsoons when the sea is calmer the visitors can sit quietly on the beach on a moonlit night and watch to see the turtles come up and repeat what they have been doing for generations. That is, laying their eggs and leaving them in the enclosing warmth of the soft sand for the heat of the sun to incubate till young hatchlings, perfect miniatures of the adult, emerge and scramble to the sea. The tour will also take you to Somiani Bay Mangrove Forest that is the breeding ground for fish and shrimps and home to many resident and migratory birds.

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Information on tourism has been largely been obtained from the Pakistan Tourism Development Cooperation (PTDC) Sindh website.

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Bird Watching, Keenjhar & Haleji Lakes: In the northeast of Karachi, forming the end of the chain of the great lakes, lies the beautiful fresh water lakes of Haleji and Keenjhar in the district of Thatta. Some forty thousand birds including over 70 species of waterfowl find refuge over here during the winter months. These lakes can be regarded as one of the most important wintering areas for waterfowls in Eurasia. Flamingos, Pelicans, Purple Gallinules, Ducks, Coots, Herons, Pheasants, Tailed Jacanas, to name but a few can be observed undisturbed in their natural habitat. Besides providing an excellent opportunity for bird-watching, tours also allow exploration of the historical monuments of Thatta and Chaukandi. Thatta has the largest necropolis in the world with beautifully engraved sandstone on the graves. The Shah Jehan Mosque of Thatta, built in the mid 17th century A.D., has 99 domes and is considered a masterpiece of Mughal architecture. Indus Blind Dolphin: Indus is one of the greatest rivers of the world. It originates high in the mountains of Tibet and flows through Ladakh and Pakistan before flowing into the Arabian Sea. On its 3200 Kms journey it passes through the great Himalayan and Karakoram ranges, the fertile plains of the Punjab and the vast desert of Sindh. Near the great Nanga Parbat (8126 m), it forms the borderline between the Asian and Indian continental plates. The Indus is blessed with a rich variety of wildlife throughout its journey. Among these are various resident and migratory birds, mammals, reptiles and fish. The Indus Blind Dolphin is one of its most famous inhabitants.

7.10.2: SPIRITUAL TOURISM Sufism: Sufism is Islam's mystical tradition, the Sufis being Muslim holy men who develop their spirituality through prayer and meditation. Sufi comes from the Arabic 'safa' meaning purity, so Sufis are those whose hearts and souls are pure. The first Sufis wandered through Persia and Afghanistan and into the South Asia, preaching love, peace and brotherhood. Some of Pakistan's finest music and literature were written by Sufi saints; verses set to music that tell of the love of God, and stories in which virtue receives its reward. Sufi saints portrayed life at its most perfect. The shrines of the great saints draw many who come to pray and make offerings. Each shrine has a festival (urs) each year on the death anniversary of the saint's death. The shrine then becomes a fairground, with musicians playing traditional instruments and singers performing mystical folk songs while dancers dance themselves in to a devotional frenzy. Trade fairs, sports competitions and traditional martial arts also take place such as fighting with daggers and riding. Buddhism: Eastern and Northern Buddhist both call themselves Mahayana. Buddhism continues to attract followers worldwide and is considered a major world religion. According to a source, "World estimates for Buddhists vary between 230 and 500 million, with most around 350 million." According to one analysis, Buddhism is the fifth-largest religion in the world behind Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and traditional Chinese religion. The monks' order (Sangha), which began during the lifetime of the Buddha in India, is amongst the oldest organizations on earth.

7.10.3: HERITAGE Chukundi Tombs: 27 Kms on the National Highway, on the distant horizon you see clusters of unusual graves in the shape of stepped pyramids. The distinguishing features of these graves are the superb carving and engraving of the slabs with various designs of jewellery, floral patterns and even horses and their riders.

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Makli Tombs: Driving further, about 101 Kms from Karachi is the largest necropolis in the world (Makli). The use of profusely and beautifully engraved sandstone on the graves is a feature unique to this site. Shah Jehans Masjid: Shah Jehans Masjid, situated on Thattas outskirts, is representative of Muslim architecture. It was built in 1647 A.D. by the Moghal Emperor Shah Jehan, and is said to have the most elaborate display of blue-and-white tile work in the sub-continent. Indus Valley Civilization: The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, South Asia and China. Most of its ruins, even its major cities, remain to be excavated. The ancient Indus script has not been deciphered. Many questions about the Indus people who created this highly complex culture remain unanswered, but other aspects of their society can be answered through various types of archaeological studies. The Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak from the 3rd till the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. Discovered in 1922, Moenjodaro (in Sindh province) was once a metropolis of great importance, forming part of the Indus Valley Civilization with Harappa (discovered in 1923 in the southern Punjab), Kot Diji (Sindh) and recently discovered Mehrgarh (Balochistan). Moenjodaro is considered as one of the most spectacular ancient cities of the World. It had mud and baked bricks buildings, an elaborate covered drainage system, a large state granary, a spacious pillared hall, a College of Priests, a palace and a citadel. Harappa, another major city of the Indus Valley Civilization, was surrounded by a massive brick wall fortification. Other features and plan of the city were similar to that of Moenjodaro. The Kot Diji culture is marked by well-made pottery and houses built of mud-bricks and stone foundations. Mehrgarh, the oldest Civilization (7,000 B.C), remains of which were found in the district Kachhi of Balochistan recently, was the pioneer of the Indus Valley Civilization. The evidence of crop cultivation, animal husbandry and human settlement has been found here. The inhabitants of Mehrgarh were living in mud-brick houses and learned to make pottery around 6,000 B.C. Mughal: The tombs at Chaukundi, 27 km out of Karachi, the remains at Banbhore (64 km from Karachi) and the necropolis of a million graves scattered over an area of 10 sq.km at Makli Hills, near Thatta, together with the Shahjehan Mosque of Thatta, are exquisite specimens of Muslim architecture, stone carving and glazed tile decorations.

7.10.4: PROJECTS TO PROMOTE TOURISM IN SINDH55 Gorakh Hill: A Hill Station of Sindh, Pakistan on the elevation of 6000 Ft. The Gorakh Hill is a developing hill station 93-Km away in the north west of Dadu District along with (Khuzdar) Balochistan Border, it is highest point of Kirthar Mountain Range in Sindh and a unique adventure point for nature lovers. The Gorakh Hill is a rocky area similar to Gilgit areas. In the summer season temperature ranges between a maximum of 25C in day time to 5C at night. Temperatures during winters are well bellow zero with occasional snow fall, it is the only region in the province of Sindh where snowfall takes place. Gorakh hills could serve as a hill resort for the locals of both Sindh and Balouchistan as well as the international community. The reason why the task of development of Gorakh hills should be given priority is the generation of revenues and
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Many of the projects proposed in this section have been taken from the Pre-feasibility Studies prepared for the Planning & Development Department, Government of Pakistan

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promotion that it could bring to the province of Sindh and in the process also promote other tourist resorts of Sindh and enhance further development. There is an opportunity to develop Gorakh hills into a well managed hill station. The development should be thought out with precision in order to keep the hills alive in their essence, never losing their attraction. Emphasis should be laid to develop the infrastructure. That would include roads leading to the hills, hotels, tourist resorts, tourist and basic facilities. Environmental management should be kept as the forefront in the planning. The planners enlisted for the development should have the Sindhi perspective and plan accordingly. Buddhist Pilgrimage & Development of Buddhist Shrines: A study should be made on the basis of the study taken by the Planning and Development Division of Pakistan with the same title. Development projects for archaeological sites such as Mohenjodero should be undertaken in order to enhance tourism in Sindh. Hindus and Buddhists should be kept in mind when undertaking these studies. Amusement Parks: A study was under taken in May 2006 by the government of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of establishing amusement/theme parks in Karachi and other major cities of Pakistan. Following are extracts of the study and should be implemented in order to promote tourism Market Need Assessment: In Pakistan the dramatic increase in sales of vehicles, consumer durables, property, club memberships and the increased frequency of air travel to tourist hubs are testimonial indicators suggesting increased prosperity. Data suggests that there is a general dearth of safe, high quality outdoor entertainment. There is a desire for the creation of venues that are a combination of both education and entertainment. Close proximity, access and comfort will be key factors in purchase decisions. Karachi and Lahore are suitable locations due to a large number of residents and their relative purchasing power. Proposed parks in these locations may be developed thematically in accordance with the associated citys culture and heritage and that of Pakistan in general in addition to thematic conceptualizations from world cultures and subjects of learning. Themed attractions along with thrill rides will differentiate the project from other amusement parks in the proposed locations. Ferry Service between Karachi-Dubai and Karachi-Mumbai: The government is attempting to bring in private investment in launching a project for the provision of ferry services between Karachi and Dubai, and Karachi and Mumbai in view of the market potential for both roll-on, roll-off and load-on, load-off ferry services. This study is to facilitate potential investors. The study results show that both RoRo and LoLo will be viable in the Karachi-Dubai sector, but in the Karachi-Mumbai sector only LoLo is currently possible. As visa restrictions are relaxed between India and Pakistan and tourism takes-off, the viability of a RoRo service would be explored. It has been found that passenger ferry service would be attractive (as against air travel) if: Ferry fares are at least 20% less than air fares Ferries are fast and comfortable. Extra baggage is allowed and excess baggage is charged at a minimum rate Exporters may be attracted by offering speedy loading, priority clearance and timely delivery. Ferries are equipped with cold storage so that the life of perishables can be increased. Special family/honeymoon/shopping packages should be developed and aggressively promoted especially during the Dubai Shopping Festival.

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Major criteria for selection of vessels include age, capacity, class and classification. Proposed head office would be in Karachi. The company would be a private limited company with a managing director as head of the company and 2 general managers to look after branch offices in Dubai and Mumbai. The total manpower of the company will be 72. Physical facilities such as briefing areas, customs, immigration, baggage handling, inter and intra city bus stands, taxi etc. could either be developed at Karachi Port or be created. The proposed ferry service could be set up with the total capital cost of USD 4.12 million including advance charter and mobilization costs of USD 3.2 million. The project will achieve break-even at 60% and payback all its investment in 1.6 years. Facilitation would be provided by KPT, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Health and various law enforcement agencies.

7.11: THE HOTEL AND MOTEL INDUSTRY


In this industry the province needs to be promoted actively along with the above mentioned tourism related activity. Some of the major cities such as Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur have a critical shortage of hotel rooms. In order to encourage development of new hotels and motels, innovative private-public partnership arrangements need to be developed and implemented. Proper training programs for travel guides, hotel operations, skilled and semi skilled workers for restaurants need to be developed in collaboration with internationally recognized training institutions and implemented through the private sector. Some of the existing government owned vocational training centres may be leased out to the private sector for this purpose. With support and major policy initiatives in the hotel, motel, restaurant and fast foods outlets sector, more than half a million new jobs can be created in urban and rural areas particularly along the highway. Financing for this activity can be easily made available through banks, SME Bank, KBL, etc. These estimates are based on review of data from a chain of five star hotels, and study of employment generation by 3, 2 and 1 star hotel and restaurants.

7.12: EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR

7.13: EMPLOYMENT IN TRADE SECTOR


The trade sector is shown to have an employment elasticity of 0.6 and the MTDF estimates that this sector will generate 1.97 million jobs up to 2010 (MTDF). Proper regulatory framework needs to be developed for the wholesale and retail sectors. Most of the trade sector is undocumented and as such is mostly outside the tax net. Not only commodity exchanges, but wholesale markets need to be developed for all major commodities such as wheat, rice, pulses, fruits, vegetables, spices, dry fruits, edible oil seeds, edible oils, sugar, milk, fish, meat (mutton, beef and fish), etc. These wholesale markets may be developed on specifically allocated land near the major urban centres on public private partnership basis.

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The Utility Stores Corporation (USC) may be directed to establish 4000 plus Utility Stores using a franchising model. The USC may continue to operate its existing 300 or so stores for retaining its physical presence throughout the Country. By using the franchising model, the USC will not have to invest its capital on the stores and their inventory as this would be done by the private sector franchisees. The role of USC would change to that of a bulk buyer and supplier to its franchised stores. Even the storage and godown facilities may be developed by private parties. By establishing over 4000 Utility Stores, the government will be able to better control prices on one hand and on the other hand additional 80,000 direct jobs and more than 120,000 indirect jobs will be created through this activity. Thus the government of Sindh has to work hand in hand with the federal government in order to achieve this stability. SMEDA, SME Bank and KBL may be directed to actively promote the wholesale and retail sectors. This sector has a lot of potential for creating jobs besides creating the feel good factor. By establishing commodity exchanges and wholesale markets as suggested above, at least 250,000 plus new jobs will be created directly to support these activities. Thereby it means that 450,000 new jobs can be created through implementation of the above.

7.14: ENERGY
Sindh has vast reserves of energy. Sindh Government plans to initiate the slow and steady process of exploring all its sources of energy coal, wind, solar, gas and bio mass for the betterment of the Sindhi people. The process of incorporating the above mentioned plan, relevant training would be given, creating opportunities for creation of new institutes for energy specific studies all over the province. These institutes would serve as a breeding ground for energy specific specialists ranging from basic electricians to highly qualified engineers etc. Thus enabling Sindh to finally exploit the energy sector, equipped with human resources with sector based specialities. Projects, as joint ventures of the public private partnerships (PPP) as well as with foreign establishments, for the enhancement of the energy sector of Sindh. Creating opportunities for employment throughout the province and providing the much needed fast paced development. Renewable energy itself offers a very large potential for creating productive jobs of different nature and levels for engineers, technicians, skilled and unskilled workers. Sindh offers great potential in the area of wind power and solar energy in particular. As per estimates of the AEDB, Gharo wind corridor alone has a potential to generate 55,000 MW of electricity. International agencies estimate that 8 jobs are created for producing 10 MW of wind or solar energy. Thereby it means that more than 440,000 jobs alone may be created in this sector.

7.15: EMPLOYMENT THROUGH INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS


The MTDF aims at reducing unemployment to 4.0% by generating 6.89 million additional jobs up to 2010. In order to achieve this objective, the Framework suggests that it would be necessary to attract fresh investments and effective and timely implementation of development projects, efficient delivery of services to the people, enabling environment for the growth of SMEs for employment generation, promotion of skill development,

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restructuring and up-gradation of technical and vocational training system for enhancing ability of the workforce to be suitably employed It is generally recognized that public expenditure directly or indirectly induces productive employment and thus results in reducing poverty. Public investment in health, education, safe water and sanitation, vocational and technical training enhances the capabilities of people to seek productive employment and get better wages. The main way in which public investments may contribute to generating productive employment, both directly and indirectly, is through investments in and development of supporting infrastructure. Construction of farm to market roads results in reducing the transportation costs of the farmers. Similarly, creation of storage facilities and improvement in irrigation system also results in reducing the input costs of agriculture. All of this results in increasing the overall prosperity of the region, which in turn results in the establishment of non-farm SMEs. Similarly, development of good transport and communication system, provision of piped water, sanitation and utilities stimulates the development of a large number of SMEs which generate employment and increased household incomes. During the past few years a number of steps have been taken for the improvement and up-gradation of the irrigation system. This has included cleaning of canals, bricklining of canals and khalas to reduce seepage and water loss. The old Sukkur Barrage has been repaired to improve its efficiency. Allocation for spending on universal primary education, secondary education, vocational and technical training as well as basic health centres need to be increased. Although, there has been an increase in allocation of funds for the above, yet there is need to increase the same by 15% to 20% per year Productive employment generation needs to be kept in focus while preparing and planning public-sector development projects. Due attention should be given to use of suitable technologies as in many cases use of labour intensive technologies may be economically beneficial for the project.

7.16: TRANSPORT SECTOR


The MTDF estimates employment elasticity of 0.58 for the transport sector. The Framework estimates that around 410,000 jobs will be created up to 2010 in the transport and communication sectors. No specific policy initiatives have been given. The above employment estimate is based on the anticipated growth rate in these sectors without any major policy intervention. The transport and communication sector has considerable potential for job creation, particularly due to the large investments being made in the northsouth corridor, farm to market roads programmes through Tameer-e-Pakistan programme and improvement of road network in the urban areas by the respective city governments. Well thought out schemes need to be developed for promotion of CNG rickshaws, taxis, mini-buses, buses, pick-up and trucks. These should be long term schemes and should have protection for their continuation.

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These schemes can create a large number of direct and indirect jobs. Each vehicle under such schemes creates 4 direct and a similar number of indirect jobs, as seen in the yellow cab scheme of early 1990s in Pakistan and elsewhere in the developing countries. This activity will have a positive impact on the local auto assemblers, their vendors, leasing companies, banks and insurance companies. In order to ensure proper development of the transport sector on modern lines, it is necessary to implement stringent testing and training programs for drivers, conductors, cleaners, mechanics, etc. Schemes also need to be developed to promote taxi, bus and trucking companies in the private sector. As stated above a well thought-out transport scheme needs to be developed and implemented having following characteristics: (1) it should be for a long term period to ensure success; (2) based on studies, the scheme should include CNG rickshaws, taxis, pick-ups, minibuses, buses and trucks; (3) only locally manufactured vehicles should be used; (4) vehicles may be provided through leasing mechanism and funds for this scheme may either be raised through capital markets or provided by the State Bank at LMM rates; and (5) reasonable duty rebate should be allowed on the CKD kits for vehicles. Proper training schools and certification should be started for drivers and conductors of all the public transport. Minimum education qualifications need to be fixed and strictly monitored. In addition, vehicle checking and recertification on a periodical basis should be made mandatory. Private sector may be involved in both the above activities under supervision of the concerned government agencies.

7.17: HOUSING & CONSTRUCTION


The MTDF has identified housing and construction as one of the key areas for employment generation. The housing sector continues to face a number of problems which have aggravated the situation. Some of the major ones are: Rising cost of land in all urban areas for low and middle income families in particular. For the poor the situation is even worse; Continuous development of Katchi Abadis on government land in most of the existing cities. In Karachi, nearly 55% of the population lives in katchi abadis; Inadequate availability of mortgage finance for the poor and lower income groups in particular; Lack of development of large satellite towns and housing complexes on government land.

The House Building Finance Corporation (HBFC) is the main public sector financial institution dealing with housing finance. Since its inception 53 years ago, HBFC has financed only 450,000 units and it disburses only about Rs. 2 billion annually. Against this, HDFC of India since its inception 28 years ago has financed 2.4 million housing units and it annually disburses Rs. 150 billion. From the above, it is quite clear that HBFC in its present shape and form is not in a position to provide financing for arround 250,000 to 300,000 units annually. It is, therefore, suggested that innovative public-private housing finance institutions be developed to meet the ever growing need for housing finance. Two proposals are presented below to meet the particular requirements of the poor .Sponsor a Shelter Foundation and Social Housing Projects. These are briefly described below:

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Under the Sponsor a Shelter Foundation, funds will be made available to the poor to partially meet the mortgage payments. The Foundation will generate funds through solicitation of Zakat, Kherat and other charitable contributions by individuals and the corporate sector. The Foundation will be managed professionally and transparently. Social Housing projects will require provision of housing units to the poor and low income groups on incremental basis as in the case of Khuda Ki Basti in Karachi. Under this scheme low cost housing projects and schemes will be developed on specially allocated government land to ensure affordability. Sindh government should allocate lands for developing satellite towns and large housing schemes for the poor. By increasing the supply of land by bringing into market erstwhile unutilized government land, the prices of land in the urban areas is likely to come down, making land for housing units more affordable. The government needs to allocate funds for developing house schemes for the poor and low income groups on an annual basis. Private sector developers should be encouraged to develop housing schemes for the poor. Due to provisioning of government land and development of roads, water, sewerage, electricity and gas network through public exchequer, the prices of housing units will be much lower/ affordable. The government needs to give a very high priority to the housing and construction industry as this industry has direct linkage with over 25 other industrial sectors such as cement, steel, construction materials, timber, etc. A comprehensive regulatory framework needs to be developed for the proper regulation of this industry. This sector in the country let alone the province of Sindh, continues to grow in a haphazard way without proper direction. The private builders and developers lack credibility and the general public in many cases are weary of dealing with them. The proposed regulatory framework and the regulatory authority should deal with these issues. There is a large shortage of trained/ qualified construction workers both for domestic and overseas markets. There is an urgent need to upgrade and expand all the TTCs and VTCs in the province for training of plumbers, steel fitters, electricians, masons, tile fixers, carpenters and other construction related trades. Private sector representatives should be invited on the Boards of all TTCs and VTCs to monitor development of suitable curriculum and proper conduct of training and exams

7.18: ENVIRONMENT
As it would be evidently seen that implementation of any scheme or project in every sector would lead to progress and completion in the next sector. After the people are educated about conservation measures in environment they will be expected to implement the learnt measures with the help in form of subsides by the Government of Sindh. The management and maintenance of public toilets, along with separate facilities for females in all areas particularly on all commuter routes, are two of the main initiatives the government plans to tackle in the near future.

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Coastal area is a major recreational place all over the province. The Government of Sindh will have proper costal area management initiatives, especially beaches, enhancing employment opportunities all over the coastal area of the province.

7.19: OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT


As per latest data provided by Ministry of Labour & Overseas Pakistanis, the total number of non-resident Pakistanis working/living/studying abroad is about 3.97 millionin the year 2005-06. Out of these 1.893 million (47.6%) are in the Middle East, followed by 1.095 million (27%) in Europe 851 thousand (21.4%) in Americas, nearly 73 thousand (1.85) in Asia & Far East 38 thousands (1%) in Africa and 23 thousand (0.6%) in Australia and New Zealand. However, the Overseas Pakistanis Division estimates their total to be around 7 million including illegals, overstayers, etc through out the World. Remittances from overseas Pakistanis have been around US$. 4 billion mark for the last few years. This level of remittances is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. Inspite of present construction boom in UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar etc., and agreements signed with Govt. of Malaysia to supply over 300,000 workers, the number of Pakistani workers proceeding abroad for employment has been limited. As per figures provided by the Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment and Overseas Employment Corporation the figures for the last five years are 110,136 (2000); 130,041 (2001); 149,127 (2002); 215,443 (2003); 174,864 (2004) and 56,686 (Jan-May 2005). With the developments in the Middle East, need for labour has changed considerably and presently more professionals and technically qualified persons seem to be in demand. Efforts should be made to have Pakistanis placed in professional and technical positions, who in turn will help in placing Pakistani labour force in their respective organizations. The MTDF rightly points out that there is a large potential for manpower export to the Middle East, Far East and even EU countries. The Framework goes on to identify following categories of manpower for exports. 1) Engineers, 2) Nurses, 3) Welders, 4) Masons, 5) Carpenters, 6) Electricians, 7) Cooks, 8) Plumbers, 9) Steel Fixers, 10) Technicians, 11) Mechanics, 12) Drivers, 13) Different type of operators, and 14) Information Technology and computer science. It is essential to recognize that proper training and internationally acceptable certification programs need to be started on warfooting to meet the growing needs of quality manpower needed in foreign markets. The existing vocational and technical training infrastructure of the province is outdated and its training programs have become irrelevant. Innovative private-public arrangements need to be developed and linkages established with foreign vocational and technical training institutions to upgrade the existing curriculum. Moreover, it should be recognized that certificates awarded by our existing technical training boards are not recognized internationally because of the spurious quality of the graduates. A comprehensive national level program needs to be initiated on the style and funding levels of HEC to accomplish the above. A Manpower Export Promotion Fund (MEPF) may be established on the pattern of the Export Development Fund. The MEPF will be responsible for actively carrying out market studies for exporting manpower to different regions and countries. It would work closely with the manpower importing countries to determine the exact requirements, qualifications and job specifications for different categories of manpower. The MEPF will

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liaise with OPC, OPF, TEVTA etc. to ensure identification, selection and training of labour to be exported. The MEPF may be financed by allocating a small percentage of the remittances received, say 0.5% or so. In order to ensure effective utilization of remittances into productive uses, it is proposed to establish a mechanism to regularly float shares and bonds for attracting investments from non-resident Pakistanis by the government or the private sector for carefully selected projects and programmes. The target for manpower exports need to be fixed and communicated to all concerned federal and provincial departments and agencies. A rough estimate would be around 350,000 workers per year may be placed in overseas employment. Thereby, creating over 1.0 million overseas jobs during the tenure of PRSP II. RECOMMENDATIONS Skill-based Training should be provided to the workforce meant for exports. Some of the existing TTCs and VTCs may be privatized with a view to having them upgraded to meet the demands of foreign markets. Curriculum, examination and certification of candidates may be done in collaboration with highly credible institutions from UK or Singapore etc.. This will greatly improve the market acceptance of Pakistani Labour in overseas markets. Stipends and tuition fees should be given to all trainees from the Manpower Export Promotion Fund (MEPF) to attract trainees and to defer the cost of training, examination and foreign certification.

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CHAPTER 08: JUSTICE, HUMAN RIGHTS AND PROSPERITY

Chapter 08: JUSTICE, HUMAN RIGHTS AND PROSPERITY


8.1: OVERVIEW
In the Pakistan Vision 2030 Working Draft the achievement of the true potentials of each and every citizen is deemed to be the cornerstone of Vision 2030. In the Sindh context this aspect also holds true. The basic requirement for prosperity remains embedded in the concept of a truly just society. Sindh too will continue to be multiethnic, multi-cultural, and multi-religious, and will also face the challenge of integrating national migrants into its social milieu, particularly in the case of Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. People from other provinces operating in Sindh are apparently considered to pose a burden on the provincial exchequer; the true extent of this however requires careful study. There are schools of thought that promote the concept that such people offer economic contributions if managed appropriately and proactively. Illegal immigrants from abroad will need to be stopped and all such people in the province of Sindh will need to be registered and repatriated to their home countries56. This is a major task and requires tact and social considerations and is best handled at the federal level. Where investments in Sindh should be promoted, regardless of the source, what remains is the simple fact that all inward migrations need to be tracked and managed to prevent any burden on Sindh and upon the opportunities for prosperity of its people. It is imperative to manage all dimensions of a just society if we are truly committed to ensure the envisioned transition to a prosperous nation. We in Sindh also subscribe to the position that questions on the plausibility of Vision 2030 will be addressed more appropriately if these questions are examined at the level of the individual citizen, the community, and government (provincial and local) institutions. In the context of multi ethnic, multi religious and multi entrepreneurial diversity all such questions have to be seen against the background of the social structures, changing demographic variables, depleting resources of usable water, energy and land, coupled with massive urbanisation. The perceived loss from the basic democratic deficit57 is considered high. The situation apparently continues to minimise transparency, accountability and the participation of the people in the policy making processes. During last 60 years people have witnessed the fallout from mistakes committed by the political leadership and through the alleged repeated interference in democratic and constitutional process. Some of the participants of the SV2030 consultative process highlighted the fact that we are living in a world where exclusion, inequity and infringements of the basic rights of people continues to rise. We need to challenge and changing the power structures that perpetuate inequity and injustice if we are to reclaim and broaden the horizon for better democracy. The core theme for the Pakistan Vision 2030 is that Pakistan will transform itself into a just, prosperous, and sustainable society. While the various attributes of such a society can be easily recognised, they ultimately mean only one thing: every Pakistani citizen must be allowed to reach his or her full potential.

56

The Ministry of Interior, Government of Pakistan, estimates the number of illegal immigrants in Karachi alone to be as high as 2 million people. 57 This terminology has been extensively used in the Pakistan Vision 2030 Working Draft and is hence used in the Sindh Vision 2030 document to demonstrate subscription to the concept.

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In the Sindh context the Government and all stakeholders that subscribe to prosperity clearly need to take stock of our individual and collective position and to make preparations to achieve the ultimate goal. We will need to guarantee an exceptionally high quality of life for all Sindhis, be they residents of large urban cities like Karachi or residents of the smallest village in a rural area. Our paramount target will also include ensuring that all citizens, regardless of race, creed or cultural background have equal access to opportunities and to the most relevant/applicable national resources. As a Government we need to ensure that waste, in all forms, is avoided at all costs and this may, from time to time, entail a judicious process to balance any inequitable distribution or access to opportunity at the local level. Just society requires an institutional arrangement to ensure justice for all citizens particularly the (i) the weak and vulnerable sections of society such as women, children and scheduled casts, and (ii) people living in impoverished areas or locations such as Thar, Kachho, Kohistan and Naro, etc. Ensuring justice will require affirmative and proactive actions. All the institutions of Sindh must complement and supplement the accords signed and ratified by the Government of Pakistan on the fortification of human rights. Such a commitment will require a participative58, continual and systematic follow up of the international conventions and declarations in context of our social, cultural and economic environment, as well as within the constitutional and legal framework of Pakistan. In this context and in the interest of the people of Sindh, the desired and long awaited, provincial autonomy of Sindh as an independent federating unit becomes mandatory. All participants of the SV2030 consultative process stressed upon this requirement. They proposed achieving authority as a federating unit over all the natural resources of Sindh and over taxes such as GST59. Historically, due to the democratic deficit the communication channels between the citizens and the policy makers have always remained weak. This shortcoming is reflected in the unilateral manner in which matters of national concern are determined. Compounding this dilemma has been the continued inaccessibility of the citizens of Sindh to policy makers; a provision that would certainly have ensured better accountability and transparency. The Sindh Vision 2030 aims to educate the masses and civil society organisations through various forms of sensitisation to issues and formats of effective governance. This approach will ultimately establish the required communication channels between masses and all organs of governance. A peoples knowledgebase will be explored and created to facilitate rationality in a rights-based environment. Significant capacity and capability strengthening measures will also need to be undertaken for elected representatives and government functionaries to ensure proactive participatory and interference-free implementation; the challenge will be to adopt the path of least resistance through consensus and ownership of the work entailed.

58

According to the Pakistan Poverty Report Pakistan's poverty records are poor even compared to other developing countries in South Asia. In addition, "softer" indicators, such as those related to justice, law and order, basic human rights, all show levels of exclusion (see South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication www.saape.org.np/resources/publications/poverty_report03/pakist.pdf). 59 Pakistan remains the only country in the world where GST is a federal component

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8.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE


Governance is a concept that has broadened considerably since its emergence in discourse for development issues around the late 1980s. The significant update in the concept is its transformation from governability towards the systematic negotiation among different and diversity of interests in the society. The dominant stance on effective governance describes effective governance as the manner in which potential authority effectively manages the social and economic resources60. Figure EG-01 plots the characteristics of effective governance to the desired impact/effect in the context of prosperity:
Figure 8.1: Characteristics of Effective Governance and their effect

Effective Honest Equitable Transparent Accountable Informative Gender Equity

Involvement of citizens and accountability of government to them Capacity building to deliver effectively Public sector reforms Transition of the non-profit sector Legal and judicial framework Eliminating corruption Rule of law Government civil society cooperation Devolution of authority and resources Freedom of expression and free media Professional capacity and to resist influence of any particular interest Interface between public and private sector Human security in conflict and natural disasters Just and equitable resource distribution Equal and equitable opportunities to all citizens Ensuring rights of vulnerable and weak segments of society

The authority exercises the power at all levels honestly, equitably, transparently by making itself accountable. The modern-day concept of governance very clearly indicates that governance is not the business of government alone but also of society. Effective governance is an approach for several development activities such as programs to eliminate poverty, address unemployment, protecting the environment, social integration, economic and resource management, agricultural reforms and population planning. The Sindh Strategy prepared by the Planning and Development Department, Government of Sindh also includes this aspect very specifically: ...Improving the governance of civil service, improving public service delivery; economic revival; peoples participation in policy planning, strengthening and stability of devolution programme; legal reforms; increased information base

60

Johnson, Isabelle. Redefining the Concept of Governance; Political and Social Policies Division, Canadian International Development Agency, July 1997; the broadened definition stated in this document was adapted from UNDP, World Bank, Institute on Governance, Asian Development Bank, DAC-OECD.

