5 views

Uploaded by mailstonaik

Theory

- Enm
- m24s12day6solnsWEB
- Rcal_ress225s
- Math853 JBrown Grad Linear Alg
- True of False for Vector Spaces
- VOLUME, DENSITY AND WHITNEY CONDITIONS
- chapter_one.pdf
- Test 2
- Rcal_ress2ffrconcrete25s
- Curs Geom Anal
- mathfn-checklist
- E. D. Nering-Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory-Wiley (1976).pdf
- Second course in linear algebra
- Kuttler LinearAlgebra AFirstCourse YorkU MATH2022 Winter2017
- lec_1
- LinAlg Complete
- On the Computation of Primes
- 0607190v2.pdf
- Jens Zemke - Abstract Perturbed Krylov Methods
- Calculus 2

You are on page 1of 17

Matrices

c = mG

G Generator matrix

Vector Space-Introduction

An n-dimensional vector has a form x = ( x1, x2, x3, , xn ) . The set Rn of n-dimensional vectors is a vector space. Any set V is called a vector space if it contains objects that behave like vectors: ie, they add & multiply by scalars according to certain rules. In particular, they must be closed under vector addition and scalar multiplication. But addition & scalar multiplication need not be defined conventionally!

3

Contd

Let V denote the vector space.The addition on V is vector addition.The scalar multiplication combines a scalar from a Field F and a vector from V. Hence V is defined over a field F. V must form a commutative group under addition For any element a in F and any element v in V, a.V is an element in V. Distributive law- a.(u+v)=a.u+a.v Associative law- (a.b).v=a.(b.v)

4

Contd.

Important vector spaces: R, R2, R3, Rn with usual + and scalar multn. Mmn ; the set of all m x n matrices Pn; all polynomials of degree n

Consider a vector space over binary field F2.Consider the sequence u=u0un-1 where the ui s are from {0,1}.We can construct such 2n ntuples over F2.Let Vn denote this set. Vn is a Vector space over F2

5

Subspaces

A set W of vectors is a subspace of vector space V if and only if W is a subset of V and W is itself a vector space under the same addition and scalar multiplication. For any two vectors u,v W, (u+v) W. For any element a in F and any u in W, a.u must be in W.

6

Contd

To test if W is a Subspace We should, but need not, check all the properties of a vector space in W: most hold because Ws vectors are also in the bigger vector space V. But we must check closure in W: linear combinations of vectors in W must also lie in W.

7

Examples

Let u1,.,uk be a set of k vectors in V over a field F. The set of all linear combinations of u1,.,uk forms a subspace of V. The set of polys of degree 2 or less is a subspace of the set of polynomials of degree 3 or less. The set of integers is not a subspace of R, because the set of scalars includes fractions, eg 1/2.

8

A set S = {u1,u2,.......,un} of vectors is said to span a vector space V if every vector in V can be expressed as a linear combination of the vectors in S. Ex:( x, y, z ) = x i + y j + z k, so every vector in R3 is a linear combination of i, j & k. If any vector in a set can be expressed as a linear combination of the others, we call the set linearly dependent. If not, the set is linearly independent.

9

Basis set

A set of linearly independent vectors is a basis for a Vector space V if each vector in V can be expressed in one and only one way as a linear combination of the set. In any Vector space or subspace there exists at least one set B of linearly independent vectors which span the space. The no. of vectors in the Basis of a Vector space is the dimension of the Vector space. One example of a basis are the vectors (1,0,,0), (0,1,,0),, (0,0, , 1).

10

Orthogonality

Let u= (u0 , u1 ,.....u n 1 ) and v= (v0 , v1 ,....vn 1 )

be two n-tuples in Vn. We define the inner product(dot product) as u.v=

carried out in mod-2.. The inner product is a scalar. If u.v=0, then u and v are said to be orthogonal to each other The inner product has the following properties (1) u.v=v.u (2) u.(v+w)=u.v+u.W (3)(au).v=a(u.v)

.

