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Works Cited

Primary Sources:

"Berlin Cenference 1885." Berlin Cenference 1885. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. <http:// www.africafederation.net/Berlin_1885.htm>.

This site includes primary sources such as land treaties as well as first-hand accounts of African and European reactions to the colonization of Africa. These sources were very helpful because they provide different perspectives of peoples thoughts on European imperialism of Africa, which will be useful in our project.

"Berlin Conference 1884 1885." Berlin Conference 1884 1885. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. <http://www.cabinda.net/Berlin_Conference.htm>.

This source includes the primary source documents, the Convention Revising the General Act of Berlin (February 26, 1885) and the General Act and Declaration of Brussels (July 2,1890) which gave the European nations free trade and transportation throughout Africa. Furthermore, it states the countries controlling the African lands are responsible for watching over the natives, improving their lives, morals, and the suppression of slavery. These will be very helpful in our project, because we can use them to compare what European countries were supposed to do and what actually occurred as a result of the Berlin Conference.

"Example of Stanley's Congo Treaties." Example of Stanley's Congo Treaties. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2014. <http://www.urome.be/fr2/ouvrag/treat.pdf>.

This primary source contains articles from Henry M. Stanleys Congo treaties, which he wrote for King Leopold of the Congo Free State. In these treaties, which were signed, witnessed and agreed to, he made promises to only take land by mutual agreement, create prosperity, and protect the African natives. We will use this in our project because the Europeans did not follow any of these, and we will use it to compare what should have happened with what actually happened.

"Internet History Sourcebooks." Internet History Sourcebooks. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Jan. 2014. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1902hobson.asp>.

This source was written by John Hobson who witnessed European imperialism of Africa, Europes changes because of it, and the lack of interest regarding the effect on Africa. We will use this source in our project because it deeply describes the causes and effects of imperialism, which we will be discussing in our project, as well as why and how it is imperialism in Africa.

Leavitt, Charles, and Gaby Mitchell. "Companion Curriculum to Blood Diamond." Companion Curriculum to Blood Diamond. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http:// www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/bd_curriculumguide_0.pdf>.

This source is based upon the movie Blood Diamond, which describes life in African diamond mines and the poor treatment of workers. We will use it to link the exploitation of Africans to problems in Africa today. We will analyze the harsh conditions the Africans experienced due to imperialism and how they are still suffering today.

"READING." E. D. Morel, The Black Man's Burden (1920). N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Jan. 2014. <http://wadsworth.cengage.com/history_d/special_features/ilrn_legacy/wawc2c01c/ content/wciv2/readings/wciv2readingsmorel.html>.

This primary source document is an account of many abuses in King Leopolds Congo Free State due to European imperialism, recorded by E.D. Morel. We will use this source in our project to examine European supremacy over Africans and analyze the long-lasting difficulties Africans experienced and are still experiencing due to European imperialism.

"READING." Letter from King Leopold II on the Congo (1890). N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Jan. 2014. <http://wadsworth.cengage.com/history_d/special_features/ilrn_legacy/wawc2c01c/ content/wciv2/readings/wciv2readingsleopold.html>.

This document is a letter from King Leopold II of the Congo Free State to the prime minister, in which he expressed his primary desire of using Africa to benefit Belgium. He said it was his duty to help the second rank humanity and use Africa to his advantage. We will use this in our project to support that Europeans believed it was their responsibility as the superior race to develop Africa and they believed they had a right to Africa.

"Rudyard Kipling, The White Man's Burden (1899)." Rudyard Kipling, The White Man's Burden. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Jan. 2014. <http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/world_civ/worldcivreader/ world_civ_reader_2/kipling.html>.

This document contains Rudyard Kiplings The White Mans Burden poem, which we will relate to The Black Mans Burden, by E.D. Morel. We will compare the content of the two, and analyze the different motives of each group of people.

"RW ONLINE:Imperialism and AIDS in Africa." RW ONLINE:Imperialism and AIDS in Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Dec. 2013. <http://www.revcom.us/a/v22/1060-69/1065/ aids.htm>.