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8.3: JUST SOCIETY


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights starts with a preamble in these words; Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. The Working draft of Pakistan Vision 2030 states that the core theme for Vision 2030 is that Pakistan will transform itself into a just, prosperous and sustainable society. While various attributes of such a society can be easily recognized it is ultimately meant that every man and woman must have equal and equitable opportunity to reach his or her full potential. To reach this goal, there must be high quality of life for all citizens, marked by equal access to the opportunities and public resources. A just society ensures greater inclusiveness, participation and pluralism; it must establish a fair and objectively verifiable system for mediation between individual freedoms and collective responsibility. This includes political freedom, civil rights, economic justice and opportunity, promotion of cultural diversity as well as religious and intellectual expression. The participants of all the Sindh Vision 2030 consultation workshops held in Sindh indicated that the institutional parameter for attaining the attributes of a just society would be the rule of law and fulfilment of all international covenants and conventions. Cultural and religious values should be extricated from law so as to form a clear distinction. A just society requires an institutional arrangement to ensure justice for all citizens particularly the weak and vulnerable sections of society especially women, children and other disadvantaged groups. It also includes affirmative action for vulnerable groups. Such institutional actions will complement the governments commitment to the international conventions it has ratified. This would create a systematic follow up of the international conventions and declarations in context of our social, cultural and economic environment as well as within the constitutional and legal framework of Pakistan. However, in accordance with such international instruments for ensuring rights, the legal and administrative reforms will be an ongoing process. The participants of the consultative process stressed on elimination of feudal values and protection of common citizens from the rudimentary customary legal system called the jirga (meaning tribal council). Private arbitration must follow legal prescription and take place under court supervision. This would inhibit formation of jirgas and private decisions by persons outside the legal fold. This would also prevent large scale violation of human rights such as marrying the women as BadleSulh, exoneration of wrong doers even persons involved in heinous crimes of murder, kidnapping and rape. Most of the participants of workshops through out Sindh were of the view that such weak and informal justice systems encourage criminal acts. In this regard an effective and comprehensive initiative of training and exposure is required to sensitize and enhance the capacity of the Sindh police and the judiciary on human rights and modern justice systems. The participants observed that people generally approach the Jirga for two reasons; either by force or from fear of otherwise being embroiled in lengthy procedures in the courts. In contrast decisions of a

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Jirga are concluded in days, even in hours. Participants advised that this issue be analysed on the adage Justice Hurried Justice Buried; Justice Delayed Justice Denied. During the consultation process for Sindh vision 2030 immense emphasis was given to addressing issue of police abuse of power and such unprofessional activities and removal of the coercive influence exerted by officials abusing their authority or influential persons with strong social power structures. Another component of a just society that the consultative process revealed a shortfall in is to provide social protection to the vulnerable and marginalised sections of society. The government must create a secure environment for all citizens in all cities and villages in order for them to achieve economic prosperity. To achieve uplift the government must provide social protection in financial terms as welfare to those below the poverty line.

8.4: SINDH: AN AUTONOMOUS FEDERATING UNIT


After independence the sudden death of visionary Quaid, the democratic process was derailed in the newly constituted country. This democratic deficit increased day by day and created different problems including concentration of power in the centre. After the adoption of the 1973 Constitution, the issue was resolved by defining the provincial autonomy for federating units and by promising more autonomy within a certain period. Currently the discussion for maximum provincial autonomy has been revived. The government has formulated a parliamentary committee and provincial governments have been asked for collective recommendations from all the provinces. Sindh Vision 2030 foresees maximum autonomy to federating units. The participants envisioned Sindh as an autonomous unit of the federation of Pakistan as imagined and envisaged by Quaid-e-Azam and his colleagues in the independence movement. During the consultative process equal representation in different federal policy making institutions was emphasized. Participants were of the view to adopt multiple criteria for the federal divisible pool and also to devolve the taxes to provinces in accordance with international democratic standards, especially sales tax. The need for unconditional provincial authority over its natural resources was also emphasized. The consultative process also emphasized that constitutional institutions such as Council of Common Interest and National Finance Commission must be made functional.

8.5: THE CITIZENS OF SINDH IN 2030


The Sindh Vision 2030 aims to bring the ordinary citizen to the centre of all discourse on development. Investing in social capital is therefore as important as investing in skills and training to generate wealth and economic growth through a proficient and competitive human resource base. Vision 2030 recognizes these profiles of underprivileged people from Sindh: the rural woman who works at home and in the field around the clock; urban youth whos opportunities are limited and who may not exploit their potential;

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farmers, villagers and fisher folk of the delta as well as the left and right bank kacha area on both banks of river Indus, as well as those residing by drying lakes and water bodies all over Sindh; people residing in Thar, Naro, Kachho, Kohistan and such other remote areas which our development strategies have not yet encompassed; people of urban slums who are deprived of all basic necessities; workers of the formal and informal sectors who are significantly underpaid.

During the consultation process there was general consensus on the urgent need to implement land reforms. The participants were of the view that it is the only solution to minimize the social influence of feudal and tribal heads. There is a hot discussion among different quarters including civil society and the government circles that feudal and tribal heads are the main hindrance to progress. Considering factors such as at water availability, cost of agricultural inputs, transport expenses and other requirements as well market rates of agricultural products, it is observed that agriculture does not allow for profit in comparison to other avenues for profit. However, for social influence and political gains it is important for land owning feudal to retain their land. Furthermore, with reference to the logic behind land reforms in the sixties and seventies in Pakistan, that was done to increase product ability, which remains low in large land holding compared to the small land holdings. Participants also stressed the need to distribute land among poor landless peasants that should have been affected through implementation of the land reforms. The participants also articulated it as a basic and supportive factor for democracy and civil freedom in society. Participants also emphasized the need for creating new economic activities and job opportunities, especially by encouraging cottage and agro-based industries. This also includes the opening of closed down factories and industrial units in urban areas. The participants also gave emphasis on vocational and technical training at community level. The concept of E-Baithak was recommended during different consultations. There was also emphasis on social security for informal and formal sector workers as well as social protection for excluded and vulnerable section of the society such as religious minorities and women. Participants stressed the need for crop insurance as well as insurance to all formal and informal sector workers. The elderly, orphans and destitute persons deserve special attention in future. Special programs and schemes have been emphasized during consultative process all over Sindh. Houses, shelters and hostels have been recommended for these groups. Such centres can be adequately equipped to make such persons meaningful citizens and give them an opportunity to be creative and productive or simply to care for their needs.

8.6: WATER AND SANITATION


The National Drinking Water policy describes what should be the role of provincial and local governments to develop medium term plans for the drinking water sector in keeping with the Medium-Term Development Framework in conjunction with relevant municipal authorities to guide and steer the future developments in the sector. Safe drinking water is a core issue of urban and rural populations particularly the poor in rural areas as well as urban slums. Cases of Hepatitis and other water borne disease are increasing. The same population is equally deprived of sanitation. In urban areas especially in slums population pays a significant amount of money to buy the water from tankers which is unsafe for drinking.

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In most rural areas, women have to walk, in some cases it may take the whole day to fetch water. In either case the available water is contaminated and unsafe for human health. The participants put immense emphasis on provision of safe drinking water and sanitation to all citizens. They considered the provision of safe drinking water and sanitation a necessary step to ensure a healthy population. The participants recommended that safe drinking water and sanitation be provided to the entire population of Sindh by 2030. The main elements of the strategy will include the following: Adoption of an integrated approach, rational resource use, and the introduction of water efficient techniques; Containment of environmental degradation; Institutional strengthening, capacity building & human resource development as emphasized by the participants during the consultative process; Improving performance and utilization of local systems through better planning, management and community participation; Improving quality of, and easy access to water supply, especially for women; Improving sanitation through sewerage and drainage schemes; Promoting increased standards of household sanitation. Improve supply levels (volume, flow, and head) to ensure delivery of water at homes etc. without the need for energy-consuming suction pumps.

8.7: CULTURE, DIVERSITY AND SOCIETY


Working Draft of Pakistan 2030 elaborates we are heirs to a great tradition in literature, architecture, music and the arts. Our culture also owes a lot to its eclectic origins, and it would be unfortunate if we are unable or unwilling to share in the greater human streams of creativity. So, while we must work hard towards preserving our rich heritage at the local, regional and national level, we must accept avidly from the greater human flow of ideas. Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity denotes that culture is at the heart of contemporary debates about identity, social cohesion, and the development of a knowledge-based economy. Pakistan is among those countries where people of different cultures, customs, traditions and ethnicities live together with significant commonalities. Alongside both banks of the river Indus or even alongside supplementary rivers people have collective heritage and traditions. Historically people of these areas have had social and political interaction that created the collective thinking. The province of Sindh has the distinctive and distinguished characteristics of cultural diversity due to adaptability of relevant and possibly acceptable values and tradition. Sindh remains heterogeneous since centuries. Such inclusiveness and multiplicity made the culture rich, prosperous, relevant, material and animated. If we look at existing Sindh we shall find same as it has remained since centuries. People from different cultures and creed are living together with commonalities of Religion or collective South Asian heritage, traditions and values. Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity reaffirms that culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, and that it encompasses, in addition to art

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and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs. The participants of consultative workshops visualized a peaceful and harmonized Sindh along with all diversities. The participants also emphasized to make it attainable we must respect and honour all diversities and distinctiveness as well as promote the commonalities. Participants also emphasized the sensitive question of languages with justice as well as in accordance with requirements of modern world. They emphasized to implement the language bill in letter and spirit. They resolved to give due importance to English as an international language and that all possible measures should be taken for due status of Sindhi and Urdu as promised by article 28 of the constitution of Pakistan and its legal requirement in Sindh. According to the language bill adopted by Sindh Assembly in early 70s a deliberate conscious effort will be taken through educational institutions for compulsorily learning of both languages in Sindh alongside English. This will ensure harmony and commonalities among our future generation. The consultative process emphasized the development of cultural tourism as an industry in Sindh. The participants mentioned the locales of Gorakh, Moen Jo Daro, Kotdiji Fort, Lakes throughout Sindh, Karoonjhar hills in Nagarparker, Bhitshah and other shrines of sufi saints, ancient places, forests etc as places which can be made tourist points. What is needed is a reasonable financial investment to develop necessary infrastructure like resorts and roads as well as maintain the law and order situation. Such sites have a great potential to draw foreign tourists as well as people from other areas in Sindh as well as other provinces. This will not only generate new job opportunities, create new economic activities but will develop cultural integration among people of province.

8.8: INFRASTRUCTURE
All developments should be encouraged. However, mega developments should not be designed or implemented at the cost of the people or at the expense of the environment. This is a vital posture that needs to be adopted hence forth without any compromise, or else the disastrous results would remain and impact the environment and people for years.

8.9: A HOUSE OF ONES OWN


The Working Draft for Pakistan Vision 2030 visualizes shelter to all, with access to essential amenities in a clean and secure setting. The housing policies and programmes would satisfy basic needs of the poor, provide shelter through a participatory process focusing on pro-poor growth, social development, good governance and protection of vulnerable groups. Construction of low-income housing will be a priority, by addressing issues of inadequate supply of developed land, poor land administration, inadequate legal and regulatory systems, and limited housing finance for the poor. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his

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family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. Housing is also a local community affair where end users are both the contributors and stakeholders for all types of housing activities. Accordingly, the role of the local governments would be important in enabling, promoting and facilitating the provision of housing to all segments of the population within their respective jurisdictions. Considering this, participants of the consultative process highlighted the need to differentiate among end user and investors of estate property. For attainment of such objectives, participants suggested development of favourable policies under which every one person has ownership or rights to a dwelling place. In this regard all participants stressed regularization of Kachi Abadis (a community where unplanned and unregulated housing has proliferated) as well as villages in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur and other big cities. Participants expressed that formal ownership rights to a residence will enable citizens for betterment of house and locality. Therefore not only should government initiate a process to regularize the Kachi Abadis and villages but government should arrange a plot for every one residing permanently in the cities. Large scale programs need to be initiated to develop and implement proper resettlement schemes for the people living in Kachi Abadis. Models used in Bangkok and Manila may be replicated. Land occupied by the inhabitants of Kachi Abadis may be used for developing multi-stoned housing units with shops and other commercial establishments. And once these housing units are ready, they may be allotted to the original occupants on ownership basis. This way the problems of Kachi Abadis will be resolved, cities will become cleaner and thousands of productive jobs would be created along with overall increased economic activity. The participants also expressed similar concerns over the legal status of village homes all over Sindh. People who may be residing in these houses since forefathers lived there may have no legal ownership. The participants visualized that to ownership rights be issued to each and every villager regardless of the size of village. This will be an important landmark towards stability of village life and will curb the pressure migration to cities.

8.10: INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING AND TRANSPARENCY


It is stated in the Pakistan Vision that the democracy deficit needs to be overcome so that it can function at its natural and optimal levels, and to ensure accountability of all organs of the state, and serve to avoid democratic disruptions. This is essential to restore trust between the state and the people who need to know that the state actually cares for them. To accomplish and realize that national target, Sindh will contribute by aiming to strengthen the political process through transparent and open debate about the role of various centres of power in political affairs. The influence of the non-state actors, specially the policy prescriptions of International Financial Institutions (IFIs) are significantly increasing and according to the Working Draft Pakistan Vision 2030 tend to make national borders irrelevant. On the other side the influence of the UN organization as well as various human rights and environmental organizations and rights movements is increasing significantly. This can seriously affect the ability of a state to meet its governance targets; a balance must be strived for.

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During the consultative process, a popular recommendation was strengthening of institutions instead of individuals. The emphasis was to shift the paradigm of retaining power by persons in office, to the rule of law and supremacy of institutions and making persons in office an effective part of the institutions. In this manner a collective leadership could then ensure the participation of common citizens in all spheres of national life. Emphasis to this aspect is given in Pakistan Vision 2030 as well. It is a globally recognized truth that social, political and cultural institutions play a vital role to sustain society. The institutional aspects of this vision would be reflected in a state of affairs which leads to trust between the state and people on the one hand, and among different linguistic, ethnic, religious groups on the other. This trust will come through participation in the process of decision making as well as sharing of national wealth equally and equitably. Our institutions must embed national aspirations within the requirement of the 21st century, but they must be flexible enough to evolve through an ongoing process of participation and broad national consultation as well as by adoption of global development trends. It is only institutions of this nature that can assure transparent and accountable economic performance. If institutions are in place and functioning accordingly, there is greater possibility to overcome weaknesses in due course, effectively and with sustainability. Sindh Vision 2030 reinforces the commitment to improve, stabilize and even re-invent the social, political and economic institutions of administration, legislature, judiciary and harmony; so as to enable wider ownership of the institutions which evolve and take root. The consultative process highly emphasized taking adequate measures to improve and empower public servants professionally and technically. This will be a meaningful shift of paradigm and metaphor that public servants actually serve in their administrative capacity. The participants also visualized public servants as active, dynamic and creative human resource. Rights-based training of law enforcers and training of the judiciary is also emphasized in Pakistan Vision 2030. This important aspect is reiterated in the Sindh Vision 2030. Alongside the professional and skill enhancement training there is need to fulfil all the financial requirements to equip public servants, as well as to provide them with a favourable administrative and political environment, so they can utilize their full potential within the institutional and legal framework. These include better remuneration package and social security for all public sector functionaries and their families. During the consultative process participants were concerned about frequent changes in the portfolios of the functionaries. In such circumstances, officers are unable to enhance their professional capability in that portfolio which they are accustomed to working within. There are many examples of officers acquiring training on which substantial finances and time has been invested, and that training eventually becoming immaterial due to a change of portfolio. This sometimes happens at the behest of influential persons or interest groups. Pakistan Visions working draft analyses an important aspect of institution strengthening which is that the life span of institutions is low in Pakistan as compared to other countries, and thus a concerted effort is needed to overhaul the existing outdated administrative infrastructure in the country. Extensive administrative reforms could be initiated to attract and retain competent officers, and to establish better interaction and communication across the tiers of government and organs of state. This again requires ensuring improved service structures and security and opportunity for professional growth. An effective mechanism for inter-departmental cooperation and collaboration would be the most important aspect of such administrative reforms. Punjab appears to have already made progress in this direction.

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8.11: TRANSPARENT ADMINISTRATION


The Working Draft of Pakistan Vision 2030 specifies that the policies as well as legislative and regulatory frameworks remain poorly implemented due to generic issues inherent to implementation of law. Administrative bottlenecks, decision-making delays and onerous financial and administrative procedures undermine programme implementation. Such drawbacks and flaws cause adverse monetary effects leading toward debt borrowing and excessive tax burden on the citizens. Considering the significance of such issues the working draft resolves to ensure the strict limits on contracting of internal and more importantly external borrowing. The revenue budget will be surplus and the loans shall be only for the development expenditure and a major chunk of even the development expenditure will be met by governments current revenue. The participants of the consultative process emphasized the need to focus on programbased service delivery as well as a transparent and participatory mechanism to manage the social and economic resources. The emphasis was on development of an administrative set up that can lead to an efficient system of delivery of services. The gaps in meeting program goals and objectives can only be bridged at the systems level. Such gaps also reflect at an administrative level, rural-urban and rich-poor disparities. This issue should be addressed by sensitizing the administrative officers to certain issues as well as making them accountable to the tax payers. Participants recommended the collection of all taxes and other revenue receipts for government through banks and that invoices and demand notes must be issued in a transparent and specifically prescribed manner. The Working Draft of the Pakistan Vision 2030 points out that overlapping services have created ambiguities between federal and provincial roles and responsibilities and administrative authority; these issues have been compounded by conflicts over sharing of resources and financial arrangements a problem complicated further after the passage of the Local Government Act of 2002. The participants, especially the government functionaries among them, confirmed that such ambiguity were a major cause of delay in completion of projects and efficiency in delivery of services. This would have to be rectified through the proposed administrative reforms. The participants highly commended the role of the media in demanding transparency and accountability. The media is an effective forum for citizens to regularly comment on the activities of the government. Print and electronic media can effectively facilitate the communication of the peoples aspirations and their needs to the relevant authorities. Participants requested that the government take steps to ensure freedom of the media in Sindh as well as the rest of the country.

8.12: POLICE AND JAIL REFORMS


The participants of the consultative process commented a lot on the long awaited police reforms as well as jail reforms. The proposed police reforms have been in the implementation pipeline since February 2002. A transparent and effective system for registration of complaints has been stressed by the participants. The capacity

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and capability of the police officers is yet to be improved. It requires that training be provided to police officers that makes them familiar with currently used methods and models for crime control, investigation and so on. Responding to the participants aspirations, Sindh Vision 2030 forsees a change in the existing police culture prevalent in Sindh, and recommends that such steps be taken that ensure maximum access to justice is available to the people. It recommends necessary measures be taken to improve the system within police stations so that every complainant approaching the police station has his grievance redressed and correct procedure is followed towards dispensation of justice. This would limit police excesses and quality investigation. After the promulgation of the Police Order 2002, the government is in the process of implementing changes in police procedures in the areas of reporting and investigation. The changes in structure, however, were not conducive to judicious police procedure. Sindh Vision 2030 recommends a comprehensive revamping in this regard. In the consultative process, participants reiterated popular notions of a civilized society the treatment of prisoners in such a society. The government has repeatedly expressed its desire and willingness to change the role of the prisons from punishment centres to rehabilitation centres. The participants recommended that halfway houses for prisoners be set up. The government is willing to initiate various educational, recreational and skill training programs for prisoners and to provide the opportunity and environment for them to be productive citizens. An important component of the jail reforms will be reviewing the jail manual. Participants said that review committees should be formed for reviewing the jail manual and bring the manual to international human rights standard.

8.13: TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY:


Police department should be made more accountable before judiciary. One step in this direction is the complete automation of the department, particularly of the 10 reports (e.g. Roznamcha, FIR etc.). An effort in this direction was initiated 10 years ago but the process fell thin. Increase the capability of Police force to make them more effective in controlling the crime by giving latest equipments and better physical and educational trainings. Incentives such as health and educational facilities for them and their families should be provided at least bring them to the level of the NHP. Also, provide them better living conditions and encourage/ acknowledge their good work.

8.14: VISION STATEMENT FOR 2030: PROSPERITY IN SINDH THROUGH EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE
Sindh Vision 2030 provides an approach towards transparent and accountable institutional arrangement to enable the people of the province to initiate sustainable development as well as to ensure justice, human rights and prosperity. It also foresees provision of equal rights and status to marginalised sections of society, ensuring their mainstreaming and participation in public life.

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CHAPTER 09: LAND

Chapter 09: LAND


9.1: OVERVIEW
This chapter is dedicated to the work done thus far by all stakeholders. The draft document prepared by the agriculture, forest, wildlife and livestock sections of the P&DD merits special mention and the strategy directions contained in their position papers for Sindh Vision 2030 and have been used accordingly. Furthermore the strategies proposed have also been cross-checked with the peoples perspective and there are very few variations in the overall visioning framework. The strategies proposed have been rearticulated into the Synthesis Matrix and are narrated through that structure.

9.2: AGRICULTURE61 AND LIVESTOCK


More than two-thirds of Pakistans population is living in rural areas and is largely dependent on Natural Resources for their livelihood. Water availability is the major driving force of rural economy. Intrinsically the economy of Pakistan in principle and of Sindh particularly, is agriculturally oriented. Agriculture is largely dependent on rainfall in dry lands, and its productivity on climatic change which has direct impacts on land, soil and water resources. In areas which depend solely on rainfall, agricultural productivity is limited to subsistence. These areas comprise 53% of the country and fall in southern parts of NWFP and Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and parts of Northern areas. Balochistan is the driest province where water shortage has limited the options for land based livelihoods to a bare minimum. Dry areas of Pakistan are characterized by rangelands and scattered patches of rain fed agriculture. Livestock rearing and grazing in dry ranges has been the main source of food and income for 90% of the population in these areas. Due to their low productive potential, dry regions get limited funds for development and Natural Resource development remains a neglected area. Rain fed agriculture, which builds on traditional means of water management practices, can play a vital role in reviving the rural economy and in turn contribute to the National economy if supported and improved on scientific grounds62. According to the P&DD province of Sindh contributes significantly to the overall national agricultural production particularly in the major crops category with 31.7% share in rice, 24.08% in sugarcane, 11.6% in wheat and 20.4% in cotton production. According to WWF Pakistan63 agriculture provides numerous opportunities for water saving since much of the water is currently wasted in transit to the farms, in the irrigation systems, and through the growing of crops that are not suited to the local environment. Such wastage of water is further compounded by misplaced subsidies and artificially low water prices (i.e. prices that are unconnected with the amount of water used), poor water management and by low political and public awareness64. IWMIs general conclusion for Pakistan is that the country will face acute water shortage by the year 2025. Consequently, Pakistan will require 102
61

The international definition states that Agriculture (n) is the science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock; farming 62 InterCooperation Pakistan Topic Paper Series, 2007 63 Sustainable Sugar Initiative; National Project Planning Workshop Report; WWF Pakistan, Feb 19, 2004 64 Living Waters Conserving the source of life; Thirsty Crops, WWF, 2003 (also www.livingwaters@wwf.nl)

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percent of its potential utilizable water resources to feed its population. In simpler terms this implies that Pakistan will experience absolute water scarcity of internal water resources irrespective of financial or management means available65. Given this forecast, Pakistan and Sindh in particular being at the tail-end water user needs to urgently and significantly invest in increasing water efficiency in existing irrigated areas. Furthermore, it has been established in numerous studies and research papers that the scope of expansion of water resources in Sindh is highly limited and the scope of expansion of land again is also limited to some extent. We appear to have a few millions hectares of land that is not used for agriculture due to water shortage and also due to the use of antiquated technology and equipment. The Government also states that the issues that inhibit effective and wider land use for agriculture can be categorised into the following groups. Table 9.1: Issues listed by P&DD for land, agriculture and water66
Issues Resources degradation Water shortage Water logging and salinity problem Imbalanced use of fertilizer and deteriorating soil health Biodiversity loss in areas neighbouring agriculture land Management issues Inefficient land use planning Poor farm management Inefficient use of water Post harvest losses (particularly for sugarcane prior to milling/crushing) Poor marketing system High input cost High cost of Agriculture Machinery & Equipments Improper pest management and serious threat of crop diseases Limited technology transfer to farmer The small farmers generally lack access to institutional credit for purchase of basic input Productivity issues (low yield) Use of agricultural land for non-agricultural purpose such for building, highways and industrial estates Wide gap in the yield of average and progressive growers/farmers Inadequate availability of certified seed at affordable price The less availability of water is limiting factor in expansion of area under agriculture Non provision of adequate funds for Research & Extension Services (only 6 to 11% - rest 90% for non-development); Weak linkages between Agriculture Research, Extension & Farmers

Sustainable management of land, soil and water is essential for Agricultural production. It aims to link the interdependent goals of food production, environmental protection and social development. The objectives of promoting sustainable use of land, soil and water are:
65

To enhance the quality of life for rural families and society as a whole. To reduce poverty and create livelihood opportunities in marginal rural areas. To increase the resilience of rural communities. To make the most efficient use of natural resources. To assure the long term productive potential of these resources.

Living Waters Agricultural Water Use and River Basin Conservation, WWF Switzerland, July 2003 66 Source: SV2030 Working Draft, P&DD, 2006

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9.3: AGRICULTURE
The province of Sindh contribute significantly towards overall national agricultural production in major crops with 31.7% in rice, 24.08% in sugarcane, 11.6% in wheat and 20.4% in cotton67. The present food production system in Sindh depends heavily on its natural land and water resources. The participants of the consultative workshops have explicitly commented on malpractices and unjust use of these two main natural resources over a long period, the quantity of water available has become stagnant or even declined whereas the position of land is subjected to degradation and the land has suffered Erosion, Nutrient depletion, Water logging and Salinity. Forests are renewable resources and are linked directly or indirectly with energy, water, food, industry, environment, biological diversity, health and other natural resources. Hence, its development on a sustainable basis by improving its educational and research institutions, finances to achieve its goals and objectives through effective governance, better management on scientific lines and justice is essential. The participants identified the need to guide properly to the growers on selection of crop that can be more feasible financially and technically. The decisions of growers are completely based on assumptions and experiences as yet. However some times it gives a lot of loss to them because salinity, changing environment, new varieties of seeds, chemicals, pesticides and mechanization has made the matter more complicated. Growers need proper guidance and facilitation to reach on a decision for cultivating any crop. The participants of consultative process have visualized an effective role of agriculture department in future especially by 2030 in this regard. The participants highly recommended introducing organic farming and use of traditional seeds. They also emphasized for strategy to preserve the traditional seeds, which are alarmingly coming to an end. The organic farming has been experienced at small level however the farmers and advocates of the organic farming have the learning that such kind of farming can not be successful next to the fields where pesticides and chemicals are being used. It requires holistic and comprehensive strategy to adopt organic farming in the province. However participants immediately recommended to strictly following the use of certified seeds. The Vision 2030 shall focus on rules and regulations for selling of certified seeds. Vision 2030 shall respond positively and effectively to the recommendations of the stake holders for minimizing the use of pesticides and chemicals. The participants of the consultative process suggested planning the clusters for crops and land use. The clusters of land will depend on characteristics of land in different parts of the province. That will be easy for government in planning particular needs of those clusters; such as water requirements of remote areas. The Area suitable for producing the rice, deltaic area can produce sugar cane with maximum capacity of sugar productivity68 and many other zones can be identified. Even zones for different fruits and vegetables, food crops, edible oil etc can be identified. This type of clustering the crops or zoning the land will enable concerned government agencies to support growers very effectively. The recommended services by the participants like; soil testing, establishing laboratories and providing the required machinery will be more effective in such clusters and zones. According to crop requirement provision of machinery in particular area will be comparatively easy.
67 68

Reference Material Planning & Development Department, Government of Sindh Sugar cane production in deltaic area was suggested by Mr. G. M Soomro General Manager AlAbbas Sugar Mills, Mirpurkhas

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Participants also suggested establishment of Kissan Mandis, Grain Markets, Sabzi Mandis, Pricing of fruits, vegetables and other crops. According to clusters and zones there will be more feasible to explore the marketing opportunities. The participants strongly recommended for elected Market Committees with enhanced role in handling all major issues; especially to act as effective monitoring mechanism regarding all relevant issues. Production of contamination free cotton has been started and efforts / measures are being taken to produce 100% clean cotton by 2030. The participants have visualized the crop production as beneficial business. This requires minimizing the inputs and maximizing the output. It includes control mechanisms for prices of agriculture inputs as well as ensuring maximum financial benefits to the growers instead of middlemen and business corporations. The participants have strongly recommended for crop insurance. The need for crop insurance has been more strongly realized due natural and human made calamities during last few decades that include storms, cyclones, heavy rains, floods, canal breaches etc. Government shall take proper measures and introduce a strategy for crop insurance and encourage Insurance companies in this regard. All above mentioned measures will enable us to meet our domestic needs of food including wheat, edible oil etc from our domestic production. The WWF Pakistan report on sugarcane and freshwater (WWF Pakistan 2004) states that huge and coordinated efforts are required to ensure sustainable use of water in agriculture in Pakistan. In spite of various interventions this situation prevails and is reportedly only worsening. Interventions by way of effective and efficient use of water resources through better management practices will probably be the main thrust of the efforts required. In this regard the Agriculture Extensions Services Department will play a central role. However, for any meaningful and sustainable developments in sugarcane cultivation the main task will be the creation of a network that links all the stakeholders uniformly and one that brings to the forefront the (grudgingly) common agenda of sustainable water use in agriculture. Only then can a widespread awareness campaign be launched. The rift between growers and millers, between government and millers and between growers and government appears to be grounded in traditional lobbying and political weight. The fact that the two key parties (i.e. growers and millers) have a healthy symbiotic relationship appears to be lost on both the growers at large and the strong miller lobby. According to the report high yielding sugarcane is the common agenda but one that is rarely acknowledged as such. Thus one is compelled to lean towards the idea that the creation of a central research facility that is impartial to either party in any of the three sugarcane growing provinces, will create the necessary impetus to bring farmers to go vertical, millers to only opt for quality based purchases and for government to mediate rather than regulate prices. The good example of Shakarganj Mills (Jhang) needs to be investigated further and the lessons learnt from their experiences needs to be widely disseminated. PSST may have a central role here as the leading technologist group and WWF Pakistan may have to partner with this organisation to convince millers to contribute towards research & development of new environment/water friendly sugarcane varieties. WWFPakistan, one of the largest independent NGOs operating in Pakistan, has already committed resources and efforts in developing its Integrated Freshwater Programme that address the judicious use and conservation of the countrys freshwater resources and the

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conservation of ecosystems in the Indus River Basin69. Under the Integrated Freshwater Programme WWF Pakistan has commissioned seven projects: Pakistan Wetlands Project Indus Dolphin Conservation Project Indus Delta Eco-region Project Water Quality Monitoring Project Freshwater and Cotton Initiative Pakistan Sustainable Sugar Initiative

The Freshwater and Cotton Initiative and the Pakistan Sustainable Sugar Initiative launched in 2002-2003 are the first sustainable agricultural initiatives that address the sustainable use of freshwater in the cultivation of cotton and sugarcane crops in Pakistan. These programmes are however located in Punjab and little of the programme has found it self into Sindh where the crisis is larger and more complex. Sugarcane is a deep-rooted crop that unlike most seasonal crops, remains in the soil all year round and as a result takes up a lot of water. Sugarcane cultivation in Pakistan accounts for 1020,000 to 1060,000 ha of farmland and consumes approximately 50,000 m3 of freshwater resources70. Many of the current sugar growing and processing practices in Pakistan result in a range of environmental impacts, including agrochemical runoff, silt runoff, nutrient leaching from the fields, salinity and water logging problems. The effects include damage to ecosystems via chemical poisoning and ecosystem smothering due to the volume of silt running off the farms. Additional impacts on the environment include habitat loss due to extension of farm in order to acquire land for sugarcane cultivation, threats to species biodiversity and wider energy-related issues

9.4: LIVESTOCK71
Livestock (and fish farming) play an important role in the countrys economy next to the Agriculture and is the 2nd largest sub-sector of Agriculture after crops. However both require the attention at all levels as same as given to the agriculture. The role of both the sub-sectors in the rural economy is quite crucial, provides livelihood to the poor farmers and fishermen. The products of both the sub-sectors contribute in national economy in meeting the domestic needs as well as exports. Livestock plays an important role in the economy of the country by providing motive power for Agricultural operations and supply of beef, meat, milk wool, hair, skin, manure and a number of other bi-products. Among the livestock breeds available in the Province, Red Sindhi Cows and Kundhi Buffaloes are well known for milk production, while Thari is a dual purpose breed and is famous for its climatic
69

Reference is made to the consultative workshop titled Building The WWF Pakistan Freshwater Programme, October 31, 2003 70 Data (2001-2003), Source: Policy Issues of Sugarcane and Sugar in Pakistan, Inayatullah Khan, Sugarcane Commissioner, February 19, 2004 and Living Waters Agricultural Water Use and River Basin Conservation, WWF Switzerland, July 2003 71 Livestock (n) Domestic animals, such as cattle or horses, raised for home use or for profit, especially on a farm; Another school of though defines Livestock as being large animals such as cattle, horses, sheep, goats, mules, donkeys, camels and game animals. This definition also includes live fish, shellfish and poultry such as chickens, chicks, ducks and turkeys and large quantities of rabbits (in some countries). Commercial quantities of honey bees can also be classed as livestock. The definition of livestock does not include household pets such as cats, dogs, parrots, birds, mice, and rabbits etc.

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adaptability and disease resistance; having valuable traits adopted over several generations.