11

Matrices

A k x n matrix over F2 is a rectangular array with k rows and n columns.

g01 g02 ..... g0,n1 g00 g g g ..... g 11 12 1,n1 10 . . . . G= . . . . . . gk 1,0 gk 1,1 gk 1,2 ..... gk 1,n1

where each

gij

with

0 i k and 0 j n

12

g0 g 1 G= . . g k 1

Each row of G is an n-tuple and each column is a k-tuple over F2.

13

If k (with k n ) rows of G are linearly independent, then the 2k linear combinations of of these rows form a k dimensional subspace of the vector space Vn of all the ntuples over F2. This subspace is called the

row space of G

14

Let S be the row space of a k x n matrix G over F2 whose rows are linearly independent. Let Sd be the null space of S. Then the dimension of Sd is n-k. Consider (n-k) linearly independent vectors in Sd. These vectors span Sd. We can form an (n-k) x n matrix H as

h0 h00 h h 1 10 H = . = . . . g n k 1 hn k 1,0 h01 h11 . . hn k 1,1 h02 h12 . . hn k 1,2 ..... hn k 1,n 1 ..... ..... . . h0,n 1 h1,n 1 . .

15

Since each row gi is a vector in S and each row hj of H is a vector in Sd, the inner product of gi and hj must be zero. As the row space S of G is the null space of the row space Sd of H, S is called the null space

or dual space of H.

16

Theorem

For any k x n matrix G over F2, with k linearly independent rows, there exists an (n-k) x n matrix over the same field with (n-k) linearly independent rows such that for any row gi in G and any hj in H, gi.hj = 0. The row space of G is the null space of H and vice versa.

17

- EnmUploaded byAnirodh
- m24s12day6solnsWEBUploaded byCody Sage
- Rcal_ress225sUploaded byafiq ruzaini
- Math853 JBrown Grad Linear AlgUploaded byŦoêy MathMafia
- True of False for Vector SpacesUploaded byShawn Joshua Yap
- VOLUME, DENSITY AND WHITNEY CONDITIONSUploaded bySon Hoang
- chapter_one.pdfUploaded byYaj Bhattacharya
- Test 2Uploaded bysyahid87
- Rcal_ress2ffrconcrete25sUploaded byafiq ruzaini
- Curs Geom AnalUploaded byPaul Gabriel Chiriac
- mathfn-checklistUploaded bySharvari Murthy
- E. D. Nering-Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory-Wiley (1976).pdfUploaded byJulius
- Second course in linear algebraUploaded byJames King
- Kuttler LinearAlgebra AFirstCourse YorkU MATH2022 Winter2017Uploaded byRazan Ali
- lec_1Uploaded bysparkywolf
- LinAlg CompleteUploaded bygunyrun
- On the Computation of PrimesUploaded bytueret
- 0607190v2.pdfUploaded byJames Chappell
- Jens Zemke - Abstract Perturbed Krylov MethodsUploaded byJulio Cesar Barraza Bernaola
- Calculus 2Uploaded bySedulor Ngawi
- 4.1to4.3Uploaded byIvan Alejandro Fernandez Gracia
- A Generalized Framework for Distrubute Power Control in Wireless NetworksUploaded byVirali Shah
- 10.1.1.91.1846Uploaded byGaurav Dhar
- International Future of Mathematics ConferenceUploaded bythinx
- EE306 Power System Analysis Hadi SaadatUploaded byGayathri S. Nair
- Adaptive IFIRUploaded bysafu_117
- A1LaUploaded byPooja Sinha
- F19MV1Uploaded byCaroline B
- Analysis, NotesUploaded byΣωτήρης Ντελής
- TP SyllabusUploaded bykumar