This source contains narratives from Africans who experienced imperialism and the conditions created in Africa because of it, which contributed to the occurrence of HIV and AIDS in Africa. It also contains narratives of Africans with HIV or AIDS. We will use this source to prove that European imperialism had devastating effects on Africa that are still present today. "South Sudan: Soldiers Target Ethnic Group in Juba Fighting | Human Rights Watch." South Sudan: Soldiers Target Ethnic Group in Juba Fighting | Human Rights Watch. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/12/19/south-Sudan-soldiers-targetethnic-group-juba-fighting>.

This primary source gives a detailed description of the terrible conditions in Sudan today, which are lasting effects from European imperialism. Imperialism left Sudan in ruins without a government, which led to tyrannical leaders who mistreat their people today. We will use this source to link conditions in Sudan today to European imperialism of Africa.

"World Socialist Web Site." Belgium's Imperialist Rape of Africa -. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Jan. 2014. <http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/1999/09/king-s06.html>.

This primary source document contains records of King Leopolds imperial rule of the Congo, methods of gaining wealth through rubber production, his abusive punishments, and his impact on Africa. We will use this source in our project to show how Europeans thought they had the right to exploit African land and resources, as well as their abuse of enslaved African workers.

Secondary Sources:

"1750-1914 - Imperialism in Africa." 1750-1914 - Imperialism in Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://www2.newcanaan.k12.ct.us/education/components/scrapbook/default.php? sectiondetailid=5501>.

This educational site provides insight regarding Africas land and natural resources and why they were desired by European countries. It will be useful in our project when we explain Europes belief they had a right to Africa and what they would gain from it.

Berlin Conference: Negative Impact on Africa." Berlin Conference: Negative Impact on Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. <http://brainmass.com/earth-sciences/environmentalpolicy/320757>.

This useful article provides information about negative cultural, economic, and political effects of the Berlin Conference on Africa. It is very important to our project because we can use this knowledge of problems and then connect it with current problems in Africa today.

"Brief History of the Berlin Conference." Brief History of the Berlin Conference. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. <http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/mwh/projects/mun-bc/ history.htm>.

This site supplies background knowledge about the Berlin Conference. It includes information about the reason it occurred, its initial task, goals, and the colonial holdings. This will be helpful in our project because it can be used to describe Europes scramble for Africa, what occurred during the Berlin Conference, and how the European countries strayed from their original goals.

"The Congo Free State." The Congo Free State. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Jan. 2014. <http:// cobweb.sfasu.edu/sbradley/Classes/homepages/Congo_Free_State/>.

This source describes the history of the Congo Free State, its rubber harvesting, Leopolds rule, and brutality toward the natives. We will use this in our project to support that Europeans believed they were the superior race and could abuse and exploit Africans.

Pictures:

"African Diamond Mine." Premier Mine. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Premier_Mine>.

This is an image of Premier Diamond Mine in Africa. It is found on the Social Responsibility page.

"Am I not a Man and a Brother?" Am I not a Man and a Brother? N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://hd.housedivided.dickinson.edu/node/17899>.

This is an image of an African asking why he is not considered an equal to the Europeans. It is found on the Social Responsibility page.

The Berlin Conference. The Scramble for Africa: Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 to Divide Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://wysinger.homestead.com/ berlinconference.html>.

This is an image of the Berlin Conference, and it is found on the Home page.

Cecil Rhodes Stands Across Africa Political Cartoon. Scramble for Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://martinfrost.ws/htmlfiles/april2007/africa_scramble.html>.

This political cartoon displays European explorer, Cecil Rhodes, standing across Africa. It is located on the Home page.

Civil and Ethnic Conflicts. The Long-run Effects of the Scramble for Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://www.voxeu.org/article/long-run-effects-scramble-africa>.

These maps show the violent repercussions of the random distribution of Africa land and disregard for previously established African borders. It is found on the Background page.

The Congo's Wealth and Casualties. Measure Impossible. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://conorobrien42.wordpress.com>.

This is a political cartoon of the Congos wealth, which went to Europeans, and the number of Africans that died in the process of gaining profit. It is found on the Economic Responsibility page.

Diamond Mine Collapse. At Least 10 killed in Congo Diamond Mine Cave-in. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. <http://uk.fashionmag.com/news/At-least-10-killed-in-Congo-diamond-minecave-in,71062.html#.UunQnJETsUs>.