9.5: EDUCATION (RESEARCH AND EXTENSION)


Government of Sindh has already focused on research, training and awareness campaign on different issues regarding farming and cropping72. Directorate of agricultural Extension has certain plans. In the same way there are many research institutions for research and education in agriculture sector including Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam and some institutions in Sakrand and Dokri etc. However the effective and meaningful interaction among such institutions and farmers is required. Such institutions may organize seminars and workshops on different issues like disease, new varieties, mechanization, possible future marketing trends etc. The participants emphasized more research institutes in particular areas such as Barani Research Institute for Thar, Cotton research institute for upper Sindh, Edible Oil Research institute in lower Sindh etc. Additionally participants emphasized to arrange required funds and ultimately professionally sound research teams to make existing or new institutions effective and meaningful. According to research work done in 2004 by WWF Pakistan in conjunction with the AERC (Punjab) the Farmers Association of Pakistan73 (FAP) stated that all the sugarcane related issues such as the problematic sugarcane payment, weight loss caused from delayed crushing, weak varieties and the lack of appropriate research on newer high-sucrose content varieties. FAP was of the opinion that the millers did not give back anything to the growers and there were maybe one or two examples where millers facilitated growers with mud-cake fertilizer and variety research and has thus reaped the benefits. Shakargang Sugar Mills in Jhang is one such example. FAPs contention is that the Government should ban the setting up of any new sugar mill since the existing 79 operating mills already posed an imbalance with the sugarcane production. FAP proposed to investigate means through which farmers could be assisted in affordable land-levelling technology and in water harvesting techniques. FAP stated that the move, generally speaking, towards water conservation was slow and one reason for this was the declining sugar prices.

9.6: FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS AND IPM


Integrated Pest Management74 means the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasises the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms.
72 73

Reference Material Vision 2030 by Government of Sindh FAP was introduced as a 15-year old farmers organisation that was non-political and selfsustained. The representatives also highlighted the fact that the organisation had gained reputation amongst its constituency (600 members) as a think tank and was thus empowered to hold dialogues with policy makers/government (Source: WWF Pakistan 2004) 74 Source: International Code of Conduct on the distribution and Use of Pesticides (Revised Version) (adopted by the Hundred and Twenty third Session of the FAO Council in November 2002)

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The term Pest is often used for animals causing damage or annoyance to man, his animals, crops or possessions, such as insects, mites, nematodes, rodents, birds. However in phrases such as integrated pest management and pest control the term pest is used in a broader sense to mean all harmful organisms including fungi, bacteria, viruses and virus like organisms, and weeds. Many years ago, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) started as Integrated Pest Control (IPC). The word Control refers to killing the pest (usually with a synthetic pesticide). It does not consider prevention of the pest problem. Pest control is just meant to solve a problem after it occurs (curative method). Usually it has no long-term effect; the pest problem will come back after sometime. Over time, the word control was replaced by management. The goal of a pest management program is to prevent pests from damaging the crop. Pest management does not necessarily mean eradication of a pest but rather preventing pest numbers from building up to a point at which they become a problem. In IPM, pest management decisions are always based on need and effectiveness rather than a schedule. A key element of IPM is planning ahead, to monitor and anticipate and prepare for pest problems before they occur. It is important to realize that IPM is not only meant to manage pests, but rather to manage the entire agro-ecosystem in a balanced way and to preserve bio-diversity on the farm. The basic principle behind the IPM concept is to enable farmers to be self-sufficient using efficient cultivation techniques (that are contextually relevant) and that are agro-eco system friendly.

9.6.1: GROW HEALTHY CROPS Healthy plants are stronger and thus better equipped to withstand attacks by pests and diseases. Many factors have an effect on the health of the crop: Good variety Healthy seeds and healthy seedlings Land preparation Correct Spacing Soil improvement Fertilizer management Water management Crop rotation

9.6.2: UNDERSTAND AND CONSERVE DEFENDERS The term defender is sometimes used instead of natural enemy, because a natural enemy of a pest is a defender of the crop. In IPM farmers: Know defenders and understand their role through regular observations of the agro-ecosystem Avoid the use of poisonous chemicals that kill the natural enemies of pests

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9.6.3: OBSERVE THE FIELD REGULARLY In IPM farmers manage the crop based on information about the actual field situation. They dont use calendar spraying to control pests. Therefore farmers: Monitor the field situation at least once a week (soil, water, plants, pests, natural enemies, etc) Make decisions based on the field situation Take direct action when needed (e.g. collect egg masses , remove infested plants, etc)

9.6.4: FARMERS BECOME EXPERTS IN CROP MANAGEMENT Farmers have to make daily decisions about the management of their crops. IPM farmers learn to make these decisions based on observations and analysis of the field situation. But as field conditions continue to change and new technologies become available farmers will need to continue improving their skills and knowledge: Farmers are capable of improving farming practices by experimenting Farmers can share their knowledge with other farmers.

We need to develop a strategy to educate all farmers, without exception, along the FFS concept. There are at least three good replicable examples from NWFP, Punjab and from Thatta in Sindh based on the work of InterCooperation, WWF Pakistan and NAT-IPM (MinFAL) respectively, which should be reviewed to formulate a comprehensive Sindh standard for FFS.

9.7: AGRO-RELATED INDUSTRIALISATION


The industrial units for making different food products in rural area will support farmers directly and minimize the role of middlemen and businessmen. The relation between farmer and industrialist will be more beneficial to farmers. The Government of Sindh foresees establishing Agro Export Processing Zone with cold storage and other required facilities. In this context the following strategies will be followed to promote fruit farming and value-added export: Diversify agricultural production and rural employment opportunities by giving more attention to high value products like dates, fruits, vegetables, Oil Seeds and flowers Improve marketing, storage facilities and encourage export of agricultural commodities Enhancing packing and transport facilities, strengthening the Research on reducing post harvest losses, delayed ripening, radio-pasteurization, waxing, control of fruit rot and dehydration Agriculture development marketing company registered under the Companies Ordinance 1984 for value added agriculture products for domestic and export markets e.g. pulping of tomatoes, mangoes, guava and production of high-value added dates etc.

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9.8: ECOLOGY - FOREST AND WILDLIFE


Forests are renewable resources and are linked directly or indirectly with water, environment, biological diversity and other natural resources as well as basic human needs like food, health, energy etc. Forest Department has visualized implementing the policies that reduce pressure on natural forests as well as protect their environmental value and conserve biodiversity75. The participants identified large scale deforestation as well the forest land has been occupied by influential persons even by making some legal arrangements with the support of concerned authorities. They emphasized to recover the land from such influential persons in any case through a high level administrative action. The participants strongly recommended achieving the target of at least 25% of total land through reforestation on the forest land recovered from possession of private influential persons as well as other measures. Other measures suggested are to encourage the farmers for forestation. The participants recommended special incentives for such farmers in water availability or other rewards etc. Nurseries at Taluka and Village level have been recommended by the participants. Participants also recommended legislation on cutting of trees. Government of Sindh visualizes a holistic and comprehensive approach for developing the forests in Sindh riverine forests and restock bare low and intermediate-lying areas on priority basis. Government shall support and contribute in replanting mangrove forests in deltaic and coastline areas. Government is committed to preserve and sustain biodiversity and their vital ecological functions such as breeding habitat for shrimp and marine fish. The participants of the workshop emphasized to replant the trees on banks of all canals and water course as well as on both sides of highways and all link roads. The important component of forestation shall be social forestry. Government has already introduced the social forestry. This includes a campaign to mobilize community for forestation in their houses, streets, fields, and where ever is space to plant a tree. Through social mobilization the objective of the urban plantation shall also be achieved. Participation of civil society organizations, professional organizations and other opinion makers at community level such as Teachers, Pesh Imams, notables etc will ensure the success of the campaign. The participants have emphasized to introduce effective laws for plantation and preserving the forests including establishing forest courts. The emphasis of forest research will be both basic and applied research in collaboration with the Pakistan Forest Institute Peshawar and other research organizations of the country. Government will establish a mangrove research centre to conduct research on various aspects of Indus delta mangroves. A bio-saline forestry research centre with four research stations in different ecological zones of Sindh will be established during the Vision period76. The District Vision for Badin prepared by the District Government of Badin, Government of Sindh identifies the following framework for sustainable forest management and propagation. The document structures the interventions into three groups, namely; immediate attention, medium-term actions and long-term objectives. Reviewing the forest situation in other districts from WWF Pakistan reports
75 76

Reference material Vision 2030 by Government of Sindh Reference Material Vision 2030 by Government of Sindh

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and from the background papers compiled for the Indus For All Programme (that use spatial imagery and data from the Forest Department) one can easily state that the Badin Vision for its forest cover applies commonly across Sindh. The italicised narration given hereunder is a verbatim reproduction from the Badin Vision document.

9.8.1: IMMEDIATE ACTION The district government should determine the actual situation of forests in the district as a first priority. Critical review of the current departmental practices, protection mechanisms, promotional policies and approaches should form part of the analysis. A thorough situational analysis, accounting and audit of the existing stock should be undertaken with a focus on preparing an inventory of voids, blanks and plantable areas and consideration of options for investing in these areas to augment fuel wood supplies, improve the landscape and environment and support the incomes of rural communities. The district government should steer the process of assessing ecologically available and nationally required forest tree cover.

9.8.2: MEDIUM-TERM INTERVENTIONS Forests and plantations need to be relieved of pressures from fuel wood collection. This can be achieved only when the sources of wood supply are diversified. Consistent focus on agro-forestry, farm forestry and social forestry will definitely increase stocks. Extension of Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) supplies could help take option of expanding gas supply.- both through cylinders and pipelines, and perhaps at subsidized rates to reduce pressure on forests should be examined. While energy is not a devolved issue, and remains under the jurisdiction of the federal government, efficacious and innovative advocacy can lead to informed decision-making by the concerned authorities. Keeping in view the importance of forests, plantations and tree cover to the environment, the district government should have a comprehensive conservation plan for the medium term with detailed components on plantation targets, regular monitoring mechanisms and periodic reviewing arrangements. Given the enormity of pressures, it is difficult to manage forests and plantations through departments and regulatory mechanisms only. The public sector managers are obliged to engage NGOs, CBOs, private sector entrepreneurs and philanthropists for creating advocacy and lobbying forums to organize public opinion around core issues in the sector. In the medium term, the district government must focus on completing plantation in the voids, blanks and plantable areas identified in surveys and stock taking. This will need regular plantation campaigns and involvement of union councils, educational institutions, green sector departments and private sector organizations. Impacts of the intervention can be optimized by creating a district level cell for steering the process.

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9.8.3: LONG-TERM INTERVENTIONS In the long run, local government at all three levels must have tree plantations on the requisite areas assessed and earmarked to meet ecological standards, national requirements and local needs. For example, every union council must have block and community forests and plantation cover of at least 20% of the total area with urban union councils having institutional arrangements for urban forestry. Areas should be proportionately marked for the agriculture, fodder and fuel wood requirements of the district. The inland forests should fill voids, blanks and gaps appropriately and mangrove forests should be regenerated. The legal and regulatory regime for protection and policing of plantations needs to be appropriately tuned to present day trends, needs and requirements to involve communities in the promotion, protection, management and conservation of plants. Industrial units, commercial enterprises, colleges and schools should make sustainable contributions to the creation, maintenance and improvement of green belts. The forest department must shed its policing mind-set and all stakeholders must be included in a mainstreamed participatory managerial orientation. The interventions should include measures to consolidate the participatory umbrella by providing (i) transparent administrative mechanisms; (ii) capacity building, advocacy and education; (iii) indicator tracking and (iv) rewards or punitive measures related to achieving targets. Last, but not least, the gulf that exists between the forest department and local communities over issues such as participatory management, rights and obligations needs to be bridged. A new management plan must be prepared on the basis of satellite imagery data for the exclusive management to the inland forests in Badin District. The new plan as well as PC-I should incorporate the principles of sustainable and integrated development of all natural resources, *forests, ranges, water, biodiversity, fisheries etc.) through the participatory approach. Existing agro-forestry tree growth of about 8-10 trees/hectare can be also be doubled easily without adversely affecting farm productivity in order to reduce pressure on government forests. Natural resource Protection Programme (NRPP) can be involved in block plantation and social forestry programmes on community lands and the outskirts of coastal villages.

9.9: SALINITY AND WATER LOGGING


Pakistan, despite being an agrarian country, has demonstrated extremely low irrigation efficiencies, creating problem related to water conservation and water logging and salinity. LBOD was conceptualized to eradicate the menace of water logging and salinity however it has created more problems especially in the districts of lower Sindh. The participants expressed their concern that LBOD is becoming harmful to all over Sindh with the passage of time. Last year during heavy rains in Sindh caused over flow and breaches in LBOD that more or less entire district of Sanghar and Mirpurkhas77 were badly affected. Irrigation system has made considerable part of Sindh affected by salinity and water logging. Participants strongly recommended to effective measures and strategy to reclaim the land for cultivation.
77 Series of articles voicing the concerns and position of the people that were published in the DAWN, The News and the Nation.

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Sindh has serious problems of water logging and salinity due to the nominal gradient accretion of riverbeds, inadequate salt exit and traditional watering of crops. The problems of water logging and salinity pose a major threat to sustainability of irrigated agriculture to the extent of 30 percent of irrigated lands in Sindh. This situation is aggravated by the low efficiency of the irrigation system. Extraction of deep groundwater further aggravates the issue. In 1999, the waterlogged area was 2.2 million ha, which however drastically reduced to 285,000 ha due to drought conditions in 1999-2000, but likely to increase once supplies return to normal. Sindh manages its saline effluent through Kotri, Sukkur and Guddu barrages commands by treating the entire left bank area, below Guddu up to the sea, independently of the right side of the Indus river. The effluent of five canal commands in a row encompassing about 3 million hectares on the left side is, to some extent, drained through the Left Bank Outfall Drain (LBOD). The whole area is covered by give completed salinity control projects while another six of them are at different phases of planning and execution. This besides the Kotri commands four canal systems, which are drained directly to the Arabian Sea through a network of 12 drains of which three discharge into the Indus River. Soil salinity in Sindh has been increasing with the expansion of irrigated area. In shallow ground water (SGW) areas salinity remains at a very high level of 3,900 4,000 ppm while in fresh ground water (FGW) areas, salinity is estimated to have increased from 900 ppm in 1988 to 940 ppm in 1995. The extent of saline area in Sindh is shown in following table. Table 9.2: Irrigated areas affected by salinity
Type Cultivated Land Non-saline land Slightly saline land Saline sodic and saline Gypsiferous land Saline sodic land Uncultivated Land Saline with sparse vegetation Saline-barren Total Command Area Area (million ha) 4.22 3.67 0.33 0.12 0.10 0.97 0.86 0.11 5.10

As seen from the above data, nearly 16% of the cultivated land is affected by Salinity, whereas the entire uncultivated land saline. Out of the total CCA of 5.1 Mha, 1.62 Mha (about 32%) is saline and nearly 43% is waterlogged. Control of water logging and reclamation of saline lands will substantially increase the crop yields and crop production and as such should continue to receive priority in investment in the water sector.

9.10: DIRECTION FOR THE FUTURE


The entire discussion in this chapter is consolidated into an issues-solution strategy table. The table is a consolidation based on the issues identified by P&DD, the participants of the 14 consultative workshops and from various research papers.

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Table 9.3: Issues-Strategy table for land, agriculture and water related issues Issues
Resources degradation Water shortage Improvement of Distributaries and Watercourses to save Water and combat water logging and salinity through community participation Introduction of high efficiency micro irrigation system; Land irrigation through controlled/maintained tube wells Reclamation of sodic lands through use of gypsum and other low cost method; Investigate the impacts of over irrigation in terms of leaching nutrients, soil salinity & water logging and ground water deterioration* Explore the use of gypsum in salt-affected soils; Evaluate and develop indicators on soil health in relation to the different irrigation methods, tillage and other inputs in terms of production enhancement* Investigate the impacts of variable practices in farming on downstream biodiversity especially in close proximity to the farmland*; Investigate the impacts of biological pest control on biodiversity* Management issues Inefficient land use planning Poor farm management Inefficient use of water Cater to the food need of the entire population of the province Customise BMP for farmland management used in similar context around the globe, particularly those recommended by IFAD and FAO Introduce and fine tune a continually maturing drip irrigation and other water distribution systems for irrigation of thirsty crops; Invest in land levelling and water harvesting techniques such as rodhkohi; Develop indicators for farmers to make timely assessment of irrigation needs*; Research for the use of recycling sugar mill wastewater on farms in areas neighbouring sugar mills * Enhancing packing and transport facilities, strengthening the Research on reducing post harvest losses, delayed ripening, radio-pasteurization, waxing, control of fruit rot and dehydration; Investigate the impacts of climate change in crop cultivation using GIS technology*; Research and define cultivation methodology based on organic production of sugarcane*; Research and report on the use of sugar beet as an alternative to sugarcane*; Investigate the use of waste material in sugarcane cultivation and processing e.g. trash & press mud*; Investigate the screening of germ plasma in relation to low inputs* Establish multipurpose mandis at the district level; Improve marketing, storage facilities and encourage export of agricultural commodities; Improve Agriculture marketing system; Production of high quality cotton, rice, wheat, fruit, flowers and vegetables for local consumption and export to over sea markets; Identify the issues of marketing (e.g. sugarcane/sugar economics) needed to address sustainable water use* Introduce information technology (e.g. e-baithak) in agriculture for weather, seed, market and other related information sharing; Introduce a easy-to-use crop crop reporting system Accelerate the mechanization and modernization of the Agriculture Sector to achieve a growth rate of 5% per annum to substantially higher than the population growth rate

Strategy

Water logging and salinity problem

Imbalanced use of fertilizer and deteriorating soil health Biodiversity loss in areas neighbouring agriculture land

Post harvest losses (particularly for sugarcane prior to milling/crushing)

Poor marketing system

High input cost

High cost of Agriculture Machinery & Equipments

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Issues
Improper pest management and serious threat of crop diseases Limited technology transfer to farmer

Strategy
Promotion of Integrated pest Management system techniques Development through mechanized farming; Strengthening, up-gradation and modernization of agriculture engineering workshops, Tandojam, Sukkur, Khairpur, Larkana, Nareja, providing facilities of manufacturing/repair of Agricultural implement and other related machineries Ensure availability of agricultural credit in time under simplified procedure and providing Agriculture Credit access to small farmers

The small farmers generally lack access to institutional credit for purchase of basic input

Productivity issues (low yield) Use of agricultural land for nonagricultural purpose such for building, highways and industrial estates Investigate the value-add of such activities against the cost to the environment, agriculture opportunity and to the people of the area; Avoid such practices if the value-add is small and/or the cost to the environment, opportunity cost for agriculture and cost of habitat loss to the people is small Diversify Agricultural production and rural employment opportunities by giving more attention to high value products like fruits, vegetables, Oil Seeds and flowers; Increase crop yields through vertical expansion Identify, investigate and disseminate the factors emerging from the lack of adoption of newer varieties of sugarcane with high content of sucrose (may require a socio-economic review at the farmer level)* Develop water resources and improve cultivable waste land to increase area under agriculture use Allocation of sufficient operational funds to Agriculture Research and Extension; Revamp/upgrade and expand the existing agriculture research system in Sindh

Wide gap in the yield of average and progressive growers/farmers Inadequate availability of certified seed at affordable price The less availability of water is limiting factor in expansion of area under agriculture Non provision of adequate funds for Research & Extension Services (only 6 to 11% - rest 90% for nondevelopment); Weak linkages between Agriculture Research, Extension & Farmers

Productivity issues (Increase/ enhance) Produce 100% contaminant free crops (cotton, rice, sugarcane, wheat, etc.) Production of contamination free cotton has been started and efforts / measures are being taken to produce 100% clean cotton by 2030

Note: Italicised text has been added from group consultations; Text prefixed with an * is taken from the WWF Pakistan reports.

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Chapter 10: WATER


10.1: OVERVIEW
Pakistan, one of the worlds most arid countries with the average rainfall of under 250mm a year is essentially an agro based water economy (World Bank 2005). Estimates by the International Water Management Institute indicate that Pakistan is among the 17 countrieswhich together contain 8 percent of the worlds populationthat are likely to face the most severe water scarcity by 2025. Due to its location, Pakistan relies heavily on irrigation. With the advent of largescale irrigation system, the Indus Irrigation System became the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world, providing the platform for the development of the modern economy of Pakistan. According to the information provided in the National Water Policy78 (NWP), the irrigation network of Pakistan is the largest infrastructural enterprise accounting for approximately $ 300 billion of investment and contributing nearly 25% to the countrys GDP. Irrigated agriculture provides 90% of food and fibre requirements while barani (rain fed) area contributes the remaining 10%. At present, irrigation uses about 93% of the water currently utilized in Pakistan. The rest is used for supplies to urban and rural populations and industry (NWP). In the past fifty years, Pakistan has faced three major challenges in wake of water shortages. The first challenge, to justify a fair distribution of water with India, brilliantly handled, resulting in the form of the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 under the leadership of President Ayub Khan. The second challenge, the location of water and irrigated area, ended up with the creation of the worlds largest earth filled Dam, the Tarbela Dam on the Indus. The creation of Tarbela led the country to its third challenge, rise in water tables, which in turn brought in water logging and salinity. The nation, with a stroke of genius, came up with a very unorthodox solution, the diesel engine tube wells. Now, Pakistan faces its biggest water challenge, the challenge of Scarcity of water. According to the Pakistan Strategic Country Environmental Assessment Report 2006 (SCEA 2006), per capita water availability in Pakistan has decreased from 5,000 in 1951 to 1100 cubic meter per annum. The increasing gap between water supply and demand has led to severe water shortage in almost all sectors. The future holds a darker picture; by 2025, the availability of water will fall to 700 cubic meters per capita (Pak-SCEA 2006), 300 cubic meters below the internationally recognized scarcity rate. Currently as per government figures, Punjab has the best rural water supply with only 7% of the population depending on a dug well or a river, canal or stream. The situation in the other three provinces is considerably worse, Sindh; some 24% of the rural population depends on the above-mentioned sources. The situation in NWFP and Balochistan is even worse with 46% and 72% of the rural population depending on a dug well or from a river/canal/stream (SOE 2005). According to a WWF report Pakistan has now entered an era in which laissez-faire becomes an enemy rather than a friend.

78

The Government of Sindh is clear in its current position to ensure that the NWP is in accordance to the TWAA-1991 in line with the provincial priorities of Sindh and with the due legal cover to the TWAA.

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Table 10.1: Pakistans water requirements79


Year Availability Requirements drinking water) Overall Shortfall 2004 104 MAF (including 115 MAF 11 MAF 2025 104 MAF 135 MAF 31 MAF

Sindh is mapped in the arid zone of Pakistan and experiences rainfall ranging between 100-200mm per year with high rates of evaporation, on the other hand, ground water supplies in Sindh are less then 5 MAF, thus making River Indus a lifeline for Sindh. Having a high agricultural sector and limited other sources, Sindh is forced to rely singularly on the 49 MAF (37%) of its share from Indus, according to the Water Accord 1991. The situation of water is apparently deteriorating at an alarming rate. For the past two decades, Sindh has faced severe droughts, scant rainfall and extremely low supplies of freshwater. All of this with politicization of water distribution to the provinces is leading to both economic and social hardships (IUCN 2006). Socio-economic problems resulting from various water related issues are putting a tremendous strain on the economy and people of Sindh. Sindh has had a long-standing issue with the distribution of water and its share. The issue came to the fore in 1901, when the Indian Irrigation Commission prohibited Punjab from taking even a drop of water from Indus without the approval of Sindh. In 1919, the then government of India issued the Cotton Committee report; where in, it prohibited Punjab from undertaking any projects until Sukkur barrage was completed and water needs of Sindh were determined. In 1925, Lord Reading, the British Viceroy of India, rejected Punjabs request for Thal canal from Indus considering the undue deprivation of Sindhs lower riparian rights. In 1937; however, the Anderson Commission allowed Punjab to withdraw 775 cusecs of water on experimental basis from Indus for Thal canal. This happened even with the absence of Thal canal in the terms of the commission and clearly constituted a direct violation of the viceroys orders of 1925. In 1939, Sindh lodged a formal complaint with the government, under the Government of India Act of 1935. Consequently, in 1941, the Roy Commission recognized the injustice that was meted out to Sindh, recommended construction of two new barrages in Sindh on Indus, and ordered Punjab to pay 20 million Rupees of the construction cost of these barrages to ameliorate Sindhs losses due to the actions of Punjab. Under the guidance of the Roy Commission, a committee comprising of the chief engineers of Punjab and Sindh came out with an agreement in 1945, known as Sindh- Punjab Agreement. It resolved the distribution of the waters of all Indus basin rivers between Punjab and Sindh. Essentially, this agreement recognized Sindhs supremacy over the Indus River and nothing upstream could be changed or built without her formal consent and approval. The post-independence period has also witnessed similar events. In 1968, under the chairmanship of Mr Akhtar Hussain, the Water Allocation and Rates Committee was constituted by the Governor of former West Pakistan to review

79

Source: Ten Year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11, Planning Commission

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barrage water allocations, reservoir release patterns, drawdown levels and use of groundwater in relation to surface water deliveries. The Committee submitted its report on July 01, 1970 when the provinces were revived. No attention was paid to this report. As a result, the Justice Fazle Akbar Committee was constituted in October 1970 to recommend apportionment of waters of the River Indus and its tributaries. The Committee submitted its report in 1971. During the same time period, ad hoc distribution of Chashma barrage and later Tarbela reservoir storage among the provinces was ordered. No decision was taken on the Fazle Akbar Committee recommendations and water continued to be distributed on ad hoc orders by the Government of Pakistan. In 1977, the Government of Pakistan established another commission comprising the Chief Justices of the High Courts of the Provinces, headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court to examine the issue of water apportionment. The report of this commission is still pending with the Government of Pakistan. It was finally the Chief Ministers of the provinces who managed to reach consensus on the contentious issue. The breakthrough came in a series of meeting, first in Lahore and finally on March 16 in Karachi (WA 1991). Apparently, the accord has not been implemented. Integrated part of NWP is the implementation of the water accord, acknowledging the fact that the water accord hasnt been implemented. A matrix specially designed to integrate the issues and options of all sectors was prepared to give a holistic picture of every sector. In the following section the crosscutting themes of every sector, emanatory from the matrix, with water have been discussed in brief. A broad user base has been taken in consideration in preparation of the following document. The user base includes Farmers, Industrial users, ecology and human consumption

10.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE


Sindh faces many issues due to lack of effective governance. The most highlighted issue is the Water apportionment Accord of 1991! According to the water accord of 1991, Sindh was supposed to receive 37% of water from the Indus River, which is roughly 49 MAF. Apparently it has never received its complete share. Due to this and many repeated instances from the past there has been distrust in interprovincial relations as far as water is concerned. To eradicate the distrust the implementation of the water accord to the letter is mandatory. Its implementation is also part of the National Water Policy of Pakistan. As far as governance is concerned the implementation of the water accord is of utmost importance and warrants a well thought-out proactive solution.

10.2.1: WATER ESCAPAGES BELOW KOTRI. The second most important issue as far as governance is concerned. After the construction of Kotri barrage the water table of the whole delta has been affected. Many studies have been inducted by the government with the help of national / international private agencies. These studies should be considered and a minimum level of water escapades should be allowed below Kotri. The adverse effects are numerous. Due to a decrease in fresh water in the area below Kotri, villages have started to move. Traditionally farmers have now become fishers. Natural habitats

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are being destroyed. Salinity has risen throughout the costal region below Kotri. An effort should be made to restore the loss incurred.

10.2.2: COST RECOVERY OF WATER To increase the awareness of the importance of water the pricing of water should be re-engineered in a way which would be high enough to make the people understand the importance of water and make them save water. However, it should not be high enough to make them uncomfortable. The pricing should be considered in the progressive way, affecting the rich more then the poor. Pricing of the water resource can be done in a number of ways. One is the proxy pricing method, where the price of an input can be calculated by its share in any output (like share of water in the production of crops), or by using the market prices of a product that is a direct result of the existence of a resource (like total value of the fish resources in a lake, or the timber from a forest). This is the easiest (and the crude) approach towards calculating the value of an environmental resource, because it may not reflect the health dimensions nor other intangible benefits. In case of water, one can use the Marginal Product theory, treating it like a factor of production, whose marginal product equals its price. Using Marginal product theory is common in calculating CBA in Agricultural Economics. In order to increase the productivity of water, a monetary value has to be assigned to it. This would help in all national accounting calculations and hence degradation and overuse would also be quantifiable (SCEA 2005) Sindh has serious problems of water logging and salinity due to the nominal gradient, accretion of riverbeds, inadequate salt exit and traditional watering of crops. The problems of water logging and salinity pose a major threat to sustainability of irrigated agriculture on about 30 percent of irrigated lands in Sindh (2003 FAO). The problem of water logging and salinity coupled with the floods and droughts have adverse effects on the cultivated land hence on the people of Sindh. Effective measures should be taken to deal with these problems if any development is to be foreseen in the province.