- VLSI Interview Questions1Uploaded byhluo87
- AptitudeUploaded bymailstonaik
- Bankers Adda_ Banking TermsUploaded bymailstonaik
- DRDO Entry Test 2008 Electronics and Communication Question paper.pdfUploaded byRaja Muraliprasad
- EC 2007 With SolutionsUploaded bymailstonaik
- 1 the Living WorldUploaded byRuturaj Gowaikar
- GATEUploaded bySaideep Narasimhan
- 1 Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Classification 5-8-2014rshe SuskaUploaded bymailstonaik
- EC-GATE-2011[1].pdf solutionUploaded byMudit Mittal
- CachingUploaded bymailstonaik
- Semiconductor and Devices 1Uploaded bydk13071987
- 22General Aptitude Sample ChapterUploaded bymailstonaik
- The Hindu-dairy Events of 2013 (1)Uploaded byJitendra Behera
- The Patent Analyst _ Patent Analysis and Patent Program Processes and Best PracticesUploaded bymailstonaik
- Aryabhatta (2)Uploaded byHarshad Ashodiya Interior Designer
- ITC_SOLNSUploaded byArun Hs
- 13.CYclic CodesUploaded byVenukareddy Kummitha
- 19.LectureUploaded byVenukareddy Kummitha
- Deposition & GrowthUploaded bymailstonaik
- Final DiagramUploaded bymailstonaik
- Lecture 18Uploaded bymailstonaik
- Itc Probsol2Uploaded bymailstonaik
- Crystallography and Crystal StructuresUploaded bystewarthillclark
- 16.Reed Solomon CodesUploaded byVenukareddy Kummitha
- Chapter 11 BOL ProcessesUploaded bymailstonaik
- 07-08-2012Uploaded bymailstonaik
- 07-08-2012Uploaded bymailstonaik
- VLSI B TECH 1Uploaded bymailstonaik
- Microelectronics TechUploaded bymailstonaik
- Crystall GrowthUploaded bymailstonaik

- Fismat No.3Uploaded byDhafi Alvian
- AlgebraUploaded byRowin Mark Sabornido
- 3D Plane Stresses and Strains - QProducersUploaded byvickywce Jadhav
- Pre CalculusUploaded byKevin Booker
- Quiz 4 SolutionsUploaded byjcvoscrib
- Kalkulus Vektor 1Uploaded byNur Syahraini
- Quadratic MatricUploaded byAfandi Dzakaria
- Ch 3 Optimization Techniques and New Management ToolsUploaded byshahzaib
- Notes on Element So 00 VenaUploaded bymah_has
- Vedic MathsUploaded bymasterheadj
- B01Mathematics (1).pdfUploaded byHimantha Damindupriya Wickramasinghe
- 10 Maths Exemplar Chapter 1Uploaded byNightwing Spectre
- Types of Numbers.docUploaded bySha Mercs
- Module 13 - Differential Equations 3 (self study)Uploaded byapi-3827096
- Chapter TensorerUploaded byakrajani
- 2016 Fall Math 201 SyllabusUploaded byArvind Vishak
- Aat Solutions - Ch05Uploaded byTheodoros Maragakis
- TheilUploaded bySoumyo Roy
- Cjc 2010 Prelim Math p1Uploaded byKenrick Kilet
- Indicator Principal ComponentsUploaded byMelardz
- Strassen matrix multiplicationUploaded bysgtrajkuppu123
- learning targetsUploaded byAmra Maksumic
- 10_5_16 Basic_Number_Theory.pdfUploaded byaoiwefowei
- cbse12-three-dimensional-geometry.pdfUploaded bydilanka sampath
- Automotive BooksUploaded byMisis Krung P
- Summary of Trigonometric IdentitiesUploaded byahmadtoopy
- paper2Uploaded byapi-210359472
- History Of mathtmaticsUploaded byEngr Shahbaz Hussain
- Strain, Strain Rate, Stress-2Uploaded byMarika Leitner
- fibonacci03Uploaded byapi-3832791