This picture shows a diamond mine that collapsed and killed workers. It is found on the Significance page of our website.

Distribution of African Land. Imperialism in Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http:// www2.newcanaan.k12.ct.us/education/components/scrapbook/default.php? sectiondetailid=5501>.

This picture shows how African land was distributed at the Berlin Conference. It is located on the Background page.

Division of Africa Political Cartoon. Imperialists Divide Nigeria and South Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://apimperialismproject.wikispaces.com/1)Nigeria>.

This is a political cartoon of Otto von Bismark dividing Africa among the countries at the Berlin Conference. It is used on the Background page.

European Superiority. Liberal Racism = Education for War. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://http://www.internationalist.org/nyregentsimperialism0605.html/ nyregentsimperialism0605.html>.

These images show white superiority over African Americans. They shown on the Home page and the Rights and Responsibilities page.

Exploitation of Africa. Anti-Imperialism. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://antiimperialism.com/2013/02/18/the-wests-war-against-african-development-continues/>.

This image shows the exploitation of Africa, and it is found on the Home page.

The "Feet Washing" Ceremony. Neo-colonialism, Subversion in Africa and Global Conflict. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://imperialismsouthafrica-aly.wikispaces.com/file/ view/CecilRhodes.jpg/56894040/CecilRhodes.jpg>.

This picture shows Africans cleaning European mens feet, which displays white superiority. It is found on the Rights and Responsibilities page.

"The General Act of Berlin." Open Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <https:// openlibrary.org/books/OL7185265MConvention>.

This is a picture of the General Act of Berlin, and it is found on the Rights and Responsibilities page.

The Berlin Conference. Project Gutenburg. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. <http:// www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/26424?msg=welcome_stranger>.

This is a picture of the Berlin Conference, and it will be used as the header on all of our website pages.

"In the Rubber Coils." The Congo Free State A Latifundium of Terror. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://thecivilisingmission.com/2010/04/16/the-congo-free-state-a-latifundium-ofterror/>.

This is a metaphorical representation of how the rubber harvesting harmed Africans. It is found on the Home page.

Negative Effects of Imperialism on Africa. Maz European History Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://melainachapman.blogspot.com/2013_03_01_archive.html>.

This image shows grim reapers with negative effects fighting over Africa. It is found on the Home page.

Nigerian Strike. Nigerian Labour Union Suspends Strike Action. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. <http://www.africanliberty.org/content/nigerian-labour-union-suspends-strike-action>.

This picture shows the negative effects of imperialism, and it is found on the Significance page.

Political Cartoon of Africa. 19th Century Humanities. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http:// ingrid19thcenturyhumanities.weebly.com/political-cartoons.html>.

This political cartoon shows grim reapers of famine, wars, and other negative effects of imperialism fighting for Africa. It is found on the Home Page

Severed Hands. Butcher of the Congo: King Leopold II of Belgium. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://digitaljournal.com/blog/11297>.

This image shows victims of King Leopold IIs harsh rule, whose hands were severed for not collecting enough rubber. It is found of the Economic Responsibility page.

"South Sudanese Soldiers." South Sudan rebels 'forcibly recruiting civilians' amid humanitarian crisis. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/02/ south-sudan-rebels-recruiting-civilians-humanitarian-catastrophe>.

This picture shows the abuse Africans suffer today because of imperialism. It is found on the Significance page.

Starving Africans. Imperialism. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://theredphoenixapl.org/2011/ 03/01/imperialism-a-beginners-guide/>.

This image shows abused and starved Africans. It is found on the Home page.

White Domination. 12 Real, Graphic and Disturbing Photos of Atrocities From European Imperialism/Domination. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://atlantablackstar.com/ 2014/01/14/12-real-graphic-and-disturbing-photos-of-atrocities-from-europeanimperialism/4/>.

This is an image of how the Europeans completely dominated the Africans. It is found on the Political Responsibility page.

White Superiority. 12 Real, Graphic and Disturbing Photos of Atrocities From European Imperialism/Domination. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. <http://atlantablackstar.com/ atrocities-from-european2014/01/14/12-real-graphic-and-disturbing-photos-ofimperialism/4/>.

This shows British superiority over Africans in Kenya. It is found on the Political Responsibility page.