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Civil Society view: Left Bank Outfall Drain (LBOD); THE Left Bank Outfall Drain (LBOD) project brought environmental and socio-economic disaster, specially for people in Badin who approached the inspection panel of the World Bank for non-partisan investigation of the WB-funded project. The inspection panel submitted its findings to the World Bank in July 2006. The report established that the project was victim of a flawed design, bad execution and poor monitoring. In response to findings of the inspection panel, the World Bank chalked out a plan of action comprising short-term, medium-term and long-term measures for damage control. However, this action plan repeats a major flaw of the LBOD project i.e. lacks of consultation with the project affectees. The inspection highlighted the fact that the stakeholders were not properly consulted in the LBOD project at key stages. Interestingly the World Bank started remedial measures with the same mistake and no stakeholder consultation was carried out while designing the damage control and compensation action plan. As a result important stakeholders such as civil society and local affectees started disowning this plan at the very outset. A World Bank document Elaboration of the short-term action plan issued on Oct 30, 2006 contains very little to redress miseries of the affectees of the LBOD project. The Coastal Area Development Programme (CADP) will be implemented by the World Bank through Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF) and its partner NGOs. The World Bank loan can never be considered as compensation. It is strange that miseries inflicted by one loan are being compensated through another. The bank should not only issue a compensation grant for affectees but should also write off the loan given for the LBOD project. Since civil society has serious reservations on the way the LBOD was implemented without involvement of stakeholders. The bank should ensure that the compensation package is also designed, executed and independently monitored through credible civil society organisations, with proper representation of the affectees. A CADP Programme Steering Committee should look after the CADP affairs with at least 50 per cent representation from civil society, specially the affected persons. Ecological disaster inflicted upon the lake system is enormous. Socio-economic and environmental assessment could be an appropriate beginning, but the World Bank needs to commit for development and implementation of a long-term lake system conservation and management plan. Only assessment without any clearly defined follow-up would hardly serve any good to the devastated lakes. The lake system rehabilitation would be a difficult job in the given conditions where in absence of Cholri Weir, the lakes salinity levels have surpassed even sea salinity levels. The World Bank, in collaboration with Wapda and Sida, plans to undertake a detailed field examination of the right embankment of the spinal drain and KPOD. The mission will identify vulnerable sections, identify specific measures that may be needed to complete secure repair of the old breaches and prepare a detailed maintenance plan including estimates of the cost of civil works. The World Bank and Sindh government have agreed to establish such a planning programme and undertake its implementation immediately when the new Water Sector Improvement Project (WSIP) project becomes effective. The WSIP project is expected to be presented to the World Bank board in February 2007. The planning studies will include options to improve the LBOD, and options to meet storm and agricultural drainage needs. The WSIP is, in fact, a continuity of the $786 million National Drainage Programme, which could not meet its targets. Also the WSIP is another loan of $140 million and thus can not be considered as part of any compensation to the LBOD affectees. The unfinished LBOD was transferred to the NDP and now the unfinished NDP is being transferred to the WSIP. No one knows which new offspring of the WSIP will shoulder its unfinished agenda. Strange enough that the NDP with such huge loan ended up with a large part of the project incomplete, and people of this country are not even informed about the fate of the $786 million project before taking another loan of $140 million. The action plan offered by the World Bank shows that there is no genuine commitment to compensate the affected people of a failed mega project and now the dead body of the failed project is being used to pile new loans on poor people. (Extracts from an article written by Mr. Naseer Memon, Dawn-Economic & Business Review, Page-IV, 11/12/2006)

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World Bank Board Discusses Inspection Panel Investigation Into Indus Basin Drainage Projects Board Approves Southern Pakistan Water Management Action Plan Washington DC, November 1, 2006 - The independent Inspection Panel investigation of the Pakistan National Drainage Program (NDP) determined shortcomings in both this and an earlier project, the Left Bank Outfall Drain Project (LBOD), Banks Action Plan to address extreme poverty and impacts on the affected population and the environment. In response to the Panels investigation requested by residents of Badin. According to the president of the World Bank these older Bank-supported projects did succeed in creating opportunities for poor people in Sindh by expanding agriculture dramatically. The Inspection Panel has shown that the World Bank and everyone involved in the projects could have done a better job of mitigating the risks and impact of natural disasters on the poor within and outside the project areas. The Inspection Panel has recognized the importance of the Bank remaining committed to helping Pakistan improve its water resource management; and our future work will be strengthened by the lessons learned from the LBOD and NDP projects. In its investigation, the Panel found that the design of the LBOD project underestimated prevailing conditions and the risk of extreme meteorological events. According to the Panel, this contributed to the breakdown of the LBOD outfall system and the suffering of local people in lower Badin district, and to significant adverse impacts to important fisheries and wetland habitats known as the dhands. The Panel found instances of noncompliance with provisions of several Bank policies, including environmental assessment, natural habitats, indigenous peoples and cultural property. The Panel also found non-compliance in the area of Bank supervision, determining that it had been less than adequate in respect to the LBOD system, and that people in southern Badin fell outside the field of vision of those who designed and appraised the project, to quote the Panel report. The Banks Action Plan is designed to address with urgency the plight of the poorest people of the lower Badin and Thatta districts and help them deal with the risks inherent in living on this exposed and low-lying plain. Furthermore a flood response plan will be worked out with local officials to ensure better management of this risk including early warning, evacuation plans and flood refuge structures. The Bank will report on progress before the next monsoon season in June 2007. In the medium and longer term, coastal zone and Indus River management will be a priority focus. Left Bank Outfall Drainage (LBOD), at completion, the cost of the LBOD project totalled US$1.021 billion, of which the Bank provided US$185.1 million or 18.1 percent. Other donors included the Asian Development Bank (ADB), which financed 20.6 percent (US$209.9 million) of the project, the Canadian International Development Agency (1.2 percent/US$11.9 million), the United Kingdom's Overseas Development Administration (3.5 percent/US$35.6 million), the Saudi Fund for Development (6.2 percent/US$63.8 million), the Swiss Development Cooperation (1.5 percent/US$15.5 million), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Fund for Development (1 percent/US$10 million) and the Islamic Development Bank (1 percent/US$10 million). The Government of Pakistan and Sindh Provincial Government carried 46.4 percent (US$473.9 million) of the project cost. National Drainage Program; Projects estimated cost at appraisal was US$785 million, of which US$525 million was provided by several donors. (The Bank contributed US$285 million; the ADB provided US$140 million; and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation provided US$100 million.) Farmers, through Farmer Organizations, were to contribute US$32.1 million and the Government of Pakistan and the provinces the balance of US$227.9 million. (Extracts from a document of the World Bank www.worldbank.org/pk )

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GoS/ P&DD view on LEFTBANK OUTFALL DRAINAGE SYSTEM (LBOD) The irrigation provides high economic returns in Sindh without irrigation; the region would turn into desert or salt field so that economic viability of irrigation is not question at all. The issues of self sustainability of irrigation and drainage are important. Presently, around 78% of the area in Sindh Province is under laid by the saline ground water which is unsuitable for irrigation. Surface and sub-surface drainage systems are inadequate, with much of the existing surface drainage system in Sindh serving over 6.2 million acres having an aggregate length of about 3811 miles (6133 km). The construction of LBOD project started in 1984 by WAPDA under financial assistance of the World Bank and other donors. The LBOD project was designed to lower down the water table and control water logging and salinity in the area of 1.3 million acres worst affected left bank areas of Indus i.e. Nawabshah, Sanghar, Mirpurkhas districts through disposal of saline effluent in Arabian Sea. The tail end component of LBOD system, the system of Badin district has connected with spinal drain, Kadhan Pateji Outfall Drain (KPOD) and tidal link. The Left Bank area of the Indus River has been suffering from problems of storm drainage and flooding in the recent years. The tail end component of LBOD system created problems in the Badin district especially during increased flows and high tides as also appears during May 1999 cyclone and rainfall of July 2003, causing heavy losses to life and property. The LBOD system again faltered in year 2006 when it breached at several places in Mirpurkhas and Nawabshah districts causing heavy losses again. The Thatta and Badin districts in lower Sindh have a very lengthy coastal belt within their jurisdiction. Due to absolutely no flow of river Indus downstream Kotri Barrage, the sea has intruded into coastal areas of Thatta and Badin districts affecting the livelihood of . The coastal damages have resulted in environmental degradation as well as loss of fertile agricultural lands. The on slough of sea has reached up to 34 Kms. deep inside Kotri Barrage command area. Furthermore 165,833 acres of land, 86 Dehs, 9 Talukas have been affected and about 47 channels damaged. The sea intrusion has rendered traditional fishing lakes and ponds unusable and damage to wetlands and the mangrove forest in extensive. Moreover, water bodies in the LBOD system area have been adversely affected causing environmental degradation as such corrective measures required to control adverse impact on water bodies besides damages of flora and fauna due to failure of tidal link and Choleri Weir. The project failed to deal with issues like coastal ecology, safe disposal of saline effluent into the sea, and protection of wetlands which were an important natural habitat and migratory route for waterfowl nesting grounds for important birds species, besides affecting the cultural sites in Badin. Since the collapse of Weir and Cyclone breaches in the embankment, the water and salinity balance of the Tidal link and the dhand changed. The effects of the LBOD system on people and the environment in lower Sindh have been severe. It is appreciated that LBOD system would create problems unless some corrective engineering and environmental works are not carried out on sound footings.

10.3: JUSTICE, HUMAN RIGHTS, PROSPERITY


Safe drinking water is the right of every human being. The definition of safe drinking water given in the SCEA 2005 report: Water that either naturally, or as a result of treatment, is free from harmful or distasteful contaminants. In this context, safe is a term of art, often used interchangeably with potable, clean etc. to mean water of sufficient quality that can be used, untreated, without major risk of contracting serious diseases Under this definition, water obtained from household connections, public standpipes, hand pumps and protected wells and springs can generally be deemed safe on the basis of the above definition. Water from uncovered/unprotected wells, springs, rivers, irrigation canals, ponds and water vendors is considered unsafe.

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Table 10.2: Variations in definition of safe water by a number of agencies80


Water supply coverage Criteria Access to safe water (fully effective water supply delivery) Access to safe water Reasonable
81

Percentage coverage Urban 90 INA 96^ Rural 75 INA 84^ Average (Urban & Rural) 82 79* 88*

Agency; Source; Year GoP; Pakistan Water Sector Roadmap; UNICEF; The Progress of Nations; 1995 WHO; Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment; 2000 UNICEF; Safe Drinking Water Supply, Sanitary Latrines Coverage and Waste Management 82 in Pakistan; 2002

access to safe water

Access to safe drinking water in Pakistan

96

87

91

Access to an improved water 83 95 87 91 EarthTrends; 2003 source Sustainable access to an improved UNDP; Human Development INA INA 90 water source Report; 2004 & UNICEF; Coverage (Access to) Improved drinking WHO 84 water Estimates; 2004 Percentage of population with World Bank; World Development INA INA 90 access to improved water source Indicators; 2005 INA = Distributive data was not available * = this value is not an average and is taken directly from the referenced document; the estimate is probably a population-weighted average ^ = The Assessment 2000 did not provide a clear definition of Urban and Rural areas. Instead the survey questionnaire used in the study asked for the countrys own definition of urban and rural area.

Table above lists estimates from various international institutions for coverage of water supply for either safe or improved sources are given. Despite a high access to a "safe" or improved water source, there are still a large number of cases of waterborne diseases in Pakistan. The reasons for this high incidence of water borne diseases may lie with health and hygiene standards within the household. Anecdotal evidence to support this cause is available from a study conducted by PIEDAR85. The study was based on a sample size of about 130 households from the programmebeneficiary population in the katchi abadis of Quetta. The study revealed that 45% of the children surveyed wash hands with soap after defecation and that 34% of this group suffered from Diarrhoeal diseases. Levels of contamination of the water at the source may be low enough to deem the water "safe", but conveyance/transportation in handheld containers or tankers, storage in the household, lack of adequate hygiene within the household and sharing of the water from a single container/cup may cause crossinfection. This may explain why there seems to be a discrepancy between access to "safe" water and the high incidence of water borne disease. This would also imply that measures to curb water-borne diseases should equally focus on health and hygiene issues. The challenge for the Government of Sindh and all CDGs would be to agree on

80 81

Source: SCEA 2005 WHO (and UNICEF) define reasonable access as the availability of 20 litres per capita per day at a distance no longer than 1,000 metres; UNDG, Indicator 30 definition; 2003. 82 Use was made of the National Census Report for 1998, UNICEF/WHO estimates for 2000, Integrated Household Surveys 1995-96, 1996-97, 1998-99, Demographic Health Survey 1990-91, Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey of Pakistan for 1995, the Population and Housing Census of Pakistan for 1998 and ADB statistics for 2002. 83 See/visit http://earthtrends.wri.org. 84 Estimates reported in the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation for Pakistan; updated July 2004. 85 PIEDAR 2005 Project archives; Quetta Kachi Abadi Environmental Management Programme; The development methodology used by PIEDAR is worth a closer review and could offer plausible solutions for rural Sindh

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one provincial definition of safe water and to then establish a baseline corresponding to the MDGs. Furthermore, review the quality of water of all the resources in Sindh and develop treatment solutions accordingly. The O&M of such system will also require careful consideration. People living in slums or remote villages are deprived of water because they are marginalized. Without addressing inequality, only the rich will benefit from public water subsidies. The main beneficiaries of low water prices are not the poor, as claimed by marketers, but the middle classes who have access to piped water. The poorest end up paying high prices to The Progress of Nations: League Table; ACCESS TO WATER as a the vendors! To ensure that the poor The table below, which is an extract from the world league tables, shows what are served with water, percentage of each country's population has access to clean water. Because a formula of taxing the access is defined differently by different countries, alphabetical order is used rich in order for the throughout. The toll of disease could be drastically reduced by safe water, by using latrines, by washing hands before handling food, and by preparing and poor to be provided storing food safely. with water must be developed. Whatever SOUTH ASIA as a percentage of the framework is population with access to safe developed to help the water poor, it is necessary to 12 Afghanistan take into account their 92 Bangladesh needs first before 21 Bhutan talking of profit. Where 74 India water is drawn from water 46 Nepal sources to urban centres, 79 Pakistan piped water should also 46 Sri Lanka be available to Watery definition communities and be "Each nation sets its own definition of 'access' to water. In some countries it managed by those means piped water in each home, in others a well within half an hour's walk. communities themselves, Definitions also differ between urban and rural areas. Countries are therefore listed on these pages in alphabetical order. Improvements in health come not just some of whom were from the availability of clean water but from its proper use. But proper use is more custodians of water feasible if water comes from a standpipe close to home rather than a well half a sources for decades. mile away. Millions of women spend many hours a day walking long distances for unreliable supplies of unsafe water. And as it is usually women who cope with Water should remain a family illness, improving access to safe water strikes a double blow for the public trust and not a liberation of women's time and energies." commodity. The government and communities should manage its protection, consumption and distribution. Precautions should be taken when governments make contracts with private companies. Here increasing transparency through involving communities should solve issues of corruption. Structural Adjustment Programmes and the current conditionality is implicitly embedded in Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSs) of the World Bank and the IMF, implicitly forcing poor countries to privatize water through blanket liberalization, should be resisted. Where public-private partnership programmes exist in water delivery, governments should ensure that people and environment come before profit. People living in poverty and the safeguarding of the environment should be the main criteria in devising water management strategies, protection and consumption. Safe drinking water is the right of every human being. Water should be available to all for economic prosperity.
percentage of the population with access to safe water UNICEF 1995

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Due to the scarcity of water and resulting economic downturn, people of Sindh are finding it very hard to make ends meet. Unemployment, poverty, crime rate, and other social problems are all on the rise. Better water management can make a key contribution to poverty reduction in Sindh. Improving the water security of poor people will help reduce poverty and support sustainable development in direct and material ways. Water is essential for the food security of the poor, not just from agriculture but also from trees and home gardens, from fish and other foods collected from aquatic ecosystems and from livestock. Water is an essential input into many livelihood activities. Improved access to water for both urban and rural poor can create livelihood opportunities that can break the cycle of poverty. A more complete understanding of the relationship between water security and poverty reduction is needed to improve the management of water resources and the delivery of water services (ADB 2007). Sanitation and maintenance of sewerage systems has remained a painful problem for all citizens of Sindh regardless of their residential areas or status. This has affected the quality of life in every area and people consider this a problem they have to live with. This perception and the surrendering of will be dealt with more holistically to ensure a permanent solution. This may well mean institutional reorganization of a number of civic agencies.

10.4: GENDER
Water availability has major impacts on the lives of women in Sindh. It directly effects employment of women in the rural areas. When there is shortage of irrigation water, women face employment crisis. They are forced to depend on more tedious and less profitable work such as embroidery, traditional ralli86 work or making coals from the burning of bushes. Women are forced to spend large parts of their day fetching water. This is due to the availability of water - the further the water source the harder the effort level required to obtain water. Women in Sindh have been suffering drastic effects for carrying water on their heads such as baldness; some even get depressed skulls (1998 AAS) The lack of access to safe water and sanitation has many serious repercussions. Children and particularly girls are denied their right to education because they are busy fetching water or are deterred by the lack of separate and decent sanitation facilities in schools. The schools in Sindh, especially rural Sindh, have very poor sanitation. These circumstances result in leading the schools to become unsafe places where diseases are transmitted easily. In addition, poor sanitation in school buildings impairs children's growth and development, limits school attendance and negatively affects students' ability to concentrate and learn. Children get infested with intestinal worms. Girls do not attend school during menstruation or drop out at puberty because of the lack of clean and private sanitation facilities in schools. The USAID/ESSRA DEMO executed by LEAD Pakistan has provided a replicable model for all other districts (LEAD Pakistan/ Grant Thornton Audit Report 2006). The Democratised Education Management and Ownership (DEMO) is a project financed by Education Sector reforms Assistance (ESRA) Program under its Private Community Partnership (PCP) component and implemented by LEAD-Pakistan in Sukkur and Khairpur District in Sindh. The Project use School Management Committees to spearhead the School Improvement
86

Ralli is the traditional Sindhi patch-work quilt

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Plan (SIP). SMCs are a product of numerous Village Assemblies. A Village Assembly or Goth Kachery is a forum/ platform dealing with issues concerning school(s) and education in a particular area. The Village Assembly represents those who live in the village- the stakeholders- parents, the students, notables (influential people with repute) in the periphery of school(s), civil society institutions working in the area, government line agencies, NGOs, political leaders and social activists. All VA/SMC members (of nominated persons) are trained in the required skills necessary for the registration and running of a CCB (LEAD Pakistan 2007).

10.5: AGRICULTURE
Sindh is mostly dry land with extensive arid and semiarid zones and relies heavily on irrigation. Irrigation has a definitive role in poverty reduction, food production and environmental security of the province. Agriculture consumes over 90 percent of annual freshwater withdrawals, largely through the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS). The IBIS is plagued by serious problems resulting from over irrigation, inadequate drainage, low efficiency and reliability of deliveries, inequities in distribution, and wasteful use of water. These problems, in turn have been major contributors to severe water logging and salinity (SCEA 2005).

10.6: EFFECTIVE UTILITY OF ALREADY AVAILABLE WATER FOR IRRIGATION


If the existing supply of water is effectively managed it would lead to sustainable increases in the productivity and better livelihoods for poor people in rural areas. Modern agricultural practices such as drip agriculture should be used to conserve water and meet agricultural demands. The practice of flood irrigation should be controlled as it wastes a lot of water. A number of agricultural practices have negative impacts on the natural resources used; land, water and air. Measures should be taken to avoid such practices. Compounds that are necessary for successful farming may be unwanted in fresh water. For example, phosphorus is essential to plant growth, but too much of it can cause problems in water. Another example is of sediment. It is mineral or plant material suspended in water and wind. It can fall in waterways, ruin fish spawning areas, contribute to the transport of plant nutrients which are bound to soil particles and greatly increase the costs of water treatment. To avoid such problems Best Management Practices (BMP) should be incorporated in agriculture. The major crops of Sindh are sugarcane, maize, wheat and rice. They are all thirsty crops i.e. they require high intakes of water compared to other crops. Incentives for selection of drought-tolerant crop species should be available for farmers. WWF Pakistan has made considerable headway in this direction under their living waters programme. The lessons from this programme can easily be mainstreamed into the Sindh agricultural canvas for all three crops. In areas such as Kacho, Kohistan and hilly areas of Thar, rain water harvesting should be promoted.

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10.7: FISHERIES
The role of fisheries in national economy is crucial in contributing approximately 9.3% of GDP with rupees 8 billion worth of annual exports. It provides livelihood to the poor fishermen and also creates different levels of economic activities. The fisheries sector not only creates economic opportunities for the poor people but also contributes in meeting the food requirements of the country. Availability of fresh water in traditional lakes, ponds and water reservoirs to protect the fish species is an important issue. Due to the shortage and contamination of water out of 52 species only 10 species remain existent in the Manchar Lake. For the past few years there has remained a controversy over the method of fishing among fishermen community and government. The fishermen community demanded a license system for the fishermen; the government initially deemed a contract system for the community of fishermen. However, recently the government formally announced the abolishment of the contract system in Sindh. The government of Sindh should work towards improving and introducing the following sectors which are closely linked to the fisheries department; credit facilities for hatcheries and private fish farming as well as research centres on breeding, management, nutrition, disease control and training of fishermen. During 2001, out of a total production of 591 658 Tonnes, 435 913 tonnes was contributed by the marine sector (72 percent), while the contribution of the inland sector was 166 483 tonnes (28 percent). The Sindh coast, extending southeast from Karachi to the border with India, is characterized by a broad continental shelf and a coastline marked by a maze of creeks and mangrove-covered mudflats of the Indus river delta, serving as nursery grounds for species of marine life (FAO). Shrimp exports that form about 80% of the total fish exports from Pakistan may decrease in the next few years due to the reported decline in shrimp populations mainly caused from pollution and over-fishing (Brandon 1995). The Indus River system supports a great variety of terrestrial and aquatic biological diversity, but much of it has been declining because of the intensification of agriculture and the systematic loss over time of vegetative cover (e.g., riverine and mangrove forests). Near-shore fisheries are declining in certain areas because of pollution and overexploitation. Official figures show a marked decline in the catch of many prized fish species both in the costal areas of Pakistan and in the Indus River itself. Two examples are cited to demonstrate the declining trend in fish catch. According to the Marine Fisheries Department (1998) record catches of large jaira shrimps have drastically reduced by 50% (i.e. from 10,000 tons to 5,311 tons in the period 1971 to 1998). Palla, although a marine fish species, instinctively carries out its reproduction in the Indus River (peak periods of May and June). According to WWFPakistan, the construction of barrages on the Indus River and the decline in freshwater flows has resulted in drastic depletion in the Palla population. Palla would account for 70% or more of the total fish catch in the 80s (1,859 tones) and now it barely accounts for 15% of the total fish catch (265 tones in 1995) (Forever Indus/Research Paper/SZABIST). Tasman Spirit disaster: The vessel MT Tasman Spirit, carrying about 67,500 tonnes of Iranian crude oil, run aground in the inlet of the Karachi harbour in July 2003 and within a month the damaged ship had split into two parts resulting in a huge spill of about 31,000 tonnes of oil until it was finally plugged.

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According to WWF-Pakistan the Pakistan Fisheries Department had notified a ban on fishing in the vicinity of the catastrophe. The fishing industry expected to be badly affected by the situation since the oil disaster and ban on fishing would affect the livelihood of 2 million fishermen living along the Karachi coast. Fish exports fetched US$ 135.3 million in 2002-2003.
Figure 10.1: Satellite images illustrating the extent of the oil spill87

According to WWF Pakistan, an oil patch of approximately one square kilometre moved into the vicinity of the Sandspit beach threatening the nesting grounds for green turtles during the beginning of the breeding season. The potential biodiversity losses included the threat to the 75 species of foraging migratory birds that normally arrived in August and remained in the Karachi area till May 2004. The quality and amount of fish produced in Pakistan is directly related to the quality of water available. Hence the water quality of areas where inland fishing takes place as well as the water quality of the areas where marine fishing takes place should be well taken care of. Industrial effluent and untreated sewage have already affected the fisheries sector. The recent European Union (EU) ban on fish/fish products from Pakistan (essentially Sindh) has already affected the fisheries sector (Dawn 2007). The reports indicate that the process of fishing, storage at sea and the fisheries harbour facilities still warrant major interventions before this ban can be lifted. The remedial measures proposed in the EU recommendations do not appear difficult or unrealistic. What will be required however is a review of the implementation shortcomings of the past and an integrated action plan to eliminate all EU objections. Subsequently to ensure sustainable success an integrated implementation monitoring and backstopping system requires immediate attention. This should be given top priority and the ensuing success model will serve Sindh in launching many more plausible, meaningful and well-structured interventions.

10.8: EDUCATION
Education plays an important role in the water sector. An educated populace would mean a healthier society which would in turn result in a wealthier nation. The most important role of education in the sector of water is that of awareness. The masses should be made aware of water related issues and options.
87

SCEA 2005 and WWF Pakistan GIS laboratory 2006

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The first aspect is that of the importance of water. Although with the prevailing circumstances of the province and the highlighted scarcity of water, it has finally started to receive its due importance. But the importance of water should be highlighted furthermore. The second issue is that of hygiene. Hygiene would only come through education on water related diseases and the condition of sanitation. Special emphasis should be laid on women and hygiene education. Women play a very important role in the distribution of water in rural Sindh, they usually fetch water. Women should be made aware of all water related diseases and their implications. The third issue is that of wastage of water. Initiatives should be taken to make the general public aware of the scarcity of water in Sindh as well as Pakistan. Water saving methods, both for home and work places should be introduced. Effective usage of water should be taught in schools as well as other learning institutes. Water wastage should be minimized by means of awareness. This may well mean that water wastage is eventually considered a social crime. The education process should involve the education of farmers, especially poor farmers. New techniques, with effective water management as its main theme should be taught.
Over 300 new victims of dirty water disease; 3year-old dies of dehydration

With the death of a three-year-old boy, the toll in the waterborne epidemic outbreak in Landhi rose to nine on 18th September. More than 300 people were brought to hospitals as the disease showed no signs of abatement and the authorities seemed yet to wake up to the magnitude of the tragedy. Mustafa, 3, son of Murad, who died in Dawood Challi locality on early Sunday morning, had suffered from dehydration and died before he could be given any medical assistance. Till Saturday night, seven children had died in Dawood Challi and one death was reported in Awami Colony. According to the relatives of the deceased, all the victims had been complaining about pain in stomach. They were initially taken to private clinics. Later, their conditions deteriorated and they succumbed to the ailment. Although doctors claimed that the victims who died were not brought to any of the government healthcare facilities, the deaths were confirmed by town officials and a labour councillor, Haji M.Z. Khan. Till 18th Sep, the official figure of those reporting to hospitals reached 850. While unofficial figure was much higher, area people said, adding that more than 300 people reported to hospitals on 18th Sep only. At the town dispensary in Landhi, where an emergency camp has been set up, a total of 650 cases were brought with complaints of gripping pain, abdominal pain and vomiting with diarrhoea. At the Sindh Social Security Institution hospital, a total of 350 patients were admitted for gastroenteritis during the last two days, and more than 100 children are still under treatment at the facility. However, none of them is stated to be in serious condition. Edhi sources said that around 70 to 80 more patients were rushed to the Sindh Government Hospital, Korangi. Social workers in Dawood Challi blamed the town administration and the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board for not making proper arrangements for ensuring safe drinking water to them. They demanded replacement of obsolete water supply lines, and sought an inquiry into the matter. (C) Zaheer Ahmed Khan, Dawn-13, 19/09/2005

The awareness program should involve field trips to natural water bodies and nature walks along costal areas. Participation would increase the appreciation of important natural artefacts amongst the younger generations. The education for the preservation and conservation of water and water bodies would have beneficial results for Sindh. Conservation of water bodies would result in improving the ecology of the province and hence higher rate of ecotourism. Preservation would ensure that the people of Sindh would be better equipped to handle the scarce water situation in the region.

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10.9: HEALTH
Water is a critical component of health of all living things in terms of consumptive use and sanitation. The high pollution level of rivers and groundwater has led to different environmental consequences such as reduction of biodiversity, increase in water related diseases, and decrease in agricultural productivity. In addition, mismanagement of water resources has strong socioeconomic repercussions, especially on food security and health (SOE 2005). It is also important to note that although groundwater is still the primary source of drinking water supplies, it is estimated that 40 million residents depend on irrigation water for their domestic use, especially in areas where the groundwater is brackish. The associated health risks are grave, as bacteriological contamination of irrigation water often exceeds WHO limits for irrigation. The poor quality of drinking water has major socioeconomic consequences for Pakistan (Pak-SECA 2006). Water-related environmental health risks impose the most significant environmental health burden. The commonly encountered infectious and noninfectious waterborne diseases are diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera, helminthiasis and enteric fever. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that Pakistan and Bhutan rank second among 31 Asian countries in annual diarrhoeal episodes among young children (see Table 10.3). Exposure to waterborne diseases is an important contributing factor to infant mortality, which remains high despite improvements in demographic indicators. Table 10.3: Children <5 age with Diarrhoea in 2 weeks prior to the Surveys
Country Percentage infected Source
DHS**, 1996 MICS*, 1995 MICS*, 1997 DHS**, 1999 DHS**, 2000 DHS**, 1993

Nepal 27.5 Pakistan 26.0 Afghanistan 20.0 India 19.2 Bangladesh 6.1 Sri Lanka 5.0 * Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) **Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) six out of a total of 25 serious water related diseases are found in Sindh. (WHO 2007) Arsenicosis Diarrhoea Hepatitis (A) Lead Poisoning Malaria Typhoid

The National Conservation Strategy (NCS) indicates that about 40 per cent of deaths are related to water-borne diseases. Lack of sanitation is a major public health problem that causes disease, sickness and death. Poor farmers and wage earners are less productive due to illness. Without safe water and sanitation, sustainable development is impossible. Thus, improvements in safe water supply and in particular in hygiene and sanitation should be enacted. There is general lack of awareness about water related diseases and sanitation issues in rural Sindh as well as rural Pakistan. The prevention of water related diseases would require alternate and cost effective sanitation solutions as well as overall awareness of

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hygiene in rural as well as urban Sindh. Widespread i.e. beyond all existing initiatives, awareness campaigns are required to mitigate losses and to arrest further decline in the health of all Sindhis. Most of the water related diseases are curable and can be prevented from occurring. Initiatives should be taken to create awareness of such diseases and their remedies. Awareness should also be created amongst the masses to avoid the occurrence of water born diseases.

10.10: TOURISM
The Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources (Ramsar 1971). There is a Ramsar list of the world in which 19 sites are found in Pakistan. Of those 19 sites, 10 are found in Sindh. Mangroves cover a total of 257,500 hectares in Pakistan. Those in the Indus Delta (Sindh) are the world's sixth largest contiguous mangrove forests. The mangrove ecosystem is constantly under pressure from increased human settlement, pollution, freshwater scarcity and over- harvesting (WWF-2006) A plan for the restoration of degraded sites, re-plantation, and establishment of nurseries and an extensive programme of environmental awareness is to be initiated. The Indus for All programme has been formulated by WWF- Pakistan to implement the first five years of the fifty years Vision of Indus Ecoregion Programme. Initial financial support for this Programme has been provided by the Royal Netherlands Embassy, which also remained instrumental during the development process of the Vision. The objectives of Indus for All Programme88 are: Community-based Natural Resource Management in four priority areas (Keti Bunder, Kinjhar, Pai forest and Chotiari) contributes to improved livelihoods. The IFAP objectives: Improved natural resources and livelihood through mainstreaming of povertyenvironment linkages at policy, planning and decision-making levels; Improved institutional capacity and awareness for sustainable environmental management at various levels; Improved alignment and collaboration for stakeholder interventions;

The IFAP offers the opportunity to work on poverty, conservation and widespread awareness. The promotion of ecotourism would be beneficial for Sindh and would complement the work undertaken by WWF Pakistan and the Government of Sindh, both economically as well as environmentally. Following can be done to promote tourism: Skurfing is where the participant "skurfs" behind a boat on a surfboard Barefoot water skiing is waterskiing with no skis Boating is the use of boats Body-boarding is similar to surfing, but the board is smaller and the person (normally) lies down on the board

88

(i) Indus For All Programme: WWF - Pakistan, 2006; (ii) Indus Delta Ecoregion Conservation Plan: WWF - Pakistan, 2004 and (iii) Partnership Workshop on IFAP: WWF - Pakistan, 2005

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Canoeing Dragon Boat Racing is a team paddling sport on water Fishing is the recreation and sport of catching fish Hydroplane racing Jet sprint boat racing Kayaking Kite surfing on flat water using a kite for propulsion Motor boating Offshore powerboat racing Outrigger Canoe racing Parasailing where a person is towed behind a vehicle (usually a boat) while attached to a parachute Rafting Rowing propels a boat by means of oars Sailing using the wind for propulsion Skim-boarding involves riding, standing up, on a board down the wet sand and timing the ride to connect with a shore-breaking wave Surfing downhill on waves Splash padding: games on zero depth splash pad Tubing down a river or behind a boat Wakeboarding is similar to water skiing, but using only one board attached to the feet Wake skating is similar to wakeboarding, but the board is not attached to the feet Water skiing is using skis to slide over the water while being pulled by a boat or other device Windsurfing on flat water using wind for propulsion in combination with sails Yachting

As stated earlier, Sindh has a number of natural and man-made lakes such as Manchar, Keenjhar, Haleji etc. Integrated Eco-tourist resorts can be developed on private public partnership basis. Similarly, Sindh is bestowed with a long coast line. Little or no effort has been made as yet to develop water and sports and other recreational activities relating to the sea. Private sector will be encouraged to develop projects for this purpose, such as sea-cruises, picnic sports, boating, scuba diving and other activities.

10.11: INDUSTRY
Water is used by industry in a myriad of ways: for cleaning, heating and cooling; for generating steam; for transporting dissolved substances or particulates; as a raw material; as a solvent; and as a constituent part of the product itself (e.g. in the beverage industry). The water that evaporates in the process must also be considered in accurate assessments as well as the water that remains in the product, by-products, and the solid wastes generated along the way. The balance is discharged after use as wastewater or effluent. The total water withdrawal from surface water and groundwater by industry is usually much greater than the amount of water that is actually consumed. For operational purposes, most industries require processed water. Thus, the provision of processed water to industries is very important. There are many negative industrial impacts on the water environment. The greater concern than the actual volume of water used by industry is the negative impact of industry on the water environment. Water quality is deteriorating all over Sindh, and the marine environment is also being affected by industrial pollution. Much

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of the water used by industry is usually disposed off to drain. This can mean one of the following things: Direct disposal into a stream, canal or river, or to sea; Disposal to sewer (which may be discharged, untreated, further downstream, or may be routed to the nearest municipal sewage treatment plant); Treatment by an on-site wastewater treatment plant, before being discharged to a watercourse or sewer treatment in a series of open ponds.

There are many instances of water reclamation (treating or processing wastewater to make it reusable), where industrial effluent is not returned immediately to the natural water cycle after use. It can be recycled or reused directly on-site, either before or after treatment. The water may also be treated and then reused by other industries nearby or agricultural or municipal users, as well as for cropland irrigation or local parks and gardens. All these possibilities for water reclamation and reuse are dependent on the quality of the water used. Reclaimed water that has been treated can also help to conserve the water environment by being injected to replenish underground aquifers or prevent salt-water intrusion or by being discharged into a drought-stricken wetland. Major concerns are the situations in which the industrial discharge is returned directly into the water cycle without adequate treatment. If the water is contaminated with heavy metals, chemicals or particulates, or loaded with organic matter, this obviously affects the quality of the receiving water body or aquifer. It is paramount to ensure that disposal of industrial wastewater is dealt with by considering cleaner production practices and cleaner technology solutions in mind. The example is of the Combined Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) in Korangi which is owned and operated by the Environmental Society of the Pakistan Tanners Association-Southern Zone. Numerous evaluators have rated this Plant as the only project in Pakistan that is completed within budget in spite of escalations in the cost of raw materials over the last five years89. The CETP also serves as a replicable example of Public-Private Partnerships. The Plant is designed to keep the effluent of 170 tanneries operating in sectors 7-A and 15 in the Korangi industrial area. More CETPs are needed in all the industrial areas of Sindh such as Korangi SITE Karachi, Landhi, North Karachi, F.B. Area, Kotri, Sukkur etc.

10.12: ENERGY
There are different kinds of renewable energy sources using water which include; Ocean based - Ocean energy sources include, wave energy, tidal energy and thermal energy, or River based-River sources and Canals are primarily hydroelectric schemes of varying sizes, many of them associated with irrigation or flood mitigation schemes, such as dams, water turbines etc Construction of large dams is a heavily debated issue in Pakistan. The following are a few general advantages/ disadvantages of dams.

89

RNE External Monitoring & Evaluation Reports 2006; PTA-SZ Environmental Society Archives 2006

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Advantages: General Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free; No waste or pollution produced; Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power; Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with peaks in demand; Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, unlike other power stations; Electricity can be generated constantly;

Disadvantages: Sindh Building a large dam will flood a very large area upstream and dry a lot of area downstream, causing problems for people and animals that used to live there; Finding a suitable site can be difficult - the impact on residents and the environment may be unacceptable; Water quality and quantity downstream can be affected, which can have an impact on human as well as plant life; Capital costs are high.

Instead of constructing large dams attention should be paid to the construction of small hydel projects and water turbines (run of the river or canal) for generation of energy using water.

10.13: INFRASTRUCTURE
Pakistan has the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world. Sindh being mostly in the arid zone heavily relies on the irrigation system. As a result of lack of proper maintenance of the system, the whole canal system has started to crumble. Large amount of water is lost due to the deteriorating canal system. The process of lining of canals should be implemented to avoid further loss of water. Gypsum could be used for the lining. Reservoirs (small dams, ponds and tanks), in order to combat the fluctuations of water supply, should be built. Drainage/ sewers are one of the main problems related to water in Sindh as well as the rest of Pakistan. Sewerage infrastructure in older and marginal neighbourhoods is poorly designed and corroded, and the result is occasionally the mixing of raw sewage and drinking water. Groundwater from shallow wells contains bacterial and chemical impurities, as does stream or river water used for washing. Disease-causing pathogenic substances that are dumped close to water sources seep into the ground and find their way into the water supply. Proper drainage systems need to be constructed. Poor drainage leads to many problems, which include health and environment. Treatment and cleaning systems should be introduced in order to be more effective in water usage. Conclusive studies on the processes of the reuse of process water should be conducted and the results should be implemented.

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10.14: ENVIRONMENT90
Water has a direct impact on the environment!

10.14.1: DEFORESTATION AND DESERTIFICATION Riverine forests along the River Indus are threatened due to reduced flow in the Indus, as the river water is the only source of regeneration and growth of these forests. Due to upstream water diversion and storage the intensity of floods has been adversely affected. The deforestation followed by soil degradation, salinity, and erosion will then lead to desertification rendering once fertile lands to barren deserts.

10.14.2: MANGROVE FOREST DESTRUCTION Mangrove forests in the Indus Delta spread over 650,000 acres and are the sixth largest in the world. The water, nutrients and silt deposited by the Indus when it discharges into the sea, sustains the mangroves. These forests form an important component of the coastal ecosystem. The mangroves act as windbreakers and prevent storms from reaching inland. They also are a major breeding area for shrimps and crabs. Mangrove forests play a significant role in development of the fish that is caught near the Sindh coast. The delta is an important flyover for migratory birds. During the winter, millions of waterfowl, including pelicans and flamingos, stop over in the delta for feeding and breeding. Due to dams and water diversion upstream, the water outflow has been reduced significantly. If water is not allowed to flow in sufficient quantity below Kotri barrage for most of the year, as is the practice now, the mangrove
90

Profile: Indus Delta Ecoregion Wildlife: Endangered mammal species - Indus Dolphin; Regionally endemic and endangered fish species; Palla, Mahasheer; Globally threatened reptile species; Olive Ridley Turtles, Gavial Flyway route for migratory birds: provides habitat to about 161 species of water birds More than 200 freshwater invertebrate species identified in IDER Forests: Riverine: Estimated at 43% of Sindhs forested area; Extent 138, 000 hectares Mangroves: 97% of Pakistans mangroves; largest arid zone mangrove system in the world Contains 4 species of mangroves; Extent estimated at 70,000 hectares Macro Economic Context (direct): Fishing: In 1998, export of fish and fishery products valued at US$120 million; Employs about 700,000 people directly and indirectly; Agriculture: IDER produces wheat, cotton, sugar cane, rice, lentils; Agriculture sector major occupation in rural areas Industrial activity: Karachi an industrial hub SITE, KITE; Karachi handles about 65% of Pakistans total imports and exports (KPT) Socio-Economic Context Sindhs 16 million people live in rural areas Low level of rural infrastructure development (gas supply 3% population; inside supply of water - 57%; sanitation 45%) Poor human development indicators (literacy rate- 26 % (overall) Men 37%, Women 12%; health Only 90 of Pakistans 530 rural health centres) Intensive concentration of poor people in coastal areas leads to Intensive use of natural resources by the rural poor for livelihoods and subsistence use "Forever Indus"; WWF-Pakistan; 2005 courtesy Dr. Ejaz Ahmed, Deputy Director General

This section is based on the work of Altaf A. Memon, PhD, An Overview of the History and Impacts of the Water Issues in Pakistan, Nov 2002 The World Sindhi Institute, Washington D.C.

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forests will be devastated due to loss of nutrients and silt from the fresh water outflow, increase of salinity in the soil-pore water due to seawater, and rising sea levels. The human population in and around mangrove forests is estimated at 1.2 million people, of which 0.9 million reside in the Indus Delta (Ashraf 2002 WWF Pak/IUCN May 2003), and about 135,000 people depend on the mangroves resources for livelihood (Shah 1998). The annual value of catch from mangrove-dependent fish species is estimated at US$20 million, shrimps, particularly important, have a domestic value of US$70 million. Reduced freshwater flows and consequent ecosystem degradation had a negative effect on livelihoods, namely; a steady decline in crop and fish production with an increase in salinity, and (from a case study) approximately 300,000 households have lost about $70,000 in crop damage and $45,000 from decreased fish catch (SCEA 2005). The change in mangrove forest cover was analysed by WWF-Pakistan and is reported in the Forever Indus technical paper91 The analysis was based on Landsat images92 for the years 1992 and 2000. The statistics summarised in Table 10.4 (reproduced from the stated publication) show a 21.4% decline in dense mangrove areas. The recently published Sindh State of Environment and Development report includes data on the mangroves based on analysis of satellite images from 1977 and 1990. Table 2 on page 350 of this report93 shows a 29% increase in dense mangrove area in the period 19771990. However, since the methodology of analysis and image coverage is not specified it is difficult to undertake a comparative analysis. One is more inclined to rely on the WWFPakistan data judging from the depth of the analysis presented by Ashraf et. Al. Table 10.4: Mangrove forest extent change 1992-2000
Feature Class Water Mangrove, sparse Mangrove, dense Land, Mud flats Land, dry/saline Area (ha) 1992 211,946 65,536 8,354 210,609 83,114 Area (ha) 2000 217,797 66,119 6,882 212,950 76,064 %age difference 2.69 0.88 -21.39 1.10 -9.27

10.14.3: COASTAL LAND LOST Due to continuous increase in the Indus withdrawals in upstream; the outflow to sea has reduced to a great deal. Consequently, the costal ecosystem has been damaged. The degeneration of the natural resources has deteriorated human settlements compelling people of the coast to migrate to other areas in search of water and food. The coastal environment has changed over time, partly as a result of the massive takeoff from the Indus River for irrigation and extensive pollution from domestic and industrial waste, particularly around the Karachi area. Most striking is the reduction in the mangrove forests, which has adversely affected fish and shellfish nurseries. Construction of barrages has reduced the size of fish catches and reduced
91 92

Ashraf et. al.; Mapping change in Mangrove Forest Extent (Dec 2002) Landsat-5 TM of April 1992 and Landsat-7 ETM of November 2000 appropriately aligned using internationally acceptable techniques and models. 93 Mangrove species in Pakistan and their depletion; Table 2: Difference is Mangrove Cover estimated from satellite interpretation in 1977 and 1990 Sindh State of Environment and Development; IUCN 2005

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the sediment load reaching the ocean, causing coastal erosion. For the most part, marine and coastal zone pollution in Pakistan is limited to Karachi, a city of 14 million people that accounts for about 45 percent of the countrys industry. All of Karachis industrial waste, effluents, and domestic sewage, and all of the agricultural run-off from the hinterland and the Indus River find their way, untreated, into the sea. Oil pollution is also a problem; of the 4 million tons of oil imported in 1986, 20,000 tons were believed to have leaked into coastal waters (SCEA 2005). 10.14.4: INDUS WATER POLLUTION With the reduced flows in the River Indus, its natural assimilative capacity diminishes. It receives raw sewage, untreated industrial wastewater, and irrigation returns from the communities spread along the riverbanks. With population growth and reduced water flows, prospects for Indus to remain unpolluted are quite slim. Levels of oxygen are depleting organic contaminants from sewage, toxic compounds from industrial discharges, and pesticides from irrigation returns are increasing in the Indus. Signs of this have already been observed. Water borne diseases are on the rise. Many fish and other aquatic species have declined in number and diversity. If the situation is not reversed further water degradation will occur and impact on the aquatic life, public health, and other uses of water will be very significant. 10.14.5: LAKES AND WETLANDS IN DANGER Sindh is home to many natural lakes. Manchar, Kinjhar, Haleji, Hadero, Chotiari, and many more small lakes are spread all over Sindh. Most of these are fed by the Indus. The Haleji Lake has also been declared a bird sanctuary. These lakes and wetlands are being degraded at an alarming rate in the Lower Indus Basin. The lakes in Sindh are an important source of the fish species and edible plants that grow in them and provide employment for many people living around these lakes. Also, these bodies of water are host to many species of birds, flora, and fauna. With the destruction of these lakes and wetlands, many economic and aesthetic benefits drawn from them will be lost. Some of these lakes and wetlands have already shown signs of being polluted. Manchar, the largest lake in Sindh, has become a dumping ground for discharge from salinity outfalls originating in upstream. The Manchar ecosystem has thus begun to be destroyed. Fish and bird species of Manchar have not only reduced in numbers but also in diversity. IUCN reports (May 2003) critical conditions of the Deltas ecosystems and associated decline in the rural economy. Losses to wetlands are estimates based on various studies, but accurate and more recent data is unavailable. The recent Indus Delta Eco-Region (IDER) rehab programme formulation studies may produce usable data to calculate economic values in line with WWF Malaysias methodology (Environmental Economics; WWF-Malaysia). The data on lakes is also sketchy and at best in the form of specific studies which may or may not be representative of the region. According to IUCN, a number of mitigation and management plans were initiated since 1995 but specific data on the implementation status, outputs and outcomes are not yet available. 10.14.6: RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES AT RISK The Indus Blind Dolphin or Bullahan, rare species, was once present throughout the entire Indus river system and numbers were in hundreds of thousands. The numbers of the Indus Blind Dolphin have dwindled from 500 in 1993 less than 200 in a short stretch of the Indus between Sukkur and Gudu barrages.

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Shad or Pallo fish, Barramundi fish, Dangri fish, and shrimps are threatened to become extinct due to lack of water outflow to the sea and destruction of the mangrove forests. Although detailed inventories have not been drawn up, Pakistans ecosystems, ranging from semiarid to coastal, marine, forest, and mountain, supports a great wealth of flora and fauna. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN 1996) lists as threatened species 124 animal species present in Pakistan: 65 mammal, 45 bird, 11 reptile, 2 fish, and 1 insect species. The 2004 Red List shows that 2 plant species and 46 animal species are on the extreme vulnerability list.

10.15: VISION STATEMENT; SINDH WATER VISION 2030


Adapting the NWP Vision into the Sindh context we believe that by 2030, Sindh must have adequate water available through effective conservation, quality management, and proper distribution that meets the needs of all water users. In this context we will undertake interventions that create and foster efficient management, institutional development, and environmental considerations with due legal coverage and internalisation. In this manner we aspire to ensure sustainable utilization of the water resources and support economic and social development with due consideration to the environment, quality of life, economic value of resources, ability to pay and participation of all stakeholders.

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11.1: OVERVIEW
Infrastructure is generally a set of interconnected structural elements that provide the framework supporting an entire structure. The term has diverse meanings in different fields, but is perhaps most widely understood to refer to roads, airports, seaports and utilities. In other applications, infrastructure may refer to information technology, informal and formal channels of communication, software development tools, political and social networks, or shared beliefs held by members of particular groups. Still underlying these more general uses is the concept that infrastructure provides organizing structure and support for the system or organization it serves at all levels. A comprehension of infrastructure spans not only these public works facilities, but also the operating procedures, management practices, and development policies that interact together with societal demand and the physical world to facilitate the transport of people and goods, provision of water for drinking and a variety of other uses, safe disposal of society's waste products, provision of energy where it is needed, and transmission of information within and between communities. In subsequent years the word has grown in popularity and been applied with increasing generality to suggest the internal framework discernible in any technology system or business organization. The term critical infrastructure has been widely adopted to distinguish those infrastructure elements that, if significantly damaged or destroyed, would cause serious disruption of the dependent system or organization. Storm or earthquake damage leading to loss of certain transportation routes in a city (for example, bridges crossing a river), could make it impossible for people to evacuate and for emergency services to operate; these routes would be deemed critical infrastructure. Similarly, an on-line reservations system might be critical infrastructure for an airline. Rural infrastructure differs from urban infrastructure in the amount of public investment per unit of geographical area. In general, public investment in infrastructure tends to parallel the number of households in a geographical area. The funding of rural infrastructure is most often limited by the depth of the public revenue base in the area, which is often dependent on the presence or absence of industrial plants, other corporate employment nodes or community commerce. Although some publicly controlled assets critical to human survival exist in rural areas, utilities and transport tend to be much less extensive and thus less convenient or entirely unavailable to much of the general populace. Rural areas usually do not have extensive pipeline systems for distribution of potable water; inhabitants rely on nature's services for drinking, cooking and bathing water drawn from private wells or from streams, ponds and lakes. Private infrastructural capital such as dams, canals or irrigation ditches may be utilized for water diversion and supply. Sindh Vision 2030 will cover and foresee the infrastructure in Sindh with reference to Information Technology, Transport and Road Sector, City Planning, Administrative Infrastructure to improve the service delivery by the social sector departments of the governance. While federal institutions provide major players of physical infrastructure like power, telecommunication, highways and transport etc. The provincial government can play an important role in provision of urban and rural infrastructure like water & sewerage, urban, rural and intercity transport systems. Provincial government would develop a frame work in which the private sector can provide the infrastructure at

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a reasonable price and quality would be one of the corner stone areas of future development. The modus operandi in the matter should be determined keeping in view ground realities like lack of responsibility/ accountability/ transparency/ governance/ clear role and duties of executing agencies at provincial/ district/ TMAs levels, and political intervention, poverty etc.

11.2: EFFECTIVE GOVERNANCE


All over Sindh there are infrastructure development projects in various stages of implementation managed either through the Government of Sindh directly or through the District administration. Such projects include road construction, water course improvements, regularization of Kachi Abadis and repair and renovation of drainage and sewerage systems. It is imperative that all projects are completed as planned and with in budget. With reference to Mega projects in Karachi the aim will be to judiciously rehabilitate affected communities and to empower such communities with alternate livelihood options where ever applicable. The Karachi Mega Projects and the Karachi City Master Plan need to enhance the planning and designing process and to engage civil society organizations to facilitate the concerns of citizens with respect to protecting heritage, environment and existing ascetics of the city. During consultations in the interior Sindh it has been pointed out that similar town planning processes need to be initiated particularly for the cities of Hyderabad, Sukkar, Nawabshah, Larkana. This intervention will require comprehensive service to be undertaken for all these cities possibly through the existing ADB Mega City portfolio. Kachi Abadis all over Sindh particularly in the above mentioned cities need proactive attention as a opposed to the traditional response to the voice of the people living in such areas. All such Abadis will require detailed land utilisation surveys and demographic profiling before any restructuring and renovations are possible. We in Sindh need to identify land banks near all the cities and develop intermediate cities on the National Highways as well as on the Motorways. Such as Gharo, Jhimpere, Dhabage, Hala, Dadu, Moro, Sanghar etc. These smaller cities would be self contained and will benefit from all experiences of private public partnership and latest technology for waste water treatment, solid waste management, health care, education, community living, quality of life, etc. Suggestions are made to fill the housing gap. Some suggestions are as follows: Construction of low income housing Regularisation of Kutchi Abadi's High-rise mass housing construction Availability of developed land with more small sized plots Enhanced supply of long-term fixed interest rate financing options Increased community participation in housing and service delivery Affordable credit for rural housing for landless poor Develop satellite towns all along the motorways and national highways for reducing pressure on large cities.

It is to point out that the structure plans were prepared for 17 cities of Sindh Province including Hyderabad, Sukkur, Nawabshah, and Larkana. Therefore, there is a need to

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update these plans by respective district governments for undertaking the development activities accordingly.

11.3: WOMEN CHILDREN AND OUR YOUTH


Facilities for women include the establishing crisis centres and rehabilitation centres in all districts. A network of such centres would then be fostered to enable improved sharing and reporting of incidences and for the uniform approach to dealing with an otherwise difficult issue. Customised care would then be delivered based on a revolving team of specialists. The network will enable better sharing of information for policy improvements and for related law enforcement. Day Care centres are required to empower young mothers to appropriately fulfil their employment obligations. Hardly any day care centres are found in any of the government and/or district administrative setups. The same applies to the private sector establishments. A survey of working mother will be organised to design and implement an appropriate network of day care centres. The civil society organisations will be included in the survey to facilitate accurate data collection. UNICEF and other such organisation that cater to development funding and programming will be approached for funds and to monitor the development process. Youth centres, other than the standard game or recreational centres will be established to cater to all types and ages of our youth, including the street children of all urban areas. Youth centres in rural areas will be set up equipped with basic education facilities and Information Technology laboratories to ensure that the rural youth have access to learning opportunities that eventually allow our rural youth to come at par with the urbanised youth of Sindh. Linking the youth centres to the TTCs and the VTCs operating in Sindh will also be undertaken. The network will be established at the onset with the objective of self sustainability that is powered through the private sector labour market.

11.4: WATER
Water related infrastructure in Sindh needs substantial investments and proactive interventions. These relate to development of small reservoirs for storage of rain water, improvement of the decaying irrigation network, better utilisation of Indus River for transport purposes, establishing water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, industrial effluent treatment plants etc. There is a need to analyze the institutional setup of providing water supply and sanitation facilities to determine its deficiencies and give recommendations for improvements at provincial, district and TMA levels in achieving the realistic targets for SV2030. The following paragraphs briefly discuss some of the above needs.

11.4.1: INLAND WATER TRANSPORT The Indus River is used only marginally for transport of passengers and cargo. Definite potential exists in developing water transport using the Indus River. For this purpose berths, piers, jetties and wharfs need to be developed along the Indus

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at various places like Guddu, Ghotki, Sukkur, Kot Mir Muhammad, Wehar, Mithiani, Sehwan, Qabbar, Budhapur, Kotri and Thatta etc. facilities need to be developed for handling cargo as well as passengers. Godowns, depots, oil/diesel refuelling stations will also need to be developed along with maintenance and repair facilities for River Craft. Detail studies need to be undertaken urgently to evaluate the technical facilities/requirements for developing working water transport system. Locks and other transfer mechanism may need to be developed at barrages such as Sukkur and Kotri etc. A company needs to be promoted on a private public partnership basis for developing and implementing a comprehensive water transport system. The benefits of such a system would result in reduction of transportation costs as water transport is always cheaper than road and rail transport. It will also reduce pressure on the existing road and rail network. A number of new businesses will be created along with thousands of productive jobs. By 2030 we should target that nearly 20% to 25% of all regional cargo and inter-city passenger traffic (small towns and villages) will be handled through water transport.

11.4.2: DESALINISATION PLANTS In the context of water, we would like to include the need to explore the full potential of potable water through desalination along the entire coast of Pakistan interfaced through Balochistan and Sindh.

11.4.3: CONSERVATION OF WATER THROUGH EFFICIENT DELIVERY SYSTEMS A target for SV2030 is to provide water and sanitation to the entire population of the province. As we are already facing a shortage of water, the strategy shall be devised for conservation of water, increasing the storage capacity of water and to provide clean water through the implementation of water treatment plants in the coastal areas. This however ambitious vision will require a holistically designed infrastructure and of course necessary funding. Sindh has large deposits of Gypsum which should be used for pitching and lining canals as well as for lining of Howdies for tube well water. The lining of the canal beds may be investigated further to determine the merits and demerits of lining versus groundwater recharge.

11.4.4: WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Except a few sewerage treatment plants in Karachi (which also treat a small quantity of water), no other city in Sindh has any sewerage treatment plant. As a consequence raw sewage, both domestic and industrial is being discharged directly into water bodies. Besides the CETP in Korangi, there is no industrial effluent treatment plant in Sindh. Sindh Vision 2030 envisages setting-up of domestic waste water treatment and recycling plants in all urban centres along with effluent treatment and recycling plants for all industrial estates and clusters.

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11.5: AGRICULTURE
The Vision-2030 needs to have application of science and technology and management of natural resources and management of global challenges e.g. globalisation, biotechnology and climate change The chapter on agriculture, livestock and land in the Vision 2030 document is comprehensive, and in many ways reflects upon the effort exerted in its careful preparation. The vision on agriculture (in its entirety) is adventurous as it should be. We are sure that the proposed strategies are based on sound experience and fact. However, commercializing rural agriculture that is already prone to fragmentation is summarized in the solution path Commercialize agriculture>> Increase production >> Feed the growing population. Agreed! However, we feel that the document, even at this stage of inception, must also include strategies and highlight their importance to mitigate the negative impact of increasing production.

11.6: EDUCATION
The Sindh Vision 2030 distinguishes between past practices and the thorough attention required for effective governance to ensure and enhance the qualitative and quantitative indicators of service delivery by public sector organization. The most important goal under the Sindh Vision 2030 for infrastructure development in the education sector is to bring at par all rural and urban centres of learning. This primarily includes upgrading all existing rural schools to the basic global standard for local community schools and connecting these schools into a school network of the type demonstrated by the Pakistan Teacher Association Network (a CIDA and AKES funded initiative). Upgrading existing rural and peri-urban schools involves properly constructed buildings, boundary walls, new classrooms, libraries, playgrounds, water and sanitation and many such other requirements that a quality school should have. Improved infrastructure, such as boundary walls and sanitation, will ensure an increase in the overall enrolment as well as enrolment of girl students by providing a more secure environment. The network between schools would be established using latest Information Technology of the type demonstrated in CISCOs latest pilot project in nine villages in Punjab on effective governance through connectivity and education. Establishing such a network will require appropriate infrastructure, trained permanent staff and appropriate linkage facilities through the service providers. CISCO will be approached to roll a similar pilot project in Sindh for at least four districts; two of the weakest and two of the more empowered districts. The same model can be duplicated to link up with the Allama Iqbal Open University to launch an education programme for all mothers regardless of their location. Under this Mother as the best Teacher Program, possibly nested under the EFA Programme, priority will be given to mothers in the rural areas to begin with. The aim is to establish a system, complete with all basic infrastructure requirements, of a mobile class rooms and a dynamic curriculum to accommodate for customisations in starting capabilities of the beneficiary mothers. In this context this infrastructure

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component is closely linked to the renovation and/or construction of access roads across all rural areas.

11.7: HERITAGE, CULTURE & TOURISM


Requirements under this topic shall emanate from the related section on heritage, culture and tourism in the Chapter on Employment and Access to Opportunities. The prime objective in this context will be to preserve all heritage assets, to provide access to sites and to establish display centres for culturally rich products and handicraft at the district level.

11.8: INDUSTRY
The participants of the consultative workshops strongly emphasized the need to ensure an environment for the future generations of Sindh which if not significantly better than that which is available now would not be worse off. Participants fully agreed that the economic growth of Sindh depended on its rapid industrialization; however they were vocal in expressing their views on promoting those industries which are not naturally classified as dirty industries. The underlying theme was environmentally sustainable levels of pollution. The specific steps that the Government of Sindh can take to ensure this sustainable level of pollution goal included: o A sudden crack down on environmental pollution can lead to large scale disruption in industrial activity. This will lead to large scale unemployment and hurt the communities which are supposed to benefit the most. It was therefore suggested that the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) start by working with individual polluting units, to help them identify what needs to be done to reduce their pollution impact. In the second stage, the SEPA to ensure that the EPA standards are complied with. Industry and consumers must be made to realize that there is cost for polluting the environment and that they have to bear it. The participants felt that once consumers and industry was made to bear the cost of pollution, the older units and their processes would be replaced by newer units and production processes which were more environment friendly. Civil society needs to be made more aware of the harmful impact of environmental pollution. It was recommended that the Government launch a media campaign highlighting the impact of various forms of pollution on the lives of the citizens of Sindh. Polluting industrial units need to be moved out from residential areas to industrial zones. Land can be provided at subsidized rates for these relocated units. Every effort must be made to ensure that these units do return to their old locations. As different units discharge different waste into the environment, one strategy for pollution control suggested was industrial clusters. Having a particular industry discharge its waste (especially water) in one drain makes it possible to reduce cost of treating the water. Industry, especially the water based industry must be helped to reduce its water consumption. This reduction can be achieved through process

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changes or through usage of recycled water. Participants were of the opinion that certain industries were doing water mining and this cannot go on for ever. Civil Society needs to be made a part of the Environment Impact Studies conducted by the EPA. Civil Society by and large has not been able to advocate its case in a forceful manner. The participants were of the opinion that the Sindh Government should approach the Federal Government for compensation for damage caused to Sindhs water resources by the dumping of toxic effluents upstream in the river Indus. The participants were of the opinion that the Sindh Government should consolidate all the data that it has on the different environmental studies that have been conducted in the Province it so that it can be accessed by the stakeholders. Some of the participants were concerned about the damage that will be caused by the setting up of coal fired power generation plants in Thar. They were vocal in insisting that the Sindh EPA should be involved in the Environmental Impact Analysis of the power plants.

11.9: ENERGY
With reference to alternate energy resources, we take pride in stating that the Government of Sindh will pay careful attention to this aspect in the Sindh Vision 2030. Continuous wind corridors in lower Sindh enable us to tap into wind energy through both wind farms at an industrial supply level and through a self-sustainable farm-to-farm approach. Since Sindh is most affected by any development on hydropower we would like to include four key goals from our recently launched Indus for All Programme. Any changes to the ecosystems of the river Indus affect a huge number of marginalized and deprived communities. Imbalance of the ecosystem also disrupts the process of arresting irrecoverable damage to the coastal belt and all the economies associated with it. The following points need to be paid special attention keeping in view the position of Sindh: Pakistan will face energy shortages. Thar coal needs to be given top priority for generation of electricity as well as for coal gasification. Sindh needs to take control of its energy resources in terms of generation, transmission and distribution. An adequate arrangement for the Sindh government to collect royalty also needs to be put in place. Besides wind energy, solar thermal energy needs to be given high priority because of this endowment being available to Sindh. Electricity generation through solar thermal means needs to be actively promoted. Similarly tidal energy also needs to be given high priority. Either an independent alternate energy development body needs to be developed in Sindh or the AEDB needs to be asked to establish a strong regional presence in Sindh.

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11.9.1: SINDH AND THE ENERGY CRISIS94 Pakistans GDP growth rate averaged approximately 6.7% from fiscal year (FY) 2003 to FY2006, making it the fastest growing economy in South Asia after India.95 Annual energy consumption in FY2005 was estimated at 14.6 million tons of petroleum products, 1.16 million cubic feet (mmcft) of natural gas, over 61,000 gigawatt hours (GWh) of electricity, and 6.6 million metric tons of coal. The average annual growth in energy consumption over the last ten years (from FY1996 to FY2005) was 0.9% for petroleum products, 7.9% for natural gas, 4.6% for electricity and 9.1% for coal.96 The composition of total energy consumption has changed over the last decade, with natural gas gradually replacing petroleum products as the fuel of choice in the manufacturing sector. This shift has become pronounced since FY2002, as more indigenous gas fields have gone into production and the international prices of petroleum products have steadily increased.97 The experience of the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the country faced severe shortfalls in supply of electricity, prompted the government to follow an aggressive policy of attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the energy sector. From FY1994 to FY2004, FDI inflows into Pakistan averaged about $600 million a year, and 42% of these flows went to the energy sector. The last two years have witnessed a substantial increase in FDI flows into the country. FDI increased from $1,524 million in FY2005 to $3,020 million in FY2006 the highest inflow into Pakistan to date.98 Investments in the energy sector alone amounted to $304 million in FY2006.99 In the 1980s, Pakistan was meeting 86% of its energy needs from indigenous sources.100 This proportion dropped to 53% by the year 2000 as the economy grew, and growth in indigenous production remained slow. In the last five years, however, growth in indigenous production of natural gas in particular has been significant, as new discoveries have come on line. In FY2004, the supply of natural gas increased by 21.2%, while in FY2005, the increase was 11.8%.101 However, if the rate of GDP growth remains on trajectory, the country is again expected to face supply shortages, which are expected to intensify by 2010. Energy demand and supply projections, based on current trends, show a supply shortfall of 31% by the year 2020, with energy demand projected at 150 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE), and energy supply from indigenous sources projected at 103 MTOE.102 The impact of the projected shortfall is likely to manifest itself most significantly in the power sector. The total installed generation capacity in the country is 19,439 mega Watts (MW).103 However, generation capacity has to keep
This section is based on the inputs from Hussain Tawawalla based on the contributions of Ele Jan Saaf, Kazi Abdul Majeed and Mohibullah Shah 95 The fiscal year in Pakistan runs from July 1 to June 30. The notation FY2006 refers to the fiscal year ending on 30 June 2006. The quoted growth rate has been calculated from the Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-06. 96 All data on energy consumption (unless stated otherwise) is from: Government of Pakistan, Economic Advisors Wing, Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-06, Chapter 15: Energy, Table 15.1. 97 In 2005, the per unit cost of petroleum products was, on average, 1.8 times the per unit cost of natural gas. Data from State Bank of Pakistan, Second Quarterly Report 2005-06, Special Section 2, Dynamics of Energy Consumption. 98 From: Board of Investment, Foreign Direct Investment (Month Wise), www.pakboi.gov.pk. 99 From: Government of Pakistan, Economic Advisors Wing, Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-06, Chapter 1: Overview 100 From: State Bank of Pakistan, Second Quarterly Report 2005-06, Special Section 2, Dynamics of Energy Consumption. 101 From: Government of Pakistan, Economic Advisors Wing, Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-06, Chapter 15: Energy, Table 15.9. 102 From: State Bank of Pakistan, Second Quarterly Report 2005-06, Special Section 2, Dynamics of Energy Consumption. 103 From: Government of Pakistan, Economic Advisors Wing, Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-06, Chapter 15: Energy, Table 15.14.
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increasing commensurate with the rate of GDP growth to meet the demands arising from the rapid pace of urbanization, and the Governments policy of speeding up village electrification programs to achieve universal electrification by 2007.

11.9.2: THE CASE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY Pakistans energy needs are expected to keep increasing in the medium to long term, and the government is committed to facilitate access to affordable, reliable, and environmentally friendly sources of energy for all its citizens. The diversity of terrain in the country, high incidence of poverty particularly in remote communities, and the need to control the rate of environmental degradation make it necessary to explore the potential for the use of renewable energy in the country. The intensification of the debate on global climate change has also served to spark interest in the development of renewable energy sources in the developing world. As aid agencies, multilateral development finance institutions and international NGOs gear up to promote commercially viable alternative energy sources in Pakistan, the government has responded by putting in place a comprehensive institutional, policy, and legislative framework to support renewable energy development. This is discussed in greater detail, and in the context of specific renewable energy sources, in this paper.

11.9.3: INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK Pakistan has nominally had an institutional framework in place to deal with renewable energy issues since the mid 1970s. The Pakistan Council for Appropriate Technology (PCAT) was established in 1975 and was given the mandate to carry out research on, and implement projects relating to the use of biogas, mini-hydels and small wind energy systems. Similarly, the National Institute of Silicon Technology (NIST), established in 1981, was responsible for research on, and commercialization of solar energy. Both institutions remained largely ineffective though, and could not fulfill their mandates due to the scarcity of both financial and technical resources and trained personnel. PCAT, did, however, oversee the design and operation of a little over 200 mini-hydel systems in the Northern Areas and the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). In May 2001, the two institutions were restructured and merged to form the Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technology (PCRET). PCRET functions as a department of the Ministry of Science and Technology, and was entrusted with the responsibility of preparing a policy on renewable energy for the government, in addition to carrying out research and development activities. This shift was evidence of the growing realization in the government and among its development partners, that the scarce technical resources in the country should be channeled mainly towards facilitating the use of available off the shelf technology. PCRETs expertise, however, like the expertise of its two ancestral organizations, lies primarily in design and development of renewable energy systems, primarily mini-hydels and biogas systems. As the need for an adequate policy framework became more pressing, the government responded by establishing the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) in June 2003. The AEDB was designated as the central national body on renewable energy in the country.104 In addition to the preparation of a policy on the development of renewable energy, the Board also has responsibility for coordinating with international renewable energy service providers and technology experts, and facilitating the transfer
104

From: Website of the AEDB, www.aedb.org

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of appropriate technology to Pakistan. In February 2006, the Board completed the first draft of a policy for development of renewable energy in Pakistan. Dealing with renewable energy issues is the prime mandate for PCRET and AEDB. In addition, some institutions whose prime responsibilities relate to energy and/or the environment also carry out functions related to renewable energy. The Ministry of Environment is responsible for implementation of the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), which includes a sub-program on Energy Conservation and Renewables.105 The component on renewables seeks to promote the use of renewable energy technology at a wider scale. The Private Power Infrastructure Board (PPIB) was set up in 1994 to facilitate private sector investment in the power sector. The Board acts as a one-window facility for investors, and is responsible for negotiating implementation, power purchase, and fuel supply agreements; assisting the regulatory authority in determination of tariffs, and providing performance and other guarantees to private investors on behalf of the public sector agencies responsible for power purchase and transmission. The draft policy on renewable energy prepared by the AEDB stipulates that the PPIB will be responsible for negotiating with private investors regarding renewable energy projects with capacities of 50 MW and above. The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) was established in 1997 to ensure that the interests of consumers and producers in the power sector are safeguarded. The Authority is responsible for approving tariffs; and issuing generation, transmission and distribution licenses. The Authority has not as yet dealt with renewable energy suppliers, but is expected to do so as the renewable energy sector attains maturity. The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), a department of the federal Ministry of Water and Power, is the prime public sector utility in Pakistan responsible for development of water resources and for power generation, transmission and distribution. The power sector is in the process of being restructured, and thermal power generation, which constitutes 60% of the total power generated, is now largely in the hands of Independent Power Producers (IPPs). Distribution functions are also in the process of being unbundled. However, WAPDA is still the sole agency responsible for power transmission. WAPDAs experience in renewable energy development is largely confined to the operation of mini and micro hydel projects.

11.9.4: POLICY FRAMEWORK The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS), approved by the Federal Cabinet in 1992, was the countrys first comprehensive report on the state of the environment, and quickly assumed the role of a de facto policy. The PNCS identified fourteen core areas for implementation of policy, one of which was Developing and Deploying Renewables. Four projects, one each relating to the development of minihydels, and the use of wind and solar energy in irrigation systems; and two relating to the promotion of biogas technology were proposed as part of the implementation plan of the PNCS. However, project implementation remained weak because of technical and resource constraints in the public sector. By the mid 1990s, there was a growing realization that the development of the renewables sector merits the formulation of a specialized policy, which would aim to integrate renewable sources of energy into conventional transmission and distribution
105

From: Website of the Ministry of Environment, www.pakistan.gov.pk/environment.

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systems wherever possible, while ensuring that their unique features are accounted for. Initially PCRET was given the task of preparing a policy for development of renewables, but when progress remained slow, the task was given over to the AEDB. The draft Policy for Development of Renewable Energy in Pakistan was prepared in February 2006, and is currently being debated by key stakeholders. The draft Policy identifies four strategic objectives for developing renewable energy resources in Pakistan, including energy security (insofar as the use of renewables would diversify the countrys energy mix); economic benefits (reduction of dependence on imported petroleum products); social equity (renewable energy can be deployed in remote locations, thus reaching marginalized communities, and has low operating costs, which make the use of such systems suitable for low income consumers); and environmental protection. The policy is designed to be implemented in three distinct phases. The first phase will be devoted to the definition of a strategic approach and regulatory and institutional requirements, as well as capacity building in key institutions and the deployment of demonstration projects. The second phase will cover further deployment of schemes, in addition to market facilitation and financing, while the third or long term phase will deal with implementation of market based pricing options. The Policy defines the institutional framework covering renewable energy in some detail, and specifies guidelines for preparation of power purchase agreements, and tariff determination. It also specifies the nature of the required institutional and legal consents, and outlines the proposed special incentives and guarantees to be provided to private sector renewable energy operators. While the policies discussed above deal specifically with renewable energy, renewables are also assuming greater prominence in power sector policies in general. WAPDAs long term policy vision for the country is encapsulated in the Vision 2025 plan, which envisages an addition of about 35,000 MW of installed capacity in the country by 2025, 4% of which (or 1500 MW) is to come from renewable energy sources, mainly mini hydel plants.106

11.9.5: SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Hydropower: Pakistan has significant estimated hydropower potential at about 41,000 MW. Of this, about 36,000 MW remains untapped. At present the total installed capacity for hydropower in the country is 6,595 MW.107 Most of the potential for hydropower development lies in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), the Northern Areas, and Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Mini and micro hydel plants, which are ideally suited for power generation in areas where there is little access for operations and maintenance (O&M) firms, have been functioning in the Northern Areas since the late 1970s.108 From 1975 to 2001, PCAT installed 256 plants in the Northern Areas, with a total installed capacity of about 300 MW.109 In addition the Aga Khan Rural Support Program (AKRSP), a development NGO operating in the Northern Areas, has

From: Power Sector Situation in Pakistan, AEDB and GTZ, September 2005. From: Presentation on Investment Opportunities: Hydel and Coal Power Generation in Pakistan, by Zafar Ali Khan, Managing Director, PPIB, 2 March 2005. 108 These plants typically have a capacity of about 1 MW. 109 From: Hagler Bailly Pakistan, Commercialization of Wind Power Potential in Pakistan: Identification of Existing Barriers to Wind Energy Use, July 2003, Exhibit 3-1.
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These are typically installed almost 200 mini hydel projects in the region.110 operated by community-based organizations, which are provided a subsidy for maintenance of the plants. More recently, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has funded the installation of 100 micro hydel plants (with an installed capacity of up to 50 kW) in the Malakand agency through the Malakand Rural Development Agency (MRDA). There are a number of incentives for investments in hydropower in Pakistan. The Vision 2025 plan emphasizes the need to build hydropower capacity in the country in view of the rising costs of generation and adverse environmental impacts of thermal energy. In 2002, the government issued a new Policy for Power Generation Projects which guarantees the terms of executed agreements; allows power generation companies to issue corporate registered bonds, and shares at discounted prices; provides tax incentives and allows full repatriation of equity and dividends. The Policy also specifies that for projects above 50 MW, the power purchaser will bear the hydrological risk. For the investors, an interesting option is to offer to provide a series of micro-hydels on a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) basis, preferably within a river basin, including the tributaries. The geographic proximity of the units will limit costs for O&M and allow standardized approaches. Simple credit schemes within existing micro-credit schemes can be devised specifically for micro-hydels. Thermal Power: Total installed capacity of WAPDAs own thermal generation is 4,685 MW whereas the rated capacity is 4090 MW. This includes 150MW / 120MW from the coal-fired plant of Lakhra set up in collaboration with the Chinese in 1995. The capacity of hydel power from Warsak, Tarbela and Mangla is 5,128MW but the generation deteriorates to 1,990MW (39%), as recorded in January 2006, due to decrease inflow during November to June. WAPDA also purchases power from a number of International Power Producers (IPPs). Hence, WAPDA is the largest power generator with a capacity of 17,800MW but effectively supplies around 13,000MW. Karachi Electric Supply Corporation, on the other hand, generates only 1,210 MW and purchases 240 MW from IPPs (120 MW from TAPAL and 120 MW from GUL AHMED), 10 MW from PSML and around 600 MW to 700 MW from WAPDA. Power from the nuclear power plant, KANUPP, which supplied around 40MW to 70MW, is not available and KESCs own thermal plant is inoperative. The total demand is between 2,300 MW to 2,500 MW. Presently the total shortfall in the country is estimated at 3,000 MW and by the year 2010, the demand will exceed supply by 5,000 MW. According to statistics, a surplus power of 1500MW in year 1999 was computed to last till the year 2005, which was based on assuming the average growth rate in power consumption of 6% per annum, which unfortunately turned out to be deficit of 300MW in 2001 only. The government overlooked the rising shortages in power by not adding a single MW to our installed power generators, and hoped for salvation from foreign or private investments. Hydel Power is the cheapest electric power in the world. Our government announced that it has intentions to launch the Diamar Bhahsa dam that would produce hydel power of 4,500 MW, which would certainly be the much needed electricity. The Neelum-Jhelum Hydro Electric Project which was approved at a cost of Rs. 15.012 billion in 1989 to produce 969 MW should be revived, although the cost of this project has now increased to Rs.95.36 billion.
110 From: Lioret, Sonia, Renewable Energies in Pakistan: An Encouraging Start, Islamabad January 2006.

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Micro-mini Hydel, being cheap are also environmental friendly. Micro-mini projects normally produce power up to 5MW. If utilized efficiently, power of 1000MW can be obtained from them. These projects are ideal for rural areas where required energy is estimated to be 40KW. Wind Power: Wind Power energy is the no fuel energy and is also environment friendly. Investment application by two companies in wind power has been filed with NEPRA for license to generate 20MW each by installing wind turbines each of 5MW in Thatta district. Pakistan can get around 55,000 MW of power generated from this source as per estimates of AEDB. A number of locations along Pakistans 900 km coastline offer potential for wind power generation, which by some estimates could be as high as 55,000 MW.111 The Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) launched a Wind Mapping Project in 2002, and is collecting data from 45 stations established in the coastal areas of the Sindh and Balochistan provinces.112 At present, the coastline has about 30 small wind power plants in various locations, which are used for pumping water. However, the AEDB announced in May 2006 that 650 MW of wind energy capacity would be installed in the coastal region by the end of 2007, as 13 investors have provided letters of commitment regarding projects in the area.113 AEDB has acquired 30,000 acres of land in the Sindh province for wind power projects. In addition to the small wind projects already commissioned, the AEDB plans to facilitate the installation of a 700 MW wind power project in Gharo, Sindh by 2010. The location of the project has been finalized based on data from the PMDs Wind Mapping Project. Investors in wind power in Pakistan have more recently faced the problem of short supply of windmill generators, which are imported from Europe and the United States, where demand is currently outstripping supply.114 AEDB entered into negotiations with international manufacturers to establish turbine manufacturing facilities in Pakistan, and has succeeded in facilitating an agreement between the Karachi Shipyard and a Norwegian firm, NBT AS, which will set up a wind turbine manufacturing facility at the Shipyard in the near future.115 The key impediment to the implementation of wind power projects is the lack of consensus over the proposed Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), which has yet to be finalized. The AEDB has made some progress by incorporating key demands of investors such as persuading the government to accept wind risk. However, the privatization of the Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC) the public utility responsible for transmission in parts of Sindh, has also delayed the finalization of the PPA. Solar Power: Pakistans location is such that most parts of the country get strong sunshine for at least 8 hours a day. The estimated average daily insolation rate is 5.3 kiloWatt hours per square meter (kWh/m2).116 Nevertheless, attempts to utilize solar energy through the use of photovoltaic (PV) systems have not been successful, largely due to technical constraints. At present, there is an installed capacity of 650 kW of PV systems in the country, which power telephone exchanges, highway

From: Power Sector Situation in Pakistan, AEDB and GTZ, September 2005. From: Website of the Pakistan Meteorological Department, www.pakmet.com/Projects. 113 From: Daily Times Site Edition, Sunday, May 21 2006, 650 MW Wind Energy by 2007 says AEDB Chairman. 114 From: Daily Times Site Edition, May 24 2006, Windmill Generators Shortage Hits Wind Power Plans. 115 From: Dawn, Site Edition, June 18 2006, Norwegian Firm to Set Up Wind Turbines. 116 From: Power Sector Situation in Pakistan, AEDB and GTZ, September 2005.
112

111

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telephones, refrigeration systems in remote areas, etc.117 Some development NGOs have disseminated solar appliances such as cookers and water heaters in remote areas. The sector, however, remains largely unexplored. Solar-based power plants are expensive in operation and really feasible on large scale. Disneyland in USA gets all its power from solar energy, only because it can afford it. However, recently this news was heard that indigenous solar power plants will be available cheaply in local markets at Rs.25,000 with an additional Rs.12,000 for the battery. The Disneyland model is something that can be explored further in the context of amusement parks and other tourist attractions proposed in Chapter 5. Bio-energy: The term bio-energy covers broadly two sources of renewable energy, biomass and biogas. The first refers to the use of solid (e.g. wood, organic waste) and liquid (e.g. ethanol) biofuels, of which the former in particular are the prime source of energy in rural communities. Biogas is obtained primarily from landfills and animal waste, and can be used to power small household appliances like stoves. Bioenergy use is estimated to account for 15% of energy consumption worldwide.118 In Pakistan, work on bio-energy conservation has traditionally focused on the dissemination of basic technology to build and maintain fuel efficient stoves. Such initiatives have been implemented by a range of NGOs implementing rural development programs, and have been supported most significantly by UNDPs Small Grants Program, among others. There has been little research in Pakistan on the development of biofuels. A small biogas plant, which typically uses human and animal waste from a household of six persons, and three to four water buffaloes, can produce up to 4 cubic meters (m3) of gas daily. In Pakistan, the installation of biogas plants in rural areas started in 1974, through the efforts of PCAT, and by 1987, over 4000 biogas plants had been installed in rural areas.119 Most of these plants, however, fell into disrepair by the late 1980s as the government withdrew financing for the maintenance of the plants. In 2003, PCRET announced a project for the installation of 1200 biogas plants in Pakistan over the next four years. The government of China has also pledged technical support to take this project forward. Currently, there are an estimated 5357 biogas units in Pakistan, with capacities of 3 15 m3 per day.120 There is, however, little information on whether these plants are fully functional. The potential for biogas development in Pakistan is considerable, particularly in areas where irrigated agriculture is carried out, and livestock holdings per household are relatively large. The choice of appropriate technology is very important, as plants that are difficult to operate, or require considerable maintenance and frequent repair are not acceptable to communities.

From: Lioret, Sonia, Renewable Energies in Pakistan: An Encouraging Start, Islamabad January 2006. 118 From: Clean Edge, A Global View of Emerging Opportunities in Renewable Energy, Report prepared for use of the Global Environment Fund, September 2004. 119 From: Tatari, Danish Zafar and Mahmood Akbar, Potential of Sustainable Energy in Pakistan, Report Submitted to Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 2004. 120 From: Akhter, Parvez, Presentation delivered at Second Regional Training and Planning Workshop, Project on Promotion of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement (PREGA), Asian Development Bank.

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11.9.6: COAL IN THE CONTEXT OF SINDH The UNDP Report on Asia-Pacific 2006 tells us that the business model we have been following for years doesnt have enough elasticity to raise our export earnings. Even our principal industrial sector of textiles has been losing market share in textile and clothing in open competition with regional countries, including Bangladesh which does not even grow cotton. Last years trade deficit of $12 billion, the highest in the countrys history, is already being overtaken by the magnitude of deficit incurred in the first two months of the current fiscal year. Thus, the question remains; where is the hard currency going to come from to pay for all our other essential needs such as food, medicine, plant equipment and machinery, defence and several other requirements, including non-debt liabilities and reserves to keep the rupee from sliding down? Our continuous use of privatization proceeds and home remittances to finance the current consumption is self-defeating. The feel-good factor thus created would start evaporating as the few remaining state-owned enterprises are sold off and a reserve flow of dividend income gathers momentum. The real estate market has heated up beyond the reach of many industrial and residential buyers. In the meantime, Pakistan is losing opportunities of creating new assets that would have become cash cows for the country, earning it badly needed hard currencies and reducing its vulnerabilities. This should give sleepless nights to any policymaker and call for change of course in favour of production and productivity and away from high consumption and speculative economy. As if that was not worrying enough, reports indicate that we still want to add to our external vulnerabilities by now opting for imported oil and coal-fired power plants while continuing to turn a blind eye to the development of our indigenous coal reserves. Coal-based power is essential because it brings three major benefits. Since we are fortunate in having large coal deposits, it saves us from using hard currency on importing oil and because coal-based is labour-intensive, it creates employment and business opportunities for our people. Thirdly, it provides energy security and protection from a wide range of external risks. All these benefits, however, are lost to the nation because of flawed policies and options. Our approach to energy development is clear from one simple fact: while 1.5 million MWs of coal-based power plants are under various stages of development around the world, we do not have even a single MW plant under construction. About 90 percent of the current coal production in the world is utilized within the very same countries where coal is available. It is only countries that do not have coal deposits of their own like Japan that generally import coal for their power generation. For Pakistan, sitting on 185 billion tons of coal estimated to be fourth largest reserves in the world, importing coal for power generation is tantamount to Iraq having the second largest oil reserves in the world importing oil for its power production. The present government has been in power for about seven years. This is long enough time to have won back investor confidence. But despite several promises made and trips to China, Europe and elsewhere, we have yet to see any MOUs for indigenous energy development translated into action. If we had taken a national decision of making indigenous energy resources the principal plank of the countrys power generation programme, it would then not be difficult to get our act together on the two fundamental issues: winning back investor confidence with public policy that promotes long term and sustained investment in

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indigenous energy development and resolving internal turf battles that have often subverted progress on coal-fired power generation idea and proposals. Continued indecision in this has made Pakistans energy policy directionless. As a consequence of this absence of priorities and direction that none of the regional gas pipelines projects we have been talking about for over ten years, have yet reached the level where serious project financing exploration could be conducted. Affordable energy for development from Coal: Even though there is enough evidence from around the world that coal-based power is beneficial to our economy as it would provide cheaper energy for industry and agriculture, our stubborn refusal to use it remains a big stumbling block to having affordable energy for development. In the energy mix in the US, 56 percent of power is produced from coal which also contributes to lowering overall energy costs for consumers that would otherwise become unaffordable. But Pakistan, which sits atop the worlds fourth largest coal reserves, used this form of mineral fuel to generate only one percent of its power. This raises considerably the cost of doing business as the industry is not in a position to enjoy the benefits of cheap energy costs. Conversely, businesses in other countries, whose economies benefit from coal-based power like India (65 percent), China (70 percent) and Australia (60 percent), make the most this advantage. A 30 percent reduction in the cost of power production would make a big difference in the competitiveness of Pakistani products in foreign markets. Our unaffordable energy policies bear a major share of the blame for reducing the competitiveness of our businesses and making life difficult for residential consumers. However, after years of technical and marketing efforts, when a pioneering project of 5,200MW of power generation from Thar coal finally started, it quickly fell victim to the vindictive politics of the government in 1997. American investors were forced to abandon the project and leave the country. But for such whimsical governance, Pakistan would today be generating over 10,000MWs of coal-based power and also develop the capacity of adding 1,500MW annually to meet its growing needs. The only energy portfolio affordable for Pakistan is one that makes coal the centrepiece of its power generation. In practical terms, it means coal must generate 50 percent or more of Pakistans power. This would reduce the overall cost of energy and make Pakistans economy competitive in world markets. Otherwise our products will find it increasingly difficult to compete with comparable Asian economies whose production systems enjoy the benefits of cheap coal-based power constituting over 50 percent of their energy portfolio compared to one percent in the case of Pakistan. Search for energy security: If Pakistan produces 100,000 MWs of power from coal and keeps producing this amount for the next 100 years, it would have consumed only about a quarter of the coal deposits in the country. On top of it, this one source, if exploited properly, would give the country energy security like no other option. The raw material lies all within the country, the technology is simple, tried and tested. It is cheap, flexible, non-controversial and the most job-creating vehicle for power generation in Pakistan. While coal should take care of the bulk of power generation problems in Pakistan, oil addiction in transportation can also be reduced by tapping into other indigenous sources of energy before rising oil prices bring our transportation networks to a halt. Brazil has already found a solution to this

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problem. By using ethanol with a little dash of petroleum in its transport vehicles, it has made savings of over $70 billion in its oil import bill. Now 75 percent of new cars and light trucks manufactured in Brazil by even leading manufacturers like Ford and VW use this ethanol-petroleum combo and technology is on the way to completely eliminate the remaining 15 percent of consumption of petroleum. Many other countries including the US are already following the lead given by Brazil, but there is nothing in this new energy plan to show that this news has travelled to Islamabad. Good governance and development: There are over 185 billion tons of proven reserves of good quality coal, spread over 9,000 square kilometres of the Thar desert. Compare the figures to Indias total cost deposits of 140 billion tons. Yet, for 40 years, these reserves remained untapped, and employment and economic opportunities was denied to the people. Coal has been extensively used elsewhere in Europe, the Unites States, Australia, China and many other places. It was employed in the industrialization of these countries in the 19th and 20th centuries. Even today, in the 21st century, 40 percent of the total global power generation comes from coal. It was envisaged that this would spearhead major economic development and employment generation activities throughout the country. With over 200,000 jobs flowing from it over the years, the project could have ranked right at the top among all investments made in Pakistan domestic and foreign. The project of 5,200 MW, which was widely marketed to investors from many countries, attracted $1.8 billion in direct foreign investment and included the development of coal mines, power generation of over 5,000 MWs, the construction of infrastructure including roads and railway lines and a port at Keti Bandar. This port would also be available to handle the countrys other international trade at extremely competitive rates. All funding was in the form of direct foreign investment. There was no funding required for the project in rupee or foreign exchange from the government of Pakistan. The investors (by the an Atlanta-based American company had purchased from the original investor Hong Kong tycoon Gordon Wu the Asian segment of his company covering investment projects in Indonesia, Thailand and Pakistan) were forced to abandon the project, close their offices and leave the country. If the Government of Pakistan indeed wants to help the people of Tharparkar and step up economic activity in the country, it would be prudent to revive this important project on which so much work had already been completed rather than let another round of delaying tactics start all over again. The concept of governance is much larger and more inclusive than mere administration or management. The good in good governance comes from the utilitarian concept of the greatest good of the greatest number. In the corporate sector, good corporate governance maximizes the value for the shareholders who are the owners of the corporation. That is the ultimate test of good corporate governance and all strategies and internal and external control factors are good measures only in so far as these contribute towards the ultimate objective of corporate governance i.e. increasing benefits to the shareholders.

11.9.7: THERMAL AND NUCLEAR ENERGY Thermal Power Stations (TPS) are already in the pipeline. Last year President Musharraf allowed WAPDA to set up TPS to generate 1,350MW, but due to World Bank covenant, Ministry of Water and Power withdrew the permission. WAPDA is now asked to install

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1,000MW TPS. Meanwhile KESC has announced that it would add 830MW by 2008. An important aspect of TPS is that supply of turbines takes between two to three years. Nuclear Power Plants generate electricity by controlled use of nuclear reactions. But, due to the fact that Islam and Terrorism are associated together internationally, nuclear power will only be available to non-Muslims. Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), with a generating capacity of only 70MW, is not operational because of scarcity of essential replaceable and renewable parts. The Federal government plans to generate 8,800 MW from nuclear power by 2030. Sindh should certainly pursue this aspect as well and get its due share of nuclear power and investment. Sindh has now become the largest producer of natural gas in the country. Efforts need to be made to use flue gases for generation of thermal power. The following Table 11.1 gives a few energy related projects which may be developed on priority basis. Table 11.1: Energy Projects for Investment121
PROJECT 5,500 MW Bunji Hydropower Run of River project. NEED ASSESSMENT Pakistan faces energy deficiency. This Project uses hydel sources. Pakistan has over 45,000 MW hydel generation potential. Thar Coal is one of the largest deposit of low quality coal in the world estimated at about 3.2 billion tons The 20 major cities of Pakistan in total produce about 50,000 tons of municipal solid waste daily. This can be used to make RDF which in turn is used for generating power The Govt. has already approved 8 IPPs for generating 5,500 MWs based on gas or imported oil. These Projects are under implementation. INVESTMENT REQUIRED US $ 4 Billion including transmission lines and ancillary facilities. US$1.2 to 1.4 billion including the power plant, mining operations and ancillary facilities. Each RDF plant will require investment of US$10-20 million each depending on its size and facilities US 8.0 Billion in the form of bonds only for these 8 IPPs. IRR 21-23%

1000 Mega Watt Power Plant based on Thar Coal. 10 such plants can be pursued simultaneously Refuse Derived Fuels for generating electricity

15-18%

25-30%

Thermal Power Fund to finance govt. approved Independent Power Projects. (IPPs)

12%

Basis - Pakistans energy requirement @ 11% p.a - Large-scale investments needed in developing Thar Coal Gasification, Thar Coal mining and power generation, wind mills, solar thermals etc. - US$ 20-25 billion can be absorbed

11.10: TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION


The Vision for the transport sector is the establishment of an efficient and well integrated system which will facilitate the development of a competitive economy and poverty
121 These investment concepts have been selected from the work done by the Office of the Investment Advisor, Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan (2006)

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reduction, while ensuring safety in mobility. The strategic thrust is on optimal utilization of the existing capacity, improved management, and coordinated use of various modes of transport. Private sector in the sector will be enhanced and institutional capacity building activities undertaken to enhance sector efficiencies. The entire road network will be well connected efficiently with port, railway stations, motorway and national highways and other mass transit systems in large metropolitan areas. All these will reduce the times, and cut down on the costs of doing business. Reducing delays in our transport system is critical instrument for the cost of doing business, and hence increasing our competitiveness. The participants during the consultative process gave much emphasis on the improvement of existing road infrastructure as well as construction of new roads to enhance connectivity. The participants recommended metallic road for every village having populace of 4,000 or more. Rest of villages or scattered population should be connected through path paved with bricks. Further they specifically emphasized that all villages should be connected with district Head quarter through metallic roads. It has been reported that Karachi will get 500 CNG buses next month (DAWN KARACHI, May 26, 2007); Some 500 CNG buses will start plying on the citys arteries from next month with the arrival of first batch of the buses from Holland. This was stated by City Nazim Syed Mustafa Kamal, while talking to newsmen at his office on Friday. He said that all steps to ease out the growing problem of transport had been finalised and with the arrival of 500 CNG buses the transport culture of the city would change as some 150 passengers could commute in a CNG bus at a time. The City Nazim stated that four terminals for CNG buses would be made in different city areas where under the publicprivate partnership programme four CNG filling stations would also be established. Maintenance of roads in the province suffers from a lack of sufficient funds. According to the T & C section of the P&DD, maintenance of road infrastructure must be given equal, if not more, priority in terms of budget allocations, disbursements etc. It is proposed to constitute a Sindh Highway Authority (SHA) modelled along with institutional setup of the National Highway Authority. This SHA would then be responsible for the new, repair, modifications and maintenance of all major and minor road networks in the province. The SHA model gives rise to the opportunity of coordinating all development and maintenance work of major/ minor with district administration one of the prime objectives of the SHA will be to refresh and update the road network system through spatial analysis and ground thrusting surveys. This information will then be used to design a proper road/ transport network that meets the needs of all transport companies and of the security services. Coordination with the National Highway Authority for link roads and intersections will be required.

11.11: ELECTRIFICATION
The participants of the workshops emphasized on the need for wider village electrification in Sindh. According to the participants electricity generates and accelerates the economic activities. The government has already planned such measures and is spending a lot on village electrification however it is needed to enhance the process. Participants visualized electrifying all the villages in future so that province can attain the objective of prosperity. Looking at development scenario of Sindh one can

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easily say that provision of more electricity and to explore for available alternate source of electricity by utilizing coal reserves developing wind and solar energy.

11.12: CITY PLANNING


City town or urban planning is a discipline basically involving the land use planning which explores several aspects including social environments. The traditional planning process focused on top-down processes where the planner created the plans. The planning process becomes democratized creating the room for peoples participation. Grass root level participation to make important decisions is essential part of the planning process. Karachi is mega city however except Karachi there are many cities in Sindh including Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah, Larkana, Khairpur Mirs etc which need specific plans for better arrangement of civic amenities as well as beautification of cities. The major aspect of the city planning was emphasized by the participants in consultation workshops for beautification and large scale plantation in all cities. The plantation can assure safety of the citizens from air pollution as well as enhance the aesthetic of the cities. Over all ratio of rural urban in Pakistan is being observed 30/70 percentage. However in Sindh urban population is comparatively larger than other provinces more or less 40%. If include newly emerged big cities like Nawabshah, Mirpurkhas, Larkana, Khairpur etc than it becomes more or less half. That indicates and deserves specific focus on city planning. There is significant demand for planning resources and strategies to address the issues that arise from slum areas within or around the cities. An important issue of our cities is encroachment on both sides of the road that has created a worst problem of transport and traffic in cities even on national highways as well as link roads. There is direct and important connection between urban environment and use of vehicles. The district governments should plan to encourage lower densities as well as to remove encroachments from the road sides. In this regard district governments should be provided enough financial and administrative resources to achieve the task. In all above stated cities are facing continuing migration from rural areas and villages where people are lacking the civic amenities and basic needs. Law and order situation villages have also accelerated this shifting of population towards cities. This situation is causing declining satisfaction with the urban environment as well as to increase the social, economic and cultural issues alarmingly such as law and order, sewage, unemployment, burden on available infrastructure of roads, electricity etc. The key mission statements in this respect that form part of the Sv2030 are: Roads to cover the districts City planning Roads to all rural areas Metallic road to each village up to populace of 400 Electrification of villages Road construction and upgrading Over head bridges on railway lines All villages to be linked with district head quarters by a metallic road Schemes to be completed in time Unfeasible schemes on recommendation of influential persons

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Peoples participation at planning level Timely disbursements of funds

11.13: ROADS NETWORK


The federal government have been giving considerable importance to the development of the National Highways and a major Project-North-SouthTrade-Corridor is under implementation. The condition of roads in most of Sindh is quite deplorable, efforts are needed to not only up-grade the entire road network but a system of proper repair and maintenance of the existing network needs to be put in place. A Sindh Indus Highway Authority needs to be established with a mandate to develop and maintain the entire road network of Sindh. Private sector should be invited to build and maintain all possible roads where Toll can be levied. The funds allocated for maintenance of provincial roads are inadequate and more priority is given to the construction of new roads than the maintenance of roads. A proper system of for road management should be evolved to assess improvements of existing provincial road network. The road sector schemes on the basis of Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) should be evaluated which shall be economical and cost effective. The GoS might need to frame a legal structure which would be responsible to regulate a private sector supplier. The guidelines for inviting tenders from perspective BOT bidders and their regulations during operations are considered appropriate.

11.14: AIRPORTS
Besides Karachi airport, the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) seems to be paying no attention to the development of other airports in Sindh. The airport at Nawabshah is only used for diverting traffic from Karachi. The Hyderabad airport and the one at Larkana are hardly used. All airports of Sindh need to be up-graded to facilitate cargo as well as passengers in order to reduce pressure on Karachi airport and for supporting regional markets. Cold storages and facilities for handling refercontainers need to be developed for handling exports of frozen meat, frozen poultry, fresh fruits and vegetables, frozen fresh water fish and fruit & vegetable preparation. Cargo handling facilities need to be developed for export of other manufacturing goods. The private sector may be invited for the development of all regional airports as has been done for Sialkot International airport. All the regional airports at Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Larkana, Sukkur and Dadu should be connected with a fully functioned road, rail and water transport system in order to facilitate speedy shipments of passengers and cargo traffic.

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11.15: INTER-CITY BUS COMPANIES AND TERMINALS


Serious effort should be made to promote establishment of large scale inter-city bus companies on the pattern of Daewoo Bus Company in Punjab. Both foreign and local investors may be invited for this purpose and incentives given to them to attract investments. There is a great need for establishing inter-city bus terminals in all the cities and towns in Sindh. These may be developed on Private/Public partnership basis where the respective City Government will provide 15-20 acres of land as its equity and the Private party would be require to invest in all the facilities needed such as parking bays, passenger and baggage handling facility, fuel along with repair and maintenance facilities etc. In order to make these inter-city bus terminals commercially viable shops, restaurants and offices may also be setup. The establishment of world class bus companies and inter-city bus terminals will greatly facilitate the movement of passengers resulting in increase economic activity; it will also create thousands of jobs on a permanent basis.

11.16: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT


A review of all past emergencies in Sindh, particularly in congested cities like Karachi, Hyderabad, Larkana and Sukkur point to the fact that an organised centralised Office of Emergency (OEM) is mandatory with satellite stations in each city, town and Taluka. Fire fighters all over the world, except for Pakistan, are held in highest esteem and enjoy prestige because of the heroic and risky nature of their jobs122: Ban on fresh employment in the government sector, resulting in continuation of over-aged and physically unfit staff Lack of appropriate funds obsolete fire fighting tools and equipment Low education level, lack of awareness and proper fire policy at the citizen level Absence of Fire & Rescue Codes Fire Audits are a best-practice, not in practice Absence of Standard Operating Procedures, rules, regulations and policies for emergency response Absence of accurate and timely information Absence of knowledge base to determine optimum response to emergencies and relief operations

Therefore an important part of the SV2030 will be to establish and/or enhance organizational capability of the Office of Emergency Management (OEM) in emergency preparedness and disaster management. This will also entail a costeffective improvement and strengthening of the overall operational readiness of OEM to effectively and efficiently respond to all emergencies and calamities in the entire province. It will be equally important to empower OEM with the capacity for transferring necessary skills to the youth and citizens of the each city/town where satellite OEMs are situated (essentially starting with the Fire Brigades). The entire set up must be a replicable model for smaller towns and rural areas.

122

International Fire Service Risk Assessments, January 2002

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11.17: ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH


To improve and strengthen the environmental and living conditions of all citizens of Sindh, including rural towns and villages, we believe that in this way the environment sector, the health sector and municipal administration can be collectively addressed and thus some of the more alarming problems faced by the population can be effectively eliminated. Tackling the issues and problems of all three sectors is a daunting task. However, with a well-planned integrated approach many of the common areas can be dealt with in the first instance. This phase of development can be followed up with more sector-oriented projects. The table below presents a broad outline of the interventions required and identifies the areas in which the Government of Sindh and allied stakeholders can be of valuable service to the people of Sindh. Assistance of the district administration, elected representatives and civil society organisations will be necessary to initiate work through awareness building, concept sharing, providing local workforce and eventually maintenance staff. Table 11.2: Interventions Required in Different Areas
Sector addressed Municipal administration Environment

3 3a

3b

3c

3d

Assistance in project formulation, planning and implementation; securing of external funding through donor agencies and embassies; training in various aspects of project execution and supervision Campaign formulation and planning; Anti Malaria Campaign; broadly speaking Implementation team; supply of this entails the identification of mosquito environmentally acceptable insecticide, breeding grounds, clean up of all such spraying equipment, safety equipment for areas and the periodical spraying of field teams and allied infrastructure environmentally safe insecticide support; trained human resources An Integrated Solid Waste Management Programme; broadly speaking this Supply of mechanical sweepers; road Improvements in road and street cleaning construction and earth moving operation through the use of efficient equipment; technical advice on best costtechnology and training effective practices Improvements in the collection and Assistance in the planning of waste segregation of general waste, bio collection routes; fabrication of efficient degradable waste and infectious biomedical waste collection vehicles; supply of waste waste for treatment and/or appropriate collection equipment and safety recycling equipment for collection staff; design and construction of waste segregation facilities and waste compacting equipment; training of waste collection staff; training of government hospital staff Need assessment surveys; existing Improvements in the condition of current facility evaluations; supply of special pit sanitary landfill sites and the identification lining materials; earth moving and refuse of new landfill sites based on the daily moving equipment; construction of volume of waste generated in Karachi landfill sites Enhancement in existing waste disposal Supply of all types of incinerators suited methodology through the installation of to handle daily waste loads; construction

Institutional strengthening; This broadly entails project formulation and planning activities, capacity and capability enhancement through focused training of human resources

entails:

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Sector addressed Municipal administration Environment

incinerators and chemical treatment plants. This includes facilities of effective disposal of infectious biomedical waste 3e 4 Introduction of economically feasible recycling solutions for general waste and bio degradable (organic) waste Enhancement through modernisation and where necessary the installation of new combined water treatment and sewerage treatment systems

Enhancement and strengthening of fire fighting systems

Balancing, Modernisation and Replacement strategy for antiquated equipment and machinery

Introduction of efficient and consultative monitoring systems to ensure delivery of objectives and associated outputs

of unprocessed and processed waste holding facilities; supply of waste treatment chemicals as per international environmental standards; Supply of latest recycling technology and equipment; creation and operation of waste recycling facilities Survey of water systems and sewerage channels; identification of appropriate and economically feasible treatment solutions; construction of treatment plants and waterways; supply of treatment equipment Supply of latest fire fighting equipment including safety equipment for fire fighters; training of fire fighters; survey of existing fire fighting facilities; identification of alternate measures and technology for fire safety; survey of fire fighting readiness in major commercial and municipal areas Survey of existing equipment and machinery currently used or listed as unserviceable in all institutions of the Local Government; vehicle fleet maintenance and management consultations, vehicle tracking and route planning, repair and servicing of unserviceable equipment and machinery Consultative and participative monitoring and supervision systems; training of human resources to undertake such activities; progress reporting to donor agencies and government institutions

The interventions listed above can be undertaken in phases. All interventions will require the production and dissemination of awareness material (such as posters, booklets etc.) through training workshops, seminars, awareness walks etc. Implementation will include the transfer of technology through focused and well-planned training modules.

11.18: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) is: "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware." In short, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information, securely. The term "information" is usually replaced by "data" without loss of meaning.

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Today, the term Information Technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term is more recognizable than ever before. The Information Technology umbrella can be quite large, covering many fields including communication. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include: Data Management Computer Networking Database Systems Design Software design Management Information Systems Systems management

In Pakistan the use of IT for personal development as well as for professional purpose is still under question. There is already a much discussion in society about negative use of the IT particularly internet. How ever it relates with our social and educational value system. It also closely relate to the opportunities for people especially youth for professional use of Information and communication Technology. What we do need is careful long-term planning, with emphasis on development of hardware expertise alongside the sharpening of reason and logic for enhanced programming skills. We need to establish a proper channel for the funnelling of latest books into the country. We must give priority to the establishment of chip-manufacturing industry in Pakistan. We have to retain IT professionals by stopping the export, for these brains before they can serve their own country. Proper incentives along with enabling social and political environment must be provided in the educational and professional institutions. Effective measures must be taken to block the undesirable sites and greater number of Internet connections with enhanced speed must be provided to research groups at the universities. Concept of EBaithak123 should be introduced as an non formal IT literacy centre that must be connected with industries, business organizations, professional bodies requiring semi-skilled IT persons. The infrastructure will be strengthened to ensure that infrastructure bottlenecks do not impede envisaged growth and competitiveness. In this regard following aspects are very much important. Physical Infrastructure for IT: Federal government has already launched a comprehensive programme under the National Trade Corridor Initiative to overhaul the entire logistics chain, physical connectivity and processes (motorways, expressways, railways, ports and shipping and airports) and efficiency to bring it at par with international standards. Government of Sindh will efficiently link the same with its rural network that supports rural based economic activities. Technical Infrastructure: Pakistan will put in place a multi platform, any-time anyplace infrastructure, which can meet the challenges of technology convergence in order to cater to needs of the present and future. The quality of service for the last mile is of particular focus. The participants during the consultative process emphasized a lot on linking the rural urban areas with each other with the help of modern technologies. One of most effective and particular recommendation was to provide v phone connections to all villages. The participants also recommended to government for provision of V phone connections to all service providers such as LHVs, Vaccinators,

123 The E-Baithak concept was first designed and floated by Mr. Ali Kamal while working with a group of industrialists and Shell

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agriculture workers and irrigation staff. The phone numbers of such staff must be widely publicized.

11.19: VISION STATEMENT: INFRASTRUCTURE VISION 2030


Building and developing Sindhs infrastructure requires perseverance, timeliness, discipline to ensure that all projects are sustainable and long-lasting. The vision component for infrastructure hence is Build better, long-lasting and low-maintenance structures that cater to the needs and well-being of its people with respect to security, health and opportunities and the demands of an aggressive economy, without adversely compromising basic human rights to life and property and with the utmost respect to the environment and eco systems.

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CHAPTER 12: INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT


This chapter is a special inclusion in the Sindh Vision 2030 document. It subject of industry and environment has an established importance and the matter has been referred to time and again in various parts of this document.

12.1: OVERVIEW
Of all the four federating units of Pakistan, the province of Sindh is unique in terms of the sheer diversity it exhibits in almost all aspects of collective life. Its land, people, culture and waters, everything has a couple or more very distinct shapes, yet every piece fits perfectly with each other to form a sustainable and worthy whole. A unique feature of the provinces economic activity is its strong industrial base. Almost all major industrial sub-sectors of Pakistan do have substantial representation in the province in terms of operating units. Also, the units operating in Sindh province are perceived to be more progressive in their outlook and attitude as compared to those in the rest of the country. Nevertheless, the industrial growth does bring certain cost with it. The socio-economic and environmental cost of the development in general, and industrial development in particular, has increasingly become a topic of active deliberations in the province. To achieve the stated goal of Sindh Vision 2030 developed, industrialized, just and prosperous Sindh through rapid and sustainable development in a resource constrained economy by deploying knowledge inputs the industrial sector of the province will need to be more profitable --- not only in economic terms, but also in terms of social and environmental benefits. This Chapter summarizes the major environmental issues of various industrial (manufacturing) sub-sectors operating in the province. The write-up also provides strategy-pointers to address the mentioned environmental issues. The knowledgepremises of this Chapter is based on more than 200 environmental studies of various industrial units from all major sub-sectors.

12.2: POLLUTION DIMENSIONS OF INDUSTRIAL SUB-SECTORS


Key environmental issues, related with the major industrial sub-sectors operating in the province, include: Water Pollution Solid Waste and Waste Chemicals Air Pollution Noise Pollution Occupation Health & Safety Inefficient Use of Energy

All the above issues are relevant for all industrial sectors of the province. However, the significance of any one environmental issue as compared with the others, may differ in various industries. Therefore, in the following sections, each issue has been described in relation to individual industrial sectors.

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12.2.1: WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is a major environmental issue of our industrial sector, posing the biggest environmental challenge to a number of industrial sub-sectors including textile, leather, sugar, paper, edible oil, dairy and pharmaceutical. The issue of water is of concern both at the intake as well as outlet end. At the inlet, the issue pertains to inefficient consumption of water, while at the outlet it relates to the pollution of various receptors including sources of usable water. A brief synopsis of the situation, in terms of individual industrial sub-sectors, is given in the following: Automotive Industry: Vehicle painting processes including associated pre-painting operations are the main source of wastewater generation in the automotive plants. Many of the processes are batch type and the consequent discharges are periodic in nature. Unit average process wastewater generation rate is estimated at 6,700 litres per vehicle, for car manufacturing plant. Car manufacturing results into greater quantities of wastewater because of more complex painting and pre-painting operations, which are required to obtain higher finish level. The process wastewater varies significantly in its characteristics and quantity, in terms of temporal and plant-to-plant variations. Some of the wastewater streams are treated with on-site pollutant separation systems, to remove a significant portion of oil & grease, phosphate sludge, paint sludge and ED paint. In addition, some units have installed endof-pipe treatment systems to improve the quality of the effluent. Commonly used treatment processes are physio-chemical in nature, with a few units also employing biological activated sludge process, post physio-chemical processes. Sugar Industry: In sugar mills, water consumption per ton of cane crushed and pollutant concentration vary from mill to mill. The wastewater contains high level of pollution and does not comply to the NEQS. In case of distillery, the situation gets even worse. Large lagoons for wastewater collection are constructed in sugar mills. These lagoons are usually unlined and not properly drained. Wastewater from these lagoons is used for irrigation inside the mills or discharged outside the mills in nearby irrigation channels or saline water drains. Pesticide Industry: Process wastewater is virtually non-existent in pesticide formulation and filling process. Other possible sources of wastewater include sanitary and kitchen effluent, laboratory effluent, and wastewater from wet scrubber. Some plants are using chemical coagulation process to remove colloidal and suspended pesticide content from wet scrubber wastewater streams. Some other plants, having combined wastewater, are employing common partial treatments systems like septic tanks and simple gravel filters. Petroleum Refineries: Petroleum refining produces wastewater from storage tanks, desalting units, distillation columns, LPG caustic washing units, solvent extraction, and boiler and cooling tower blow-downs. Approximately 100-130 litres of wastewater is generated per ton of crude oil refined. While the quantity is not very high, the wastewater is high in organic pollutants and may contain aromatic hydrocarbons as well. All refineries have installed oil separators of some kind (API separators, DAF, or separators packed with coalescing packing) to treat oily wastewater. In some refineries, wastewater from oil separator is further treated biologically, while in others it is discharged without further treatment.

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Tanning Industry: In the tannery processes, water is used as a chemical carrier to render the cleaning of raw hides and skins, and to penetrate the chemicals for reaction with collagen fibre in the skins. Therefore, the wet processes of tanneries are the main source of wastewater generation. Some mechanical operations also contribute small quantities of wastewater. The processes employed at the tanneries are generally waterinefficient, consuming up to three times the normal water requirements. Most of the tanning units in the Sindh province are located in the tannery cluster of Korangi Industrial Area Karachi. Their association has constructed a combined effluent treatment plant with technical assistance from the Government of the Netherlands. Pharmaceutical Industry: Wastewater from pharmaceutical units is generally small in volume, but it is highly polluted because of the presence of substantial amounts of organic pollutants. The production processes, in general, are batch type and the consequent discharges are periodic in nature. The wastewater shows drastic variations temporally, and on plant-to-plant basis. Cement Industry: Cement manufacturing in majority of cases is a dry process and as such there are no process wastewater streams from a cement manufacturing plant. The only sources of wastewater are cooling tower, boiler blow down, and sanitary wastewater. Dairy Industry: For dairy industry, both quality (pollution loading) and quantity (volume) of effluent are of concern. The ratio of water discharge at a typical dairy unit per unit of processed milk ranges from 12:1 to 24:1. This is very high compared to a ratio of 3:1 in cleaner factories in developed countries. Besides the process wastewater, high effluent load is also attributed to very large quantities (~ 20% of total wastewater) of unaccounted for water, primarily from rinsing and cleaning operations. On an average, a typical dairy unit generates between 5.5 30 m3 of wastewater for every m3 of milk processed. The wastewater is drained through open or underground drains into adjoining water bodies, generally without any treatment. Edible Oil Industry: The effluent is contributed by process, cooling system, vacuum system, boiler and softening plant, and sanitary facilities. Typically, 50 80 m3 of process wastewater and 1400 3600 m3 of wastewater from auxiliary systems is generated per 100 tons of oil / ghee. The process wastewater stream is relatively low in quantity but have very high concentration of pollutants. Generally, only separation chambers and fat traps are installed to reduce oil and soapstock content, before discharging the effluent without any further treatment. Textile Chemicals Industry: Wastewater discharged from chemical manufacturing plants is generally small in volume; but it is highly polluted, because of presence of substantial amounts of organic and inorganic chemicals. The production processes, in general, are batch type and the consequent discharges are periodic in nature. Therefore, the wastewater flow rates show a relatively higher level of daily and seasonal fluctuations. Most quantity of wastewater is generated by washings (process vessels and other tanks, product drums and containers, floors etc.). Besides, steam condensate and cooling water are other important contributors to the wastewater quantity, though the quality of these streams is relatively better. Unit total process wastewater and unit washing wastewater are 1.7-2.5 and 1.0-1.7 litres per kg of product, respectively. The total process wastewater quantities depend upon the nature of the products, process heating media (whether hot water or steam) and extent of water conservation measures implemented.

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Fertilizer Industry: The typical source of wastewater generation in fertilizer industry include intake water treatment, de-min plant effluent, cooling tower, sewage from residential blocks, oily water from various sources in the plant, and storm water. Paint Industry: The main source of process wastewater in any paint industry is the manufacturing-plant of water-based-paint. Some wastewater is also generated due to washing of process vessels. The quantity of process wastewater (37 m3/day) is estimated for a normal operating day, for a typical paint unit. However it depends on the size of the industry, as well as its production capacity. Usually, general cleaning in a paint manufacturing unit takes place once in a week, at the weekend, during which discharge levels are 5 times higher than the normal level. Steel Industry: Steel melting operations do not involve extensive water-based processes. The water pollution, therefore, is not amongst the major environmental issues of steel industry. Major wastewater sources in a typical steel melting industry, include cooling of moulds, cooling tower blow-down, coil cooling water waste, water leakages and overflows, laboratory effluent, flue gas scrubber effluent, storm water, and sanitary wastewater A units process wastewater generation rate, excluding the sanitary wastewater and storm water, is estimated to be around 1,000 to 1,500 litres per ton of product. Pulp & Paper Industry: Paper mills consume water in the range of 150-300 m3/ton for pulp manufacturing and 50-90 m3/ton for paper manufacturing against water consumption of 160-100 m3/ton and 10-40 m3/ton for pulp and paper respectively, at modern paper mill in developed countries. Apart from their quantity, these effluents are very high in certain pollutants such as BOD, COD, sulphates and TSS. All the three processes, i.e. pulping, bleaching, and paper making, generate wastewater. Pulp & Paper mills effluents are complex and variable mixtures of a large number of known an unknown compounds. Textile Polyester Processing Industry: Textile processing is basically a water intensive sector, in which water is used mainly as carrier for transporting a variety of chemicals to the fabric and for washing purposes. Consequently, various types of wastewater, differing in magnitude and quality, are generated from a typical textile-processing unit. Many of the processes release periodic discharges. Wastewater quantity generated from textile-polyester processing mills depends upon fabric type, end product quality, nature of applied technology and the implemented level of water conservation. Unit process wastewater generation rate is estimated as 100-130 litres per kg of bleached fabrics, 120-130 litres/kg for dyed fabric and 80-70 litre/kg for printed fabric. Wastewater originating from processing operations is usually hot and alkaline, with strong smell and colour due to the use of variety of dyes and chemicals.

12.2.2: AIR EMISSION Besides transport related air emissions, industrial activity is another big contributor to air emissions in our province. However, the issue is less acute than water related problems. Sources of air emissions from any industry could be divided into two major parts: point sources i.e. emissions from various stacks; and diffused emissions i.e. direct emissions

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to the air from various sources other than stacks. Point source emissions are most likely to disturb community air, while diffused emissions mostly cause disturbance to occupational air. Following is a very brief account of air emissions sources and generation from various industrial sub-sectors. Petrochemical Industry: Air emissions from refineries and oil marketing companies contain VOCs, hydrocarbons and mercaptans, besides the usual air pollutants like SOx and NOx. The main point sources of air emissions are furnaces, heaters, boilers, generators and flaring. The diffused air emissions mostly emanate from tank farm area, wastewater treatment area, filling areas, sludge drying, and car washing etc. Cement Industry: Air emission is one of the main environmental problems of cement sector. The level of emission varies from industry to industry, depending on the type of fuel used as well as installed control measures and their efficiency. However, the extent of variation is limited. Most of the air emissions from a cement industry consist of particulate dust as well as flue gases including oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. For every ton of clinker, about 0.3-0.8 kg of dust is emitted. The World Bank standards allow maximum of 0.2 kg of dust per ton of clinker in stack gases. Dairy Industry: Air pollution usually is not among major environmental problems at a dairy plant. However, overall environmental planning and management should include air pollution abatement and management. Air pollution at a dairy takes place from a variety of sources including milk powder dust, air heater and boiler flue gases, open burning of industrial waste, exhaust of hydrogen peroxide, and emission of cooling agents Textile Chemicals Industry: The sources of air emissions from textile chemicals manufacturing plants includes point sources (exhaust of open stoves, stacks of power generators, boilers and water heaters) and diffused emissions from open process vessels and tanks. Measured concentrations of oxides of sulphur (SOx), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) in samples drawn from some stacks of standby generators, indicate that except for CO, other parameters are well within the limits set by NEQS. Pharmaceutical Industry: Point emissions generating from power generators and boilers are not of great concern in pharmaceutical units, partly because of generally better operational and management practices. In most cases, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur are within NEQS limits, while CO exceeds it. Relative concentrations of oxygen, oxides of carbon (both mono and di) and hydrocarbon indicate a trend of incomplete combustion in some generators and boilers. However, diffused air emissions are a bigger area of concern. Main diffused air emissions source is powdered and granular material processing where diffused emissions generate from raw ingredients dispensing operations, milling operations in tablet manufacturing, feeding of powdered and granular ingredients into open process vessels, and encapsulation process. Printing operations also contribute to diffused emissions. No data are available on the occupational air quality of the production areas of the pharmaceutical plants. However, most of the pharmaceutical plants have a combination of localized / spot and area ventilation systems in the processing areas. Steel Industry: Air pollution resulting from the steel melting plants is primarily due to two major problems: contamination in the raw scrap material, and unavailability or inadequacy of the emissions treatment system. The major source of air emissions is the scrap melting furnace. The nature and quantities of the air pollutants released depend upon proportions of contaminants and impurities in the scrap material like paint, oils, rubber, plastic, toxic metals and other hazardous matter. The principle air pollutant in the smoke emitting from the furnaces is particulate matter, with reported concentrations

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beyond the NEQS. The average particulate emission rate per furnace is estimated to be 21 kg/hr or 6 g/s. Other sources of air emissions include preheating of ladle, and emissions from welding and gas flame cutting operations. Sugar Industry: Major source of air emission is boiler. Small quantities of gaseous emission also originate from uncondensed gases in evaporator and sulphurous vapours from sulphitation process. Some of the sugar mills have wet scrubbing system in boiler stack for scrubbing the CO2 gas. The emission form the boiler not equipped with scrubbing or cyclone system is very high and creates environmental problems around the area of mills. Edible Oil Industry: In general, vegetable oil refining processes have no significant air emissions. The only type of emissions is point emissions where CO and NOx emissions from generator stack are more than the limits prescribed by the NEQS. Pulp & Paper Industry: Diffused chlorine emissions generate from bleaching section but generally, their concentrations are not significant. The mills having reasonably spacious and airy layout, the concentrations of vapors and particulates in the working environment are not a significant threat to workers health. Emission of NOx and SOx may be a problem in the mills generating power from fuel oil. Paint Industry: Main sources of air emission at a typical paint manufacturing industry include solvent based paint manufacturing plant, pigment grinding room, lead melting area, and water-based-paint manufacturing area. Only few of the industries have implemented some effective measure for controlling air emissions in the form of dust and fume collection systems. Textile Polyester Processing Industry: Air pollution is not amongst the major environmental issues of the polyester-textile processing industry. Limited past air pollution monitoring data, for local textile processing industries, shows that air emissions from fuel gas based boilers are, in general, within the NEQS limits. Air emissions, from the diesel-based generators, however at places, contain excessive particulate matter (PM) beyond NEQS limits, in form of smoke. Emissions of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOC), ammonia fumes, vapours and fumes of toxic chemicals like ammonium thiocyanate, potassium ferricyanide and chromic acid (used in screen stripping) and fluff, in the occupational atmosphere, which is quite excessive in certain cases, poses threat to workers health. Automotive Industry: Measured and reported concentrations of oxides of sulphur, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxides, in samples drawn from some process stacks and exhausts are well within the limits set by NEQS. Pesticides Industry: Air emissions are generated in a typical pesticide formulation and packaging industry in the form of vapours and fumes of active pesticides and organic solvents from liquid pesticides processes; toxic particulate matter from powder and granule pesticides processes; and incinerator. To minimize the dispersion of emissions into the general working air, most of the liquid pesticide formulation & filling and the powder/granule pesticide filling units are provided with spot or local forced ventilation systems, which capture and transport the air pollutants, emitting from these processes. The emissions captured by the local or spot ventilation systems are generally treated prior to their discharge to the community air. Fertilizer Industry: In a urea plant, particulate matter and ammonia are the emissions of concern. There is also a risk of carbamate emissions from the ammonium carbamate dehydrator and separators (carbamate is extremely corrosive). Other pollutants could be CO2, NOx, SOx , CO and very rarely CH4. The major locations / sources of ammonia and urea emissions into air include prilling towers, process condensate evaporators, CAN

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plant evaporators, vents in Ammonia plant, cooling towers, start up and shutdown operations, evaporation ponds, leakage and spills through pump seals and glands, boilers, vent in NA plant, calcium nitrate reactor, NP plant dissolving reactor, cyclones dust & leakages in pneumatic system, fugitive dust from bucket elevators, dryer, screw conveyors etc.

12.2.3: SOLID WASTE Solid waste is another important issue, not merely due to its aesthetic nuisance, but also because of its potential to cause soil and/or land pollution. It also poses a potential threat to cause an infiltration of unwanted chemicals into human food chain. The NEQS do not describe any standards for solid waste. Steel Industry: The quantity of solid waste produced by steel melting industry ranges between 4.5-11% of the raw material. The major sources of process solid waste are slag from melting process, furnace lining materials, sand and molasses for moulds, and refractory materials. The slag, lining material, silica sand and refractory materials are not toxic wastes. Commonly, these waste materials are used as land and/or road fill materials, within the factory premises or are sold out to contractors, for out side use. Fertilizer Industry: Different typos of solid waste including domestic solid waste and hazardous solid waste are produced in fertilizer plants. The hazardous waste includes spent catalyst and Chromate sludge. The practice of disposing these wastes varies selling to outside vendors to careful burial in landfills. Some units also dump it open yards. Non-hazardous solid waste include waste lubricants that are sold to outside vendors, dried lime sludge cake that is disposed in low lying areas in and around the factory premises, and domestic solid wastes from the residential colonies. Paint Industry: Solid wastes generated from a typical paint industry mainly consists of empty containers, empty paper and polyethylene sacks, used solvent, used filter cloths, cotton waste, scrape drums, aluminium, tin scrape and sludge. Apart from cotton waste and sludge, all solid waste has some economic value; therefore they are usually sold to a contractor. Pulp & Paper Industries: Solid waste disposal in the paper mill is not a serious problem, as the waste produced at the mill is recovered, sorted out and sold as such to the manufacturers of low quality products from the waste materials. Sine paper mill does not have any biological treatment facility for its polluted effluents, sludge production and disposal is not an issue. Pharmaceutical Industry: Both contaminated and non-contaminated process solid waste is generated in a typical pharmaceutical plant. Contaminated process solid wastes from a typical pharmaceutical formulation plant include waste chemicals and solvents, expired or rejected medicines, spillage cleaning materials, bag filters & filter dust, contaminated glassware, and contaminated emptied drums. Usually, the waste chemicals and contaminated solid wastes are being incinerated in an on-site or off-site facility. Some of the local industries are practicing open burning of their contaminated waste. Some of the industrial units have installed glass shredding machines and hydraulic presses, to crush the contaminated glassware and empty drums, to prevent their direct reuse. Noncontaminated process solid wastes range up to 20% of raw ingredients and include corrugated cartons, poly bags, fibre drums, wooden pallets, iron scrap, noncontaminated glassware and aluminium cans, and damaged and rejected labels. In specialized capsule manufacturing units, major process solid wastes are rejected capsule shells and cuttings and a variety of packaging materials. Rejected capsule shells and cuttings are estimated as 10% of the product, by weight.

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Textile Chemicals Industry: Process solid wastes are generated through different production activities, and include scraped chemicals, empty containers & packing sacks, waste filter cloths, and wooden pallets. Scraped chemicals should be treated as contaminated solid waste. Presently, however, the industry is disposing of scraped chemicals, along-with the domestic waste. An average unit quantity of scraped chemicals is estimated as 0.20 % of the finished product, by weight. Sugar Industry: Two types of solid wastes are produced during sugar manufacturing: bagasse, and filter mud press. The bagasse consists of hard and soft fibers. On an average bagasse production at sugar mills is about 30 % of the cane crushed. The bagasse contains approximately 50 % moisture, which lowers its calorific value. Presently bagasse is completely used by the sugar mills as fuel for boilers. More than 70 % of power requirement in sugar mills is met by the help of the bagasse. It is also used for chip board manufacturing. Some mills dry bagasse before burning it in boiler. The generation of filter mud depends upon the refining process. The DCDS process produces 8 % of sugar cane crushed, whereas other processes normally produce about 3 % of cane crushed. The press mud is used by nearby farmer as manure. Pesticides Industry: Pesticide industry generates both common process solid waste, and contaminated solid waste. The issue of contaminated solid waste, however, is more important. It contains wasted chemicals and solid wastes contaminated with the pesticide contents and other toxic chemicals. Some major sources and types of such solid waste from a pesticide unit are defective bottles and containers, expired products bottles and containers, expired and discarded pesticide, contaminated CBC, contaminated cotton rags and sawdust, waste media material from exhaust air filter, and liquid waste treatment sludge. Generally the contaminated solid wastes are collected separately from common process solid waste. In most of the cases, the waste chemical drums and different contaminated solid wastes are not placed on duly impervious floors, neither any rain protection is provided. This can lead to contamination of soil and groundwater, consequent to any leakage or spillage and leaching. Incineration, under properly controlled conditions, is at present considered to be an appropriate method for the disposal of waste chemicals and contaminated solid waste, of pesticide industry. However, in-house provision of a proper incineration facility is not economically feasible for most of the units, due to relatively lower loads of contaminated solid waste. Presently some units in Pakistan are carrying out open burning of the plastic bottles, along with other contaminated waste, within the factory premises, or at some remote areas. Edible Oil Industry: The solid waste generated by edible oil mills does not generally fall into hazardous waste category. It includes general waste; tin scrap; filter cloth; sludge from settling ponds, fat traps and raw oil tanks; spent earth; spent catalyst; and spent lubricants. General type of waste produced usually is sold to contractors on a monthly basis. The scrap is estimated at a rate of 2-10% of tin used. After rejection filter cloths are used for floor cleaning and general cleaning purpose. After about 5 batches, the spent Ni is completely replaced by fresh Ni. Replaced Ni is disposed off as solid waste. Spent lubricant coming from the machinery and equipment maintenance is sold for reuse or for burning in cement kilns or brick furnaces Dairy Industry: A variety of solid waste is generated from the production area, the offices and other ancillary activities at a typical dairy. Normally, most of the off-site waste, consisting of paper, cardboard, steel scrap, cartons, etc., is sold to the down stream industry for subsequent re-use/re-cycling.

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However, substantial amounts of other waste, mostly consisting of cheese scrapping, discarded packs of milk and the market returns etc. remain un-disposed. This waste is usually thrown outside, burnt or disposed by burying underground. One of the largest solid-waste-stream at a dairy is the rejected milk-packs. Damaged CBCs (corrugatedboard-cartons) and other office waste paper are also part of solid waste. Usually, paper waste is recycled in paper industry. Although solid waste generated are not under the hazardous categories but their disposal in any form is generally a matter of concern. Cement Industry: Solid waste can result from routine maintenance as well as from major repair works at shutdowns. Solid waste could also be a result of poor plant operation, old machinery and leaks in the system. The solid waste streams found at a typical cement plant are: spillage of fine material, which is collected and can contain scrap/metal particles; plant maintenance waste - like scrap, grinding balls, old lubricants/chemical cans, conveyors or belts etc; refractory bricks; and paper and domestic waste. Textile Polyester Processing Industry: Generally textile-processing units do not generate hazardous types of solid wastes. Most of the process solid waste is either being used internally or has a certain resale value and potential for downstream reuse. Petrochemical Industry: Solid wastes are generated from different refining processes, petroleum handling operations as well as wastewater treatment. Both hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated in refineries. Major solid wastes are typically in the form of sludge, scrap and spent process catalyst. Tank bottom sludge is dumped within the refinery; spent reforming catalyst and empty TEL drums are returned to its respective suppliers; miscellaneous waste including wood, metal scrap, empty drums and paper waste etc. is sold to contractors; while spent Co-Mo catalyst is stored within refinery. Automotive Industry: Most of solid waste generated in automotive industry does have economic value, and sold for recycling or other down-stream uses. It includes packaging material of incoming parts and chemicals, metal trimmings, waste steel sheet strips, rejected parts, used lubricants, used trichloroethylene, and office and canteen waste. Janitorial waste like tag rags and wiping cloths (mainly from paint shop) is dumped in open areas. The most important area of concern is open dumping of sludge from paint booth, phosphating process, and wastewater treatment (where exists). Estimated typical unit sludge production rate, for car manufacturing, including paint booth, phosphate and wastewater sludge, is about 10 kg/car. The disposal practice of oil and grease separated from waste water streams is also not well defined. Leather Industry: At around 50 55% of total raw weight, the solid waste generation in leather manufacturing is probably the most substantial when compared to any other industrial sector. The major solid wastes generated by the tanneries are dusted curing salt, wet trimmings, dry trimmings, wet shavings, dry shavings, buffing, raw material packing, etc. Most of the solid wastes generated are separated at the source. With the exception of dusted salt, all other solid waste is consumed within the local market.

12.2.4: ENERGY Like OHS, energy has also been established as a separate discipline. However, in the context of the province of Sindh, the issue of inefficient use of energy is very closely linked to the environmental performance. Its direct economic implications make the issue even more important for all industrial units in the increasingly fierce competitive business environment of todays world. Preliminary estimates in a number of research studies indicate huge energy saving potential in most industrial units. The countrys National Conservation Strategy puts the

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importance of each energy unit saved or reused to be equal to each energy unit obtained through primary energy sources. Major contributors to energy losses in individual industrial units include the following: Absence or inadequacy of insulation on surfaces and piping for heating / cooling media Use of open loop, rather than closed loop, heating / cooling systems Lack of heat-exchange arrangements Lack of periodic and scientifically executed tuning of boilers, generators, and other such devices Improper maintenance of machines Use of over / under capacity devices like electrical motors

The current situation of energy utilization in some important industrial sectors of the province, and some industry specific issues, are briefly described hereunder: Paint Industry: In some of the units, acid chambers are equipped with pumps which circulate solution of lead and acetic acid through lead-flowers chamber to obtain maximum yield of lead acetate. These chambers are built at a height, which is more than what is required. Thus causing higher pump-head and consuming more energy than required. Automotive Industry: Energy losses in the automotive industry occur mostly in the following areas: - Compressed air used for cleaning and drying operation: - Air supplied at pressures higher than the required pressure, for a specific application. - Compressed air leakages in various pipes and pneumatic tools Absence or inadequacy of insulation of hot surfaces. Uncontrolled loss of heat energy from hot appliances (ovens & dryer) to colder out side atmosphere.

Steel Industry: Steel melting process is a high energy consumption process. Reported electricity consumption rates are 400-1300 kWh per ton of finished product. Induction furnaces consume the major portion (96-99 %) of the total electricity consumed in the unit. Generally, the energy losses in the induction furnace (electric, medium frequency, 500700 Hz) amount to above 30%. Other factors that contribute to energy losses include tapping of melt, cold furnace feed material, poor quality of furnace feed material, and high frequency of furnace relining. Edible Oil Industry: The refining of edible oil includes a number of heating and cooling operations where the transfer of thermal energy takes place. This transfer of energy is inefficient in many units. For example heat is not recovered from oil and cooling water during hydrogenation and deodorization. In some units deodorization of edible oil is carried out at 190oC for a period of 1.5 hours. However, in the literature it is reported that the process is carried out at 235-245oC, which is accomplished in only 25 minutes. The low temperature deodorization reduces the production rate, and increases the oil losses in terms of polymerization due to such a delayed process.

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12.3: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY (OH&S)


Though occupational health and safety has been established as a separate and distinct discipline throughout the world, in many respects it is closely linked to the environmental performance of a particular industrial unit. Most common OHS issues in the industrial units operating in Sindh province are the following: - Absence of proper OHS management system - Improper handling of chemicals. - Poor ventilation - Slippery floors - High noise Levels - Hot working environment Except for some progressive sectors e.g. petroleum refineries, fertilizer units, and pesticide industry, most other industrial sectors lack in having a proper OHS management system. In the absence of such system, tracking of important OHS issues and implementation of their redressal mechanism becomes virtually impossible. Many of the chemicals used are volatile in nature and generate fumes in the working environment constantly. A lot of chemicals are also used in powdered form and their handling generates chemical dust. Such chemicals are often handled without required protective gear. MSDS are generally not available or not consulted. Personal protective equipment is either not suitable, or not provided, or workers do not use it due to perceived difficulty in performing their duties. This situation might lead to immediate term problems like accidents, and long term problems like chronic diseases to workers. Poor occupational air ventilation in many units also worsens the above situation. Similarly, in many industries e.g. steel melting, workers are exposed to high occupational temperatures. In the absence of proper localized ventilation system, the problems arising due to high temperatures and chemical fumes become more potent. In many industries, the fire fighting arrangements are not properly located close to the potential accident area. Also access to these fire extinguishers is not always clear. Proper documentation of employee training and other safety arrangement does not exist. Work place noise levels are also high in many industries. This is mainly due to improper maintenance and lubrication of moving machine parts. Use of ear protection, job rotation and other noise avoidance measures are not always practiced.

12.4: REDRESSAL ISSUES

MECHANISM

FOR

INDUSTRIAL

POLLUTION

As evident from the above section, the pollution dimension of the industrial sector of the province has two distinct facets: Technological issues, and management system issues. While solutions for technical issues might need bigger capital investments in many cases, the time span required for its implementation is generally less. Whereas, in case of management systems, the required capital investment is often low, but its full scale implementation needs firm embedment in the existing organizational culture, which in turn, requires longer time spans. The following section aims to identify possible and practicable solutions for the issues of industrial environmental pollution. The proposed solutions start by outlining the collective efforts required at the industrial association level, and come down to address specific environmental issues at the industrial unit level.

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12.5: EFFORTS NEEDED AT THE INDUSTRIAL ASSOCIATION LEVEL


The target for every association representing a particular industrial sector is to establish a system to ensure that environmental concerns of the member units are well understood managed and conveyed to the regulatory agencies for negotiation. The activities needed to reach this target would typically consist of the following: Environmental committee formulation through nominations by member units Formulation of environmental cell in the association Regular periodic meetings of the environmental committee and cell. Disseminate the environmental information to the members Review of literature for the environmental concerns of the units Formulation of industrial sector specific environmental policy and management program Make arrangements for the training of the member units for the environmental management program Survey of the units to collect information regarding environmental aspects and their impacts on local community and environment Finalization of aspects after discussion with the unit representative and the local community Assist industrial unit to reduce the impacts on local community in the light of Environmental Management Program (EMP) Establish database to record basic information, sector and unit level environmental aspects, community views and complaints, EPA notices On the basis of severity of impacts on community, formulate strategies to cope with the situation Provide awareness to the EPA persons on sector issues and their feasible solution so that they could understand the sector problem and prepare their enforcement plan accordingly Establish a system in which units would communicate their environmental performances and problems to the association to get timely facilitation

In terms of energy conservation and minimization of energy wastage, the target for each industrial association must be to enable the large and medium industrial units of the province to achieve the higher energy efficiencies and reduction of green house gases emissions. The activities needed to reach this target would typically consist of the following: - Develop energy efficiency packages for large and medium industries representing different industrial sectors of the province. - Effective direct and indirect marketing of energy efficiency packages and products in large and medium industries. - Establish a network of stakeholders of disseminating energy efficiency message to large audience. - Implement energy efficient products in industries to demonstrate the potential of energy efficiency. - Create and cash opportunities offered by cleaner development mechanism under Kyoto Protocol, and mobilize large industrial units to enter into contracts with international counterparts for implementing greenhouse emissions reduction projects.

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Develop capability on energy efficiency through training of industry representatives, NGOs, government, research & development, academic, and media sectors of Pakistan. Influence industrial energy policy of the country by writing articles and research based issue specific position papers.

12.6: EFFORTS NEEDED AT THE INDUSTRIAL UNIT LEVEL


12.6.1: WATER POLLUTION To address the issue of water pollution, achieve maximum water conservation in the production process, and comply with the NEQS within stipulated time period, the industrial units in the province typically need to carry out the following activities: Raise awareness among employees and management on the water conservation Establish proper routine maintenance program for the equipment and conveyance system to avoid leaks and spillages on the floor Install ball valves on the water hoses to control water use and prevent unnecessary wastage of water during equipment and floor cleaning Use high pressure water jet for washing vessels to avoid excess water usage Installation of sedimentation tank to remove suspended particles in the effluent e.g. from wastewater of wet scrubbers (where applicable) Reuse waste cooling water at appropriate places Reuse waste steam condensate as boiler feed water Installation of water flow meter on the major inlet of major water consuming departments to regularly monitoring of water consumption Establish water auditing of all the departments on the basis of monitored water consumption Treatment of oily wastewater streams by installing oil skimmer, oil separators and combination of corrugated plate interceptor (CPI) and coalescence filter Use non chromate chemicals in the cooling tower like combination of inorganic phosphates, soluble zinc, phosphate esters, polymers and organic corrosion inhibitors like TTA for copper and yellow metals Installation of wastewater treatment plant (may be biological treatment plant) Separate collection and treatment of rain water contaminated with chemicals and oil Ensure isolation of spilled material from regular factory drain in drainage system design

In addition to the above, some sector-specific measures would also be required, as outlined in the following: Paint Sector - Use of pure lead bars (not contaminated with copper) to eliminate copper in the effluent - Adjustment of ph of the effluent to make lead flocs. These lead flocs shall be removed in the sedimentation tank - Installation of physiochemical wastewater treatment plant Automotive Sector Install settling tanks to separate phophating sludge from phosphating solution tank Removal & recycling of paint sludge from paint booths Dairy Sector

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Install washing basins to clean trays and containers used in milk transportation Collect and reuse water milk mixture drained from the equipment and pipelines in milk powder production Optimize washing and avoid unnecessary washing, use of first rinse water in milk powder production Use of wastewater from milk evaporators in boiler Install fat trap on fat rich wastewater streams. Recovered fat can be used in soap making Use of whey in irrigation or feed stock purposes or convert into whey powder

Steel Sector Adopt measures to cool moulds by dipping in water tanks instead of water spray. Edible Oil Sector Improve water cooling ponds to avoid wastage of water. Oil spill on floor cleaning with saw dust instead of water cleaning. Reuse of last wash water as first wash water in the neutralization and degumming.

12.6.2: AIR POLLUTION To address the issue of air pollution, and comply with the NEQS within stipulated time period, the industrial units in the province typically need to carry out the following activities: - Establish air monitoring system to measure air pollutants in the working areas - Take appropriate air pollution control measures - Keep record of air pollutants monitoring - Monitor fuel quantity & running frequency of combustion equipment - Enforce workers to wear dust masks and other PPEs while working - Promote preventive maintenance to control air pollution in the production area - Monitor efficiency of end-of-pipe air pollution abatement equipment (cyclones, bag filter etc.) and take appropriate measures to increase its capture capacity (where applicable) - Make arrangements to cover all the uncovered material transportation system - Use of low NOx burners - Choice of raw material and fuel containing less pollutants - Optimize combustion process to control NOx, SO2 and CO In addition to the above, some sector-specific measures would also be required, as outlined in the following: Fertilizer Sector - Installation of bag filters on the prilling towers to reduce concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere - Reduce microprill formation in the prilling tower (microprill will escape from the tower & cause dust emission) - Maximize the recovery & recycling of dust from rock & product handling - Minimize SO2 discharge from H2SO4 plant by installing high efficiency mist eliminators. - Replacement of pump seals with mechanical seals to avoid leakage and spillage of toxic chemicals Cement Sector - Maintenance of bag house - Timely replacement of worn parts and filter cloths

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Sprinkling of water on roads and on crushers hopper at the time of material unloading Sprinkling system at the bottom of boom at material storage areas Use of low chlorine material Flame cooling by injecting water on flame to reduce NOx Addition of mineralizers in raw material to improve clinker quality (Calcium Fluoride). Install bag filters especially at kiln, clinker cooler, cement mill, coal grinding and milling operation

Leather Sector - Training of painting workers for increased surface application and reduction of waste into air - Use of HVLP paint spray guns to reduce paint losses to air - Maintaining proper air balance in paint booths - Implement a program to replace TCE based degreasing with an environmental friendly system Dairy Sector - Implement a program to replace ODS - Install incinerator to burn tetra packs to recover aluminium foil Steel Sector Install hood and chimney to capture air emissions and avoid its dispersion to occupational atmosphere.

12.6.3: SOLID WASTE Solid waste needs to be properly segregated prior to its disposal. Currently, NEQS does not define any standards for solid waste, and properly engineered solid waste disposal sites are non-existent in the province. The industrial units in the province typically need to carry out the following activities: - Raise awareness among workers and management regarding solid waste management - Conduct solid waste surveys of all departments to determine type of solid waste, generation rate and current disposal practices - Explore ways and means to reduce, reuse and recycle solid waste as much as possible - Use small sized rags for cleaning to reduce its weight - Implement system of solid waste segregation, collection and environmentally safe storage - Make arrangements for acid resistant lining of the concrete tanks to reduce sludge formation - Implement system of solid waste disposal e.g. landfill for sludge and secured landfill for rags contaminated with solvent, or install incinerator for the rags contaminated with the solvent if landfill is not possible - Try to use empty containers inside the facility - Make sure that downstream buyers of empty containers are using them in safe manner - Implement a system of converting biodegradable solid waste into compost In addition to the above, some sector-specific measures would also be required, as outlined in the following: Paint Sector

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Use of Paint particle, settled in sedimentation tank, in to low grade paint Install evaporator and condenser to recover solvent

Fertilizer Sector - Send the spent hazardous catalyst back to the producer, or arrange for secured landfill or incinerator for its safe disposal - Practice reuse and recycling of lime sludge Cement Sector - Improvement in the maintenance to control material wastage - Proper collection and recycling of spilled material in clinker formation - Recycling of chromium containing refractory bricks in cement production Automotive Sector - Use of WWTP sludge as a fertilizer - Install dewatering system for phosphating sludge - Recycling of paint sludge into low grade paint Dairy Sector - Install proper combustion chamber to burn discarded tetra packs to recover aluminium foil - Use of wastewater sludge as a fertilizer - Collect fat from the fat traps or from wastewater drain and sell to the soap manufacturers - Implement a system to wrap cheese in polythene bags instead of using wax to avoid cheese scrapping Steel Sector - Use of clean scrap on the furnace to reduce slag quantity. - Making improvements in the scrap feeding practices to increase furnace lining life. Edible Oil Sector - Implement system to extract oil from fullers earth before its disposal. - Trial for increase of spent nickel recycling/ratio.

12.6.4: ENERGY CONSERVATION Following general measures need to be taken for improving the overall energy efficiency of industrial units in the province: Energy audits of individual units to identify energy requirements, establish energy consumption patterns and explore adjustments to avoid energy losses Implement a proper maintenance system in the production area to avoid air leakage Insulation of Hot Surfaces Record keeping of fuel consumption & maintenance of combustion chambers Timely tuning and upkeep of combustion equipment, boilers and generators etc. Employ closed loop system of various heating and cooling streams Installation of energy recovery systems (e.g. heat exchangers) Implement stringent quality control measures to avoid reprocessing of material Close monitoring and maintenance of all process parameters, specially temperature and bath quantities Use of appropriate capacity equipment e.g. motors etc.

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12.6.5: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY ISSUE Following general measures need to be taken for improving the overall OHS situation of industrial units in the province: Establish EHS department to take care of the occupational health and safety and environmental issues, and establish EMS in the facility Survey of the facility to identify the hot working areas, accident prone areas Awareness raising and safety campaigns Place safety guards where necessary Monitor heat stresses of different areas Establish rest break schedules of those workers working in the hot areas Use of PPEs during material handling such as dust masks and ear plugs Improve ventilation by placing exhaust fans and provide amenities like water, fans and rest rooms Establish noise monitoring system at noisy areas Take appropriate noise pollution control measures Arrange MSDS of all the chemicals used in the facility, and train employees to handle chemicals safely according to MSDS Establish safe chemical storage Maintenance of pipelines, tanks and conveyance system Construction of dikes or other secondary containment structures around storage tanks Install leak detection system on storage tanks

12.6.6: SOIL POLLUTION The individual industrial units, especially those located outside established industrial areas or in close proximity to agricultural lands, also need to establish safe material storage and handling practices to control soil pollution. The following activities need to be executed: Provide awareness to employees to handle and store chemicals and other material that can cause soil degradation. Make dikes or other secondary containments around storage tanks to collect material in case of leaks and unexpected accident Make arrangements for concrete floors around material pumping, unloading, and storage areas to avoid soil pollution Place oil and chemical containers on containment trays to avoid soil pollution Establish arrangements to collect rain water contaminated with the chemicals and soil separately and discharge it after treatment Design drainage system in such a manner that the spilled material could be isolated from rest of the factory drain Establish a system of safe disposal of used lubricants

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Appendix 1: Commonalities matrix

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Appendix 2: Opinion Survey

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Appendix 3: Industry-Environment and the NEQS

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Appendix 4: Bibliography

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 125 Committed Suicide Last Year: Urban Resource Centre, January 07, 2002. 16 graduates appointed by Toyota Network: Dawn, January 20, 2007. 2.5m children in Pakistan out of school: Dawn, April 29, 2007. 30 Bus Terminals to Be Set Up: Urban Resource Centre, January 12, 2002. 32 species of fish in Manchhar Lake become extinct: Dawn, November 20, 2006. 929 Kutchi Abadis Notified In Sindh: Urban Resource Centre, January 05, 2002. A Global Water Crisis: WWF, March 01, 2003. A Guide to the Convention on Wetlands: Ramsar Convention Secretariat, February 02, 2004. A Summary of Provincial Budgetary Proposals: Government of Sindh, July 1995. A vision for reforming the KW&SB: Shehri, July-December 2006. A. Azad with contributions from: M. Aslam Rasheed and Yameen Memon. Sindh Water Resource Management - Issues and Options: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation - Rome, December 01, 2003. Activity-packed nature carnivals: World Wide Fund for Nature, March-April 2007. Adam Malik. Rhetoric of IFI sponsored Development; A Case Study: Actionaid Pakistan. Adding value to Badin: BP Pakistan, July 2005. Agenda for Health Sector Reform: Government of Pakistan - Ministry of Education. Ahmad, Dr. Junaid. Terms of Reference: Sindh Vision 2030 Project Team: National Management Consultants, June 28, 1905. AIDs control programme in NWFP: Newspaper Cutting, April 07, 2007. Aijaz Nizamani, Fauzia Rauf, Abdul Hakeem Khoso. PAKISTAN; Population and Water Resources: IUCN, Women's Resource Centre, Bhitaji Welfare Association, June 20, 1905. Ainul Abedin. Conservation is the key: Dawn, May 13, 2007. AKU-Examination Board: Agha Khan University. Ali Cheema. Bad politics crippling good economics? The Friday Times, May 18-24, 2007. Altaf A. Memon, Ph.D. An Overview of the History and Impacts of the Water Issue in Pakistan: Presented at the International Conference on Sindh, the Water Issue and the Future of Pakistan The World Sindhi Institute, Washington, DC, USA, November 09, 2002. Amin Ahmed. Global warming threatens Indus irrigation system: 30pc decrease in river flows likely after 2050: Dawn, November 12, 2006. Amin Ahmed. Safe Drinking Water Act Likely This Year: Dawn, June 12, 2006. Amis Lucy; Hodges Adrian; Jeffery Neil. Development, Peace and Human Rights in Colombia: A Business Agenda: International Business Leaders Forum, June 28, 1905. Andrew C. Revkin. Coalition to invest billions to save energy: International Herald Tribune, May 16, 2007. Arthur D. Little. Implications for Energy Sector Development: Gwadar Port Master Plan, April 25-26, 2006. Asian Development Bank. Economic Update: December 2005. Asian Development Bank. Gender and Development Weaving a Balanced Tapestry: Asian Development Bank, February 26, 2002. Asian Development Bank. Proposed Technical Assistance of Islamic Republic of Pakistan for Support to Implementation of Gender Reform Action Plans (co-financed by the Poverty Reduction Cooperation Fund and the Government of Canada): May 2005. Asian Development Bank. Technical Assistance to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Gender Reform Program: February 2002. Asianics Agro-Dev. Tarbela Dam and related aspects of the Indus river basin Pakistan: WCD (World Commission on Dams), June 01, 2000. AT vows to resist dam construction: Bureau Report, December 08, 2006. Aziz Sanghor. Karachi City of 14 Million without Master Plan: Urban Resource Centre, September 01, 2003. Balancing Development and Maintenance of Wetland Ecosystems and Dependent Livelihood: IUCN The World Conservation Union. Bashir Hussain Shah. Field Manual on the role of Water Harvesting for Dry-land Management in Pakistan: Farm Forestry Support Project (FFSP). Bhagwandas. Marine eco-system hit by raw sewage: Dawn, April 25, 2007. Bilal Hassan. Public-private venture to develop farming: Dawn, May 21, 2007. Brief Introduction of Educational Activities: Layari Development Organisation. Bristol International Airport Master Plan 2006 to 2030: Bristol International, November 2006. British Petroleum. Environment and society. Bureau of Statistics - P&DD. Estimates of Gross Provincial Product in Sindh 1998-99 to 2002-03: Govt. of Sindh, June 25, 1905. Bureau of Statistics - P&DD. Population & Housing Census - 1998 (by Taluka & District) - Sindh: Govt. of Sindh, June 21, 1905. Bureau Report. AT vows to resist dam construction: Dawn, December 08, 2006. Bureau Report. LBOD causing severe losses, says SCA chief: Dawn, November 20, 2006. Bureau Report. LBOD causing severe losses, says SCA chief: Dawn, November 20, 2006. Canal breach floods crops: Dawn, May 19, 2007. Centre for Community Health Research. Coca Cola become prime suspects in India: FAN, June 24, 1905.

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Annexure 4: BIBLIOGRAPHY
Centre for Research on Poverty Reduction and Income Distribution. Pakistan Millennium Development Goals Report 2005: Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan and UN Resident Coordinator, September 01, 2005. Chief Economist. CE Paper: Government of Sindh, November 24, 2006. Child-lifting rampant in upper Sindh: Dawn, May 19, 2007. City fire brigade in tatters: The Nation, January 18, 2007. City Government to Build 10 Pedestrian Bridges: Urban Resource Centre, March 28, 2002. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems- Pakistan: Earth Trends Country Profiles, June 25, 1905. Coastal Development Authority of Pakistan: Government of Sindh. Comprehensive Plan to Improve Traffic System: Urban Resource Centre, February 11, 2002. Country Strategy and Program Update: Asian Development Bank, September 01, 2004. Dawn Internet Edition. Ignoring the needs of Coastal Communities: February 27, 2006. Dawn Internet Edition. Manchhar Lake water to be discharged into Indus: December 16, 2006. Dean Forbes, Cecile Cutler. Karachi. Department for International Development. Proceedings from the Provincial Roundtable Meetings: Government of Pakistan, March 08, 2003. Deputy Chairman; Planning Commission. Presentation on Approach Paper Strategic Directions to Achieve Vision 2030: Govt. of Pakistan, February 28, 2006. Dhabeji identified as special trade zone: Dawn, April 28, 2007. Donor Coordination Cell - Economic Affair Division. Delegate Brief on Pakistan Development Forum 2005: Govt. of Pakistan, June 27, 1905. Dostain Khan Jamaldini. Socio-economic Impacts of Mega Projects on BalochistanCase of Gwadar: Balochistan University of IT & Management Sciences (BUITMS). DPOs in All Towns from Next Month: Urban Resource Centre, January 12, 2002. Dr Adnan Younis & Dr Atif Riaz. Value addition in floriculture: Dawn, May 21, 2007. Dr Noman Ahmed. Controversies galore: Dawn, April 22, 2007. Dr Sabeena Khan. The mirage of development: Dawn, April 22, 2007. Dr. Ishrat Hussain. Key Issues in Pakistan's Economy: SBP. Dr. Junaid Ahmad. Employment Generation Strategy for PRSP II: National Management Consultants, April 28, 2006. Dr. Mumtaz Uqaili. ADB's coastal development project document rejected: Jang. Dr. Mumtaz Uqaili. Hundreds rally against WB, ADB, projects in Thatta, Badin. Dr. Nasim A. Khan. Energy Resources of Sindh: IUCN. Dr. Noman Ahmed. Mega Projects and Their Relevance A Case of Karachi: Department of Architecture and Planning, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi. Drivers of economic growth: unleashing the potential of the private sector: Pakistan Development Forum, May 10-11, 2006. Editor Chief: Mir Shakil-ur-Rahman. Diamer-Bhasha dam to submerge rock art sites: The News. Education for All: Government of Pakistan, March 01, 2003. Education promotion plan approved: Pak Tribune, November 15, 2006. Education Sector Reforms Assistance (ESRA) Program: United states Agency for International Development (USAID), 16-17 November, 2006. EIA of elevated expressway from 21st: Dawn, May 19, 2007. Energy Conservation through thermal insulation: Dawn, April 19, 2007. Engineering Review: Engineering Review; Vol. 32, No. 05, March 1-15, 2007. Engineering Review: Engineering Review; Vol. 32, No. 06, March 16-31, 2007. Engineering Review: Engineering Review; Vol. 32, No. 08, April 16-30, 2007. Ensuring Sustainability Sindh's Future Economy, September 19, 2006. Executive District Officer (Education). Education Vision 2030: District government Hyderabad. External Support Agencies in the Urban Water and Sanitation sector: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, June 21, 1905. F. H. Mughal. Clean Drinking-Water Initiative - a wrong approach: Dawn. F. H. Mughal. Karachi Master Plan 2020 and the environment: Dawn, August 25, 2005. Faiza Ilyas. 9000 born with cleft lips, palates every year: Newspaper Cutting, May 23, 2007. Families fleeing drought-hit coastal belt: The News, December 22, 2006. Farmers want halt to work on RBOD: Dawn, May 21, 2007. Farooq Rasheed & Eatzaz Ahmad. The Evaluation of Efficiencies of Governments of Pakistan. Federal Budget: Government of Pakistan, 1998-1999. Federal Budget: Government of Pakistan, 1999-2000. Federal Budget: Government of Pakistan, 2000-2001. Federal Budget: Government of Pakistan, 2003-2004. Federal Budget: Government of Pakistan, 2004-2005. Fernando J Gonzalez, Thinus Basson, Bart Schultz. Final Report of IPOE for Review of Studies on Water Escapades below Kotri Barrage, November 20, 2005. Fernando J Gonzalez, Thinus Basson, Bart Schultz. Water escapades below Kotri barrage: IPOE, November 20, 2005. Finance Department. PC-II for Institutional Enhancement for Implementation of Karachi Mega City Development Project: Government of Sindh. Finance Department. Year Book for Financial Year 2005-2006: Government of Pakistan. Foreign Investment Advisory Service. Pakistan - Review of Administrative Barriers to Investment (Draft Final Report: Excerpts): Foreign Investment Advisory Service, July 01, 2005.

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Pakistan; Country water resources assistance strategy; Water economy running dry: World Bank, November 14, 2005. Pakistan's Water At Risk: WWF, February 2007. Pakistan's Water Economy: Running Dry: World Bank, September 01, 2005. Participatory Development Initiatives. Karachi: Govt urged to drop dram project: Indus delta conference: . Participatory Development Initiatives. PDI-Actionaid National Cosultative Workshop Identifies Serious Flaws in Downstream Kotri Barrage Studies: . Participatory Development Initiatives. Save Indus Delta Network (SIDN) Launched: , October 03, 2007. Participatory Development Initiatives. Sindh Coastal & Inland Community Development ProjectPakistan. Participatory Development Initiatives. Sindh Coastal Communities Stage Protest Hunger Strike against ADB & World Bank, March 07, 2007. PIMS Study: Motivating factors for employment. Planning Commission. Approach Paper: Strategic Directions to Achieve Vision 2030: Govt. of Pakistan, February 01, 2006. Planning Commission. Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10 (Working Draft): Govt. of Pakistan, March 01, 2005. Planning Commission. Thematic papers produced by the Planning Commission - Vision 2030: Govt. of Pakistan, October 10, 2006. PM directs to install water filtration plants in all districts of Pakistan: Pakistan Times National News Desk, January 14, 2005. Police and community, allies for change: Best practices and initiatives in South Asia: Shehri, JulyDec 2006. Policy Wing, Finance Division, Poverty Reduction Cell, Planning Commission. Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (I-PRSP): Government of Pakistan, November 01, 2001. Pollution and the Kabul River: IUCN Pakistan, December 01, 1994. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Sector Unit - South Asia Region. Development Policy Review (A New Dawn?) - Report No.23916-PAK: World Bank, April 03, 2006. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Sector Unit - South Asia Region. Pakistan Poverty Assessment: World Bank, October 28, 2002. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Accelerating Economic Growth and Reducing Poverty: The Road Ahead: Government of Pakistan, December 01, 2003. Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: Government of Pakistan, 2001-2002. Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: Government of Pakistan, 2002-2003. Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: Government of Pakistan, 2003-2004. Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: Government of Pakistan, 2004-2006. Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: Government of Pakistan, 2005-2006. Priority Disease Report: Health Management Information System, Health Division, April 2005. Proceedings from the Provincial Roundtable Meetings on Fisheries at Karachi: IUCN, August 09, 2006. Proceedings of National Roundtable Meeting on Fisheries at Karachi: IUCN, August 09, 2006. Prof. Dr. Rajab Ali Memon. Understanding Wheat shortage in Pakistan and potential of Sindh: Pakissan. Project Completion Report On The Kotri Barrage Rehabilitation Project: Asian Development Bank, December 2003. Project Completion Report On The Left Bank Outfall Drain Project: Asian Development Bank, December 01, 2000. Projects of CDGK: City District Government Karachi, May 08, 2007. Projects portfolio: Engineering Consultants International (Pvt.) Ltd. PRSP. Annual Progress Report, September 2005. Public Expenditure Management Volume 1: World Bank, January 28, 2004. Public Sector Development Programme: Government of Pakistan, 2001-2002. Public Sector Development Programme: Government of Pakistan, 2002-2003. Public Sector Development Programme: Government of Pakistan, 2003-2004. Public Sector Development Programme: Government of Pakistan, 2004-2006. Public Sector Development Programme: Government of Pakistan, 2005-2006. Public Sector Development Programme: Government of Pakistan, 2006-2007. Q. Isa Daudpota. Alleviating Water-Problems: Marrying Old And New Ideas: Institute of Business Administration. Qadeer Hussain Tanoli. Families fleeing drought-hit coastal belt: The News, December 22, 2006. Qurban Ali Khushik. 32 species of fish in Manchhar Lake become extinct: Dawn, November 20, 2006. Rafi Ghaus. Industry-Environment relation: Cleaner Production Institute, June 29, 1905. Report of Technical Committee on Water Resources (TCWR): Dawn, December 26, 2005. Research and Economic Development Cell. Investment Profile of Sindh: Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry, September 12, 1998. Review of the performance and development effectiveness of Tarbela Dam in the context of the Indus Basin: World Commission on Dams, August 1999. Right to Food.

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Rights to End Poverty: Actionaid International. S. Muslehuddin Ahmed. Language divide: who is responsible? Dawn, April 22, 2007. Saadia Qamar. Master Plan 2020-the rebirth of City: The Nation, January 18, 2007. Sabihuddin Ghausi. Fate of mega projects hangs in the balance: Dawn, April 21, 2007. Sabihuddin Ghausi. Sindh plans to provide 60,000 CNG rickshaws: Dawn, May 18, 2007. Sabihuddin Ghausi. Textile machinery imports down 34pc: Dawn, April 28, 2007. Sad day down on Sindh: Sindhis start chopping their orchards: , September 25, 2004. Sajid Chaudhry . ADB commits $400m loan for Master Plan: Daily Times, May 03, 2007. Saleem Shahid. UK chamber lauds mega projects in Balochistan: Dawn, April 27, 2007. Salman Akram Raja. Power, politics and the law: The Friday Times, May 18-24, 2007. Secretary Labour, Transport, Industries and Commerce. Industrial Development concept for Sindh: Government of Sindh. Shahid Amjad and Samina Kidwai. Freshwater, brackish water and coastal wetlands of Sindh: NIO (National Institute of Oceanology)." Shahid Hussain. Drip irrigation can avert water crisis: expert: The News, December 22, 2006. Shahid Iqbal. Credit to private sector down by 24 per cent: Dawn, April 19, 2007. Shiraz Afzal. Medium DAMS Lifeline for Economy in Pakistan: Pakistan Times. Sikander Brohi. Existing Government Relief Policies: An Analysis: Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum. Sikander Brohi. PDI Campaign on ADB: Sindh Coastal & Inland Community Development Project: Participatory Development Initiatives. Simi Kamal. Women and Water Issues of Entitlements, Access and Equity, February 2005. Sindh Budget: Government of Sindh, 1993-1994. Sindh Budget: Government of Sindh, 2000-2001. Sindh Budget: Government of Sindh, 2001-2002. Sindh Budget: Government of Sindh, 2002-2003. Sindh Budget: Government of Sindh, 2003-2004. Sindh Budget: Government of Sindh, 2005-2006. Sindh Strategy for Sustainable Development (Vision 2015): IUCN - The World Conservation Union. Sindhs Development: Issues & Agenda. Situation Analysis on Canal Breaches: Lyari Development Organization. Solid Waste Management A Challenge For City: Urban Resource Centre, January 08, 2002. Speech of the Prime Minister at the Inaugural Session of Pakistan Development Forum-2005: Pakistan Development Forum, April 25, 2004. Stevta to help improve technical training: Dawn, January 25, 2007. Stormwater drain: Dawn, May 13, 2007. Sultan Ahmad. Endemic Power Crises: Dawn, May 18, 2007. Sungi Development Foundation Pakistan. Development Bank Project Threatens Water Rights in Pakistan: FAN. Sustainable Community Development in the Coastal City of Karachi: Lead International. Syed Mohibullah Shah. Affordable energy for development. Syed Mohibullah Shah. Good Governance and Development, May 05, 2007. Syed Mohibullah Shah. Lack of decision on coal reserves. Syed Mohibullah Shah. Search for energy security. Tahir Jahangir. Echoes unearthed: The Friday Times, May 11-17, 2007. Takashi Ohmura, Armin Bauer. Environmental Poverty: New Perspectives and Implications for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific: Asian Development Bank, January 2007. Technical Assistance For GRP Pakistan (Co-financed by Japan): ADB, February 2002. Technical Assistance For GRAP Pakistan (Co-financed by Canada): ADB, May 01, 2005. The DHA desalination plant project: Shehri, July-Dec 2006. The Environ Monitor, November 2006. The Islamic Republic Of Pakistan: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The List of Wetlands of International Importance: Ramsar, March 27, 2007. The Sindh Education Foundation: Sindh Education Foundation. The Tarbela Dam and Indus River Basin: WCD (World Commission on Dams), November 01, 2000. The Water Accord 1991: Government of Pakistan, March 16, 1991. Traders help sought for electricity conservation: Dawn, April 25, 2007. Traffic Master Plan for All Towns: Urban Resource Centre, October 17, 2002. Universal Declaration of Human Rights/ United Nations UDHR: UN, December 10, 1948. Urban Development: Planning without caring: Shehri, July-Dec 2006. Water and Industry: United Nations Industrial Development Organisation. Water and Sanitation Program: World Bank, August 01, 2000. Water Facts and Figures: WWF, March 01, 2003. Water reservoirs ' committee chief meets Musharraf: The News, August 24, 2005. Water Sector Challenges ADB: Power Point Slide Presentation. Water Strategy 2020: Government of Pakistan. Water: National Management Consultants. Waterfront project deprive people of a basic right: Newspaper Cutting. Williamson, Tim; Ahmad, Masroor; and Smith, Samantha. Improving Devolved Social Service Delivery in NWFP and Punjab: Asian Development Bank, July 01, 2005. Working Draft. Sindh Vision 2030: Government of Sindh, June 27, 1905. Working paper on Formulation of National Drinking Water Policy.

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